The Crash Course (a draft)

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Instruction on how to use this course: 1. read it 2. collect your feedback and suggestions and 3. send them to gleki.is.my.name@gmail.com.
For checking the grammar of your sentences use this unofficial parser.
 The La Gleki's
Crash Course in Lojban
The guide to the speakable logical language
Published 2017


This simplified course covers the most important aspects of Lojban, a logical language.


Why was this book born?

When I first saw the description of Lojban I was confused. A language where verbs and nouns don't differ. How is that possible? And then I saw those pronounceable smileys... but wait! It is a logical language. Where do emotions come from in the world of logic? These oddities were making me crazy.

If this language can combine those things it must be the most powerful human language in the world. And although I didn't have much free time for such hobbies I decided to look into it deeper. Why?

  • I wanted to try new ways of thinking.
  • I wanted a beautiful language.
  • And I wanted something easy to grasp.

I heard others saying that Lojban is extremely hard to learn but what I discovered later was an amazing simplicity of its structure.

Go on reading and you'll get evidence for that.


I also learnt that Lojban allows saying things shorter without unnecessary distracting details. For example, one doesn't have to always think of what tense (past, present or future) to use in a verb when it's already clear from context: when you need details you add them. But unlike other languages Lojban doesn't force you to do so.

But why did I decide to write my own course?

When I first opened textbooks on Lojban ... darn, they were written not for humans for sure. An awkward and boring style making it impossible to learn the language fast. A lot of distracting not necessary details, no solutions for real situations and bulky, bulky, bulky.

And I said "Enough! If you can't explain it yourself then I'll do that, in simpler words, with better examples and as concise as possible."


Using this course.

Lojban is likely to be very different to the kinds of languages you are familiar with — which certainly include English. Learning it is much more than just learning its words and grammar: it is more about understanding it. It will make you think about the ways you express ideas in words. Something that you learned and used every day but never tried to understand how it works.

Learning may be easy or hard, depending on how well you understand the ideas behind it. There are not many words and rules that you need to learn to get into a basic level. You will get there rather quickly if you put a systemic effort. On the other hand, if you fail to understand some basic point, memorizing things will not help you much. In such cases don't hesitate to move on, and come back to it later. Likewise, some of the exercises are trickier than others (particularly the translation exercises at the end of sections). If you can't work out the answer to a particular question, feel free to skip it — but do look at the answer to the question.


Conventions used in this book.
  • Lojbanic text is in bold.
  • Translations are in italic.
  • Explanations of the structure of text in Lojban are in such "fixed width" letters.
  • Brackets are used to clarify the grammatical structure of Lojban in examples. [These brackets are used only for clarifying stuff].
Examples are marked by a line on the left. This is an example of a case study sentence.
Examples of common colloquial phrases are marked by a double line.
Side notes and tips are in boxes. This is an example of a note.

For more information on Lojban, please contact the Logical Language Group:


This course is created by the author La Gleki with the help of the Lojban community throughout years 2013-2015. This book teaches a simplified and optimized style in Lojban and explains latest trends in Lojban language.

Contents

Lesson 1. The language at a glance

Alphabet

The basic thing you need to know about Lojban is obviously the alphabet.

Lojban uses the Latin alphabet (vowels are colored):

a b c d e f g i j k l m n o p r s t u v x y z ' .

Letters are pronounced exactly as they are written.


There are six vowels in Lojban:

a
as in bath (not as in face)
e
as in get
i
as in machine (not as in hit)
o
as in choice, not or ough in thought (not as in so, o should be a "pure" sound).
u
as in cool (not as in but)
y
as in comma (not as in misty or cycle)

a, e, i, o, u are pretty much the same as vowels in Italian or Spanish.

The sixth vowel, y sounds like a in the word comma. So it's kind of er or, in American English, uh. y is the sound that comes out when the mouth is completely relaxed (this sound is also called schwa in the language trade).

The following combinations au, ai, ei, oi are considered additional vowels and pronounced in a special way:

au
as in now
ai
as in eye, sky, nice
ei
as in eight, they, day
oi
as in voice, joy

As for consonants they are pronounced like in English or Latin, but there are a few differences:

c is pronounced as c in ocean, as sh in shop.
g always g as in gum (never g as in gem).
j like s in pleasure or treasure, like j in French bonjour.
x like ch in Scottish loch or as in German Bach, Spanish Jose or Arabic Khaled. Try pronouncing ksss while keeping your tongue down and you get this sound.
' like English h. So the apostrophe is regarded as a proper letter of Lojban and pronounced like a h. It can be found only between vowels. For example, u'i is pronounced as oo-hee (whereas ui is pronounced as wee).
. a full stop (period, word break) is also regarded as a letter in Lojban. It's a short pause in speech to stop words running into each other. Actually any word starting with a vowel has a full stop placed in front of it. This helps prevent undesirable merging of two sequential words into one.
i before vowels: ia, ie... is considered a consonant and pronounced shorter, for example:
  • ia is pronounced as ya in yard
  • ie is pronounced as ye in yes
u before vowels: ua, ue... is considered a consonant and pronounced shorter, for example:
  • ua is pronounced as wo in wow
  • ue is pronounced as whe in when

Stress is put on the last but one vowel or shown explicitly using symbol ` before the stressed vowel in order to break this rule. For example, dansu (which means to dance) can be also written as d`ansu to explicitly show the stress. If a word has only one vowel you just don't stress it.

r can be pronounced like the r in English, Scottish, French, Russian, thus there is a range of acceptable pronunciation for it.

Non-Lojban vowels like short i and u in Standard British English hit and but are used by some people to separate consonants. So if you have problems spitting out two consonant one after another, e.g. the ml in mlatu (which means cat), then you can say mɪlatu — where the ɪ is very short, but other vowels: a, u have to be long.

The simplest sentence

lo mlatu
a cat / cats
pinxe
drinks, to drink
lo ladru
milk
lo plise
an apple / apples
prami
loves
karce
… is a car
carvi
… is rain

Now let's turn to constructing our first sentences in Lojban.

lo mlatu cu pinxe lo ladru
Cats drink milk.

One of your first thoughts might be "Where are nouns and verbs in Lojban?"

Here are three verbs:

pinxe means drinks, to drink.
mlatu means is a cat, are cats, to be a cat.
ladru means is some milk.

To turn a verb into a noun we put a short word lo in front of it: lo mlatu, lo ladru.

It might sound strange how cat and milk can be verbs but in fact this makes Lojban very simple:

verb noun
pinxe - to drink lo pinxe - drinkers
mlatu - are cats, is a cat lo mlatu - cats
ladru - is some milk lo ladru - milk

We can also say that lo creates a noun from a verb with roughly the meaning of those who do… (drink - drinkers), those who are… (are cats - cats) or one which is… (is some milk - milk).

The most basic sentence in Lojban consists of one phrase otherwise called clause. Clause has the following parts from the left to the right:

  • the head of the clause: one or more nouns. The noun lo mlatu in this case.
  • the head separator cu (remember that c is pronounced as sh)
  • the tail of the clause: the main verb (pinxe) with possibly one or more nouns after it: the noun lo ladru in this case.

One more example:

lo plise cu kukte
Apples are tasty.

Here, lo plise means apples, kukte means to be tasty.

A simpler clause in Lojban would contain only one main verb:

karce
Car!

You could say this when you see a car coming. Here the context would be clear enough that there is a car somewhere around and probably it's dangerous.

karce itself is a verb meaning is a car, to be a car.

Similarly, you can say

carvi
It is raining.

where

carvi = is rain, to be raining

or

pluka
It's pleasant

where

pluka = to be pleasant

Notice that in Lojban there is no need in the word it in such sense. You just use the verb you need.

prami
Someone loves.

where prami - to love (someone)

bajra
Someone runs.

where bajra - to run.

Again context would probably tell who loves whom and who runs.

Lojban does not require any punctuation, separate words are used instead. Punctuation marks like ! ? “ ” can be used for stylistic purposes or to make the text look smarter. They don't add or change the meaning. Note that the symbol . (dot) can be used as we use dot in English (i.e. as a punctuation mark) but its main purpose in Lojban is that it is a proper letter that denotes a pause.

Pronouns: I - mi, you - do

xractu-mi-cropped.png
xractu-do-cropped.png
xractu-ti-cropped.png
xractu-ta-cropped.png
xractu-tu-cropped.png
mi = I
do = you
ti = this one (near me, the speaker)
ta = that one(near you, the listener)
tu = that one (not near you or me)

Like their English name hints, pronouns work like nouns by default. And they don't require lo in front of them.

mi pinxe
I drink.
do pinxe
You drink.
ti ladru
This is some milk.
tu mlatu
That is a cat.
do citka lo plise
You eat apples.
citka = to eat (something)
mi prami do
I love you.

After pronouns cu is often omitted, thus mi cu prami is rarely said, a concise mi prami is said instead.

Unlike in English we don't have to add the verb "is/are/to be" to the sentence. It is already there: mlatu means to be a cat.

Task

Close the right part of the table. Translate from Lojban the sentences on the left.

do citka You eat.
mi pinxe lo ladru I drink milk.
mi citka lo plise I eat apples.

Close the right part of the table. Translate to Lojban the sentences on the left.

That is an apple. tu plise
Milk is tasty. lo ladru cu kukte
You love me. do prami mi
That one eats apples. tu citka lo plise

.i separates sentences

The most precise way of uttering or writing sentences in Lojban would be placing a short word .i in the beginning of each of them:

.i mi viska lo mlatu .i lo mlatu cu pinxe lo ladru
I see cats. Cats drink milk.
viska = to see (something)

.i separates sentences like the full stop (period) at the end of sentences in English texts.


When saying one sentence after another in English we make a pause (it may be short) between them. But pause has many different meanings in English. In Lojban we have a better way of understanding where one sentence ends and another begins.

Also note that sometimes when pronouncing words quickly you can't figure out where one sentence ends and the word of the next sentence begins. Therefore it's advised to use the word .i before starting a new sentence.

Numbers: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 = pa re ci vo mu xa ze bi so no

lo simply turns a verb into a noun but such noun has no number associated with it. The sentence

lo mlatu cu pinxe lo ladru
Cats drink milk.

is a general statement. Now let's specify how many of them are relevant to our discussion.


Let's add a number after lo.

pa re ci vo mu xa ze bi so no
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0
ro = each, all.

Now

pa mlatu cu citka lo plise
One cat eats apples. There is one cat that eats apples.

We replace lo with a number and hence specify individual cats.

Note that we retain lo for apples since we talk not about specific apples but about eating any apples.

For numbers consisting of several digits we just string those digits together.

re mu mlatu cu citka lo plise
There are 25 cats who eat apples.

Yes, it's that simple.

If we want to count we can separate numbers with .i:

mu .i vo .i ci .i re .i pa .i no
5 ... 4 ... 3 ... 2 ... 1 ... 0

ro is used to express the meaning of each, every, all:

ro mlatu cu pinxe lo ladru
Every cat drinks milk.

The number za'u means more than ... (> in math), the number me'i means less than (< in math):

za'u mlatu cu pinxe
More of the cats drink.
me'i mlatu cu pinxe
Fewer of the cats drink.
za'u ci mlatu cu pinxe
More than three cats are drinking.
me'i ci mlatu cu pinxe
Fewer than three cats are drinking.

To say just cats (plural number) as opposed to one cat we use za'u pa, more than one.

za'u pa mlatu cu pinxe
There are cats that drink.
pa mlatu cu pinxe
One cat drinks. There is one cat that is drinking.

Putting za'u before lo means more, putting me'i means fewer:

To put it in short:

lo prenu = people (in general)
pa prenu = there is one person
za'u prenu = more of the people
za'u pa prenu = people (two or more in number)
Task

Close the right part of the table. Translate from Lojban the sentences on the left.

lo prenu = person, people
stati = to be smart, to have a talent
klama = to go (to some place)
nelci = to like (something)
lo zarci = market
lo najnimre = an orange (fruit), oranges
lo badna = a banana, bananas
mu prenu cu klama lo zarci Five people go to markets. There are five people who go to markets.
pa no prenu cu stati .i do stati 10 people are smart. You are smart.
lo prenu cu nelci lo plise People like apples.
za'u prenu cu nelci lo najnimre .i me'i prenu cu nelci lo badna More people like oranges. Fewer people like bananas.
za'u re prenu cu stati More than two people are smart.

Close the right part of the table. Translate to Lojban the sentences on the left.

There are 256 cats who are smart. re mu xa mlatu cu stati
Fewer than 12 apples are tasty. me'i pa re plise cu kukte
Each of the people eats. Fewer people eat oranges. ro prenu cu citka .i me'i prenu cu citka lo najnimre

the, he and she

pa mlatu cu pinxe i le mlatu cu taske
There is a cat that is drinking. The cat is thirsty.
taske = to be thirsty

When we start a noun with le (instead of lo or numbers) we refer to nouns that have just been mentioned. They are translated to English as he, she or by using the article the.

lo fetsi = females
lo nakni = males
lo prenu = people
le fetsi = she, the female
le nakni = he, the male
le prenu = he or she, the person (gender is not known or not important)

If several nouns can match then the last one is used:

pa prenu cu viska pa fetsi i le fetsi cu melbi
One person sees a female. She (the female) is beautiful.
melbi = to be beautiful

In this case le fetsi is applied to the female as it is the last female object mentioned. The person who sees her might be female too but it's a noun used earlier.

In spoken language le can be applied to nouns not found in text but obvious from context. Consider the outer reality a part of the text.

Compound verbs

Compound verbs (lo tanru in Lojban) are several verb words one after another.

tu melbi zdani
That one is a nice home.
melbi = to be beautiful, nice
zdani = to be a home or nest (to someone)
do melbi dansu
You nicely dance.
dansu = to dance

Here the verb melbi adds an additional meaning as it is to the left of another verb: zdani. The left part is usually translated using adjectives and adverbs.

Compound verbs are a powerful tool that can give us richer verbs. You just string two verbs together. And the left part of such compound verb adds a flavor to the right one.


We can put lo or a number to the left of such compound verb getting a compound noun:

pa melbi zdani = a beautiful home.

Now you know why there was cu after nouns in our example

pa mlatu cu pinxe lo ladru
A cat drinks milk.

Without cu it'd turn into pa mlatu pinxe … with the meaning a cat drinker whatever that could mean.

Remember about placing cu before the main verb in a clause to prevent unintentional creating of compound verbs.

Compound verbs can contain more than two verbs. In this case the first verb modifies the second one, the second one modifies the third and so on:

pa melbi cmalu verba = a pretty-small child, a child small in a pretty way
verba = to be a child
pa mutce melbi zdani = a very beautiful home
mutce = to be very, to be much
Task
sutra = to be quick
barda = to be big
cmalu = to be small
bajra = to run

Close the right part of the table. Translate from Lojban the sentences on the left.

lo melbi fetsi beautiful females
do sutra klama You quickly go. You go fast.
tu barda zdani That is a big home.
pa sutra bajra mlatu a quickly running cat
pa sutra mlatu a quick cat
pa bajra mlatu a running cat

Close the right part of the table. Translate to Lojban the sentences on the left.

This is a small child. ti cmalu verba
tasty apples lo kukte plise
quick eaters lo sutra citka
You are a quickly going male. do sutra klama nakni

"Yes/No" questions

In English, we make a yes/no question by changing the order of the words (for example, "You are …" — "Are you …?") or putting some form of the verb to do at the beginning (for example, Do you know?) In Lojban we can retain the order of words.

We turn any assertion into a yes/no question by simply putting the word xu somewhere in the sentence, for example in the beginning:

xu do nelci lo gerku?
Do you like dogs?
lo gerku = dog, dogs
Remember that in Lojban punctuation like "?" (question mark) is totally optional and used mostly for stylistic purposes. After all, we use the question word xu that shows the question anyway.

Other examples:

xu mi klama
Am I coming?
klama = to come (to somewhere)
xu pelxu
Is it yellow?
pelxu = to be yellow

We can shift the meaning by placing xu after different parts of a clause. Some possible explanations of such shift in meaning are given in brackets:

— xu do nelci lo gerku
— Do you like dogs?
— do xu nelci lo gerku
— Do YOU like dogs? (I thought it was someone else who likes them).
— do nelci xu lo gerku
— Do you LIKE dogs? (I thought you were just neutral towards them).
— do nelci lo gerku xu
— Do you like DOGS? (I thought you liked cats).

So what is expressed using intonation in English is expressed by moving xu after the part we want to emphasize. Note, that the first sentence with xu in the beginning asks the most generic question without stressing any particular aspect.

xu is an interjection word. Here are the features of Lojban interjections:

  • interjection modifies the construct before it. So when put after certain part of the clause like pronoun or a verb it modifies that verb: do xu nelci lo gerku - Do YOU like dogs?
  • being put in the beginning of a clause, interjection modifies the whole clause: xu do nelci lo gerku - Do you like dogs?
  • we can put an interjection after different parts of the same clause shifting the meaning.

Interjections don't break compound verbs, they can be used within them:

— do nelci lo barda xu gerku
— Do you like BIG dogs?

Now how to reply to such 'yes/no' questions?

— xu do nelci lo gerku
— Do you like dogs?
— je'u
— Yes.
— True [literally]

or

je'u nai
No.
Not true [literally]

Another way to answer yes is to repeat the main verb, for example

xu lo mlatu cu melbi
melbi

Are cats pretty?
Pretty.

je'u and je'u nai are also interjections. We can use them not only in questions:

je'u do lazni
Truly you are lazy.
lazni = to be lazy
je'u nai mi nelci lo gerku
It is false that I like dogs.

The particle nai is a modifier of interjections, it creates the opposite meaning when put after them.

Task

Close the right part of the table. Translate from Lojban the sentences on the left.

xu le barda zdani cu melbi Is the big home beautiful?
— le nakni cu stati xu
— je'u nai
— Are the men smart?
— No.
do klama lo zarci xu Do you go to the market? (not having any specific market in mind)
xu le verba cu prami ci mlatu Does the child love the three cats?

Close the right part of the table. Translate to Lojban the sentences on the left.

Is the car fast? xu le karce cu sutra
— Is the orange tasty?
— Yes, it is.
— xu le najnimre cu kukte
— je'u
Does the female love you? xu le fetsi cu prami do

Polite requests

The interjection .e'o in the beginning of a sentence turns it into a request:

.e'o do lebna le cukta
Could you take the book, please?
Please take the book. [literally]
.e'o = interjection: please (pronounced as eh-haw with a short pause or break before the word)
lebna = to take (something)
le cukta = the book

In English to be polite one has to use could you + please + a question). In Lojban .e'o is enough to make a polite request.

Task
lo tcati = tea
lo ckafi = coffee
catlu = to watch
le skina = the film, the movie

Close the right part of the table. Translate from Lojban the sentences on the left.

.e'o do sutra bajra Run quickly!
.e'o do pinxe lo tcati Please, drink tea!
.e'o catlu le skina Please, watch the film!

Close the right part of the table. Translate to Lojban the sentences on the left.

Please, be smart! .e'o stati
Please, go home! .e'o do klama le zdani
Please, drink coffee! .e'o do pinxe lo ckafi
Please, take care of the child. .e'o do kurji le verba

"And" and "or"

pa melbi je cmalu zdani cu zvati ti
A pretty and small home is here.
zvati = to be present at ...
ti = this thing, this place near me

je is a conjunction particle in Lojban, it means and in compound verbs.


Without je the sentence changes the meaning:

pa melbi cmalu zdani cu zvati
A prettily small home is here.

Here melbi modifies cmalu and melbi cmalu modifies zdani according to how compound verbs work.

In pa melbi je cmalu zdani (a pretty and small house) both melbi and cmalu modify zdani directly.

For connecting nouns and pronouns we use a similar conjunction .e:

mi .e do nelci lo jisra
I like juice, and you like juice.
lo jisra = juice

Using conjunctions it's possible to connect sentences as well:

mi nelci lo plise .i je do nelci lo jisra
I like apples. And you like juice.

Other common conjunction particles:

le verba cu fengu ja bilma
The child is angry or ill (or maybe both angry and ill)
do .a mi ba vitke le laldo
You or I (or both of us) will visit the old one.
ja = and/or
.a = and/or when connecting nouns and pronouns.
fengu = to be angry
bilma = to be ill
vitke = to visit
laldo = to be old
le karce cu blabi jo nai grusi
The car is either white or gray.
do .o nai mi vitke le laldo
Either you or I visit the old one.
jo nai = either … or … but not both (it consists of two words but it has one single meaning)
.o nai = either … or … but not both when connecting nouns and pronouns

Note that it's better to remember jo nai as a single construct. The same for .o nai.

mi prami do .i ju do fenki
I love you. Whether or not you are crazy.
le verba cu nelci lo plise .u lo badna
The child likes apples whether or not (he likes) bananas.
ju = whether or not…
.u = whether or not… when connecting nouns and pronouns.
fenki = to be crazy

jo'u is and for joint actions

When we need to show that nouns are considered together, instead of .e we use the particle jo'u:

pa nanla jo'u pa nixli cu klama pa panka
A boy with a girl go to a park.
pa nanla = a boy
pa nixli = a girl
pa panka = a park

Another example:

pa nanla jo'u pa nixli cu casnu pa karce
A boy and a girl discuss a car with each other.
casnu = to discuss

The verb casnu requires using jo'u to specify a group of those who discuss between each other. Compare:

pa nanla .e pa nixli cu klama pa panka
A boy goes to a park, and a girl goes to a park.

This means that they don't necessarily go together.

Again notice that omitting lo or numbers starting nouns can cause weird results:

pa nanla jo'u nixli cu casnu pa karce
Someone who is a boy and a girl (at the same time considered together!) discusses a car.

The correct sentence uses lo or a number before each noun:

lo nanla jo'u lo nixli cu casnu pa karce
Boys and girls discuss a car.
pa nanla jo'u pa nixli cu casnu pa karce
A boy and a girl discuss a car.
The pronoun mi'o (you and I together) can actually be expressed as mi jo'u do, which means exactly the same (it's just longer). In Lojban people mostly use not a single word for we but more precise constructs like mi jo'u lo pendo (literally I and friends).

Task

Close the right part of the table. Translate from Lojban the sentences on the left.

mi nelci lo badna .e lo plise I like bananas, and I like apples.
do sutra ja stati You are quick or smart or both.
za'u pa prenu cu casnu lo karce .u lo gerku There are people who discuss cars whether or not (they discuss) dogs.
mi citka lo najnimre .o nai lo badna I eat either oranges or bananas.

Close the right part of the table. Translate to Lojban the sentences on the left.

Females like rain, and males like rain. lo fetsi .e lo nakni cu nelci lo carvi
Either I or you go to the market. mi .o nai do klama le zarci
I see a big and beautiful car. mi viska pa barda je melbi karce
The child drinks milk and/or juice. le verba cu pinxe lo ladru .a lo jisra
A child and someone small discuss a car. pa verba jo'u pa cmalu cu casnu pa karce (note the use of jo'u. someone small is just pa cmalu).

But …

lo najnimre cu barda i ku'i je lo badna cu cmalu
Oranges are big. But bananas are small.
ku'i = interjection: but, however

Actually but is the same as and + it adds a flavor of contrast.

In Lojban we just use the interjection ku'i and then add je (and). That will give us the necessary contrast.

Events: dancing and being together - lo nu dansu .e lo nu kansa

Any clause can be turned into a verb by putting nu in front of it:

lo nicte cu nu mi viska le lunra
Night is when I see the Moon.
Night is the event when I see the Moon. [literally]
nicte = (some event) is a nighttime
lo nicte = night (in general sense), nighttimes
viska = to see (something)
le lunra = the Moon

Here lo nicte is a noun of the clause and nu mi viska le lunra is the main verb of the clause as it starts with nu. But inside this main verb we can see another clause (mi viska le lunra) embedded!

The word nu actually transforms a clause into a verb that denotes an event or a process.

Adding lo in front of nu creates nouns that denote events:

pinxe = to drink
lo nu pinxe = drinking
dansu = to dance
lo nu dansu = dancing
kansa = to be together with
lo nu kansa = being together
klama = to come
lo nu klama = coming
lo nu do klama = coming of you, you coming

lo nu often corresponds to English -ing, -tion, -sion.

Some verbs require using events instead of ordinary nouns. For example:

mi djica lo nu do klama ti
I want you to come here (to this place)
djica = to want (some event)

Some nouns describe events by themselves so no lo nu is used: 

lo cabna cu nicte
Now it's night. At present it's night.
lo cabna = present time, (an event) is at present.

Nouns made with lo nu can be used for verbs that describe events by themselves:

lo nu pinxe lo ladru cu nabmi mi
Drinking milk is a problem to me.
nabmi = (event) is a problem (to someone), (event) is problematic (to someone)

For known events we use le nu instead:

mi gleki le nu do klama
I'm happy because you are coming.
gleki = to be happy (of some event)
lo gleki = a happy one, a happy person
All Lojban words are divided into two groups:
  • particles (called lo cmavo in Lojban). Examples: lo, nu, mi
  • verbs (called lo selbrivla in Lojban). Examples: gleki, verba.
    It is quite common to write several particles one after another without spaces between them. This is allowed by Lojban grammar. So don't be surprised to see lonu instead of lo nu, je'unai instead of je'u nai, jonai instead of jo nai and so on. This doesn't change the meaning. However, this is not applied to verbs: they are to be separated with spaces.

Task
pilno = to use (something)
lo skami = computer

Close the right part of the table. Translate from Lojban the sentences on the left.

mi nelci lo nu do dansu I like you dancing.
xu do gleki lo nu do pilno lo skami Are you happy of using computers?
do djica lo nu mi citka lo plise xu Do you want me to eat an apple?

Close the right part of the table. Translate to Lojban the sentences on the left.

Coming here is a problem. lo nu klama ti cu nabmi
I want you to be happy. mi djica lo nu do gleki

Prepositions and tenses: was, is, will be - pu, ca, ba

Prepositions in Lojban are grouped into series by their meaning to make them easier to remember and use.

Here is the series of "prepositions of tense" that tell when something happens:

mi pinxe lo ladru ca lo nu do klama
I drink milk while you are coming.
mi citka ba lo nu mi dansu
I eat after I dance.
  • pu means before (some event) or denotes past tense.
  • ca means at the same time as (some event) or denotes present tense.
  • ba means after some event or denotes future tense.

Yes, we need lo nu to insert a whole clause after such prepositions.


Let's put a bare preposition just before the main verb:

lo mlatu pu pinxe lo ladru
Cats drank milk.
lo mlatu ca pinxe lo ladru
Cats drink milk (at present).
lo mlatu ba pinxe lo ladru
Cats will drink milk.

Here pu denotes past tense, ca denotes present tense, ba denotes future tense.

As you can see we replaced cu with a preposition since prepositions also clearly separate the head from the main verb.

Tenses add information about time when something happens. English forces us to use certain tenses. One has to choose between

Cats drink milk.
Cats drank milk.
Cats will drink milk.

and other similar choices.

But in Lojban prepositions of tense like all prepositions are optional, we can be as vague or as precise as we want.

The sentence

lo mlatu cu pinxe lo ladru
Cats drink milk.

actually says nothing about when this happens. Context is clear enough in most cases and can help us. But if we need more precision we just add more words.

Similarly, ba means after (some event) so when we say mi ba citka we mean that we eat after the moment of speaking, that's why it means I will eat.

We can combine tense words with and without clauses after them:

mi pu citka lo plise ba le nu mi dansu
I ate apples after I danced.

Note, that pu (past tense) is put only in the main clause (mi pu citka). In Lojban it is assumed that the event "I danced" happens relatively to the event of eating.

We shouldn't put pu with dansu (unlike English) as mi dansu is viewed relative to mi pu citka so we already know that everything was in past.

More examples of prepositions of tense:

le nicte cu pluka
The night is pleasant.
pluka = to be pleasant

Tense words before nouns and pronouns turn into prepositions:

ba le nicte cu pluka
After the night it is pleasant.

Here, the head of the clause is ba le nicte, a preposition with its noun. Then after the separator cu the main verb of the clause pluka is followed (pluka alone means It is pleasant). Therefore, to say will be pleasant we should place the tense word before the main verb:

le nicte ba pluka
The night will be pleasant.
Note that ca can extend slightly into the past and the future, meaning just about now. Thus, ca reflects a widely used around the world the notion of "present time".

Prepositions of aspect: co'a, ca'o, co'i

Another series of prepositions, prepositions of aspect:

co'a = preposition: the event is at its beginning
ca'o = preposition: the event is in progress
co'i = preposition: the event is viewed as a whole (has started and then finished)

Most verbs describe events without specifying the stage of those events. Prepositions of aspect allow us to be more precise:

mi pu co'a cikna
I woke up.
cikna = ... is awake
co'a cikna = ... wakes up, becomes awake

To precisely express English Progressive tense we use ca'o:

mi pu ca'o pinxe
I was drinking.
mi ca ca'o pinxe
I am drinking.
mi ba ca'o pinxe
I will be drinking.

co'i usually corresponds to English Perfect tense:

lo mlatu ca co'i pinxe lo ladru
Cats have drunk milk.

We could omit ca in these sentence since the context would be clear enough in most such cases.

Present Simple tense in English describes events that happen sometimes:

lo mlatu ca ta'e pinxe lo ladru
Cats (habitually, sometimes) drink milk.
ta'e = simple tense: the event happens habitually


We can use the same rules for describing the past using pu instead of ca or the future using ba:

lo mlatu pu co'i pinxe lo ladru
Cats had drunk milk.
lo mlatu ba co'i pinxe lo ladru
Cats will have drunk milk.

The relative order of tenses is important. In ca co'i we first say something happens in present (ca), then we state that in this present time the described event has been completed (co'i). Only when using this order we get Present Perfect tense.

Prepositions of interval: during - ze'a

Another series of prepositions emphasizes that events happened during an interval:

ze'i = for a short time
ze'a = through some time, for a while, during ...
ze'u = for a long time



mi pu ze'a sipna
I slept for a while.



mi pu sipna ze'a pa nicte
I slept through the night. I slept all night.



mi pu sipna ze'i pa nicte
I slept through the short night.

Compare ze'a with ca:

mi pu sipna ca pa nicte
I slept at night.
sipna = to sleep
pa nicte = a nighttime

When using ze'a we are talking about the whole interval of what we describe.  Don't forget that nicte is itself an event so we don't need nu here.

Other useful prepositions: because - ri'a, towards - fa'a, at (place) - bu'u

Preposition for because:

mi pinxe ri'a lo nu mi taske
I drink because I am thirsty.
mi citka ri'a lo nu mi xagji
I eat because I am hungry.
ri'a = because … (of some event)
taske = to be thirsty
xagji = to be hungry

Prepositions denoting place work the same way: 

mi klama fa'a do to'o pa mlatu
I go to you from a cat.



mi cadzu bu'u le tcadu
I walk in the city.
fa'a = towards …, in the direction of …
to'o = from …, from the direction of …
bu'u = at … (some place)

One thing is important. nu shows that a new clause in a sentence starts. Put vau after such clause to show its right border. Here is an example:

pa mlatu cu plipe fa'a mi ca lo nu do ca'o klama
A cat jumps towards me when you are coming.
plipe = to jump

but

pa mlatu cu plipe ca lo (nu do ca'o klama vau) fa'a mi
A cat jumps (when you are coming) towards me.

(brackets are used here only to show the structure)

We use vau after the clause nu do ca'o klama to show that it ended and other parts of the sentence begin like cu, a preposition, a noun or a pronoun.  Compare this sentence with the following:

pa mlatu cu plipe ca lo (nu do ca'o klama fa'a mi)
A cat jumps (when you are coming towards me).

As you can see do klama fa'a mi is a clause inside the big one. So fa'a mi is now inside it.

Now you, not the cat, come towards me.

At the end of the sentence vau is never needed as it's already the right border.

One more example with a tense particle:

mi pu citka lo plise ba le nu mi dansu
I ate apples after I danced.
mi pu citka ba le nu mi dansu vau lo plise
I ate (after I danced) apples.

Thus we can move ba le nu mi dansu around the sentence provided that it's still put after pu.

Task
le tsani = the sky
zvati = to be present at (some place or event), to stay ... (at some place)
lo canko = window
lo fagri = a fire
mi'o = You and I

Close the right part of the table. Translate from Lojban the sentences on the left.

mi ca gleki lo nu do viska le tsani I am happy that you see the sky.
xu le mlatu pu ca'o zvati lo zdani Were the cats staying at home?
do pu citka pa plise ba lo nu mi pinxe lo ladru You ate an apple after I drank milk.
ko catlu fa'a le canko Look towards the window.
xu do gleki ca lo nu do ca'o cadzu bu'u le purdi Are you happy when you are walking in the garden?
ca lo nu mi klama lo zdani vau do pinxe lo tcati ri'a lo nu do taske When I go home you drink tea because you are thirsty.

Close the right part of the table. Translate to Lojban the sentences on the left.

You will see the sun. do ba viska le solri (lo solri is also fine since usually there is only one sun possible)
You understand that it will rain. do ca jimpe lo nu ba carvi
Quickly run away from the fire! ko sutra bajra to'o le fagri
You and I were staying together at home when it was raining. mi'o pu ca'o zvati lo zdani ca lo nu carvi

Negation

The preposition na makes everything to its right within the clause negative in meaning:

mi na nelci do
I don't like you.
na = preposition: it is not true that ...

Its opposite, the preposition ja'a affirms the meaning:

mi ja'a nelci do
I do like you.
ja'a = preposition: it is true that ...

Names. Choosing a name

lo cmevla, or name word is a special kind of verb used to build personal names. It's easy to recognize lo cmevla in a flow of text as only lo cmevla end in a consonant.

Besides, they are wrapped by one dot from each side.

Examples of lo cmevla are: .paris., .robin.

If one's name is Bob then we can create a cmevla ourselves that would sound as close as possible to this name, for example .bob.

The most simple example of using a name would be

la .bob. cu tcidu
Bob reads/is reading.
tcidu = to read

la is similar to lo but it converts a verb not to a simple noun but to a name.

In English we start a word with a capital letter to show that it's a name. In Lojban we use the prefix word la.

Always use la when producing names!

A name can consist of several cmevla one after another:

la .bob.djonson. cu tcidu
Bob Johnson reads/is reading.

Here, we separated the two cmevla with just one dot, which is also a common style.

It's common to omit dots in front of and at the end of lo cmevla to write texts faster, for example, when text chatting. After all, lo cmevla are still separated from neighboring words by spaces around them:
la bob djonson cu tcidu
However, in spoken language it is still necessary to put a short pause before and after lo cmevla.

Bob's first name goes into Lojban without much changes. The same for the name Lojban. It's a cmevla and is written as .lojban.:

la .lojban. cu bangu mi
I speak Lojban.
Lojban is a language of me.
Lojban is a language I use. [literally]
bangu = is a language (used by someone)

However, Lojban letters directly correspond to sounds. Therefore, there are some rules for adapting names to how they are written in Lojban. This may sound strange — after all, a name is a name — but in fact all languages do this to some extent. For example, English speakers tend to pronounce Jose something like Hozay, and Margaret in Chinese is Magelita. Some sounds just don't exist in some languages, so you need to rewrite the name so that it only contains Lojban sounds, and is spelt according to letter-sound correspondence.

Example:

la .djonson. = Johnson
la .suzyn. = Susan

In the English name Susan the two letters s are pronounced differently. The second one is actually a z, and the a is not really an a sound, it's the "schwa" explained in the beginning of this chapter. So Susan is written .suzyn. in Lojban.

Pay attention to how the name is pronounced natively. Thus, the English and French names Robert come out differently in Lojban: the English name is rather .robyt. in UK English, or .rabyrt. in some American dialects, but the French is .rober.

Here are some names that we'll use throughout this book:

la .alis. Alice la .meilis. Mei Li
la .bob. Bob la .abdul. Abdul
la .ian. Yan or Ian la .al. Ali
la .doris. Doris la .micel. Michelle
la .kevin. Kevin la .edvard. Edward
la .adam. Adam la .lukas. Lucas
  • Two extra full stops (periods) are necessary because if you didn't put those pauses in speech, you might not know where the name started and ended, or in other words where the previous word ended and the next word began.
  • The last letter of a cmevla must be a consonant. And if a name doesn't end in a consonant we usually add use s to the end; so in Lojban, Mary becomes .meris., Joe becomes .djos. and so on. An alternative is to leave out the last vowel, so Mary would become .mer. or .meir.
  • You can also put a full stop in between a person's first and last names (though it's not compulsory), so Jim Jones becomes .djim.djonz.

Rules for making lo cmevla

Here is a compact representation of Lojban sounds:

  • vowels:
    • a e i o u y au ai ei oi
  • consonants
    • b d g v z j (voiced)
    • p t k f s c x (unvoiced)
    • l m n r
    • i u. They are considered consonants when put between two vowels or in the beginning of a word. .iaua - i and u are consonants here. .iai - here is the consonant i with an vowel ai after it.
    • ' (apostrophe). It is put only between two vowels: .e'e, .u'i
    • . (dot, word break)

We first write a name with Lojban letters and then change them according to these rules:

  1. they start and end in consonants except ' . Additionally they are wrapped by a dot from each side: .lojban. It's quite common to omit word breaks in informal texts.
  2. vowels can be put only between two consonants: .sam., .no'am.
  3. double consonants are merged into one: dd becomes d, nn becomes n etc. Or a y is out between them: .nyn.
  4. if a voiced and a unvoiced consonants are next to each other then y is inserted inside: kv becomes kyv. Or you can remove one of the letters instead: pb can be turned into a single p or a single b.
  5. if one of c, j, s, z are next to each other then y is inserted inside: jz becomes jyz. Or you can remove one of the letters instead: cs can be turned into a single c or a single s.
  6. if x is next to c or next to k then y is inserted inside: cx becomes cyx, xk becomes xyk. Or you can remove one of the letters instead: kx can be turned into a single x.
  7. the substrings mz, nts, ntc, ndz, ndj are fixed by adding y inside or deleting one of the letters: nytc or nc, .djeimyz.
  8. double ii between vowels is merged into a single i: .eian. (but not .eiian.)
  9. double uu between vowels is merged into a single u: .auan. (but not .auuan.)

Other verbs as names

You can use not only cmevla, but also other types of verbs to choose your nickname in Lojban. If you prefer, you can translate your name into Lojban (if you know what it means, of course) or adopt a completely new Lojban identity.

Here are a few examples of Lojbanic names:

Original name Meaning Word in Lojban Your name
Blake black lo xekriblack la xekri
Ethan solid, during lo sligusolid la sligu
Mei Li beautiful in Mandarin Chinese lo melbibeautiful la melbi

le and names

Lojban has a single term lo sumti = "noun or pronoun or name" Indeed, nouns, pronouns and names work grammatically exactly the same in Lojban. For brevity we'll be calling them all nouns.

le can be used to refer to names mentioned earlier:

la alis cu klama pa zarci i le fetsi cu xagji
Alice is going to a shop. She is hungry.
xagji = to be hungry
la alis cu viska la doris i le fetsi cu melbi
Alice can see Doris. She (Doris) is beautiful.

Here, le fetsi is applied to Doris, the last noun describing a female person.

In this example we assume that both Alice and Doris are females.

Introducing yourself. Vocatives

cerni
... is morning
vanci
... is evening
donri
... is daylight time
nicte
... is night

Vocatives in Lojban are words that function just like interjections (xu which we earlier discussed) but they attach the following noun after them:

coi do
Hello, you!
coi = vocative: Hello! Hi!

We use coi + a noun or pronoun to greet someone.

co'o do
Goodbye to you.
co'o = vocative: goodbye!
coi ro do = Hello each of you is how people usually start a conversation with several people. coi re do means Hello you two and can be useful when, for example, one starts a letter to their parents).

Since vocatives work like interjections we have nice types of greetings:

cerni coi
Good morning!
It's morning — Hello! [literally]

vanci coi
Good evening!

donri coi
Good day!


nicte coi
Nightly greetings!

Note that in English "Goodnight!" means "Goodbye!" or denotes wishing someone spending good night. By its meaning "Goodnight!" doesn't belong to the series of greetings above. Thus, we use a different wording in Lojban:

nicte co'o
Goodnight!
a'o pluka nicte
Pleasant night!
a'o = interjection: I hope
pluka = to be pleasant to … (someone)

Of course, we can be vague by just saying pluka nicte (just meaning pleasant night without any wishes explicitly said).

The vocative mi'e + a noun/pronoun is used to introduce yourself:

mi'e la .doris.
I'm Doris. This is Doris speaking.
mi'e = vocative: identifies speaker

The vocative doi is used to show who we're talking to:

mi cliva doi la .robert.
I'm leaving, Robert.
cliva = to leave (something or someone)

Without doi the name might become the first noun of the clause:

mi cliva la .robert.
I'm leaving Robert.

doi is a like Old English O (as in O ye of little faith) or the Latin vocative (as in Et tu, Brute). Some languages don't distinguish between these contexts although as you can see Old English and Latin did.

Two more vocatives are are ki'e for saying thanks and je'e for accepting them:

— ki'e do do pu sidju mi
— je'e do

— Thank you, you helped me.
— Not at all.
sidju = to help (someone)

We can omit the noun after the vocative only if this is the ends of the sentence. For example we can just say

— coi .i xu do kanro
— Hello. How do you do?
— Hello. Are you healthy? [literally]
kanro = to be healthy

Here, a new sentence starts immediately after the vocative coi so we omitted the name. Or we can say:

coi do mi djica lo nu do sidju mi
Hello. I want you to help me.
Hello you. I want that you help me. [literally]

Thus, in case you don't know the name of the listener you just place do after it if you want to continue the same sentence after the vocative.

If you use the vocative on its own (without a noun after it) and the sentence is not finished yet then you need to separate it from the rest, because the things likeliest to follow the vocative in a sentence could easily be misconstrued as describing your addressee. Use the word do for that. For example,

coi do la .alis. la .doris. pu cliva
Hello! Alice left Doris.
Hello you! Alice left Doris [literally]
coi la .alis. la .doris. pu cliva
Hello, Alice! Doris left.

And if you want to put both vocatives and interjections modifying the whole sentence please put interjections first:

.ui coi do la .alis. la .doris. pu cliva
Yay, Hello! Alice left Doris.

Note that in the beginning of sentences usually interjections are put before vocatives because

coi .ui do la .alis. la .doris. pu cliva

means

Hello (I'm happy about this greeting) you! Alice left Doris.

So an interjection immediately after a vocative modifies that vocative. Similarly, interjection modifies the vocative noun when being put after it:

coi do .ui la .alis. la .doris. pu cliva
Hello you (I'm happy about you)! Alice left Doris.
Task

Close the right part of the table. Translate from Lojban the sentences on the left.

nelci = to like (someone or something)
lo mamta = a mother, mothers
cerni coi la .alis. Good morning, Alice.
— mi ba sipna
— a'o pluka nicte
— I will sleep.
— Good night.
mi'e la .adam. i mi nelci lo nu mi ca'o tavla do I am Adam. I like that I am talking to you.

Close the right part of the table. Translate to Lojban the sentences on the left.

Mommy, I will eat an apple. doi lo mamta mi ba citka pa plise
You leave? Goodbye. xu do cliva .i co'o do
or just
xu do cliva .i co'o

Lesson 2. More basic stuff

Order of arguments

Earlier we provided such definitions of verbs as:

mlatu = is a cat, to be a cat
citka = to eat
prami = to love
klama = to come

The dictionary in the end of this textbook presents all verbs with x1, x2 etc. symbols:

mlatu = x1 is a cat ...
citka = x1 eats x2 ...
prami = x1 loves x2
klama = x1 comes to x2 ...

These x1, x2 are quite simple. They are called places of arguments and more precisely represent the order in which we add nouns or pronouns. For example:

mi prami do
I love you.

This also means that

  • x1 denotes the one who loves and
  • x2 denotes the one who is loved by.

The advantage of such style of definitions is that all participants of a relation are in one definition.

We can also omit nouns making the sentence more vague:

carvi
It is raining.
is rain, is raining [literally]
(although tense here is determined by context, it can also mean It often rains, It was raining etc.)
prami do
Someone loves you.
loves you [literally]

All omitted places in a clause just mean zo'e = something/someone so it means the same as

zo'e prami do
Someone loves you.

And

prami

is the same as

zo'e prami zo'e
Someone loves someone.
Prepositions add new places to verbs but they don't remove existing places. In
mi klama fa'a do
I come towards you.

the second place of klama is still omitted. For example:

mi klama fa'a pa cmana do
I come (towards a mountain) to you.

And here the second place of klama is do. And the sentence means that the mountain is just a direction whereas the final point is you.

Similarly, in

mi citka ba lo nu mi cadzu
I eat after I walk.
the second place of citka is still omitted. A new preposition ba with its phrase lo nu mi cadzu adds meaning to the sentence.

The order of arguments of compound verbs is the same as the of the last verb word in it:

tu sutra bajra pendo mi
That is my quickly running friend.
That is a quickly running friend of me. [literally]
pendo = to be a friend, is a friend (of someone)

So the order of arguments is the same as of pendo alone.

More than two places

There might be more than two places. For example:

mi pinxe lo ladru pa kabri
I drink milk from a cup.
pinxe = x1 drinks x2 from x3
pa kabri
a cup

In this case there are three places and if you want to exclude the second place in the middle you have to use zo'e:

mi pinxe zo'e pa kabri
I drink [something] from a cup.

If we omit zo'e we get something meaningless:

mi pinxe pa kabri
I drink a cup.

Another example:

mi dunda pa cukta do
I give a book to you.
dunda = x1 gives, donates x2 to x3
pa cukta = a book

General rules in the order of arguments

The order of places in verbs might be sometimes hard to remember. But let's not worry — like in English you don't need to remember all places of all verbs (do you remember the meaning of hundreds of thousands of words in English?)

You may study places when you find them useful or when people use them in a dialogue with you.

Most of verbs have one or two places. Usually you can guess the order using context and a few rules of thumb:

  1. The first place is often the person or thing who does something or is something:
    klama = x1 goes ...
  2. The object of some action is usually just after the first place:
    punji = x1 puts x2 on x3, dunda = x1 gives x2 (gift) to x3 (recipient)
  3. And the next place will usually be filled with the recipient:
    punji = x1 puts x2 on x3, dunda = x1 gives x2 (gift) to x3 (recipient)
  4. Destination (to) places nearly always come before origins (from) places:
    klama = x1 goes to x2 from x3
  5. Less-used places come towards the end. These tend to be things like ‘by standard’, ‘by means’ or ‘made of’.

The general idea is that first come the places which are most likely to be used.

No need to fill all places all the time. Unfilled places just have values irrelevant or obvious to the speaker (they take the value of zo'e = something).

Prepositions and places

Prepositions don't replace places:

mi klama fa'a le cmana le zdani be mi
I go in the direction of the mountain to my home.
le zdani be mi = home of me, my home

Here, the preposition fa'a (in the direction of) doesn't replace the second place of the verb klama (which is filled with le zdani be mi - my home). The sentence means that my home is simply located in the direction of the mountain but it doesn't mean I want to reach that mountain.

Places for nouns

lo pendo
friend / friends
pa cukta
a book
mi dunda pa cukta
I give a book.

How do we say You are my friend ?

do pendo mi
You are my friend.
You are a friend of me. [literally]

And now how do we say My friend is crazy.?

pa pendo be mi cu fenki
My friend is crazy.

So when we convert a verb into a noun (pendoto be a friend into pa pendoa friend) we can still retain other places of that verb by placing be after it.

By default it attaches the second place (x2). We can attach more places by separating them with bei:

mi dunda le cukta do
I give the book to you.
le dunda be le cukta bei mi
The grantor of a book to me
le dunda be le cukta bei mi cu pendo mi
The giver of the book to me is my friend.
The one who gives the book to me is a friend of mine. [literally]

Another example:

mi klama pa pendo be do
I come to a friend of yours.

We can't omit be because pa pendo do are two independent places:

mi klama pa pendo do
I come to a friend from you.
klama = x1 comes to x2 from x3 ...

Here, do took the third place of klama since it's not bound to pendo using be.

Neither could we use nu because pa nu pendo do is one event about a friend of yours. So pa pendo be do is the correct solution.

Another example:

la .lojban. cu bangu mi
Lojban is my language.
Lojban is a language of me. [literally]

However,

mi nelci lo bangu be mi
I like my language.


Using be for verbs not converted to nouns has no effect: mi nelci be do is the same as mi nelci do.

Relative clauses

pa mlatu poi blabi cu pinxe lo ladru
A cat that is white is drinking milk.
pa mlatu noi blabi cu pinxe lo ladru
A cat, which is white, is drinking milk.
blabi = to be white

In the first sentence the word "that" is essential to identifying the cat in question, it clarifies which cat we are talking about. Out of probably many cats we choose only those who are white. Maybe there is only one cat around that is white like in this example.

As for "which is white" from the second sentence it just provides additional information about the cat. It doesn't help us to identify cats. For example, this might happen when all the cats are white.

poi blabi is a relative clause, a mini-clause attached to the right of the noun lo mlatu. It ends just before the next word cu:

pa mlatu (poi blabi) cu pinxe lo ladru
A cat (that is white) is drinking milk.

So in addition to pa mlatu cu pinxe lo ladrua cat drinks milk we state that the cat is white.

In Lojban we use poi for relative clauses that identify entities (objects, people or events) and noi for incidental information.

le nakni ba co'a speni pa ninmu poi pu xabju lo nurma
He will marry a girl who lived in the country.
xabju = to live, to inhabit
lo nurma = rural area

This sentence doesn't exclude him marrying someone else as well! Removing the relative clause with poi changes the meaning:

le nakni ba co'a speni pa ninmu
He will marry a girl.

Another example:

lo prenu poi gleki cu ze'u renvi
People (which ones?) who are happy live long.
ze'u = preposition: for a long time
renvi = to survive

Removing the relative clause with poi changes the meaning:

lo prenu ze'u renvi
People live long.

On the other hand, relative clauses with noi contain just additional information about the noun to which they are attached. That noun is sufficiently defined by itself so that removing a relative clause with noi doesn't change its meaning:

mi nelci la .doris. noi mi ta'e zgana bu'u pa panka
I like Doris, whom I habitually see in a park.
I like Doris. What else can I say about her? I habitually see her in a park.
zgana = to observe (using any senses)

Removing the relative clause with noi retains the meaning: I like Doris.

In spoken English the distinction is often achieved using intonation or by guessing. Also relative clauses with noi are traditionally separated with commas in English, they use which or who and the word that is not used in them.

Let's have another example.

mi klama pa tricu
I come to a tree.
pa tricu cu barda
A tree is big.
pa tricu = a tree
barda = x1 is big/large

And now let's join those two sentences:

pa tricu noi mi klama ke'a cu barda
A tree, to which I go, is big.

Note the word ke'a. We move the second sentence about the same tree into a relative clause and replace the noun lo tricu with ke'a in the relative clause. So the pronoun ke'a is like who and which in English. It points back to the noun to which the relative clause is attached.


So literally our Lojbanic sentence sounds like

A tree, such that I go to which, is big.

ke'a can be dropped if we are to place it just after noi or poi. That's why the two following sentences mean the same:

pa mlatu poi blabi cu pinxe lo ladru
pa mlatu poi ke'a blabi cu pinxe lo ladru

A cat that is white is drinking milk.

ke'a goes to the first unfilled place:

le nakni ba co'a speni pa ninmu poi le nakni pu penmi bu'u pa zarci or
le nakni ba co'a speni pa ninmu poi le nakni pu penmi ke'a bu'u pa zarci
He will marry a girl whom he had met in a store.

Here, le nakni fills the first place of penmi, thus, ke'a is assumed for the next, second place.

Relative clauses like usual clauses can contain constructs with prepositions:

pa tricu noi mi pu klama ke'a ca lo cabdei cu barda
A tree, to which I went today, is big.
lo cabdei = the day of today

Note that ca lo cabdei belongs to the relative clause. Compare:

pa tricu noi mi pu klama ke'a cu barda ca lo cabdei
A tree, to which I went, is big today.

The meaning has changed a lot.

Finally, voi is used to refer to clauses that have just been mentioned:

mi zgana pa prenu poi ca'o kelci i mi zgana pa prenu poi ca'o citka i pa prenu voi kelci cu verba
I observe a person who is playing. I observe a person who is eating. One person (mentioned as playing) is a child.
lo cabna cu pluka vanci i lo simsa ditcu voi vanci na cafne
Now it's a pleasant evening. Such times that is pleasant evenings does not happen often.
lo cabna = event that is now, in present
simsa = to be similar
ditcu = x1 (clause) is a period, some time
cafne = to happen often

voi parallels le: le refers to nouns in context, voi refers to clauses in context. Despite its utility voi hasn't been used a lot by Lojban speakers.

Short relative clauses. "About".

Sometimes you might need to attach to a noun an additional noun or pronoun:

mi djuno lo vajni pe do
I know something important about you.
lo vajni = something important

pe and ne are similar to poi and noi but connect nouns (and pronouns) to nouns:

pa penbi pe mi cu xunre
A pen that is mine is red. (mine is essential to identifying the pen in question)
pa penbi ne mi cu xunre
A pen, which is mine, is red. (additional information)
ne = which is about, has relation to ... (a noun/pronoun follows)
pe = that is about, has relation to ... (a noun/pronoun follows)

be and pe

Notice that relative clauses are attached to nouns whereas be connects to the verb that is transformed into a noun afterwards.

Actually, lo bangu pe mi is a better translation of my language, since like in English, the two nouns are related to each other in a vague way.

However, you can say lo birka be mi as my arm. Even if you saw off your arm, it'll still be yours. That's why birka has a place of the owner:

birka = x1 is an arm of x2

Notice that be attaches to the verb word. But pe, ne, poi and noi attach to nouns. For example,

pa melbi be mi cukta pe pa pendo be mi cu barda
A beautiful to me book of a friend of mine is big.

Here, be mi is applied only to the verb melbi = to be beautiful to … (someone). But pe pa pendo is applied to the whole noun pa melbi be mi cukta = a beautiful to me book.

It can also happen that we need to attach be to a noun and then attach pe to the same noun:

pa pendo be do be'o pe la paris cu stati
A friend of yours who is related to Paris is smart.
lo pu dunda be pa cukta bei do be'o pe la paris cu stati
Who gave a book to you (and who is related to Paris) is smart.

be'o shows that the nouns attached with be and with bei (if they are used) end, and thus pe la paris is attached to the whole bigger noun pa pendo be do be'o and lo pu dunda be pa cukta bei do be'o.

Compare it to:

pa pendo be do pe la paris cu stati
A friend of you (who is related to Paris) is smart.
lo pu dunda be pa cukta bei do pe la paris cu stati
Who gave a book to you (who is related to Paris) is smart.

The difference in the meaning is huge. In the first two examples your friend has some relation to Paris (maybe, he/she is from Paris). In the second two examples, you have this relation.

"She is a teacher" and "She is the teacher"

In English the verb is, are, to be makes a noun work like a verb in English. In Lojban even such concepts as cat (mlatu), person (prenu), house (dinju), home (zdani) work like verbs by default. Only pronouns work as nouns.

However, here are three cases:

le nakni cu ctuca
He teaches.
le nakni cu me lo ctuca
He is one of those who teach.
me = to be among ..., to be one of ..., to be a member of ... (noun follows)
le nakni ta'e ctuca
He habitually teaches.
ta'e = preposition: the event happens habitually
le nakni cu du le ctuca
He is the teacher.
du = to be identical to ...

The particle me takes a noun after it and shows that there are probably other teachers, and he is one of them.

However, when using the verb du we mean that he is, for example, the teacher that we have been searching for or talking about.

Thus me and du can sometimes reflect what in English we use the verb to be/is/was for.

In Lojban we first rely on the meaning of what we need to say, not necessarily on how it is literally said in English or other languages.

Other examples:

mi me la bond
I am Bond.
mi du la .kevin.
I am Kevin (the one you needed).
ti du la .alis. noi mi ta'e zgana bu'u pa panka
This is Alice, whom I often see in a park.


noi du and poi du are used in Lojban to introduce alternate names for something. So they correspond to English namely, i.e.:

la .alis. cu penmi pa prenu noi du la .abdul.
Alice met a person, namely Abdul.

Prepositions inside nouns

We can place a tense not only before the main verb of a clause but at the end of it giving the same result:

mi ca tcidu
mi tcidu ca

I (now read).
tcidu = to read (some text)

When using nu we create a clause. Notice, the difference between these two examples:

le nu tcidu ca cu nandu
The current reading is complicated, difficult.
le nu tcidu cu ca nandu
The reading is now complicated.

Other examples:

mi klama pa cmana pu
I went to a mountain.
I go to a mountain (in past). [literally]
lo nu mi klama pa cmana pu cu pluka
That I went to a mountain is pleasant.

When not using nu we don't have clauses. Nouns start with lo and end in its verb (like a single or a compound verb). Thus we can insert prepositions to nouns only before that verb:

lo pu kunti tumla ca purdi
What was a desert is now a garden.

So pu belongs to lo kunti tumla and ca belongs to purdi (as lo pu kunti tumla can't add ca in the end).

This doesn't contradict with using be after the verb since with be you change the verb: bangu be mi is considered one verb.

Placing prepositions after nouns binds them to outer verbs:

lo kunti tumla pu purdi
The desert was a garden.

New nouns from places of the same verb

do dunda ti mi
You grant this to me.
ti se dunda do mi
This is granted by you to me.
dunda = x1 grants, gives x2 to x3

We can swap the first two places round in the verb using se and thus change the place structure.

do dunda ti mi means exactly the same as ti se dunda do mi. The difference is solely in style.

You may want to change things around for different emphasis, for example, to mention the more important things in a sentence first. So the following pairs mean the same thing:

mi prami do
I love you.
do se prami mi
You are loved by me.
lo nu mi tadni la .lojban. cu xamgu mi
My study of Lojban is good for me.
xamgu = to be good for (someone)
mi se xamgu lo nu mi tadni la .lojban.
For me it's good to study Lojban.

The same can be dont with nouns:

lo dunda = those who give, givers, donors, donators
lo se dunda = something that is given, gifts

As we know, when we add lo in front of a verb it becomes a noun. So

  • lo dunda means something(s) which could fit in the first place of dunda
  • lo se dunda means something(s) which could fit in the second place of dunda

Thus, in Lojban we don't need a separate word for gift. We reuse the same verb and save a lot of effort because of such clever design. Indeed, we can't imagine a gift without implying that someone gave it or will give it. When phenomena are interconnected Lojban reflects this.

For the ease of understanding and memorizing predicate words prefixed with se are put into the dictionary in entries for many verbs together with their definitions although you can figure out their meaning yourself.

Changing other places in main verbs

se is the first particle in the series se, te, ve, xe (they go in alphabetical order):

  • se changes round the first and second places
  • te changes round the first and third places
  • ve, the first and fourth, and
  • xe, the first and fifth.
le nakni cu zbasu pa stizu lo mudri
He made a chair out of wood.
zbasu = x1 builds, makes x2 out of x3
pa stizu = a chair
lo mudri = wood
lo mudri cu te zbasu le stizu le nakni
Wood is the material the chair is made of by him.

The le nakni has now moved to the third place in the sentence, and can now be dropped out without being missed if we are too lazy to specify who made the chair or we just don't know who made it:

lo mudri cu te zbasu le stizu
Wood is the material of the chair.

Similarly to our example with lo se dunda (gift) we can use te, ve, xe to get more words from other places of verbs:

klama = x1 goes to x2 from x3 via x4 by means x5

Thus, we can derive that

lo klama = a goer/goers
lo se klama = destination place
lo te klama = place of origin of the movement
lo ve klama = route
lo xe klama = vehicle

lo xe klama and the fifth place of klama can denote any means of movement like a car or your feet.

se is used a lot more than the other particles for swapping places.

Free word order. Prepositions for places

Usually we don't need all the places of a verb, so we can omit the unnecessary ones by replacing them with zo'e. However, we can use place tags - special prepositions to explicitly refer to a needed place.

mi prami do is the same as
fa mi prami fe do
I love you.
  • fa marks the first place of a verb (x1)
  • fe - marks the second place (x2)
  • fi - marks the third place (x3)
  • fo - marks the fourth place (x4)
  • fu - marks the fifth place (x5)

More examples:

mi klama fi le tcadu
I go from the city.

fi marks le tcadu as the third place of klama (the origin of movement). Without fi, the sentence would turn into mi klama le tcadu meaning I go to the city.

mi pinxe fi pa kabri is the same as
mi pinxe zo'e pa kabri
I drink (something) from a cup.
pinxe = x1 drinks x2 from x3
mi tugni zo'e lo nu vitke lo rirni
mi tugni fi lo nu vitke lo rirni
I agree (with someone) about visiting parents.
tugni = x1 agrees with someone x2 about x3 (clause)

With place tags we can move places around:

fe pa cukta pu dunda fi pa nanla
Someone gave a book to a boy.
dunda = x1 gives the gift x2 to x3

Here

  • pa cukta = a book, we put it into the second place of dunda, what is given
  • pa nanla = boy, we put it into the third place of dunda, the recipient.

As we can see in the last example we can't even reflect the order of words in its English translation.

Extensive use of place tags can make our speech harder to perceive but they allow for more freedom.

Unlike se series using place tags like fa doesn't change the place structure.


We can use place tags inside nouns by placing them after be:

lo dunda be fi lo nanla cu pendo mi
Who gives something to a boy is my friend.

Another option in placing nouns is that we can put all the nouns of one main verb in front of the verb (preserving their relative order). Because of this freedom we can say:

mi do prami which is the same as
mi prami do
I love you.


ko kurji ko is the same as
ko ko kurji
Take care of yourself.

The following clauses are also equal in meaning:

mi dunda pa plise do
I give an apple to you.
mi pa plise cu dunda do
I an apple give to you.
mi pa plise do dunda
I an apple to you give.

Infinitives

Infinitives are verbs that are often prefixed with "to" in English. Examples include "I like to run" with "to run" being the infinitive.

pa mlatu cu djica lo ka pinxe
A cat wants to drink.

The particle ka works much like nu but it indicates that the noun on the left does or would do the action following ka. It makes the first noun of the outer verb (djica in this case) also the first omitted noun of the embedded verb started by ka (pinxe in this case) so you don't have to repeat this noun the second time.

Thus we can rewrite the sentence as

pa mlatu cu djica lo nu le mlatu cu pinxe
A cat wants that the cat drinks [literally]

The previous translation with ka sounds more natural and compact so using ka is preferred in such case.


Another example with a pronoun in the place of the first noun

mi djica lo ka pinxe
I want to drink.
mi djica lo nu mi pinxe
I want that I drink [literally]

Again the sentence with ka looks nicer.

Compare:

mi djica lo nu do pinxe
I want you to drink.
I want that you drink [literally]

Here, the first pronoun of djica differs from the one from pinxe so we can't use ka.

It is also possible to use ka when we usually use the ending -ing in English:

mi gleki lo ka jinga
I'm glad of winning.

which is the same as

mi gleki lo nu mi jinga
I'm glad that I won.

Some verbs require only infinitives in some of their places. Definitions of such words mark such places with the term "property". For example,

cinmo = x1 feels x2 (property of x1)

This means that the infinitive in the second place (x2) is applied to the first place (x1). Cases where infinitive is applied to other place are rare and are explained for corresponding verbs.

Note that only the first unfilled place of the embedded clause takes the meaning of the outer place:

mi djica lo ka do nelci
I want that you like me.
nelci = x1 likes x2

Here, the first unfilled place is the second place of nelci thus it takes the value mi (I).

It is also possible to explicitly mark a plce to refer to by using the pronoun ce'u:

mi djica lo ka do nelci ce'u
I want that you like me.

Another example:

mi cinmo lo ka xebni ce'u
mi cinmo lo ka se xebni

I feel like someone hates me.
I feel being hated.

Nouns of existence

Nouns starting with lo don't imply any particular objects:

xu do tavla lo na slabu be do
Do you talk to not familiar to you? (no particular person in mind is described).
e'u mi jo'u do casnu bu'u lo drata
Let's discuss in another place (no particular place in mind)

Objects in general are finely described using nouns with lo.

As opposed to them nouns starting with numbers like pa mlatu and ci prenu refer to new entities every time they are used:

ci mlatu cu citka re finpe
There are three cats, there are two fishes for each cat, and each cat eats two fishes.

Note that we apply nouns from left to the right: first we talk about the three cats and then we specify for each of the cats that it eats two fishes. So in fact there are 6 fishes.

da - there is something ...

da tavla da
Someone talk to themselves.
da tavla da da
Someone talk to themselves about themselves.

The pronoun da is translated as there is something/someone ... But unlike nouns of existence like pa mlatu we've just looked at if we use da the second time in the same clause it always refers to the same thing as the first da:

More examples:

mi tavla
I talk.
mi tavla da
There is someone I talk to.
tavla = x1 talks to x2 about x3
mi nitcu lo mikce = I need a doctor (implying "any doctor will do")
mi nitcu da poi mikce = There is a doctor whom I need

Note the difference:

  • da means there is something/someone, da always refers to the same entity when used more than once in the same clause.
  • noun like lo mlatu (starting with lo) can refer to new entities every time it is used.
  • noun like pa mlatu (with a bare number and without lo) is similar to using pa da poi mlatu but it can refer to new entities every time it is used.

"To have"

The English verb to have has several meanings.

pa da birka mi
I have an arm.
There is something that is an arm of me [literally]
birka = x1 is an arm of x2

We use the same strategy for expressing family relationship:

pa da bruna mi
mi se bruna pa da

Someone is my brother.
I have one brother.

There is someone who is a brother of me [literally]
re bruna be mi cu clani
I have two brothers and they are tall.
clani = x1 is long, tall

So we don't need the verb "to have" to denote such relationship. The same for other family members:

da mamta mi or mi se mamta da = I have a mother.
da patfu mi or mi se patfu da = I have a father.
da mensi mi or mi se mensi da = I have a sister.
da panzi mi or mi se panzi da = I have a child (or children).
panzi = x1 is a child, offspring of x2

Note that using a number in front of da isn't necessary if context is enough.


Another meaning of to have is to keep:

mi ralte pa gerku
I have a dog.
I keep a dog [literally]
mi ralte pa karce
I have a car.
ralte = x1 keeps x2 in their possesion

If you own, possess something according to some law or documents you should use ponse:

mi ponse le karce
I own the car.
ponse = x1 owns x2

Lesson 3. Quoting. Questions. Interjections

sei: comments to the text

The particle sei allows to insert into a clause a comment about our attitude about what is said in that clause:

do jinga sei mi gleki
You won! (I'm happy about that!)

However:

do jinga sei la .ian. cu gleki
You won! (And Yan is happy about that!)
Like with nouns formed with lo the clause formed with sei must end in a verb.

la .alis. cu prami sei la .bob. cu gleki la .kevin.

Let's add brackets to make it more easily readable.

la .alis. cu prami (sei la .bob. cu gleki) la .kevin.
Alice loves (Bob is happy) Kevin.
Alice loves Kevin (Bob is happy).

We can add more nouns to the verb with be and bei like we do for nouns:

do jinga sei mi zausku be fo la fircku
You won! (I'll post congrats on Facebook)
zausku = to praise

Quotation marks

For quoting text we place quotation particle lu before the quote and place li'u after it. The result is a noun representing a quoted text:

mi cusku lu mi prami do li'u
I say "I love you."
cusku = x1 expresses/says x2 (quote) to audience x3
A nice feature of Lojban is that lu - «quote» and li'u - «unquote» marks are pronounceable. It is quite handy since in spoken Lojban you don't have to change intonation to show where a quoted text starts and ends.

However, in written text that quotes a conversation, the author often pays reader's attention to the content of quotations. In such cases sei is preferred.

We can also nest quotations, for example:

la .ian. pu cusku lu la .djein. pu cusku lu coi li'u mi li'u
Yan said "Jane said ‘Hello’ to me."

which is similar to

la .ian. pu cusku lu la .djein. pu rinsa mi li'u
Yan said "Jane greeted me."

Note that in Lojban we distinguish things and their names:

lu le munje li'u cu cmalu
"The universe" is small.
le munje na cmalu
The universe is not small.
le munje = the universe, world

Here, the text "the universe" is small whereas the universe is not.


Interjections and vocatives work like sei constructs:

je'u mi jinga sei le nakni cu cusku
Truly, "I won", he said.

As you can see je'u is not his words. It's your attitude to the clause. If you want to quote "je'u mi jinga" use quotation marks getting:

lu je'u mi jinga li'u se cusku le nakni
"Truly, I won", he said.

See the difference between the two examples?

Several common verbs related to talking:

le fetsi pu retsku lu do klama ma li'u
She asked "Where do you go?"
mi pu spusku lu mi klama lo zdani li'u
I replied "I am going home."
mi pu spuda lo se retsku be le fetsi lo ka spusku lu mi klama lo zdani li'u
I replied to her question by saying in reply "I am going home."
spuda = x1 replies to x2 by doing x3 (property of x1)

The remaining three verbs have identical place structure:

cusku = x1 expresses/says x2 (quote) to audience x3
retsku = x1 asks x2 (quote) to audience x3
spusku = x1 replies/says answer x2 (quote) to audience x3

zo — quoting one word

zo is a quotation marker, just like lu. However, zo quotes only one word immediately after it. This means it does not have an unquote word like li'u: we already know where the quotation ends. Thus we save two syllables making our speech more concise.

zo robin cmene mi
"Robin" is my name.
My name is Robin.
cmene = x1 (quote) is a name of x2 ...

This is how you present yourself in Lojban using your Lojbanized name.If you have a name consisting of more than one verb word then use lu … li'u:

lu robin djonson li'u cmene mi
Robin Johnson is my name.

Another way is to use me.

mi me la robin djonson
I'm Robin Johnson.
Note that the first place of cmene is a quote, a text. Thus, we use not la (prefix for names) but lu ... li'u or zo to make a quote and fill the first place of cmene with it. Thus, mi me la robin but
zo robin cmene mi
"Robin" (quotation) is a name of me [literally]

Content questions

lo ninmu
a woman (female human)
lo nanmu
a man (male human)

English also has a number of wh- questions — who, what etc. In Lojban we use one word for all of these: ma. This is like an instruction to fill in the missing place. For example:

— do klama ma
— la .london.

— Where are you going?
— London.


— ma klama la .london.
— la .kevin.

— Who's going to London?
— Kevin.
mi dunda ma do
lo cukta
I give what to you? (probably meaning What was it I was supposed to be giving you?)
The book.

It is quite common to use ma with relative clauses:

— do xabju ma noi gugde — lo gugde'usu
— In what country do you live?
— USA
— [[User:— You inhabit what, which is a country?
— USA]]
xabju = to inhabit (some place)

mo is like ma, but questions the main verb, not a noun — it's like English What does x do? or What is x? (remember, Lojban doesn't force you to distinguish between being and doing!)

We can see mo as asking someone to describe the relationship between the nouns in the question.

do mo
How do you do? What's up?
You are what, you do what? (literally)

This is the most common way of asking How do you do?, Howdy? in Lojban. Some possible answers:

mi gleki
I'm happy.

mi kanro
I'm healthy.

Another way of asking How do you do?:

do cinmo lo ka mo
How do you feel (emotionally)?

gleki
Happy.

tatpi
Tired.
cinmo = x1 feels x2 (property of x1)

Other examples:

ti mo
What is this?


la .meilis. cu mo
Who is Mei Li? / What is Mei Li? / What is Mei Li doing?

Possible answers depending on context:

  • ninmu: She's a woman.
  • jungo: She's Chinese.
  • pulji: She's a police officer.
  • sanga: She's a singer or She's singing.
do mo la .kevin.
What are you to Kevin?
You are what (you do what) to Kevin. [literally]

The answer depends on the context. Possible answers to this question are:

  • nelci: I like him.
  • pendo: I am his friend
  • prami: I adore/am in love with him.
  • xebni: I hate him.
  • fengu: I'm angry with him.
  • cinba: I kissed him
Note once again that the time is not important here: just as cinba can mean kiss, kissed, will kiss and so on, mo does not ask a question about any particular time.

To differentiate between to do and to be someone or something we use additional verbs with ma:

la meilis cu zukte ma
Mei Li does what? [literally]
la meilis cu zukte lo ka lumci
Mei Li is does cleaning.
zukte = x1 does x2 (property of x1)
lumci = to clean (something)
do du ma
You are who? [literally]
mi du lo ctuca
I am the teacher.


Combining prepositions or relative clauses with ma can give us other useful questions:

word meaning [literally]
ca ma When? during what
bu'u ma Where? at what
ma noi prenu Who? what that is a person
ma noi dacti What? (about objects) what that is an object
ri'a ma Why? because of what
pe ma Whose? Which? About what? pertaining to what or whom
lo mlatu poi mo Which cat? Which kind of cat?

pe ma is attached only to nouns:

lo penbi pe ma cu zvati lo jubme
Whose pen is on the table?

Number questions

lo xo mlatu cu pinxe lo ladru
How many cats drink milk?
mu
Five.

The word xo means How many? and thus asks for a number. The full answer will be:

lo mu mlatu cu pinxe lo ladru
5 cats drink milk.

So the person being asked is supposed to put an appropriate value in place of xo.

A few more examples:

lo xo botpi cu kunti
How many of the bottles are empty?
lo xo prenu cu klama ti
How many people come here?
do ralte lo xo gerku
How many dogs do you keep?

Verbs of facts

Consider the example:

mi djuno lo du'u do stati
I know that you are smart.
djuno = x1 knows x2 (proposition) about x3
mi jimpe lo du'u do pu citka
I understand that you were eating.
jimpe = x1 understands x2 (proposition) about x3

In places that describe facts the particle du'u is used (instead of nu).

djuno (to know) and jimpe (to understand) describe facts. It'd be stupid to say I understand that you were eating but in fact you weren't. However, for verbs describing events usual nu is used:

mi sruma lo nu do pu citka
I assume that you were eating.

And here, I assume one thing but it doesn't imply a true fact:

mi sruma lo nu do pu citka i ku'i do pu na citka
I assume that you were eating. But you weren't eating.

Note that the clause started with du'u doesn't have to be true:

lo du'u do mlatu cu jitfa
That you are a cat is false.
jitfa = x1 (proposition) is false
Where to use du'u and whereto use nu? You may look into the dictionary:
  • The term (proposition) marks places where du'u is recommended.
  • The term  (clause) marks places where nu is recommended.

If by mistake you use nu instead of du'u you will still be understood. But usually people speaking fluent Lojban distinguish these particles.

Indirect questions

mi djuno lo du'u ma kau tadni la .lojban.
I know who is studying Lojban.

This is called an indirect question. The word who here is not a request for information, there's no question mark. The answer is presumed. In fact you yourself know the answer to the question Who is learning Lojban?

kau is an interjection that we put after a question word telling that its an indirect question.

If I ask you the question ma tadni la .lojban., you know what value to fill in the ma slot with: la .kevin. So you could just say

ma tadni la .lojban.
Who is studying Lojban?
mi djuno lo du'u ma kau tadni la .lojban.
I know who is studying Lojban. I know the identity of the person studying Lojban.
mi djica lo nu ma tadni la .lojban.
Who do I want to study Lojban?
I want who to study Lojban? [literally]

This can never be an indirect question: it is asking for an answer (even if you're doing it rhetorically).

You can put it after other question words:

mi djuno lo du'u lo xo kau prenu cu tadni la .lojban.
I know how many people study Lojban.

Indirect quotations (reported speech)

A clause like Alice said "Michelle said “Hello” to me" can also be expressed in a rather more subtle way:

la .alis. pu cusku zo'e pe lo nu la .micel. pu rinsa le fetsi
Alice said something about Michelle greeting her before.
Alice said something about the event of Michelle greeted her. [literally]

or a bit shorter:

la .alis. pu cusku lo se du'u la .micel. pu rinsa le fetsi
Alice said that Michelle had greeted her.

The combination se du'u allows expressing indirect speech.

Here are the examples of verbs related to talking when using reported speech:

le fetsi pu retsku lo se du'u mi klama makau
She asked where I was going.
mi pu spusku lo se du'u mi klama lo zdani
I replied that I was going home.
mi pu spuda lo se retsku be le fetsi lo ka spusku lo se du'u mi klama lo zdani
I replied to her question by saying in reply that I was going home.

Questions in reported speech:

mi pu cusku lo se du'u ma tadni la .lojban.
Who did I say is studying Lojban?
I said who is studying Lojban? [literally]

Thus, Lojban has several words for that…, depending on what sort of thing is meant.

  • If that describes what can be seen, heard, what happens, use nu.
  • If that describes what you think, some fact or information, use du'u.
  • If that describes what you say, use se du'u.
    • But if you need a literal quote use lu … li'u.

Emotional interjections

While being photographed instead of "cheese" say .ui (sounds like English "we"). It means I'm happy in Lojban and produces better smile due to its special sounding.

We know such interjection as a'o (I hope). There are interjections expressing other emotional states. They are similar to smileys like ;-) or :-( but in Lojban we can be more specific about our emotions still remaining concise in our speech.

Here are examples of widely used emotional interjections:

do jinga ui
You won! (I'm happy about that!)
ui (pronounced as English "we") expresses happiness
Interjections work like sei with their clauses. ui means the same as sei mi gleki so we could as well say do jinga sei mi gleki meaning the same (although it's a bit more lengthy).
ie tu mlatu
Yes, that is a cat.
ie nai i tu na mlatu
No, I don't agree. That is not a cat.
ie as in like yes = Yeah! Aye! (agreement)
ie nai = disagreement
.ai mi vitke do
I'm going to visit you.
.ai as in high = I'm going to… (intent)
.au do kanro
I wish you were healthy.
.au (pronounced as in how) = desire
.a'o do clira klama
I hope you come early.
.a'o = I hope.
.ei mi ciska lo xatra
I should write a letter.
.ei as in hey = I should … (obligation)
i'e do pu gunka lo vajni
Very good! You did an important work.
i'e = Fine! (approval)
.o'u tu mlatu
Oh, that's only a cat.
.o'u = Phew! (relaxation)
In this case you probably thought that was something dangerous but it's only a cat so you are saying .o'u.
.u'i ti zmiku
Ha-ha, this is a robot.
.u'i = Ha-ha! (amusement)
You can add or remove interjections to/from a sentence without the risk of breaking it.

Any word that starts with a vowel is prefixed with a dot in Lojban. So the correct spelling is .a'o and so on. It's common to omit dots. We will do this later in this course for brevity. However, while speaking you should always show this dot by making a short pause before saying such word to prevent merging two neighboring words together into one.

Like with xu or sei-clauses we can add interjections after any noun, pronoun or verb thus expressing our attitude towards that part of the sentence.

Urging interjections

A special group of interjections (in English called "imperative/hortative" interjections) make instigations, commands, requests. among which we already know .e'o:

.e'a do klama lo nenri
You may come in.
.e'a = I allow, you may … (permission)
lo nenri = an interior, what is inside
.e'e do zukte
C'mon, do it!
.e'e = Come on! (encourgament, instigation, provokation)
.e'o mi ciksi da poi mi cusku djica
Please, let me explain what I want to say.
.e'o = Please … (request)
.e'i do zutse doi lo verba
Sit down, child!
.e'i = Do that! (command)
.e'u do pinxe lo jisra
I suggest that you drink the juice. You'd better drink the juice.
.e'u = Let's (suggestion)

ko for quicker urges

do bajra
You run.
bajra
Someone runs.

In English the verb itself is a command:

Run!

In Lojban bajra as a sentence means Someone runs (or is running / was running and so on depending on context). bajra can also mean a command Do run! but sometimes context isn't enough to make you decide whether it's an urge to run or simply a statement of the fact that someone runs or is running.

The pronoun ko is used instead of do to make requests, suggestions, commands.

ko bajra
Run! Do run! Do it so that you run!

ko is simply a more vague alternative to do .e'o, do .e'u, do .e'i.

It's perfectly fine to say a more precise

do .e'o bajra
You, please run!

putting the emphasis in our politeness onto do (you).

Moving ko in a clause moves command/request to that part, for example:

nelci ko
Make it so you are liked by someone!
nelci = to like (something or someone)

As you can see we have to restructure this clause in English which still sounds weird, but you could use it in Lojban in the sense of Try to make a good impression.

Note that prami corresponds to English to love while nelci corresponds to English to like.

We can even have several ko in one sentence:

ko kurji ko
Take care of yourself.
kurji = to take care (of someone)

Discursive interjections

.i mi venfu do .e ji'a lo cmalu gerku pe do
I'll get you and your little dog, too!
ji'a = additionally, also

ji'a means that there exist others who also are the same (you in this case) or who do the same.

mi si'a nelci do
I too like you [literally]
— mi nelci lo mlatu
— mi si'a nelci lo mlatu

— I like cats.
— I like cats too (Me too).
si'a = similarly, too

si'a denotes that something is similar while being different in other unmentioned aspects.

Structure of interjections: nai, sai, pei, dai

Interjection can consist of

  1. the root like ui (Yay!)
  2. then suffixes like pei, dai, zo'o:
    • ui zo'o = Yay! (kidding, I'm not actually happy)
  3. both the root and each of the suffixes can be modified with scalar particles like nai:
    • ui nai = Alas!
    • ui nai zo'o = Alas! (kidding, I'm not serious in this feeling)
    • ui nai zo'o nai = Alas, I'm not kidding, I feel unhappy

Some examples of how scalar particles work.

  1. ju'o = interjection: I'm sure (certaintty)
  2. ju'o cu'i = interjection: maybe, perhaps (uncertainty)
  3. ju'o nai = interjection: I have no idea!
  • interjection with bare root:
    • ju'o le bruna co'i klama = I'm sure, the brother has come.
  • scalar particle cu'i turns bare interjection into the middle attitude:
    • ju'o cu'i le bruna co'i klama = Maybe the brother has come, I'm not sure.
  • scalar particle nai turns interjection into the opposite attitude:
    • ju'o nai le bruna co'i klama = Maybe the brother has come, maybe not, I have no idea
    • Similarly, ui is Whee! Yay! while ui nai means Alas!
Precise meanings of interjections that are meaningful with their scalar particles cu'i and nai are given in the dictionary.
  • scalar particle sai denotes strong intensity of interjection:
.u'i sai = Ha-ha-ha!

Vocatives can also be modified with scalar particles:

ki'e sai do = Thank you a lot!

Suffixes are added after the root of interjection (together with its scalar particles if we used them):

  • interjection suffix pei turns interjection into a question.
    • — .au pei do e mi klama lo zarci
      — .au cu'i

      — Do you want that you and I go to the store?
      — Meh, I don't have any preferences.
    • — ie pei lo ninmu cu melbi
      — ie

      — The woman is pretty, isn't she?
      — Yeah.
  • interjection suffix dai shows another's feelings, not feelings of the speaker:
    • ui nai dai do na co'i jinga
      You must be sad, you haven't won.
    • .a'u
      That's interesting!
    • .a'u dai
      That must have been interesting for you!
    • Bare interjections express the attitude of the speaker. ei do cliva means not You ought to leave, but I feel the obligation for you to leave. dai shows that the speaker is empathizing someone else's feelings.
      • .ei dai do cliva
        You feel the obligation for yourself to leave.
Note that interjections don't necessarily show attitude towards the speakers themselves. Instead, they express speakers' attitude towards other things.

  • interjection suffix zo'o marks the attitude as expressed not seriously:
    • e'u zo'o do pinxe ti
      I suggest that you drink it (kidding).
    • zo'o is used just like the smiley-face in e-mail, to indicate that you're being humorous when saying something, and it's used for much the same reason. Although, simleys can be ambiguous, and zo'o has only one meaning, which is handy.

Suffixes can also be modified with scalar particles:

  • ie zo'o nai
    I agree (not kidding).
zo'o nai is used to show that the information is not a joke:

Suffixes can be used on its own:

  • pei when used alone asks for any interjection that the listener would feel appropriate:
    • — pei lo lunra cu crino
      — .ie nai

      — The moon is green (what is your feeling about it?)
      — I disagree.
  • For other suffixes they mean that the root interjection ju'a (I state) was omitted:
    • zo'o do kusru
      ju'a zo'o do kusru

      You are cruel (kidding).
ju'a = interjection: I state (don't confuse it with ju'o (I'm sure))

Just for reference: interjections in a table

Here is a bigger picture: emotional, urging and some other interjections in series.

au ai ei oi
Wish ... I'm gonna It should be Ouch!
au cu'i ai cu'i ei cu'i oi cu'i
meh (indifference) indecision    
au nai ai nai ei nai oi nai
Nuh-uh!
(disinclination, reluctance)
unintentionally,
accidentally
freedom,
how things might need not be
pleasure

a e i o u
u Emotion ua
"wah" as in "won", "once"
Aha! Eureka!
ue
"weh" as in "wet"
What a surprise
ui
"weeh" as "we"
hooray!
uo
"woh" as in "wombat", "what"
voila!
uu
"wooh" as "woo"
oh poor thing
ua cu'i
 
ue cu'i
I'm not really surprised
ui cu'i
 
uo cu'i
 
uu cu'i
 
ua nai
Duh! I don't get it! (confusion)
ue nai
expectation, lack of surprise
ui nai
Alas! (unhappiness)
uo nai
incompleteness
uu nai
Mwa ha ha! (cruelty)
i Emotion ia
"yah" as in "yard"
I believe
ie
"yeh" as in "yes"
aye! agreed!
ii
"yeeh" as in "hear ye"
yikes!
io
"yoh" as in "yogurt"
respect
iu
"yooh" as in "cute, dew"
I love it
ia cu'i
 
ie cu'i
 
ii cu'i
 
io cu'i
 
iu cu'i
 
ia nai
Pshaw! (disbelief)
ie nai
disagreement
ii nai
I feel safe
io nai
disrespect
iu nai
hatred
.u' Emotion u'a
"oohah" as in "two halves"
gain
u'e
"ooheh" as in "two heads"
what a wonder!
u'i
"ooheeh" as in "two heels"
hahaha!
u'o
"oohoh" as in "two hawks"
courage
u'u
"oohooh" as in "two hoods"
sorry!
u'a cu'i
 
u'e cu'i
 
u'i cu'i
 
u'o cu'i
shyness
u'u cu'i
 
u'a nai
loss
u'e nai
Pff! (commonplace)
u'i nai
Blah (weariness)
u'o nai
cowardice
u'u nai
 
.i' Attitude i'a
"eehah" as in "teahouse"
ok, I accept it
i'e
"eeheh" as in "teahead"
I approve!
i'i
"eeheeh" as in "we heat"
I'm with you in that
i'o
"eehoh" as in "we haw"
thanks to it
i'u
"eehooh" as in "we hook"
familiarity
i'a cu'i
 
i'e cu'i
non-approval
i'i cu'i
 
i'o cu'i
 
i'u cu'i
 
i'a nai
resistance
i'e nai
Boo! (disapproval)
i'i nai
antagonistically
i'o nai
envy
i'u nai
unfamiliarity, mystery
.a' Attachment to situation a'a
"ahah" as "aha"
I'm listening
a'e
"aheh"
alertness
a'i
"aheeh" as in "Swahili"
oomph! (effort)
a'o

I hope
a'u

hm, I wonder...
a'a cu'i
inattentiveness
a'e cu'i
 
a'i cu'i
no special effot
a'o cu'i
 
a'u cu'i
Ho-hum (disinterest)
a'a nai
avoiding
a'e nai
I'm tired
a'i nai
repose
a'o nai
Gah! (despair)
a'u nai
Eww! Yuck! (repulsion)
.e' Urging e'a
"ehah"
you may
e'e
"eheh"
come on, do it!
e'i
"eheeh"
do it!
e'o
"ehoh"
please, do it
e'u
"ehooh"
I suggest
e'a cu'i
 
e'e cu'i
 
e'i cu'i
 
e'o cu'i
 
e'u cu'i
 
e'a nai
prohibiting
e'e nai
discouragement, demoralization
e'i nai
 
e'o nai
offer, grant
e'u nai
warning, disadvise
.o' Emotion o'a
"ohah"
pride
o'e
"oheh"
I feel it at hand
o'i
"oheeh"
danger!
o'o
"ohoh" as in "sawhorse"
patience
o'u
"ohooh"
relaxation
o'a cu'i
modesty, humility
o'e cu'i
 
o'i cu'i
 
o'o cu'i
mere tolerance
o'u cu'i
composure, balance
o'a nai
How embarrassing. It makes me ashamed.
o'e nai
distance
o'i nai
rashness, recklessness
o'o nai
impatience, intolerance
o'u nai
stress, anxiety

Note how an emotion changes to its opposite with nai and to the middle emotion using cu'i.

Why are some cells of interjections with cu'i and nai empty? Because English lacks concise ways of expressing such emotions.

What is more, most of such interjections are used quite seldom.

These tables might help you understand their design.

Combining interjections

iu ui nai
I am unhappily in love.
ue ui do jinga
Oh, you won! I'm so happy!
jinga = to win.
In this case the victory was unprobable, I'm surprised and happy at the same time.

Interjections (unlike scalar particles and interjection suffixes) don't modify each other:

ue ui do jinga
ui ue do jinga

Oh, you won! I'm so happy!

Here two interjections modify the same construct (the whole sentence) but they don't modify each other so their order is not important.

pei .u'i lo mlatu cu sutra plipe
(What do you feel?) Heh, the cat is quickly jumping.
Here pei is used alone and doesn't modify .u'i which is put after it.

Forgot to put an interjection at the beginning?

do pu sidju mi .ui
You help me (yay!)

.ui modifies only the pronoun mi putting the attitude only to me.

ui do pu sidju mi
Yay, you helped me.

What if we forgot to add .ui at the beginning of this clause?

We can start a new sentence with i bo and then put the interjection:

do pu sidju mi i bo ui
You helped me, yay!

Lesson 4. Practice

Now we know most crucial parts of the grammar and can start accumulating new words through situations.

Colloquial expressions

Here are some common structures used by fluent speakers of Lojban + examples illustrating their usage.

They may help you get used to colloquial Lojban faster.

i ku'i = But...
mi djuno i ku'i mi na djica
I know. But I don't want.
mi djica lo nu = I want that ...
mi djica lo nu mi sipna
I want to sleep.
I want that I sleep. [literally]
mi djuno lo du'u ma kau = I know what/who ...
mi djuno lo du'u ma kau smuni zo coi
I know what is the meaning of coi.


mi na djuno
I don't know.
jinvi lo du'u = have an opinion that ...
mi jinvi lo du'u la .lojban. cu zabna
I think that Lojban is cool.


coi ro do
Hello, everyone!


co'o ro do
Bye, everyone!
ai mi = I'm going to ...
ai mi cliva i co'o
I'm going to leave. Bye!
ei mi = I should ...
ei mi citka i co'o
I should eat. Bye!
ca lo nu = when ...
mi pu bebna ca lo nu mi citno
I was stupid whne I was young.
va'o lo nu = provided that ...
va'o lo nu do djica vau mi ka'e ciksi
If you want I can explain.
simlu lo ka = seem to be
simlu lo ka zabna
It seems to be cool.
ca lo cabdei = today
ca lo cabdei mi surla
Today I rest.
mi nelci = I like
mi nelci lo mlatu
I like cats.
lo nu pilno = using ...
lo nu pilno lo vlaste na nandu
Using dictionaries isn't hard.
kakne lo ka = capable of ...
xu do kakne lo ka sutra tavla
Are you able to talk quickly?
tavla fi = talk about ...
.e'e tavla fi lo skami
Let's talk about computers!
mutce lo ka = very ...
mi mutce lo ka se cinri
I am very interested.
troci lo ka = try to ...
mi troci lo ka tavla bau la .lojban.
I am trying to talk in Lojban.
rinka lo nu = (event) leads to ...
lo nu mi tadni la lojban cu rinka lo nu mi jimpe fi do
That I study Lojban makes me understand you.
gasnu lo nu = (agent) causes ...
mi pu gasnu lo nu lo skami pe mi co'a spofu
I made it so that my computer got broken.
xusra lo du'u = assert that ...
xu do xusra lo du'u mi na drani
Do you state that I am not right?


mi na birti
I am not sure.

A simple dialogue

coi la .alis. Hi, Alice!
coi la .doris. Hi, Doris!
do mo? How are you? The question mark is used here for stylistic purposes.
mi kanro
.i mi ca tadni la .lojban.
.i mi troci lo ka tavla do
I'm healthy.
I now study Lojban.
I'm trying to talk to you.
kanro = to be healthy
tadni = to study ... (something)
troci = to try ... (to do something)
tavla = to talk [to someone]
zabna
.i ma tcima ca lo bavlamdei?
Good.
What will be the weather tomorrow?
zabna = to be nice, cool
tcima = is the weather
ca = at (some time)
lo bavlamdei = tomorrow day
mi na djuno
.i lo solri sei mi pacna
I don't know.
It'll be sunny, I hope.
djuno = to know (fact)
lo solri = the sun
Note that lo solri cu tcima (literally the sun is the weather) is the usual way of how tcima is used in Lojban.
sei = comment starts
pacna = to hope (for some event)
mi jimpe I understand.
co'o Goodbye.

Human senses

Verbs related perception will be explained after the dialogue.

ju'i la .alis. Hey, Alice!
ju'i = vocative that draws attention: "Hey! Psst! Ahem! Attention!"
re'i Listening.
re'i = vocative: "I'm ready to receive information"
xu do viska lo se skari be ta Do you see the color of that thing near you? In English we say Сan you see, in Lojban we say just xu do viska - You see?
je'u i plise
i le plise cu xunre i skari lo xunre
Yes. It is an apple. The apple is red.
It's colored red.
plise = ... is apple
xu do viska lo tarmi be le plise Can you see the form of the apple?
je'u i le plise cu barda Yes. The apple is big.
xu do jinvi lo du'u le plise ca makcu Do you think that the apple is ripe?
makcu = ... is ripe
au mi palpi lo sefta be le plise
i ua xutla
i mi pacna lo nu makcu ie
I'd like to palpate it.
Oh, it is smooth.
I hope that it is ripe, yeah.
panci pei
i e'o do sumne le plise
What about the smell?
Please, smell it.
lo flora cu panci
i au mi smaka le plise
i oi nai lo kukte cu tasta
i oi
It smells of flowers.
I'd like to taste the apple.
Yum, it tastes sweet.
Oh-no.
lo flora = flower(s)
ma pu fasnu What happened?
mi pu farlu fi lo ve'i cmana I fell down from the hill.
xu do cortu Do you feel pain?
je'u i mi cortu lo cidni
i na ckape
i ca ti mi gasne lo nu da vi zvati
Yes, I feel pain in the knee.
It's not dangerous.
And now I can sense a presence of someone here.
doi la alis do cliva e'o sai Alice, please, return immediately!
ko denpa i mi ca tirna lo sance Wait, I can hear some sound.
lo sance be ma A sound of what?
mi pu tirna lo nu lo prenu cu tavla
i ca ti mi ganse lo lenku
I heard a person talking.
Now I feel cold.
ju'i la alis Hey, Alice!..

In this dialogue most important verbs for human senses have been used. Here are their place structures together with more verbs and more examples.

Vision

viska = x1 sees x2 (object, form, color)
skari = x1 is an object with the color x2
tarmi = x1 is the form of x2
mi viska lo plise
I see an apple.
mi viska lo tarmi be lo plise
i le plise cu se tarmi lo cukla

I see the form of an apple.
The apple is round.
mi viska lo se skari be lo plise
i le plise cu skari lo xunre

I see the color of the apple.
The apple is colored red.

Notice that we can both say see the form of an apple and see an apple.

Hearing

tirna = x1 hears x2 (object or sound)
mi tirna pa palta
I hear a plate
mi tirna lo sance be pa palta poi ca'o porpi
i le palta cu se sance lo cladu

I hear the sound of a plate that is falling.
It sounds loud.
pa palta = a plate
cladu = x1 is loud
tolycladu = x1 is quite in sound
tonga = x1 is a tone of x2

We can use cladu and similar words directly:

mi tirna lo cladu
I hear something loud.
mi tirna lo tolycladu
I hear something quite in sound.
mi tirna lo tonga be pa palta poi farlu = I hear the tone of the plate falling down.

Similarly to vision, we can say hear a sound and hear something producing the sound:

— do tirna ma noi sance
— lo zgike

— What sound do you hear?
— A music.
— do tirna lo sance be ma
— lo plise poi farlu

— You hear a sound of what?
— An apple that has fallen down.

Sense of smell

sumne = x1 smells x2 (odor)
panci = x1 is an odor of x2 (object)
mi sumne le flora
I smell the flower.
mi sumne lo panci be lo za'u pa flora
I smell the odor of flowers.
mi sumne lo panci be pa plise
i le plise cu se panci lo za'u flora

I smell the odor of the apple.
The apple smells of flowers.

Note that English confuses smelling an odor and smelling an object that produces that odor. We say to smell an apple, the apple smells of flowers (has the scent of flowers). This two-fold distinction is important because an apple produces aromatic particles that are distinct from the apple itself. The same for a falling plate and its sound — we may not want to mix them.

In Lojban we can easily separate between those cases like shown in the examples above.

Sense of taste

smaka = x1 smacks, tastes x2 (taste)
tasta = x1 is a taste of x2
mi smaka lo plise
I taste the apple.
mi smaka lo tasta be lo plise
i le plise cu se tasta lo kukte

I taste the taste of the apple.
The apple tastes sweet.

Sense of touch

palpi = x1 palpates, touch-feels x2 (surface)
sefta = x1 is a surface of x2
mi palpi lo plise
I palpate, touch-feel the apple.
mi palpi lo sefta be lo plise
i le plise cu se sefta lo xutla

I touch feel the surface of the apple.
The apple has a smooth surface.

Pain

mi cortu lo birka be mi
I feel pain in my arm.
My arm hurts.
mi cortu lo cidni
I feel pain in my knee, my knee hurts.
cortu = x1 feels pain in x2 (organ, part of x1's body)
cidni = x1 is a knee of x2

Perception in general

We can also use the vague ganse - to sense.

ganse = x1 senses x2 (object, event) by means x3
ganse lo glare = to feel the heat
ganse lo lenku = to feel the cold
mi ganse lo plise
I sense an apple.
mi ganse lo tarmi be lo plise
i le plise cu se tarmi lo cukla

I sense the form of an apple.
The apple is round.

Some words can be used with different sensory verbs. For example, we can

viska lo sefta = to see the surface
palpi lo sefta = to palpate the surface

Colors

Different language use different sets of words to denote colors. Some languages just use compare the color of objects with colors of other "prototype" objects. In Lojban we use all the options:

ti xunre
This is red.
xunre = x1 is red
ti skari lo xunre
This is red. This has the color or red things.
ti skari lo ciblu
This has the color of blood.
lo ciblu = blood

Below are some examples with colors that follow those of English language. Other verbs for colors can be used, they would reflect how people speaking other languages are used to classify things.

lo tsani cu xunre ca lo cerni The sky is red in the morning. lo tsani = the sky
i lo solri cu simlu lo ka narju The sun seems to be orange. lo solri = the Sun

simlu = x1 looks like x2 (clause)

i lo pelxu flora cu se farna lo solri Yellow flowers are oriented towards the Sun. se farna = x1 is oriented towards x2

farna = x1 is the direction of x2

i lo pezli be lo tricu cu crino Leaves of trees are green. pezli = x1 is a leaf of x2

lo tricu = tree

i mi zvati lo korbi be lo blanu xamsi I am at the border of a blue sea. zvati = to be present at ...

korbi = x1 is the border of x2

lo xamsi = sea

i mi catlu lo ninmu noi dasni lo zirpu taxfu I look at a woman who wears a violet dress. dasni = to wear ... (something)
xunre = x1 is red
narju = x1 is orange
pelxu = x1 is yellow
crino = x1 is green
blanu = x1 is blue
zirpu = x1 is violet

Other useful verbs:

lo gusni be lo manku pagbu pu na carmi
The light illuminating dark areas was not intense.
lo gusni be fi lo solri pu carmi
The light from the Sun was intense.
gusni = x1 is a light illuminating x2 from the light source x3
carmi = x1 is intense, bright
manku = x1 is dark

Emotions: cmila - to laugh. cisma - to smile

coi
i ma nuzba
i do simlu lo ka badri
Hi.
What are the news?
You seem to be sad.
badri = x1 is sad about x2
mi steba lo nu lo bruna be mi co'a speni lo nixli I am frustrated that my brother gets married a girl. steba = x1 feels frustration about x2
mi se cfipu
i xu do na gleki lo nu le bruna co'a speni
I am confused.
You are not happy that the gets married?
se cfipu = x1 is confused about x2

gleki = x1 is happy about x2

ie
i le nixli cu pindi
i le nixli cu nitcu lo jdini
i mi na kakne lo ka ciksi
Yeah.
The girl is poor.
She needs money.
I am not able to explain.
nitcu = x1 needs x2

kakne = x1 is capable of x2

ua
i la'a do kanpe lo nu le nixli na prami le bruna
Ah!
Probably, you expect that she doesn't like the brother.
la'a = interjection: probably, it's likely

kanpe = x1 expects some event x2 ...

mi terpa lo nu le nixli ba tarti lo xlali
i ku'i le bruna cu cisma ca ro ka tavla le nixli
i ri ta'e cmila
I am afraid that she will behave bad.
But the brother smiles every time he talks to her.
And she usually laughs.
terpa = x1 fears x2

cisma = x1 smiles

cmila = x1 laughs

mi kucli lo nu le nixli cu prami le bruna I wonder whether the girl likes the brother. kucli = x1 is curious of x2
mi na birti I am not sure. birti = x1 is sure that x2 (clause) happens
ko surla Relax! surla = x1 relaxes (by doing x2)
cinmo = x1 feels emotion x2 (property of x1)
nelci = x1 likes x2
manci = x1 feels awe or wonder about x2
fengu = x1 is angry about x2
xajmi = x1 thinks x2 is funny
se zdile = x1 is amused by x2
zdile = x1 is amusing
djica = x1 desires x2
pacna = x1 hopes that x2 is true

Health

ca glare It's hot now.
i ku'i mi ganse lo nu lenku But I feel cold. ku'i = interjection: but, however
xu do bilma Are you ill?
je'u Yes.
xu do bilma fi lo influ'enza
i e'u do klama lo mikce
Do you have a flu? I suggest you go to a doctor. lo influ'enza = influenza, flu

lo mikce = doctor

mi bilma lo ka cortu lo galxe

i mi sruma lo nu mi bilma fi la zukam

My symptoms is that my throat aches.
I assume that I have a cold.
cortu = x1 has pain in x2 (organ, part of x1's body)

la zukam = common cold (disease)

ko kanro Get well! kanro = x1 is healthy
ki'e Thanks.
bilma = x1 is ill or sick with symptoms x2 from disease x3

Note that the second place of bilma describes symptoms like lo ka cortu lo galxe = to have pain in the throat

The third place is the name of the disease leading to those symptoms: Obviously, you may fill any place of bilma.

Human body

le nanmu cu se xadni lo clani
The man has a long body. The man is tall.
se xadni = x1 has the body x2
xadni = x1 is the body of x2
mi pu darxi lo stedu e lo zunle xance
i ca ti lo degji be le xance cu cortu
i ku'i lo pritu xance na cortu

I hit the head and the left hand. Now a finger of the hand hurts. But the right hand doesn't hurt.

Most of words for parts of body have the same place structure as xadni:

stedu = x1 is a head of x2

However, some describe smaller parts:

degji = x1 is a finger/toe on part x2 (hand, foot)
lo degji be lo xance be le ninmu cu clani
The woman's fingers are long.
Digits of hand of the woman are long [literally]
mi viska le jamfu i ku'i mi na viska lo degji be le jamfu
I can see the feet. But I don't see its toes.
janco = x1 is a joint attaching limbs x2
ctebi = x1 is a lip of mouth, orifice x2
cidni = x1 is a knee or elbow of limb x2

xadni.png

Kinship

coi do mi se cmene zo adam
i ti du la Alis
i ri speni mi
Hello to you. I am called "Adam".
This is Alice.
She is my wife.
pluka fa lo ka penmi do
i e'o do klama no nenri be le dinju
Pleasure to meet you.
Please, come into the house.
ki'e Thanks.
i au gau mi re do co'a slabu lo lanzu be mi
i le re verba cu panzi mi
i le tixnu cu se cmene zo flor
i la karl cu du le bersa
I'd like you to get to know my family.
The two children are my offspring.
The daughter is callse "Flor".
Karl is the son.
la karl cu mutce citno Karl is very young.
ie Yeah.
i ji'a mi se tunba re da noi ca na zvati le dinju
i sa'e mi se tunba pa bruna e pa mensi
Also I have two siblings who are now not in the house.
To be precise, I have a brother and a sister.
ue
i lo lanzu be do cu barda
Wow!
Your family is large.
je'u pei Really?

The verbs for names of family members have a similar place structure:

speni = x1 is a husband/wife of x2

co'a speni means to get married:

mi co'a speni la .suzan.
I married Susan.
lanzu = x1 is a family including x2
panzi = x1 is a child of x2
tixnu = x1 is a daughter of x2
bersa = x1 is a son of x2
tunba = x1 is a sibling (brother/sister) of x2
bruna = x1 is a brother of x2
mensi = x1 is a sister of x2

Note that panzi can be applied to grown-up children of someone

verba = x1 is a child, immature person of age x2 (clause)
panzi = x1 is a child, offspring of x2

verba doesn't necessarily talk of it as of a family member:

pa bersa be pa pendo be mi cu verba lo nanca be li ci
The son of my friend is a child of three years old.
citno = x1 is young
laldo = x1 is old, aged

Pairs of traditional words (for humans only):

lo ninmu = women, lo nanmu = men
lo nixli = girls, lo nanla = boys
lo remna = humans

Note that lo prenu means people, persons. In fairy tales and fantastic stories not only humans (lo remna) but animals or alien beings from other planets can be persons.

These words can be used for describing both animals and humans:

lo fetsi = female, lo nakni = male
mamta = x1 is a mother of x2
patfu = x1 is a father of x2
rirni = x1 is a parent of x2

In the shop

ue
do pu te vecnu lo laldo karce
Wow!
You bought an old car.
ie
i ku'i mi na pu pleji lo so'i jdini
Yeah.
But I didn't pay much money.
ma pu jdima le karce What was the price of the car?
mi pu pleji lo rupnusudu be lo kilto lo kagni le karce I paid a thousand dollars to the company for the car.
mi pu vecnu lo laldo karce pe mi lo pendo be mi
i le pendo pu pleji lo rupne'uru be li re ki'o mi le karce
I sold an old car of mine to my friend.
The friend paid 2 000 euro for the car.
vecnu = x1 sells x2 to x3
te vecnu = x1 buys x2 from x3
pleji = x1 pays x2 to x3 for x4
jdima = x1 is the price of x2
jdini = x1 is money
rupnusudu = x1 costs x2 US dollars
rupne'uru = x1 costs x2 euro

Shop, buildings

ma stuzi lo zdani be do What is the location of your home?
lo korbi be lo boske
i mi se zdani lo nurma
i lo zdani be mi cu barda dinju gi'e se kumfa ci da e lo vikmi kumfa e lo lumci kumfa
The edge of a forest.
I live in the country.
My home is a big house and has three rooms plus a toilet plus a bathroom.
je'e
i ku'i mi pu jbena lo tcadu i je ca ti mi se zdani lo jarbu be la paris
i mi xabju ne'a lo zarci
I see.
But I was born in a city, and now I live in the suburbs of Paris.
I live near a shop.
stuzi = x1 is a place
dinju = x1 is a building, house
zdani = x1 is a home of x2
se zdani = x2 lives in x2, x1 inhabits x2
tcadu = x1 is a city or town
jarbu = x1 is a suburban are of city/town x2
nurma = x1 is a rural area, x1 is in the country
kumfa = x1 is a room
vikmi kumfa = x1 is a toilet
zarci = x1 is a shop

Lesson 5. Prepositions, da, their relative position

How prepositions refer to the clause?

  • Some prepositions like those that describe tense connect the current clause with the one in the noun after them:
mi cadzu ca lo nu lo cipni cu vofli
I walk when birds fly.
cadzu = ... walks
lo cipni = bird/birds
vofli = ... flies
mi pu cadzu fa'a lo rirxe
I walked towards a river.
mi pu cadzu se ka'a lo rirxe
I walked to a river.
se ka'a = going to ...
fa'a = directly towards ...
Prepositions don't remove ordered places (fa, fe, fi, fo, fu) from the verb:
mi klama se ka'a lo rirxe lo dinju
mi klama fe lo rirxe .e lo dinju

I go to a river, to a house.

Here, the first example uses se ka'a to connect lo rirxe and then the second place of klama follows being filled with lo dinju. It's the same as just filling the second place of klama two times, that is connecting them with .e - and.

However, se ka'a is nice when applied to other verbs like cadzu in a previous example.

  • Some prepositions describe relations of the first place of the clause with the noun after the preposition:
mi jinga se rai lo ka clani
I win being the tallest one.
se rai = preposition from se traji: being most in ...
Here x1 of the clause corresponds to the most one in comparison specified after se rai.
  • Finally, some prepositions describe relations of the first place of the clause and the clause itself with the noun after the preposition:
lo fragari cu se nelci mi te rai lo jbari
Out of berries, I like strawberries most.
te rai = preposition from te traji: preferring out of ...
lo fragari = strawberries
lo jbari = berries
x1 of the clause describes the most one in this comparison, the clause itself describes the comparison.
The dictionary explains such tricky cases where the relation defined by the preposition might pose difficulty. In practice, the relation is often clear from the examples provided.

Using ne + preposition. se mau - more than ...

mi ne se mau do cu melbi
I am prettier than you.
se mau = preposition from se zmadu: more than; the clause itself describes the comparison

This example is similar to

mi zmadu do lo ka melbi
I exceed you in prettiness.

In other words, the main verb melbi is similar to the third place of zmadu, which specifies the comparison criteria. Two more examples:

mi prami do ne se mau la doris
I love you more than Doris.
mi ne se mau la doris cu prami do
I love you more than Doris does.
I love you more than Doris loves you.

I (more than Doris) love you. [literally]

More examples:

mi nelci lo pesxu ne se mau lo ladru
I like jam more than milk.
lo pesxu = jam
lo pesxu cu zmadu lo ladru lo ka mi nelci
I like jam more than milk.
Jam exceeds milk in how much I like it. [literally]

And now an interesting sentence:

Bob likes Betty more than Mary.

It can mean two different things in English!

  1. Bob likes Betty and he likes Mary less.
  2. Bob likes Betty but Mary likes Betty too, though not as much as Bob does!

Do we compare Betty with Mary in how Bob likes them?

Or instead we compare Bob with Mary in how they like Betty?

English is ambiguous in this regard.

However, se mau always compares the noun after it with the first place of the clause we know what we get:

la bob ne se mau la maris cu nelci la betis
la bob cu nelci la betis se mau la maris

Bob (compared to Mary) likes Betty more. Mary likes Betty less.
la betis cu se nelci la bob se mau la maris
Betty is loved by Bob more than Mary. Bob likes Mary less.

Comparisons: "equal", "the same"

mi dunli lo mensi be mi lo ka clani i ku'i mi na du le mensi
I am as long as my sister. But I'm not her.
I equal the sister of me in length. But i am not identical to the sister. [literally]
dunli = x1 (any type) is equal to x2 (any type) in x3 (property of x1 and x2 with {kau})
du = x1 (any type) is identical to x2 (any type)


dunli compares two places for a single property, while du compares for identity. My sister and I are the same height, but we are not the same person. Clark Kent and Superman have different admirers, but they are the same person.

The same goes for another two verbs:

mi frica do lo ka nelci ma kau
We differ from each other in what we like.
I differ from you in liking what. [literally]
lo drata be mi cu kakne lo ka sidju
Someone other than me is able to help.
frica = x1 (any type) differs from x2 (any type) in x3 (property of x1 and x2 with {kau})
drata = x1 (any type) is not the same as x2 (any type)

Preposition tai - like ...

The preposition tai leads to different meanings whether it's applied to a clause or to a noun with ne:

le nanmu ne tai do cadzu
The man walks like you.
le nanmu pu cadzu tai lo ka bevri lo tilju
The man walked as if he was carrying something heavy.
bevri = x1 carries x2

The infinitive starting with lo ka always refers to the first place of the clause, le nanmu in this case.

The concept of only

mi se steci lo ka nelci lo badna
I'm the only one who likes bananas.

A more precise one:

mi se steci lo ka nelci lo badna vau lo pendo be mi
I'm the only one who likes bananas among my friends.
se steci = x1 is the only one in x2 (property of x1) among x3

Note that this example implies that you are a friend of yourself :) Otherwise, please, use an even more precise statement:

mi se steci lo ka nelci lo badna vau mi jo'u lo pendo be mi
I'm the only one who likes bananas among the group of me and my friends.
na ku mi se steci lo ka nelci lo badna
It's not just me who likes bananas.

It's also possible to rephrase this using .e no drata be (and nothing different from ...):

mi e no drata be mi cu nelci lo badna
I and no one else likes bananas.

One more interesting example:

lo troci cu se steci lo ka snada
Only the one who tries succeeds.
Who tries is the only one who succeeds. [literally]
lo zukte be lo ka troci e no drata be ri cu fliba
The only who only tries fails.
The one who does attempts and nothing but it fails. [literally]
troci = x1 tries to do x2 (property of x1)
snada = x1 succeeds in doing x2 (property of x1)
fliba = x1 fails in doing x2 (property of x1)

And one more solution:

ro snada pu troci
Everyone who succeeds tried.

As you can see, Lojban offers different methods of saying the same, some of which can significantly differ from English forms.

"Most", "many" and "too much"

Words like most and many are also numbers in Lojban:

ro each
so'a almost all
so'e most
so'i many, a lot of
so'o several
so'u few
no zero, none
su'e at most
su'o at least
za'u more than…
du'e too many

Some examples:

su'e re no prenu ba klama
No more than 20 people will come.
su'o pa prenu cu prami do
At least one person loves you.

never - no roi, always - ro roi

Prepositions specifying the number of times:

  • no roi = never
  • pa roi = once
  • re roi = twice
  • ci roi = thrice
...
  • so'i roi = many times
  • so'u roi = a few times
  • du'e roi = too many times
  • ro roi = always
mi du'e roi klama lo zarci
I go to the market too often.
zarci = x1 is a market
mi pu re roi klama lo zarci
I went to the market twice.

Without pu the construct re roi may mean that once I went to the market but the second time I will be there only in the future. These particles can be used with a noun after them:

mi klama ti pa roi ro jeftu
I come here one every week.

for the first time - pa re'u, for the last time - ro re'u

  • pa re'u = for the first time
  • re re'u = for the second time
...
  • za'u re'u = again
  • ro re'u = for the last time

The particle re'u works like roi but tells for which time this event happens.

Compare:

mi pa roi vitke lo muzga
I visited the museum once.
mi pa re'u vitke lo muzga
I visited the museum for the first time.
mi za'u roi vitke lo muzga
I visited the museum more times.
mi za'u re'u vitke lo muzga
I visited the museum again.
mi za'u pa roi vitke lo muzga
I visited the museum more than once.
mi za'u pa re'u vitke lo muzga
I visited the museum not for the first time (maybe for the second/third etc.))
vitke = to visit (somebody or something)

Note the difference between:

za'u re'u = again, more than the known from context number of times (e.g. more than expected or more that other already know)
za'u pa re'u = not for the first time (the number of times is compared to number 1, hence no context is needed)
re re'u = two times (same here, no context is needed, and even the exact number of times is given)

Prepositions: their location within a clause

lo nu tcidu ca nandu
Reading is now difficult.
ca ku lo nu tcidu cu nandu
Now reading is difficult.

Bare prepositions without arguments after them can be moved around the sentence by adding ku after them.

ku prevents the following nouns from attaching to such prepositions. ca lo nu tcidu would mean when reading.

Here are several places where preposition can go.

  • preposition modifies the clause to the right of it:
    • ca ku mi citka - Now I eat. Adverb, i.e. preposition with a particle ku
    • ca lo cabdei mi citka - Today I eat. Preposition with a noun after it.
    • mi ca citka - I now eat. Tense, i.e. preposition before the main verb and without a noun.
  • Preposition is applied to the whole clause:
    • mi citka ca - I eat now. Tense, preposition at the end of the clause.

Several prepositions in a clause (scope)

mi speni
I am married, I have a wife or a husband.
mi co'a speni
I get married.
mi mo'u speni
I am widowed.
mo'u = preposition: the event is finished

Compare:

mi mo'u co'a speni
I am newlywed.
I finished becoming a married person. [literally]
mi co'a mo'u speni
I get widowed.
I become finishing being married. [literally]

If there are several prepositions in one clause, the rule is that we read them from left to right, thinking it as a so called imaginary journey. We begin at an implied point in time and space (the speaker's "now and here" if no noun follows), and then follow the prepositions one after another from left to right.

Let's take mi mo'u co'a speni.

mo'u means that an event is complete. Which event? The event co'a speni - to become married. Hence, mi mo'u co'a speni means I finish the process of the becoming married, i.e. I am newlywed.
We say in such case that co'a speni is within the "scope" of mo'u.

In mi co'a mo'u speni the order or event is different.

First, it is said that an event started (co'a), then it is stated that it is an event of finishing being married. Hence, mi co'a mo'u speni means I get widowed.
We can say that here mo'u speni is within the "scope" of co'a.

Another example with the preposition so'i roi:

mi co'a so'i roi citka
I started eating many times.
mi so'i roi co'a citka
Many times I started to eat.

Examples with tenses:

mi pu ba klama lo cmana
It happened before I went to the mountain.
I in past: in future: go to the mountain. [literally]
mi ba pu klama lo cmana
It will happen after I went to the mountain.
I in future: in past: go to the mountain. [literally]

The rule of reading prepositions from the left to the right can be overriden by connecting prepositions with the conjunction ce'e:

mi ba ce'e pu klama lo cmana
I went and will go to the mountain.
I in future and in past: go to the mountain. [literally]
mi cadzu ba lo nu mi citka ce'e pu lo nu mi sipna
I walk after I eat and before I sleep.

Using prepositions together with da and nouns that start with numbers

Like with prepositions the position of da matters:

mi ponse da
There is something I own.
mi co'u ponse da
I lost all my property.
ponse = x1 owns x2
co'u = preposition: the event stops

This might look like a mind-breaking example. Here, a person was able to say "I own something." But then for every thing the person owned this situation ended.

Another example:

ro da vi fenki
Everyone is crazy here.
Every one here crazy [literally]
vi ku ro da fenki
Here everyone is crazy.
Here: every one crazy [literally]

Did you catch that?

  1. Everyone is crazy here means that if someone is not crazy somewhere then they will become crazy in this place.
  2. Here everyone is crazy simply describes those who are here (and they are crazy). We don't know anything about others in other places.

Another example with a noun started with a number:

pa prenu ro roi jundi
There is one person who is always attentive.
- it is the same person who is always attentive.
ro roi ku pa prenu cu jundi
Always there is one person who is always attentive.
- it is always that one person is attentive. People may change but there is one always attentive.

Connecting sentences with prepositions

mi klama pa cmana ca lo nu pa mlatu cu pinxe lo ladru
I am coming to a mountain while a cat is drinking milk.
mi klama pa cmana .i ca bo pa mlatu cu pinxe lo ladru
I am coming to a mountain, and at the same time a cat is drinking milk.

If two sentences are too long we can use .i to separate them. But we still can show that they express the same idea using prepositions. The second example differs from the first one in that it puts the assertion on both sentences.

So here we use .i, then the preposition that we need and then bo.

Usually we split sentences into two and then bind them with bo when a sentence looks or sounds too bulky.

But another use of this is to move prepositions out of scope of other prepositions:

mi na te vecnu ki'u lo nu kargu
It's not true that I buy because it's expensive.

So one might suppose that I only buy things if they are expensive. But no, I don't act thay way.

Here, na negates that I buy things because they are expensive. na is applied to the whole clause, thus it "covers" ki'u.

mi na te vecnu i ki'u bo kargu
I don't buy. It's because it's expensive.

Here, I don't buy things. Why? Because they are expensive. Maybe I prefer only cheap things.

Here, ki'u is placed to another sentence. Thus, na doesn't cover it.

Both sentences could be translated as I don't buy because it's expensive. However, they mean different things.

A special rule is for using i ba bo and i pu bo. Compare:

mi cadzu pu lo nu mi citka
I walk before I eat.
mi cadzu .i ba bo mi citka
I walk, and then I eat.

.i ba bo means afterwards, then. The sentence after .i ba bo refers to something that took place later than what took place in the sentence before.

pu is changed into ba, and vice versa. This special rule for Lojban was made by analogy of natural languages. So you just have to remember this special behavior of these two words.


Existing things, "there are ...

There are actually three words in da series: da, de, di. We use them if you need to refer to different objects in one discourse:

ci mlatu cu citka re finpe
ci da poi mlatu cu citka re de poi finpe

There are three cats, there are two fishes for each cat, and each cat eats two fishes.

If you need more such words in one discourse add a suffix xi to them and then any number (which we can call an index). Thus,

  • da xi pa is the same as simple da,
  • da xi re is the same as de,
  • da xi ci is the same as di
  • da xi vo is the fourth "something" and so on...

Topic and comment. zo'u

Sometimes it is useful to show the topic of a clause and then say a comment about it:

lo finpe zo'u mi nelci lo salmone
As for fish I like salmon.
salmone = ... is a salmon
zo'u = ends the topic and starts the comment of the clause

zo'u is more useful when a pronoun like da is defined in the topic and then used in the comment:

da zo'u mi viska da
There is a thing such that I see it.
ro da poi gerku zo'u mi nelci da
For each thing that is a dog: I like it.
I like all dogs.
da de zo'u da viska de
There is da and de such that da sees de.

The two pronouns da and de tell us that there are two things which stand in the relationship that one sees the other. It might be the case that the supposed two things are really just a single thing that loves itself: nothing in the sentence rules out that interpretation, which is why the colloquial translation does not say Somebody sees somebody else. The things referred to by different pronouns of da series may be different or the same.

It is perfectly okay for these pronouns to appear more than once in the main clause:

da zo'u da prami da
There is da such that da loves da.
There is someone who loves himself/herself.

It is not necessary for a pronoun to be the direct noun of the the main verb:

da zo'u lo gerku pe da cu viska mi
There is da such that the dog of them sees me.
Somebody's dog sees me.

Scope in da

ci da poi mlatu cu citka re de poi finpe
There are three cats who eat two fishes each.

By using zo'u we can make our sentence more clear:

ci da poi mlatu vau re de poi finpe zo'u da citka de
For three da which are cats, for two de which are fishes: da eats de.

Here we see that each of the cats is said to eat two fishes, and it might be different fishes each time; six fishes in total.

How then are we to express the other interpretation, in which just two men are involved? We cannot just reverse the order of variables in the prenex to

re de poi nanmu ci da poi gerku zo'u da batci de
For two de which are men, for three da which are dogs, da bites de

for although we have now limited the number of men to exactly two, we end up with an indeterminate number of dogs, from three to six. The distinction is called a “scope distinction”: in the first example ci da poi gerku is said to have wider scope than re de poi nanmu, and therefore precedes it in the prenex. In the second example the reverse is true.

To make to scope equal we use a special connective ce'e connecting two nouns.

ci da poi gerku ce'e re de poi nanmu cu batci
ci gerku re nanmu cu batci

Three dogs [plus] two men, bite.

which picks out two groups, one of three dogs and the other of two men, and says that every one of the dogs bites each of the men. The second Lojban version uses forethought.

"any" and "some" in examples

The words "any" and "some" and their derivatives have many meanings in English. We should be careful to translate that intended meaning:

  • Simple specific some is translated as da:
da pu klama .i je ko smadi lo du'u da me ma kau
Somebody came. Guess who it was.
mi pu tirna da .i je mi fliba lo ka jimpe lo du'u da mo kau
I heard something, but I fail to understand what it was.
  • some in questions turns into "anything", "anybody":
xu da pu klama
Did anybody come?
  • any can be used in inner clauses:
mi rivbi lo ka jdice da
I avoided taking any decision.
like in clauses of prepositions:
ba lo nu do zgana da vau ko klama
After you notice anything, come!
  • Scope: any is used in English when negating while Lojban uses na but then still da:
mi na viska su'o da poi prenu
mi na viska su'o prenu

I don't see anybody.
  • Scope: note that negation has to take appropriate clause like here:
mi jinvi lo du'u na ku da jimpe
I don't think that anybody understands.
This can be rephrased as:
mi jinvi lo du'u no da jimpe
I think that nobody understands.
  • every is turned into any in comparisons and translated as ro da:
do zmadu ro da lo ka clani
You are taller than anybody.
You exceed everybody in tallness. [literally]
  • any is used when providing choice and translated as ro da:
ro da poi do nelci zo'u mi e'ande do lo ka citka da
You may eat anything you like.
For everything that you like I allow you to eat it. [literally]
permite = x1 allows x2 to do x3 (property of x2

some is translated using lo when using commands, request, suggestions:

e'u mi'o pilno lo drata
Let's try other things.
e'u mi'o troci bu'u lo drata
Let's try somewhere else.

Compare it to:

pa drata zo'u e'u mi'o pilno ri
There is something else, let's use it.
pa drata zo'u e'u mi'o troci bu'u ri
There is another place, let's try there.

any is translated using lo

  • in generic statements:
lo gerku cu se tuple vo da
Any dog has four legs. Dogs have four legs.
  • and when making no distinction among members we talk about:
mi na djica lo ka tavla lo na slabu be mi
I don't want to talk to just anybody.

"anyone, any two ...

e'u mi'o troci bu'u lo drata
Let's try somewhere else.

Here, lo drata actually means any other thing or things, place or places. The number of such places is not specified although any such place might fit.

What if we want to say "any place but only one place"? In this case we put a number after lo:

e'u mi'o troci bu'u lo pa drata
Let's try at another place.

Similarly,

e'u mi'o troci bu'u lo pa drata
Let's try at any two other places.

and so on.

Note that when a noun starts with lo it still has the notion of any. The difference can be important:

lo pa bangu no roi banzu
One language (any language) is never enough.
pa bangu no roi banzu
There is one language that is never enough.

Finally, nouns of existence imply each. There are two rings on the logo of Lojban. So

lo re djine cu sinxa la lojban
Two rings is a symbol of Lojban.
na ku re djine cu sinxa la lojban
It's not true that for two rings each of the rings is a symbol of Lojban.
djine = x1 is a ring

Resume: which constructs does scope affect?

Scope matters only for prepositions, da, de, di and nouns starting with numbers (like pa prenu - one of the persons). Thus the relative order of such constructs changes the meaning:

pa prenu ca ku zvati
There is one person who is now present.
ca ku pa prenu ca zvati
Now there is one person.

Scope isn't relevant for verbs and nouns starting with lo (like lo prenu or lo re prenu). Both these sentences mean the same:

lo prenu ca ku zvati
ca ku lo prenu cu zvati

People are now present.

These two sentences also mean the same:

lo pa bangu no roi banzu
no roi ku lo pa bangu cu banzu

One language (any language) is never enough.

Scope ends in the end of the sentence. Here, ki'u is under the scope of na:

na ku mi te vecnu ki'u lo nu kargu
It's not true that: I buy because it's expensive.

Here, ki'u is not under the scope of na. ki'u is applied to the whole previous sentence including na:

mi na te vecnu i ki'u bo kargu
I don't buy. It's because it's expensive.

Lesson 6. Prepositions: time and space

mi citka lo cirla

Possible translations:

I eat cheese.
I ate cheese.
I always eat cheese.
In a moment, I will have just finished eating cheese.

Tenses in Lojban are optional, we don't have to think all the time what tense to use.

Context often resolves what is correct. We add tenses when we feel we need them.

Lojban tenses treat time and space the same. Saying that I worked a long time ago is not grammatically different than saying I work far away to the north. English treats words like earlier, past tense ending -ed and space prepositions like in or near in three different schemes, while in Lojban they follow the same principle.

Points in time and place

Preposition without a noun after it describes the event as relative to here and now:

mi pinxe ba
I will drink.
mi pinxe bu'u
I drink at this place.

Preposition with a noun after it describes the event as relative to the event in that noun:

mi pinxe ba lo nu mi cadzu
I drink after I walk.

Tenses: clauses inside clauses

In English we use the so called "sequence of tenses":

la alis pu cusku lo se du'u vo'a pu penmi la doris za lo djedi be li ci
Alice told that she had seen Doris three days before.

Here, the event "had seen Doris" happens before the event "Alice said". However, in

la alis pu cusku lo se du'u vo'a ca kansa la doris
Alice told that she was with Doris.

the two events (told and was with Doris) happen at the same time.

Thus in English

  • the tense of the main clause is understood relative to whoever utters those sentences.
  • the tense of the clause inside the main clause is also understood relative to whoever utters those sentences.

And in Lojban

  • only the tense of the main clause is relative to who utters those sentences.
  • and other tenses are relative to each other. This is why, in the first example the second pu is relative to the first pu. In the second example, we use ca (at the same time) which is relative to the outer clause (pu cusku - said).

However, we can use the construct ca ti (at this time or place), which will give the same effect as how English works:

Here is an example in English style:

la alis pu cusku lo se du'u vo'a ca ti pu kansa la .doris.
Alis said that she was with Doris.

Distance in time and space

Prepositions
fau = preposition. at the same time, place or situation as …
ca = at … (some time), at the same time as …; present tense. bu'u = at … (some place); here (at this place).
zi = just (short time afo) or soon (in a short time) vi = near …
za = a while ago or in a while, in an unspecified time va = not far from …
zu = long time ago or in a long time vu = far away from …; far away

This is how we can use particles specifying how far we ago into the past or future:

  • pu zu means a long time ago
  • pu za means a while ago
  • pu zi means just
  • ba zi means soon
  • ba za means in a while
  • ba zu means in a long time

Notice the vowel order i, a and u. This order appears again and again in Lojban, and might be worth to memorize. Short and long in are always context dependent, relative and subjective. Two hundred years is a short time for a species to evolve, but a long time to wait for the bus.

zi, za and zu modify the previous preposition like pu and ba:
  • pu zu is a long time ago. pu shows that we begin in the past, zu then that it is a long time backwards.
  • zu pu is far away in time there is a point after some event. zu shows that we begin at some point far away in time from now, pu then, that we move backwards from that point.
Thus pu zu is always in the past. zu pu could be in the future.

Spatial distance is marked in a similar way by vi, va and vu for short, unspecified (medium) and long distance in space.

We can use them as prepositions as well:

ba za lo djedi be li ci mi zvati ti
In three days I will be here.

The space equivalent of ca is bu'u. And fau is more vague than two of them, it can mean time, space or situation.

ba za vu ku mi gunka
Some time in the future, I will work a place long away.
gunka = to work
mi bu'u pu zu gunka
I used to work here a long time ago.
I here-past-long-time-distance work [literally]
pu zu vu ku zasti fa lo ninmu .e lo nanmu
Long ago and far away lived a woman and a man.

The last sentence is how fairy tales often begin.


Duration in time and space

Prepositions
ze'i — for a short time ve'i — over a small space
ze'a — for some time ve'a — over some space
ze'u — for a long time ve'u — over the long space

Again it's easy to remember given the pattern i, a, u.

mi ze'u bajra
I run for a long time.
la .bob. ze'u pinxe lo birje
Bob drinks beer for a long time.
mi bazize'a xabju la .djakartas.
Pretty soon I'm going to live in Jakarta for a while.
lo jenmi pe la .romas. ba ze'u gunta la .kart.xadact.
The army of Romans will be attacking Carthage for a long time.

This does not mean that Romans are not attacking Carthage these days. In Lojban, if we say that something is true at a particular time, it doesn't mean that it is not true at any other time. You can say pu ba ze'u so that we know that this activity was in future when viewed from some point in past but in past when viewed from today.

lo ve'u xamsi
ocean
lo xamsi
sea/ocean
lo ve'u cmana
hill
lo cmana
mountain/hill
do ve'u klama lo dotco gugde ze'u
You spend a long time traveling a long space to Germany.
ti ve'u gerku
That's a big dog. This is a dog covering a large space.

Event contours

Here are several sets of prepositions that can help us add finer meanings when necessary.

With the event contours and unlike pu, ca and ba we view each event as having shape with certain stages:

pu'o - to be about, ba'o - no longer
mi ba tavla lo mikce
I will speak to the doctor (and I might be speaking now too).
mi pu pu'o tavla lo mikce
I was about to speak to the doctor (I was not speaking at that time, the event hadn't started by that time).
pu'o = preposition: to be about to do something (the event has not yet happened)
ba'o = preposition: to be no longer doing something, to have done something (the event has ended)

Other examples:

lo sanmi ca pu'o bredi
The meal is not ready yet.
mi pu ba'o tavla lo mikce
I had spoken to the doctor.
mi ba ba'o tavla lo mikce
I will have spoken to the doctor.
.a'o mi ba zi ba'o gunka
I hope soon I will have done the work.
za'o - still, xa'o - already
ri'a ma do za'o zvati vi
Why are you still here?
la .kevin. xa'o zvati vi
Kevin is already here.
za'o = still. The event is in process beyond its natural end
xa'o = already, too early. The event already started and it is too early
Stages of event
mi co'a tavla
I started talking.
le fetsi ca'o ciska
She keeps writing.
le nakni pu co'u vasxu
He stopped breathing (sudden unpredictable change).
vasxu = x1 breathes x2
mi pu mo'u citka le plise
I've eaten the apple up.
la .maks. pu mo'u zbasu lo vi dinju
Max has built this house.
le fetsi pu de'a vasxu
She ceased to breath (but may breath again later).
mi pu di'a citka lo plise
I resumed eating apples.
co'a = preposition: the event starts (the border of the event)
ca'o = preposition: to be doing something (the event is in progress)
co'u = preposition: the event stops
mo'u = preposition: the event ends (the border of the event)
de'a = the event pauses (the event can be expected to continue)
di'a = the event resumes
de'a ze'i jundi = BRB (I'll be right back)
mi di'a jundi = I am back (being attentive)
jundi = x1 pays attention to x2

These two expressions are common in text chats for saying that you stop paying attention or away, and then back online:

One could of course also say just de'a or di'a and hope the point gets across.
Continuous and Progressive
ru'i = preposition: the event is continuous
.i mi pu ru'i citka lo mango
I was eating apples one and on without stop.
Note the difference:
  • ru'i says that the event is continuous and never pauses.
  • ca'o says that the event progresses. It may sometimes pause and then resume its progress.

Place contours

Event contours can be used to refer to space if we prefix them with fe'e:

lo rokci cu kuspe fe'e co'u lo canko
The rock reached and stopped by the window.
kuspe = x1 extends, reaches across scope, range x2

Space: "to the left", "to the right"

lo prenu cu sanli lo dertu bu'u lo pritu be mi
The person stands on the ground to the right of me.
lo gerku cu vreta lo ckana bu'u lo zunle be lo verba
A dog is lying on the bed to the left of a child.
ko jgari le panbi poi zunle
Take the pen on the left.
pa mlatu cu plipe bu'u lo crane be do
A cat jumps in front of you.
ko catlu lo dinju poi crane
Look at the house in the front.
lo verba cu zutse lo stizu bu'u lo trixe be mi
The child sits on the chair behind me.
zunle = x1 is to the left of x2
pritu = x1 is to the right of x2
crane = x1 is in front of x2 (x1 is between x2 and whoever watches)
trixe = x1 is behind x2
sanli = x1 stands on x2
zutse = x1 sits on x2
vreta = x1 lies on x2
lo dertu = ground, dirt
lo ckana = bed
lo stizu = chair

To specify the reference point we additionally use the preposition ki. This is important when speaking about left and right:

lo prenu cu sanli ki mi bu'u lo pritu be lo tricu
The person stands to the right of a tree from my viewpoint.
lo dinju cu zunle lo rokci ki ti
The house is to the left of the rock if viewed from here.

Practice

Position

ma nabmi What's the problem?
ma'a nitcu lo cukta pe la alis We need Alice's book.
i la alis ca zvati ma Where is Alice?
a bu ca na zvati lo bu'u tcadu
i mi pu mrilu zo'e ne le cukta fi abu
i abu ca ca'o vofli la paris
i ku'i mi pu zi te benji lo se mrilu be a bu
i a bu pu e'ande ma'a lo ka lebna le cukta
i e'o do bevri le cukta mi
Alice is now not in the city.
I mailed about the book to her.
Alice is now flying to Paris.
But I just received a mail from her.
She permitted us to take the book.
Please, bring it to me.
i bu'u ma mi ka'e cpacu le cukta Where can I get the book?
lo purdi i e'o do klama lo bartu In the garden. Please, go outside.
mi ca zvati ne'a le vorme i ei mi ca klama ma I am near the door. Now where should I go?
ko muvdu lo zunle be lo tricu i ba ku do viska pa jubme Move to the left of the tree. Then you will see a table.
mi viska lo cipni noi vofli i ku'i mi ganse no jubme I can see birds flying. But I sense no tables.
ko carna gi'e muvdu lo pritu i le jubme cu crane lo cmalu dinju i le cukta cu cpana le jubme i ji'a ko jgari lo penbi e lo pelji i le za'u dacti cu cpana si'a le jubme i ba ku ko bevri le ci dacti le zdani gi'e punji fi lo kumfa pe mi Turn and move to the right. The table is in front of a small building. The book is on top of the table. Also, take a pencil and a paper. They are similarly on top of the table. Then bring the three things home and put them to my room.
vi'o Will do.


Vehicles

mi jo'u lo pendo be mi pu litru lo barda rirxe bu'u lo bloti I and my friends were traveling on a big river in a boat.
i ba bo mi'a klama lo vinji tcana Then we went to an airport.
i xu do jai zu'e se marce lo karce Did you take a car?
i je'u nai
i mi'a pu pilno lo trene
i ze'a lo cacra mi'a pu zvati bu'u lo carce
No.
We used a train.
For one hour we were in a wagon.
marce = x1 is a vehicle carrying x2
se marce = x1 is a passenger of x2
jai zu'e se marce = x1 takes a vehicle x2 as a passenger
karce = x1 is a car carrying x2
bloti = x1 is a boat carrying x2
vinji = x1 is an aircraft carrying x2
trene = x1 is a train of cars x2

Lesson 7. Letters and referring to clauses

Names of letters in Lojban

Each letter has a name in Lojban.

The following table represents the basic Lojban alphabet and how to pronounce letters (below each letter):

' a b c d e
.y'y. .abu by. cy. dy. .ebu
f g i j k l
fy. gy. .ibu jy. ky. ly.
m n o p r s
my. ny. .obu py. ry. sy.
t u v x y z
ty. .ubu vy. xy. .ybu zy.

As you can see

  • to get the name for a vowel, we add "bu"
  • to get the name for a consonant, we add "y"
  • the word for ' (apostrophe) is .y'y.

We can spell word using these names. For example, CNN will be cy. ny. ny.

A capital letter alone has a special meaning. It denotes the name of that letter:

A is the same as .abu, B is the same as by. and so on. They means the same and even are read the same as normal .abu, by. etc. So CNN can also be written as CNN in Lojban and it will be still pronounced and mean the same as cy. ny. ny.

Letters instead of "he" and "she"

Names of letters are pronouns. And we can use them for another method of referring to nouns and names earlier used in speech.

la lukas cu viska lo mlatu i lo mlatu cu na viska la lukas
la lukas cu viska lo mlatu i my. na viska ly.

Lucas sees a cat. The cat doesn't see Lucas.

As the first letter in lukas is l and the first letter in mlatu is m we can use names of letters to refer to nouns that we get from them. Both Lojban sentences mean the same.

So if you see a Lojban letter being used as a noun, you take it as referring to the last noun or name whose verb word (lukas and mlatu in this case) starts with that letter.

Clearly, this method is more powerful than he or she. It also allows us to make the speech more concise in not forcing us to repeat possible long names or nouns over and over again.

But notice that it can happen that we'd like to refer back to, say, lo mlatu, but then before we can do so, another noun or name that starts with m appeared in the meantime, so that my. can no longer refer to the cat. The quickest way out is to repeat the entire noun or name, i.e. say le mlatu:

lo mlatu cu viska la .micel. i my. na viska le mlatu
A cat sees Michelle. Michelle doesn't see the cat.

If a name consists of several cmevla you can use the first letters of them to refer to that name. The same is for compound verbs:

la .djon.smit. cu citka lo finpe stasu i dy.sy. nelci fy.sy.
John Smith is eating fish soup. He likes it.

If you need to put several pronouns one after another separate them with the particle boi:

mi klama la paris la moskov
I go to Paris from Moscow.
mi klama py. boi my.
I go to P from M.

The phrase mi klama py. my. would mean I go to PM which wouldn't mean what is needed here.

la .tom.silver. pu zvati i je'u ty. sy. boi .ui pu sidju mi
Tom Silver was present. And actually TS (yay!) helped me.

If you put an interjection after such letters separate them with boi. Without boi interjections will refer to the last letter.

ri instead of "he" and "she"

mi catlu pa nanmu i ri melbi
I look at a man. He is handsome.
lo melbi
beautiful, handsome, pretty
lo se pluka
nice, pleasant

The particle ri refers to the last completed noun used in text or someone's speech.

melbi means both handsome and beautiful no matter the person of what gender you describe.

Another example:

la .alis. cu sipna bu'u lo kumfa pe la .alis.
Alice sleeps in Alice's room.
Alice sleeps-in the of-Alice room. [literally]

is turned into:

la .alis. cu sipna bu'u lo kumfa pe ri
Alice sleeps in her room.
Alice sleeps in the room of [last noun]. [literally]

The ri is equivalent to repeating the last noun or name, which is la .alis. here.

Note that ri refers to completed nouns. ri does not repeat lo kumfa pe ri (which is also a noun), because ri is inside that noun and therefore that noun is not yet complete when ri appears. This prevents ri from making it recursively refer to itself.

Nouns are counted from their beginnings. So in an example like

lo du'u lo nanmu cu melbi cu se djuno ri

ri refers to lo nanmu and not lo du'u lo nanmu cu melbi although bot nouns are complete: lo nanmu starts last, after the start of lo du'u lo nanmu cu melbi.

Clause inside sei forms a parallel text. ri ignores nouns inside sei-clauses:

mi viska la .lukas. sei la .doris. pu cusku i ri jibni la .micel.
I see Lucas, — Doris said. He is near Michelle.

In this example ri cannot refer to la .doris. We simply ignore the whole sei la .doris. pu cusku clause when deciding what ri should refer to.

Also note that most pronouns are ignored by ri. We just repeat them directly:

mi lumci mi
I wash me.
I wash myself.
lumci = x1 washes x2 of contaminant x3
mi prami mi
I love me.
I love myself.

However,

  1. the particles ti, ta, tu are picked up by ri, because you might have changed what you are pointing at, so repeating tu may not be effective.
  2. likewise, ri itself (or rather it's antecedent) can be repeated by a later ri; in fact, a string of ri particles with no other intervening nouns always repeat the same noun:
.i la .alis. cu catlu pa nanmu .i ri melbi .i ri co'a zgana a bu
Alice notices a man. He is beautiful. He notices Alice.
zgana = to observe
co'a zgana = to start observing, to notice

Here the second ri has as antecedent the first ri, which has as antecedent lo nanmu. All three refer to the same thing: the man.

Only you decide what, where and when to use in speech: the method with le+verb words, the method with letter names or with ri.

"Myself, themselves"

In Slavic languages people say literally I wash self. In order to be closer to a Slavic style we can use lo nei.

mi nelci mi
I like myself.
I like me. [literally]
It is the same in meaning as:
mi nelci lo nei
I like myself.
mi lumci mi
mi lumci lo nei

I wash myself.
la ian ca lumci lo nei
la ian ca lumci ri

Yan washes himself.

lo nei links to the first noun of the current clause.

Remember that ri can't refer back to pronouns like mi so lo nei might be preferred in the last example. When changing the first noun lo nei doesn't change which is quite handy:

mi lumci lo nei i do lumci lo nei i la ian cu lumci lo nei
I wash myself. You wash yourself. Yan washes himself.
la .doris. cu pensi lo nei
Doris thinks about herself.
pa gerku cu batci lo nei
A dog bites itself.

nei works well when a sentence only contains one clause. But when it has several embedded clauses we might need something different. In

la .doris. cu djuno lo du'u la .alis. cu prami lo nei
Doris knows that Alice loves herself.

lo nei refers to la .alis.

What if we want to refer to Doris? Here is a solution:

la .doris. cu djuno lo du'u la .alis. cu prami vo'a
Doris knows that Alice loves her.

So while lo nei refers to the first noun of the current clause, vo'a refers to the first noun of the current sentence.

When there are no embedded clauses those two words mean the same:

la .alis. cu prami vo'a is the same as la .alis. cu prami lo nei
Alice loves herself.
  • vo'a refers to the first noun of the current sentence.
  • vo'e refers to the second noun of the current sentence.
  • vo'i refers to the third noun of the current sentence.
  • vo'o refers to the 4th noun of the current sentence.
  • vo'u refers to the 5th noun of the current sentence.

lo nei can give funny results when applied to mutual actions:

la alis e la kevin cu cinba lo nei
Alice kisses herself, and Kevin kisses himself.

Here is the solution:

la alis jo'u la kevin cu cinba zu'ai
Alice and Kevin kiss each other

It means the same as:

la alis cu cinba la kevin i je la kevin cu cinba la alis
Alice kisses Kevin, and Kevin kisses Alice.

zu'ai is put into the second place of the verb. It shows the mutual action between the first place and the second place. Members of this mutual action are put to the first and connected with the conjunction jo'u.

go'i for the previous clause

la .alis. cu klama lo barja .i la .alis. cu viska lo nanmu
is the same in meaning as:
la .alis. cu klama lo barja .i lo go'i cu viska lo nanmu
Alice comes to a bar. She sees a man.

Whereas lo nei refers to the first noun of the current clause, lo go'i refers to the first noun of the previous clause.

go'i presents yet another way of referring back to a noun that we need.

  • lo se go'i refers to the second noun of the previous clause
  • lo te go'i to the third etc.:
.i la .alis. cu zgana lo nanmu .i ri melbi
Alice watches a man. He is handsome.
is the same as
.i la .alis. cu zgana lo nanmu .i lo se go'i cu melbi
Alice watches a man. He is handsome.

That's because lo se go'i refers to the second place (x2) of the preceding clause, which is lo nanmu.


Consider another example:

Bill saw Bob. He hit him.

English doesn't bother with precision here — he just means "some male person mentioned earlier." Did Bill hit Bob, or did Bob hit Bill? We don't know. In Lojban we can use say like this:

la bil pu viska la bob i lo se go'i cu darxi lo go'i
Bill saw Bob. Bob hit Bill.

Although, in most cases ri is used:

la bil cu viska la bob i ri darxi la bil
Bill saw Bob. Bob hit Bill.

go'i itself is a verb, and it thus has a place structure:

mi tatpi i do ji'a go'i
I'm tired. And you too.

When we say do go'i, we repeat the previous clause but replace its first place with do. In other words, do ji'a go'i here is the same as saying do ji'a tatpi.

What does go'i copy?

Interjections like pei (when used alone), xu, .ui, .u'i, je'u those formed with sei and the question interjection are not parts of clauses. Thus they are not copied by go'i.

But prepositions like na, pu, left negators like na'e, no'e, to'e are parts of clauses.

Thus, go'i copies the previous clause with those particles:

la bob na prami la alis
go'i

It is not true that Bob loves Alice.

He doesn't (love).
la bob na'e prami la alis
go'i

Bob doesn't love Alice.

He doesn't (love).

In order to say "No, he does love her" we use the needed verb directly:

la bob na prami la alis
la bob ja'a prami la alis

Bob doesn't love Alice.

Bob does love Alice.

Time of day, dates and calendar

Time of day

ma tcika ti = What's the time?
li cy pa pa = Eleven hours
tcika = x1 (hours, minutes, seconds) is the time of event x2

In Lojban times are always the times of something. So we ask what the time is of ti, meaning this event/thing, or, in other words now.

  • cy is a prefix signalling that the number of hours follows. 24-hour time is used almost always in Lojban.
  • my is a prefix signalling that the number of minutes follows.
  • sy is a prefix signalling that the number of seconds follows.
li cy pa pa my pa no
11:10 (Ten minutes past eleven)
li cy pa pa my pa no sy pa ci
11 hours, 10 minutes and 13 seconds.
li cy pa no my mu no
10:50, ten to eleven

If we want to give the time of an event, rather than just tell the time, the second place is filled:

li cy pa no tcika lo nu mi klama
Ten o'clock is the time that I come.

By using the preposition de'i we can get a more naturally sounding sentence:

mi klama de'i li cy pa no
I am going at 10 o'clock.
de'i = at ... (time), on ... (date)

And one useful example:

ca tcika lo nu ei sipna
It's time to sleep.

Dates

ma detri ti = What's the date today?
li ly ze dy pa = It's July, 1
detri = x1 (year, month, day) is the date/time of event x2

Another option:

ma ca detri
What is the date now?
  • ny is a prefix signalling that the year follows.
  • ly is a prefix signalling that the month follows.
  • jy dy is a prefix signalling that the day of week follows.
  • dy is a prefix signalling that the day follows.

Prefixes with numbers after them can be used in any order (let's use digits to show numbers):

li dy 2 ca detri
It's the second day of the month now.
li ly 4 dy 1 ca detri
It's April, the first now.
li dy 5 ly 7 ny 2005 detri lo nu mi jbena
The fifth of July (seventh month), year 2005 is when I was born.

We can also use de'i:

mi ba klama de'i li ly pano
I will come in October.

Remember that particles in Lojban can be written without spaces in between like in this pano, which is the same as pa no.

For days of week Monday is the first day:

mi gunka de'i li jy dy pa
I work on Monday.
mi gunka de'i ro li jy dy mu
I work every Tuesday.
xu do pu zvati la paris de'i li jy dy ci
Were you in Paris on Wednesday?

Specifying time intervals

mi nanca li re re
I am 22 years old.
nanca = x1 is of duration of x2 (number) years

nanca specifies the duration, and in order too say two years long you fill the second place with a number prefixed with li.

lo verba cu masti li re
The child is two months old.
masti = x1 is x2 months long
lo nu carvi cu djedi li ci
It's raining for three days.
djedi = x1 is x2 full days long

New verbs from one scale

mi na'e nelci do
I other than like you.

"Left scalar" particles (to which na'e belongs) are put to the left of constructs they affect and form a scale:

  • je'a = indeed (the affirmative position on the scale). The word je'a confirms the meaning of a part of sentence. Usually it's just omitted.
    • mi je'a nelci do
      I indeed like you.
  • na'e = non- (other than the affirmative position on the scale)
    • mi na'e nelci do
      I other than like you.
  • no'e = not really (midpoint on the scale). The word no'e makes a part of sentence middle in its meaning.
    • mi no'e nelci do
      As for whether I love or hate you, I'm indifferent to you. I neither like nor hate you.
  • to'e = anti-, dis-, mis- etc. (opposite on the scale). The word to'e makes a part of sentence opposite in its meaning. It's similar to English anti-.
    • mi to'e nelci do
      I hate you.
      I anti-like you [literally]

na'e is more vague than no'e and to'e, it can mean any of them when you don't care about the exact meaning.

Lesson 8. Math and more prepositions

Possibly can, have been and haven't yet been

lo cipni ka'e vofli
Birds can fly.
lo pendo be mi ca'a xendo prenu
My friend shows himself as a friendly person.
lo pendo be mi ka'e litru bu'u ro da
A friend of mine can travel in any place.
mi ca'a zvati la madrid
I am in Madrid.
mi pu'i zvati la madrid
I have been to Madrid.
mi nu'o zvati la madrid
I have never been to Madrid.
ka'e = preposition of potential: possibly can
ca'a = preposition of potential: actually is
pu'i = preposition of potential: has already happened
nu'o = preposition of potential: hasn't ever happened

This series of so called prepositions of potential describes possible situations.

Note that ka'e means that an event can happen whereas, for example,

lo cipni cu kakne lo ka vofli
Birds are capable of flying.

describes abilities dependent on actions of participants.

Plus and minus

li mu du li re su'i ci
Five equals two plus three.

Here li is similar to lo but it starts a mathematical expression (or just a number). So li mu means Number 5 for use in formulae unlike simple mu which is used to denote 5 objects or events.

Note that re su'i ci (2+3) is one single expression considered as one noun.

du is a verb and means to be equal to.

  • su'i means plus.
  • vu'u means minus.
  • pi'i means times and is used for multiplication
  • fe'i means divided by and is used for division.

The word pi is a decimal separator so no pi mu means 0.5, ci ze pi pa so means 37.19.

In some notations 0.35 can be written as .35 and in Lojban we can also drop zero saying pi mu.

Here are some other examples.

li pare fe'i ci du li vo = 12 : 3 = 4
li re pi'i re du li vo = two times two is four
li pano vu'u mu pi'i re du li no = 10 — 5 ⋅ 2 = 0

Notice that you put li only once before the equation and once after it. Thus 12 : 3 is considered one number. Indeed, 4 is the same as 12 : 3. They are both numbers.

For asking for a number we use ma:

li ci su'i vo du ma
3 + 4 = ?
li ze
7

"First, second, last"

Ordinal numbers such as "first, second, third" are used to put things in order. In Lojban they are formed with a number plus moi immediately after it:

pa moi = x1 is first among ...
re moi = x1 is second among ...
ci moi = x1 is third among ...
ro moi = x1 is last among ...

It is also possible to use verbs instead of numbers:

me mi moi = x1 is mine
me do moi = x1 is yours

In this case we had to convert pronouns to verbs using me.

le nakni cu pa moi lo se prami be mi
He is my first love.
tu ro moi lo ratcu pe mi
That is my last rat.
lo cerni tarci cu ro moi lo tarci poi cumki fa lo nu viska ke'a pu lo nu co'a donri
The morning star is the last star that's visible before the dawning of the day.
tu me mi moi
That's mine.
tu me mi moi lo stizu
That's my place.
.i lo vi stizu cu me mi moi lo pa ci stizu poi sruri lo jubme
This place is mine among 13 places around the table.

Cardinal numbers are placed before ordinal numbers in a string and separated by boi:

lo ci boi pa moi be lo ckafi kabri
the first three cups of coffee

Without boi it would turn into ci pa moithirty-first.

gau - make them do it

The preposition gau marks the agent of event:

le canko cu kalri
The window is open.
le canko gau do kalri
You open the window.
The window driven-by you is open [literally]
gau = preposition: caused by ... (agent), driven by ... (someone, some object)
kalri = x1 is open

Thus, such verbs as to open (something), to move can be rephrased as to make something open, to make something move and therefore we don't need to learn extra verbs for every such meaning. Instead we add the preposition gau all the time.

There is also another method that retains the same order of words as in English:

le canko gau ko kalri
ko jai gau kalri fai le canko

Open the window!

Here we transform the verb kalri - to be open into a verb

jai gau kalri = to open something

The first place of kalri can be shown by using a place tag fai.


Some more variations:

le pa karce cu muvdu
The car moves.
ko jai gau muvdu fai le karce
le karce gau ko muvdu

Move the car! Make the car move!
fa le karce cu muvdu fe ti
The car moves here.
ko jai gau muvdu fai le karce fe ti
Move the car here!

muvdu - is moving is transformed into a new verb jai gau muvdu - to move.

muvdu = x1 moves to x2 from x3 via x4
jai gau muvdu fai le karce = x1 moves the car to x2 from x3 via x4


la alis cu klama
Alice comes.
la alis gau ko klama
Make Alice come!

Why? - ri'a and ni'i

- ri'a ma carvi
- lo nu lo dilnu cu klaku

- Why is it raining?
- Because the clouds are crying.
ri'a = because of ... (some event)
ri'a ma = why?

Unlike gau the preposition ri'a expects not an agent, but an event like the clouds are crying:

lo dilnu cu klaku ri'a lo nu lo dargu cu cilmo
Skies are crying resulting in the road being wet.

Therefore is the reverse word compared to because:

lo dilnu cu klaku i se ri'a bo lo dargu cu cilmo
Skies are crying. Therefore the road is wet.
  • ri'a = because
  • se ri'a = therefore

Another type of why is ni'i:

- ni'i ma nicte
- lo nu lo solri na te gusni

- Why is it night?
- Because the sun is not shining.
lo solri na te gusni i se ni'i bo nicte
The sun is not shining. Therefore, it's night.
ni'i = logically because of ...
seni'i = with the logical consequence that ..., logically therefore

Here we can't use ri'a as we are talking not about a result but about logical implication. The fact that it is night just logically follows from the sun not shining.

Prepositions more precise than ri'a

mi darxi la .kevin. mu'i lo nu ky. lacpu lo kerfa be mi
I hit Kevin because he pulled my hair.
mu'i = because (of motive …)

In this example, what we have is not two events which are physically connected, like clouds and rain, but three events:

  1. Kevin pulls my hair.
  2. I decide, as a result of this, to hit Kevin.
  3. I hit Kevin.

English misses out the second event and says Sally hit Joey because he pulled her hair. However, this is not only vague but, some would say, psychologically dangerous. People do not generally react to stimuli automatically, but as a result of motivation, and confusing complex responses with simple physical causation may lead us to believe that we have no control over our emotions or even our actions. Thus, it is often useful to say not just general reactions (ri'a) but emphasize responses which have a cognitive/emotional element (mu'i).

la .salis. cu te dunda lo tartcita lo ctuca ki'u lo nu sy. carmi gunka
ki'u = because (due to explanation …)

The difference between motivation and justification is not always clear, but we can say that the latter involves some rule or standard while the former does not require this. Going back to the example of Sally and the teacher, it is possible to say

la .salis. cu te dunda lo tartcita lo ctuca mu'i lo nu sy. carmi gunka
Sally is-given a star-label [by] the teacher with-motivation she much-try work. [literally]

However, this says only that Sally's hard work motivated the teacher to give her a star. It does not imply that it is the custom for teachers to give stars (or ‘star-labels’, as I have rather pedantically translated it) as a reward for good work. What we need here is ki'u, the preposition from krinu.

Note: Don't get ki'u mixed up with ku'i which means but, however.

ki'u appeals to more general considerations than mu'i, but it still deals with human standards, not logical laws. Only a very naive student would believe that if a student is given a star, it must logically imply that that student has worked hard.

In the case ni'i ma nicte, however, the fact that the Sun isn't shining it is night logically entails that the Sun isn't shining. Here we can confidently use nibli or ni'i.

"So … that"

The expression so ... that is expressed in Lojban by splitting the sentence into two:

mi tai galtu plipe .i se ri'a bo mi farlu
I jumped so high that I fell down.
tai = preposition: in the manner of ...

Other examples:

mi tai zukte
I act this way
mi tai fengu
I am so angry.
fengu = x1 is angry of x2 (clause)

"If … then"

fau lo nu do fenki vau mi ba prami do
If you are crazy then I'll love you.
fau = preposition: with the event of ..., under circumstances ... (clause follows)

fau is much like ca (when) or bu'u (at (some place)).

In many cases we can replace fau with ca getting almost the same meaning (sometimes more precise):

mi ba prami do ca lo nu do fenki
I'll love you when you are crazy.

We can replace lo with ro after such prepositions getting a new meaning:

mi ba prami do ca ro nu do fenki
I'll love you whenever you are crazy.

fau and da'i. What if ...

da'i mi turni
I could be a king.
da'i nai mi turni
I am a king.
  • The interjection da'i marks the clause in which it is put as describing an imaginary event.
  • The opposite interjection da'inai marks the clause as describing an actual, real event.

Constructs with da'i are usually translated to English with so called auxiliary verbs such as can/could, will/would, may/might, should and must. Clauses with da'i in English are said to be in subjunctive mood.

Omitting da'i or da'inai makes the sentence clear only from context which is usually quite transparent. That's why da'i or da'inai is not obligatory. We use it for clarity when needed.

Clauses with da'i often include fau:

da'i mi gleki fau lo nu mi ponse lo megdo be lo rupnu
I would/could be happy if I had one million dollars.
fau = in the event/situation/world of …
megdo = x1 is a million of x2

Here the event inside fau is equally imagined together with mi gleki. And here is the reverse example:

da'inai mi gleki fau lo nu mi ponse lo megdo be lo rupnu
Having one million dollars I am happy.

A good example of mo and da'i:

mo da'i fau lo nu mi cusku zo nai
What if I say "no"?

Probabilities

Suppose you come home and hear someone scratching. You can say one of the following sentences:

fau da ti mlatu.
This might be/possibly is a cat. It is possible that this is a cat.
(You keep several animals at home. So it might be your cat scratching but you are not sure.)
fau ro da ti mlatu.
this must be/certainly is the cat.
(You have a cat and such noise can be produced by only one object, that cat.)
fau so'e da ti mlatu.
This should be/probably is the cat.
(If you have a dog then it can also produce such sounds but your dog usually doesn't do that so the cat is more likely.)
fau so'u da ti mlatu.
It is not probable that this is the cat.
fau no da ti mlatu
This can't be the cat. This mustn't be the cat. It is impossible that this is the cat.

Notice that we omitted da'i for brevity. But if we want to be explicitly clear about the events being imaginary da'i in these examples is to be put inside the fau clause:

  1. fau da'i da denotes that the event in this clause is possible, may/can possibly happen.
  2. fau da'i ro da — the event would necessarily happen.
  3. fau da'i so'e da — the event is probable, will probably happen, is likely to happen.
  4. fau da'i so'o da — the event is remotely probable, could/might happen.
  5. fau da'i so'u da — the event is not likely, probably don't happen.
  6. fau da'i no da — the event is not possible.

The difference between these is in the number of imaginary situations we take into account. We don't describe those situations, we just mark them as da (something) letting the context (or our listeners) decide what those situations are.

Words with possibility implied in their places

Some verbs have da'i implied in some of their places when you don't use da'i explicitly:

mi pacna lo nu do ba pluka sipna
I hope you will have a pleasant sleep.
pacna = x1 hopes for x2 (possible event) with likelihood x3 (number, by default li so'a i.e. close to 1)


mi kanpe lo nu do tsuku
I expect you to arrive.
mi kanpe lo nu do ba jinga vau li so'e
You'll probably win.
I expect with a high probability that you will win. [literally]
mi kanpe lo nu mi cortu fau ro nu lo rokci cu farlu lo tuple be mi
I know for a fact that if a rock lands on my foot, it will hurt.
kanpe = x1 expects x2 (possible event) with expected likelihood x3 (a number from 0 till 1, the default value is li so'a, i.e. near 1)

Unlike pacna the verb kanpe doesn't necessarily implies hope or wish. It can describe impartial expectation, subjective evaluation of the probability of a situation.


cumki fa lo nu do jinga
It is possible that you win.
- xu ba carvi
- cumki

- Will it rain?
- Maybe.
cumki = x1 (possible event) is possible, x1 may, might occur, x1 is a maybe.


- xu ba carvi
- lakne

- Will it rain?
- Probably.
lakne = x1 (possible event) is probable, likely


mi djica lo nu do jinga
I want you to win.
mi djica lo ka vitke fi la .paris.
I would rather visit Paris. I want to visit Paris.
djica = x1 wants x2 (possible event)


mi te mukti lo ka vitke fi la .paris.
I will visit Paris. I intend to/I'm gonna visit Paris.
mi te mukti vitke fi la .paris.
I'm visiting Paris intentionally.
te mukti = x1 is motivated to bring about goal x2 (possible event) by motive x3 (event)
mi kakne lo ka limna
I am able to swim.
mi pu kakne lo ka gunka
I could work. I was able to work.
kakne = x1 can, is able to do x2 (property of x1)

x2 describes a possible event.


mi te javni lo ka gunka
I should work.
te javni = x1 should/ought to do x2 (property of x1) under rule x3 (proposition)

x2 describes a possible event.

do na te javni lo ka tcidu
You don't have to read.
na te javni = x1 doesn't have to, needn't to do x2 (property of x1) under rule x3 (proposition)
x2 describes a possible event.
mi nitcu lo ka sipna
I need to sleep.
nitcu = x1 needs x2 (possible event)


mi bilga lo ka gunka
I must work. I am obliged to work.
bilga = x1 must, is obliged to do x2 (property of x1)
mi curmi lo nu do citka ti
I allow you to eat this.
curmi = x1 allows/permits x2 (possible event)
mi tolcru lo nu do nerkla
I forbid you to enter.
tolcru = x1 forbids/prohibits x2 (possible event)
xu do stidi lo nu mi sipna
Do you suggest that I sleep?
stidi = x1 makes a suggestion x2 (possible event
mi na birti lo nu ra klama
I'm not sure if he comes.
birti = x1 is sure that x2 (possible event) happens
mi senpi lo nu ra kakne lo ka limna
I doubt that he can swim.
senpi = x1 doubts that x2 (possible event) is true
senpi is the same as na'e birti
mi se xanri lo nu mi pavyseljirna
I imagine myself being a unicorn. I could be a unicorn.
se xanri
x1 imagines x2 (possible event)
xanri
x1 (possible event) is imagined by x2

Lesson 9. Logical conjunctions

Basic logical conjunctions in Lojban are based on 4 primitive ones: .a, .e, .o, .u. Here we'll cover them in detail.

Logical conjunctions for nouns

Here are the conjunctions combining two words: this and that.

  • ti .a ta = this and/or that
    • mi ba vitke lo mamta .a lo tamne
      I'll visit the mother or the cousin.
    • Note that .a can also be translated as at least one of the two values and thus leaves open the possibility that I will get round to visiting both of them at some point.
  • ti .e ta = this and that
    • mi ralte pa gerku .e re mlatu
      I've got a dog and two cats.
      I keep one dog and two cat. [literally]
  • ti .o ta = either this and that, or none
    • mi ba vitke lo mamta .o lo tamne
      I will visit either both the mother and the cousin, or none of them
  • ti .u ta = this, and perhaps that, this whether or not that
    • mi ba vitke lo mamta .u lo tamne
      I'll visit the mother whether or not I'll visit the cousin.
    • .u just emphasizes that the second value does not affect the truth of the sentence.

Placing na before a conjunction negates what is to the left of it. Placing nai after a conjunction negates what is to the right of it:

  • ti .e nai ta = this and not that
    • mi nelci la bob .e nai la alis
      I like Bob but not Alice.
      I like Bob and not Alice [literally]
    • We can also say ti .e nai ku'i ta (this but not that) adding a flavor of contrast for the second noun.
  • ti na .e ta = not this but that
    • mi nelci la alis na .e la Bob
      I don't like Alice but I do like Bob.
      I like Alice not and Bob [literally]
    • This may sound a bit weird for English speakers ("I like Alice not…") so you might prefer to swap the nouns and use .e nai instead: mi nelci la bob .e nai la alis or even mi nelci la bob .i mi na nelci la alis will mean the same.
  • ti na .e nai ta = neither this nor that (none)
    • mi nelci la alis na .e nai la Bob
      I don't like neither Alice nor Bob

Negating with other primitive conjunctions might not look intuitively usable, you can just learn them from examples:

  • ti .a nai ta = this if that, for this the exclusive condition to happen is that
    • mi ba vitke lo mamta .a nai lo tamne
      I will visit the mother but for that to happen I need to visit the cousin.
    • Thus ti .a nai ta means that ta is necessary (but may not be the only condition) for ti to be applied.
  • ti .o nai ta = either this or that
    • mi ba vitke lo mamta .o nai lo tamne
      I'll visit either the mother or the cousin.
    • If I want to say that that I will visit either the mother or the cousin but not both, I need .o nai (either/or). It's unlike .a (and/or) where I can visit both of them.
  • ti na .u ta = doesn't influence (not this, but perhaps that)
  • ti na .u nai ta = doesn't influence (not this, but perhaps that)
  • ti se .u ta = perhaps this, and that
  • ti se .u nai ta = perhaps this but not that

se is used only for .u because in other cases it leads to no effect in meaning.

These are used for connecting nouns. For connecting parts of compound verbs we use similar conjunctions: ja, je, jo, ju. So instead of the dot (pause) we use j here.

It's common to use ja, je, jo, ju for connecting nouns too.

Logical conjunctions for sentences

mi ralte pa gerku .e re mlatu
I've got a dog and two cats.
I keep one dog and two cat. [literally]

This is actually a contracted way of saying:

mi ralte pa gerku .i je mi ralte re mlatu
It is true that I have a dog. It is true that I have two cats.

.i je joins two sentences with a logical and, showing that two sentences are part of one thought and that both sentences are true.

Here are examples for other conjunctions for sentences:

la rome'os cu prami la djuliet .i je la djuliet cu prami la rome'os
Romeo loves Juliet and Juliet loves Romeo
means that both statements are true, i.e. Romeo and Juliet love each other.

The same is applicable to other conjunctions:

la rome'os cu prami la djuliet .i ja la djuliet cu prami la rome'os
Romeo loves Juliet and/or Juliet loves Romeo
means that one of them loves the other, and perhaps both of them do.
la rome'os cu prami la djuliet .i jo nai la djuliet cu prami la rome'os
Either Romeo loves Juliet or Juliet loves Romeo.
Here either Romeo loves Juliet (but Juliet doesn't love him), or Juliet loves Romeo (but he doesn't love her).
la rome'os cu prami la djuliet .i ja nai la djuliet cu prami la rome'os
For Romeo to love Juliet it's necessary that Juliet loves Romeo.
means that if Juliet loves Romeo, he definitely loves her, but he may love her anyway (the only outcome which is impossible is that Juliet loves Romeo but he doesn't love her).
la rome'os cu prami la djuliet .i jo la djuliet cu prami la rome'os
Either Romeo loves Juliet and Juliet loves Romeo, or none of the two events happens.
means that if Juliet loves Romeo, he loves her, and if she doesn't love him, he doesn't love her.
la rome'os cu prami la djuliet .i ju la djuliet cu prami la rome'os
Romeo loves Juliet whether or not Juliet loves Romeo.


Notice how we Lojbanize the name "Romeo": combination "eo" is impossible in Lojban so we used "e'o" and added a consonant in the end for his name.

Note that da refers to the same entity when several sentences are connected to each other using conjunctions or with prepositions with bo (like ba bo). So if I say da klama lo barja .i je da fenki you can assume I'm referring to the same person in both sentences.

Logical conjunctions for compound verbs

lo melbi xunre cukta
beautifully red books
lo melbi je xunre cukta
beautiful and red books

Other conjunctions also make sense:

mi nelci ro lo xajmi ja melbi prenu
I likes all of funny or handsome (or both) persons.
mi nelci ro lo xajmi jo nai melbi prenu
I likes all of either funny or beautiful persons.
this might be explained if, for example, I find the qualities of humor and good looks incompatible, i.e. a mixture of the two would be just too much.
mi nelci ro lo xajmi ju melbi nanmu
I likes all of funny (whether or not beautiful) persons.

And once again we shouldn't forget the difference between connecting nouns and connecting parts of compound verbs:

mi ba vitke pa pendo e pa speni
mi ba vitke pa pendo je pa speni

I will visit a friend and a spouse.
The second Lojban sentence uses the common trend of using je for connecting nouns.
mi ba vitke pa pendo je speni
I will visit a friend-and-spouse

The last Lojban sentence means that the friend is also a spouse.

Logical conjunctions for clause tails

pu ku mi kelci la fudbol gi'e klama lo zdani gi'e pinxe lo ladru
I played football, went home, drank milk.

gi'e connects several clauses into one with some nouns shared. Look at this: It expands into pu ku mi kelci la fudbol i je pu ku mi klama lo zdani ... which would be lengthier.

With gi'e we keep the head of the clause constant, and specify nouns after each of the verb (kelci la fudbol, klama lo zdani ...)

Thus when using gi'e we have several main verbs in the tail, which means that it's actually several clauses (with a common head) joined together.

gi'e has the same final vowel as in je and thus means and.

Other conjunctions for joining clause tails:

  • gi'a for and/or
  • gi'o nai for either ... or
  • gi'u for whether or not etc.

So they have the same ending as conjunctions of .a series.

Prepositions in sentences with several tails

Note that prepositions in adverb form and in tense form make a difference when applied to sentences with several clauses:

  • preposition in adverb form is applied to the clause to the right of it with all its tails:
    • mi na ku citka lo finpe gi'e pinxe - I neither eat fish nor drink. Here, na is applied to citka lo finpe gi'e pinxe.
  • preposition in tense form is applied to one clause tail only:
    • mi na citka lo finpe gi'e pinxe - I don't eat fish but drink. Here, na is applied to citka lo finpe only.

Choice questions

Another type of English or can be found in questions:

— xu do pinxe lo tcati .o nai lo ckafi?
— je'u

— Will you drink tea or coffee?
— Yes.

That's a weird but a perfectly reasonable answer: Yes, I will drink tea or coffee.

Why this happens is because or has several meanings in English:

  1. A or B can mean either A, or B but not both. We use jonai here.
  2. A or B can mean A or B or both. We use ja here.
  3. A or B? can be a question meaning select from A and B, which of them do you choose? We use ji here.

Thus in the last case we use a separate question conjunction ji:

— do pinxe lo tcati ji lo ckafi?
— Will you drink tea or coffee?

Possible answers:

lo tcati .e lo ckafi
Tea and coffee.


lo tcati
Tea.


lo ckafi
Coffee.

It is also possible to use conjunctions when replying:

.eBoth (the first and the second item is chosen)

.e naiThe first one (tea) (the first but not the second one is chosen)
na .eThe second one (coffee) (not the first but the second one is chosen)

na .e naiNeither (not the first and not the second one is chosen)

You can ask questions in the same way about the other kinds of conjunctions we have looked at. The interrogative conjunction for clause tails is gi'i, for compound verbs - je'i, for sentences — .i je'i.

It's common to use ji for compound verbs too and .i ji for sentences.

Indirect questions are achieved by using ji kau:

Consider the waiter asks a visitor

- lo lanme ji lo bakni
- lamb or beef?

Once the visitor answers, the waiter knows whether the visitor wants to eat lamb or beef:

ba lo nu le vitke cu spusku vau lo bevri cu djuno lo du'u le vitke cu djica lo ka citka lo lanme ji kau lo bakni
After the visitor replies, the waiter knows whether the visitor wants to eat lamb or beef.

Forethought conjunctions

ge do gi mi
both you and I
ge nai do gi mi
Not you but I
ge do gi nai mi
You but not I
go nai do gi mi
Either you or I

Forethought conjunction ge means and but it's placed before the first noun. gi separates the two nouns. The series is parallel to other conjunctions. It is ga, ge, go, gu and also ge nai, go nai etc. The separator gi is the same for all of them.

Using such conjunctions is a matter of convenience:

mi citka ge nai lo bakni gi lo jipci
I eat not beef but chicken.

Here, like in English not is stated before the first noun.

ge and words in this series can still be used for connecting clauses too:

ge mi dansu gi mi zgipli lo pipno
I both dance and play the piano.
zgipli = x1 plays musical instrument x2
lo pipno = piano
.i ga nai pu zi carvi gi ca cilmo
If it has been raining recently, it's wet now.

Lesson 10. Structuring text

ju'a and assertions

le nakni cu fenki i ji'a je la alis cu jinvi lo du'u go'i
The man is crazy. And Alice thinks that too.
la alis cu jinvi lo du'u le nakni cu fenki
Alice has an opinion that the man is crazy.

By default the main clause of sentence asserts some information. Clauses inside places or relative clauses may not be asserted. In the last example that the man is crazy is not asserted by the speaker. It's only Alice's opinion.

The interjection ju'a makes the clause as asserted by the speaker. The first sentence can be thus rephrased as:

la alis cu jinvi lo du'u ju'a le nakni cu fenki
Alice has an opinion that the man is crazy, and it is so.

English often fails to translate this powerful ju'a concisely, thus the English translation doesn't follow the word order of the Lojban original.

One more example:

mi nelci lo nu do dansu
I like when you dance.
mi nelci lo nu ju'a do dansu
I like that you dance.

In the second case the speaker asserts "You dance".

pe'a for metaphors, za'e for nonce words, ba'e for emphasis

le ninmu cu tarci pe'a i va'i ri misno
The woman is a "star". I other words, she is famous.
pe'a = interjection: marks a construct as metaphorically used.
tarci = x1 is a star

tarci denotes real stars, objects in the sky. The interjection pe'a

i ba ku mi pu viska lo cizra stuzi poi lo fagri cu nenri i mi pu klama za'e le fagrystu
And then I saw a strange place with a fire inside. I came to that (how to say) "fire-place".
za'e = left interjection: marks the following construct as used not in its usual meaning

Left interjections like their name suggests are put before a construct modified (whereas other interjections are put after it).

The left interjection za'e shows that the following construct, le fagrystu in this case, is made up or used not in its standard meaning, i.e. there wouldn't be need to look up in the dictionary or ask the speaker specifically about the meaning of this word since the word is used to further describe the story.

ba'e la alis e nai la kevin pu darxi mi
Alice, not Kevin hit me!
mi djuno lo du'u ma kau pu darxi ba'e mi i ku'i mi na djuno lo du'u ma kau pu darxi do
I know who hit me. But I don't know who hit you.
ba'e = left interjection: puts an emphasis on the following construct

To emphasize a word we would use stress in spoken English, and underlining, italics or capital letters in written English.

In Lojban we use the left interjection ba'e.

Paragraphs and separating sentences

ni'o works exactly like .i but starts a new paragraph. Paragraphs are usually associated with new topics.

It is normal to use in speech only .i to separate sentence but you might want to use ni'o especially in a written text to structure it.

ni'o
i pa nintadni pu vitke lo ctuca bu'u lo galtu bu'u lo darno cmana
- i doi lo ctuca noi certu tavla fo la lojban vau, do skicu e'o fi mi fe lo nu fi ma kau fa la Lojban cu frica fe lo drata bangu
i le ctuca pu dunda fi le nintadni fe lo kabri be lo jinto djacu gi'e ba bo cusku di'e
- i ca ti ko catlu le djacu gi'e skicu ri
- i ku'i mi mo'u pinxe ri i mi na kakne lo ka catlu
- i ki'u ma do na kakne
- i le djacu ca pagbu lo mi xadni

ni'o

i lo mudri co'a pagbu lo zdani be da
i lo bangu poi se tadni co'a pagbu lo menli be de
i lo dirgo be lo djacu co'a pagbu lo zmadu be fi lo ka banli

A newbie visited a Master far high in the mountains.
- Master, you speak fluent Lojban. Please, tell me what is the difference between Lojban and other languages.
The Master offered him a cup of spring water and then said:
- Now look at the water and describe it.
- But I drank it up. I can't look at it.
- Why can't you?
- Now it's a part of my body.

A piece of wood becomes a part of someone's house.
A language learnt becomes a part of someone's mind.
A drop of water becomes a part of something greater.

to … toi for parenthetical remarks

Comments that we place inside parentheses in English text are formed using the particle to instead of the left parenthesis and toi instead of the right parenthesis:

ti poi to vi'onai do mi na djica lo drata toi plise cu fusra
This (no, I don't want another one!) apple is rotten.
djica = to desire
drata = to be different from …
plise = x1 is an apple
fusra = x1 rots or decays with agent x2

Such parenthetical remarks can go anywhere interjections can — meaning pretty much anywhere in a Lojban sentence. With parentheses, just like with quotes, you need to know where the parenthesis starts, and where it ends.

Fixing errors in speech

When screwing a sentence up, knowing how to correct yourself is a good idea. You can use two words to delete your previous words:

  • si — deletion: Deletes last word only.
  • sa — deletion: Deletes back until next cmavo spoken.

The function of them is obvious: they delete words as if they have never been spoken. They do not work inside certain quotes (all quotes except lu...li'u), though, as that would leave it impossible to quote these words. Several si in a row deletes several words.

When you make a mistake while speaking (factual or grammatical) in English you don't normally bother to correct it even if you realize you made a mistake in the first place. That's because English is fairly redundant (for this very reason!). In English if we catch ourselves making an error, we stumble out a correction that will do the trick, without going into details like how many words should be cancelled: context usually helps us. So if I say

I took and read an English dictionary. Er, Lojban dictionary.

context and common sense dictate that Lojban dictionary is meant to replace English dictionary. But what if it was meant to replace took and read an English dictionary? We wouldn't normally care, in natural languages.

But Lojban allows you to be more precise about what words you are correcting.

si erases the immediately preceding word. If you want to erase two words in a row, you say si si after them. So the correction above would be in Lojban

.i mi te benji je tadni lo glico valsi si si lojbo valsi
valsi = x1 is a word with the meaning x2 in language x3

The problem with si is, you have to count words. This can get tedious, and you shouldn't have to keep a transcript of your words when you want to correct yourself.

The other correction word Lojban offers is somewhat more helpful: sa takes the word following it, which starts the clause to serve as the correction. It then goes back in the sentence, looking for the last time you used a clause starting with the same word or another word of the same class (selma'o). Once it finds the last such clause, it replaces all text from that clause up to sa with the clause following sa. For example:

.i mi te benji gi'e tadni lo sa .i mi tadni lo lojbo valsi

The correction following sa is a sentence; you know that, because the first word after sa is the sentence marker, .i. So the sentence following sa replaces the current sentence up to and including sa. Or consider:

.i mi mrilu fi do ca lo prulamdei sa ca lo reldei

The correction is ca lo reldeion Tuesday. So what it replaces is everything from the last clause beginning with ca: ca lo prulamdeiyesterday. The English version would be Yesterday I mailed you... actually, it was Tuesday.

Dealing with misunderstanding

.i mi pu zi te vecnu lo flokati
.i lo flokati ki'a
I just bought a flokati.
Flokati, huh?
ki'a = interjection inquiry: confusion about something said. "Huh? Whaat?? (confusion), pardon?"

When you don't understand what someone has just said — whether because you don't get what they were referring to, or you don't know the word, or the grammar confused you — you can repeat the word or clause you didn't get, and add ki'a as a plaintive request for clarification (so it's even better than Huh?, because you can point out exactly what made you say Huh?)

Here is a dialogue.

mi nelci lo kalci
ki'a ?
I like shit.
Whaat???
Note: Since zo quotes any word following it — any word — it turns out that zo ki'a doesn't mean zo? Huh? at all, but The word ki'a. To ask zo? Huh?, you'll have to resort to zo zo ki'a.

Reverse mi and do using ra'o

- mi prami do
- go'i ra'o

- I love you.
- I love you too.
ra'o = interjection: updates meaning from the viewpoint of the current speaker

If someone says mi prami do and you reply go'i ra'o, that reverses the pronouns mi and do so that they apply from your point of view. So every pronoun gets re-evaluated.

Compare:

- mi prami do
- go'i

- I love you.
- You do.

A simple go'i still makes mi refer to who used it and do refer to the listener of who said it.

Lesson 11. More about pronouns

Four meanings of "you" in English

We've already seen two personal pronouns, mi and do, meaning I (or me) and you. However, you in English can mean four different things:

  1. The one person I'm talking to.
  2. A number of people I'm talking to.
  3. The person or people I'm talking to and some other person or people.
  4. Anyone (as in Money can't buy you love.)

Lojban gets round the confusion between (1) and (2) by using numbers. The most common way to express (2) is ro do = all of you (or Southern U.S. y'all). You can also use specific numbers: lo re do would mean you two (for example, once can start e-mails to their parents with coi lo re do). Notice that re do means two of you and re lo ci do means two of you three.

You can also use numbers with ko, for example, ro ko klama tiAll of you, get over here.

Case (3) is expressed by the pronoun do'oyou and someone else. Case (4) is completely different: it's normally expressed by ro da = all da or ro lo prenuall persons, but often you can just miss it out altogether (or place zo'e in that place).

"we" — different ways of saying that

We've seen that the notion of we isn't popular in Lojban and mi jo'u lo pendo be mi or lo pendo be mi be'o jo'u mi are used instead.

However, there are several pronouns close in meaning to we.

mi'o = you and I
mi'a = we without you
ma'a = you and I and another/others

Some languages have such separate words for we. Lojban provides us with both the English we and a richer set of more precise words.

And finally:

mi = I or the speakers

mi can also mean we! Lojban makes no distinction between singular and plural by default. So if several people are speaking all together, mi (which refers to the one or more speakers) is perfectly correct for we. In practice, you'll usually get mi used like that when one person is presuming to speak (or more often, to write) on behalf of others.

Some examples:

mi prami do
I love you.
mi'a penmi do de'i li cy. ci
We'll meet you at three o'clock.
ma'a remna
We are all human.
mi djica lo nu do cliva
We want you to go away.

Finally, there is mi'ai, an equivalent of English we:

mi'ai = I and at least one other person (corresponds to English "we")
mi'ai prami la .bob.
We love Bob.
(The sentence just states there are several people loving Bill including the speaker. It's not known if "we" includes the listener)

You are always free to revert back to mi'ai, which might be more comfortable sometimes.

lo pa do = you one

We know that lo re mlatu means two any cats. It's also possible to put numbers after lo and before pronouns.

The recommended method is turning pronouns into verbs first:

lo re me do ko klama ti
You two, come here.

It's possible to omit me in this position and say lo re do ko klama ti but this can lead to confusion in beginners.


More about short relative clauses

Two constructs used in some styles:

1. Short relative clauses with a pronoun after them can be put just after lo:

lo pe mi gerku
lo gerku pe mi

My dog

2. pe in such cases can even be omitted:

lo mi gerku
lo gerku pe mi

My dog
Thus, "lo noun verb" is equivalent to "lo verb pe noun".

A few rules:

  • if you want to use a noun converted from a verb (for example, with lo) or a name then it's advisable to use pe and put it after the noun: lo gerku pe la .alis. (the Alice's dog).
  • it's okay to omit pe only if you use pronouns without numbers in front of them: lo do gerku (my dog) but not lo pa do gerku (you one is a dog).
It's much safer to use pe explicitly and put it after the noun to which it is attached: lo gerku pe la .alis. and lo gerku pe mi are most intuitive constructs.

Lesson 12. Quotations

Quoting text in different languages

The particle zoi is a quotation mark for quoting non-Lojban text. Its syntax is zoi X. text .X, where X is a Lojban word (called the delimiting word) which is separated from the quoted text by pauses, and which is not found in the written text or spoken phoneme stream inside that quotation. It is common, but not required, to use the name of some letter, which corresponds to the Lojban name of the language being quoted:

zoi gy. John is a man .gy. cu glico jufra
“John is a man” is an English sentence.

where gy. stands for glico. Other popular choices of delimiting words are .kuot., a Lojban name which sounds like the English wordquote, and the word zoi itself. Another possibility is a Lojban word suggesting the topic of the quotation.


Lojban strictly avoids any confusion between things and the names of things:

zo .bob. cmene la bob.
The-word “Bob” is-the-name-of the-one-named Bob. [literally]

zo .bob. is the word, whereas la bob. is the thing named by the word. The particle la'e and lu'e convert back and forth between references and their referents:

zo .bob. cmene la'e zo .bob.
The-word “Bob” is-the-name-of the-referent-of the-word “Bob”.
lu'e la bob. cmene la bob.
A-symbol-for Bob is-the-name-of Bob.

Last two examples mean the same. But this is different:

la bob. cu cmene la bob.
Bob is the name of Bob.

and says that Bob is both the name and the thing named, an unlikely situation. People are not names.

The particle la'o serves to mark non-Lojban names, for example the Linnaean binomial names (such as "Homo sapiens"), which are the internationally standardized names for species of animals and plants.

Internationally known names which can more easily be recognized by spelling rather than pronunciation, such as Goethe, can also appear in Lojban text with la'o:

la'o dy. Goethe .dy. cu me la'o ly. Homo sapiens .ly.
Goethe is a Homo sapiens.

Using la'o for all names rather than adapting them to Lojban, however, can make for a cumbersome text.


Everything expressed in text should also be expressed in speech and vice versa. Therefore, there cannot be any punctuation which is not pronounced. This means that Lojban has a wide range of words to quote other words. All Lojban convert a text into a noun.

lu ... li'u quote only text that is grammatically correct. To quote any Lojban text we use lo'u ... le'u quote instead.

xu lo'u je le'u lojbo sumtcita . i je'unai
Is "je" a preposition? No.
ma xe fanva zoi gy.What's up?.gy. la .lojban.
How to translate "What's up?" to Lojban?

Lesson 13. Enriching vocabulary

New words using prepositions

Many English words correspond to word combinations in Lojban:

lo ve'i cmana = hill (literally "mountain/hill covering little space")
lo ve'u xamsi = ocean (literally "sea/ocean covering large space")
lo ba'o tricu = stump of a tree (literally "no longer tree")

loi and masses

loi makes a noun showing a mass:

lo prenu = person, people
loi prenu = crowd, a mass of people
loi prenu pu smaji
The crowd was silent.
loi prenu cu sruri lo jubme
People surrounded the table.
jubme = x1 is a table

It's not an error to use lo here but by using loi we explicitly show that it's a mass of people that surrounded the table. loi is a shortcut. The full form is:

lo gunma be lo prenu cu sruri lo jubme
loi prenu cu sruri lo jubme
The mass of people surrounded the building.

Carrots alone and carrots together

lo najgenja
a carrot

Consider a sentence:

Three carrots weigh 60 grams.

Does it mean that each carrots weighs 60 grams or they weigh 60 grams if taken together?

In Lojban we can easily distinguish between these two cases:

ro lo ci najgenja cu grake li 60
Each of three carrots weigh 60 grams.
loi ci najgenja cu grake li 60
Three carrots weigh 60 grams in total.
(so that every carrots weighs 20 grams on average)
najgenja = x1 is a carrot
grake = x1 weighs x2 grams

As you can see there is an important difference between describing one object of a mass or describing the mass as a whole.

As we already know lo ci najgenja just means three carrots:

ko dunda lo ci najgenja
Give me three carrots.

And

ko dunda pa lo ci najgenja
Give me one carrot out of those three.

Internal prepositions

Using be you can attach not only the default places of verbs but even prepositions:

lo vi xatra be de'i li vo cu se mrilu de'i li ze
This letter, dated the 4th, was mailed on the 7th

A date tagged with de'i applies only to the xatra. In lo vi xatra de'i li vo cu se mrilu de'i li ze it would apply to the whole clause, not to the letter. What we want to say is that the former date applies just to the letter, and the latter date applies to the mailing of the letter. This means that the 4th, as a date, applies only to the verb lo xatra, and not to the entire clause.


Compound verbs in detail

The grouping of terms in Lojban grammar is particularly important when it comes to tanru (compound verbs). The way verbs group together in a tanru determines what that tanru means. For example,

bad music magazine

has in English two interpretations: a bad magazine about music, or a magazine about bad music. In Lojban, its equivalent

lo xlali zgike karni

has only the interpretation a bad-music magazine, because the first two verbs (xlali zgikebad music) group together first. So it is important to be able to modify the grouping of verbs, so that we can make sure the tanru means what we actually intend it to mean. For that reason, Lojban has a couple of mechanisms in place for making tanru group together properly.

In English we use brackets to structure the text. Likewise for tanru we use ke' for the left bracket and ke'e for the right bracket.

lo xlali ke zgike karni means a bad {music-magazine}.

As you can see we separated xlali from the rest of the tanru and made it apply to the whole tanru. There is no need in ke'e in the end of the tanru since we already know that it ends here.

.i mi pu zi te vecnu lo xlali ke zgike karni .i to'e zanru la'o gy.Eurythmics.gy.
I just bought a bad music-magazine. It dissed the Eurythmics.

That's one way of grouping together verbs in tanru. The other way is to use a particle bo in a new role. When bo appears between two verbs, it means that those verbs group together more tightly than anything else. So an alternative way of saying bad {music magazine} is

lo xlali zgike bo karni = a bad music-magazine

bo here is similar to the hyphen in English translation. This means that zgike bo karni should count as a unit, to which xlali (bad) applies.

Tighter connections

So bo makes the connections tighter.

la doris e la alis onaibo la bob
Doris and (either Alice or Bob)

ke can also be used with connectives (though not with sentences; they have their own kind of bracket, tu'e ... tu'u.) So we could also say

la doris e ke la alis onai la bob

Remember that the right bracket ke'e can be left out in most cases without changing the meaning (like in this case).

Forethought conjunction are also used a lot since they can eliminate the need in right brackets:

ge la doris gi go nai la alis gi la bob
Doris and either Alice or Bob

and

go nai ge la doris gi la alis gi la bob
Either Doris and Alice, or Bob

We don't need bo or ke with forethought conjunctions.

co for changing the order in compound verbs

There is another way of restructuring compound verbs.

mi fanva se jibri
I'm a professional translator
jibri = x1 is a job of x2
dotybau = x1 is German used by x2 to say x3
glibau = x1 is English used by x2 to say x3

If I wanted to say that I'm a professional translator from English to German, I could mess around with be, bei:

mi fanva be lo dotybau bei lo glibau be'o se jibri
I'm a professional translator from English to German

The fact that it was a compound verb could quickly be lost in speech due to the complicated structure of the sentence. Here, we can use the word co:

co — inverts the compound verb, making the rightmost verb word modify the leftmost instead of the other way around. Any previous noun fills the modified, any following noun fills the modifier.
mi se jibri co fanva lo dotybau lo glibau

It is the same clause as the previous Lojban one, but much more easy to understand. Notice that any noun before the compound verb fills se jibri, while any following it only fills the modifying verb: fanva.

The strength by which two verbs are bound together with co is very weak – even weaker than normal compound verb grouping without any grouping words. This makes sure that, in a co-construct, the leftmost verb word is always the verb being modified, and the rightmost always modifies, even if any of those parts are compound verbs. This makes a co-construct easy to understand:

ti pelxu plise co kukte

is read as ti (pelxu plise) co kukte, which is the same as ti kukte pelxu bo plise. This also means that a ke … ke'e cannot encompass a co.

However, gi'e, gi'a etc. bind even looser than co. This is in order to totally avoid confusion about which verb word binds to which in a gi'e. The answer is simple: gi'e never emcompasses any verb groups.


How can you express "I am an important American buyer of computers" using a co?

Answer: mi skami te vecnu co vajni merko

If it's of any use, this is the list of different kind of verb word groupers ranked by strength:

  1. bo and ke … ke'e
  2. Logical connectives other than gi'e series
  3. not using grouping words
  4. co
  5. gi'e series (clause-tail afterthought connectives)

Non-standard connective system

Some people for connecting nouns instead of

  • a, e, o, u

use

  • ja, je, jo, ju

That is instead of

mi e do nelci lo plise
I like apples, and you like apples.

they say

mi je do nelci lo plise
I like apples, and you like apples.

This is a non-standard approach. People use this style because in it there are fewer conjunctions to remember.

But you should be careful not to forget lo or numbers to form nouns: mi nelci lo plise je jisra would mean I like something that is an apple (or apples) and is juice (?!)

The correct sentence uses lo to form every noun:

mi nelci lo plise je lo jisra
I like apples and juice.

In standard approach the speaker uses a separate conjunction e when connecting nouns, and it's easier to see the difference and the correct meaning:

mi nelci lo plise .e lo jisra
I like apples and juice.

Lojban community

lojban.org website contains the main up-to-date information on Lojban and Lojbanists around the world.


Dictionary. Introduction

  • this dictionary lists basic words. Lojban is a live and dynamic language and accumulates more words over time.
The general rule is that everyone is free to create new words in Lojban. When you need a new word consult Lojbanists to discuss a place structure and the sounding of it.
  • examples are provided only for most useful places of verbs.
    • Places not listed here may be sometimes used by people in real conversations. Feel free to consult them on the meaning of those places.
    • In most cases if a verb may have more places its definition has " ..." at the end.
    • some examples represent advanced style. I added them to show different (sometimes more powerful) applications of a word. You may try to analyze them later.
  • for verbs with many places you may remember only a few of them. Not all places are always needed. Practice will allow you to gradually internalize needed places while speaking to Lojbanists in real time.

Verbs

Lojban verbs have place structure. Places are to be filled with nouns, names or pronouns.

mi prami do
I love you.
mi = I
prami = x1 loves x2
do = you

Here the verb prami (to love) has two places. The first place (x1) is filled with the pronoun mi (I) and the second place (x2) with the pronoun do (you).

Every verb can be turned into a noun by putting the particle lo in front of it:

prami = x1 loves x2
lo prami = the one who loves, lover

Hence, lo prami refers to the first place (x1) of the verb prami. To refer to the second place (x2) the particle se is put in front of the verb:

lo se prami = the one who is loved, beloved one

Types of places

Each place in Lojban can contain one of the following:

  • clause (of which property and proposition are its special cases)
  • entity (of which text is a special case)
  • number

Those are put in brackets after each place, for example:

catlux1(entity) looks at x2(clause)
In case of doubt with places open this dictionary and look at the examples for the word you need. At least one of the usage examples will have all places filled.

Besides, every place (no matter whether it's a clause or an entity) can be explicitly marked as:

  • group
  • ordered group

Entity

Entity place in a noun matches an entity place of the main verb:

lo plise cu grute
Apple is a fruit.
lo = takes the first place of verb and converts the verb to a noun
plise = x1 (entity) is an apple of species x2
cu = marks the beginning of the clause tail
grute = x1 (entity) is a fruit of plant x2

Here

  • the first place of plise is an entity,
  • plise is converted to a noun,
  • this noun is put into the first place of the verb grute,
  • the first place of grute is also an entity,
  • hence entity in the noun matches entity of the verb.

Clause

Clause place in a noun matches a clause place of the main verb.

It means that the place is filled either with a clause or with another place of clause type:

lo cipra cu cumki
A test is possible.
cipra = x1(clause) is a test, act of examination, study of x2(entity)
cumki = x1(clause) is possible

Here, the first place of cipra is a clause and it matches the first place of cumki which is also a clause.


mi djica lo se nitcu
I want what is needed.
djica = x1 wants x2 (clause)
nitcu = x1 needs x2 (clause)
se = makes a new verb by exchanging first two places in a verb
se nitcu = x1 (clause) is needed by x2

Here, the second place of djica is a clause and it matches the second place of nitcu which is also a clause.


lo nicte cu nu lo solri na se viska
Nighttime is when the Sun isn't seen.
nicte = x1 (clause) is a nighttime
nu = makes a verb of clause type out of a clause
lo solri = the Sun
na = not
se viska = x1(entity) is seen by x2(entity)

Here, we have a clause created using nu and it matches the first place of nicte which is also a clause.

Group and ordered group

do jo'u mi casnu lo nanba
You and I are discussing bread.
casnu = x1(entity group) discuss x2(entity)
lo nanba = bread

The first place of the verb casnu describes a group, members of which discuss something between themlseves. Here jo'u joins two pronouns into such a group.

Usual nouns can be used in such places as well:

lo prenu cu casnu lo nanba
You and I are discussing bread.
lo prenu = people

pruce fo {lo nu gau glare} ce'o {lo nu gau lenku}
It's a process coming through stages of {heating} and then {chilling}.
pruce = x1(clause) is a process with input x2(entity) and output x3(entity) via stages x4(entity ordered group)

The fourth place of the verb pruce describes an ordered group specifying stages. We use ce'o here to join nouns (describing stages) into an ordered group.

Property (infinitive)

Property is a clause that contains a ce'u particle:

mi gleki lo ka ce'u prami means the same as
mi gleki lo nu mi prami
I am happy that I love, I am happy of loving (someone).
mi gleki lo ka prami ce'u means the same as
mi gleki lo nu prami mi
I am happy that someone loves me, I am happy of being loved (by someone)

The particle ce'u is used for referring to the noun from the outside verb.

  • Definitions of verbs usually explicitly specify to what place ce'u refers to:
lo ka na jinga pu betri mi
Not winning was a tragedy to me.
betri = x1(property of x2) is a tragedy for x2(entity)
- here it's the speaker who didn't win.

If not explained in the dictionary then:

  • ce'u in the first place of the verb refers to the 2nd place of the verb like in the previous example.
  • ce'u in another place refers to the 1st place of the verb:
mi kakne lo ka limna
I am able to swim.
kakne = x1(entity) is capable of doing x2(property of x1)

ka is used to express English infinitives:

mi djica lo ka pinxe or mi djica lo nu mi pinxe
I want to drink.

Put it another way, ka creates a property, which has at least one "open slot" (marked by ce'u). Certain verbs expect such a property in one of their places, and in such verbs properties are applied to one of the other places. So if we put a property in one place, the verb copies values of other places in place of ce'u.

ce'u by itself doesn't have special meaning. It's the definitions of verbs in this dictionary that tell the relations between places and what value will ce'u take.

Omitting ce'u

If ka is used to start the clause then the first omitted noun in that clause is automatically assigned the value of ce'u. So we can make the first sentence shorter:

mi gleki lo ka prami means the same as
mi gleki lo ka ce'u prami
I am happy that I love, I am happy of loving (someone).

However, compare:

mi gleki lo ka prami ce'u

Here, in order to omit ce'u we need to somehow fill the first noun so that ce'u goes to the next unfilled noun. Here is how we cand do that:

mi gleki lo ka do prami means the same as
mi gleki lo ka do prami ce'u or mi gleki lo nu do prami mi
I am happy that you love me, I am happy of being loved by you.
ce'u referring to several places

Some properties can refer equally to several places. For example, for zmadu and mleca the particle ce'u refers equally to the first two places:

mi zmadu do lo ka clani vau lo mitre be li pi no mu
I am 5 centimeters taller than you.
I am more than you in length by 0.05 meters. [literally]
zmadu = x1(entity) exceeds or is more than x2(entity) in x3(property of x1 and x2 with kau) by amount x4(entity)

Here, mi and do are compared, and ce'u in the third place refers to mi and do equally.

ce'u in simxu

A very special case is simxu that has in its second place two ce'u:

mi jo'u do simxu lo ka ce'u ce'u prami
You and I love each other.

The first place of simxu is one or several nouns connected with jo'u.

The second place of simxu is an abstraction. The first two unfilled places take have ce'u implied. So you can remove both ce'u in this example:

mi jo'u do simxu lo ka prami
You and I love each other.

kau in places

The interjection kau allows putting indirect questions that can refer to other places:

mi lacri do lo ka ma kau sidju ce'u
I rely on you to help me.
lacri = x1(entity) relies, counts on, trusts x2(entity) to bring about, ensure, maintain state x3(property of x1 with kau)

Here, ma kau refers to the x2 place of lacri.

lo mlatu cu klani li pi mu lo ka mitre ma kau
A cat is measured 0.5 meters (e.g. in length or some other dimension).
klani = x1(entity) is measured by x2(number) on x3(property of x1 with kau)

Here, ma kau refers to x2 place of klani.

Proposition type

Proposition is a place filled with du'u. It works exactly as nu but is traditionally used with some places and always mentioned for them in the dictionary:

djuno = x1 (entity) knows that x2 (proposition) is true
mi djuno lo du'u do stati
I know that you are smart.

Instead of property you may use another type of clause with nu or du'u. Compare

mi djica lo ka sipna
I want to sleep.
mi djica lo nu do sipna
I want you to sleep.
I want that you sleep. [literally]

Text type

Text place is filled with quotes and start with zo, lu ... li'u, zoi or some other particles. The dictionary provides examples of such places.

Number type

Numbers are marked with li:

ti mitre li mu
This is 5 meters long.
or a "number" place from another verb: lo namcu, lo se mitre.

Other types

There are other more rare types of places like taxon. taxon is filled with names of species, plant varieties, which start with la.

tu'a and zo'ei

le nakni na nitcu lo ka co'e
He does not have to do this.
co'e — elliptical/unspecified verb. Often translated with this, that, it.
le nakni = he
na = preposition: not
nitcu = to need
ma pu co'e
Who did it?
mi curmi lo nu do co'e
I will give you permission to do it.
pu = preposition: past tense
curmi = to let something happen

So co'e is a verb that is known from context. mi co'e might mean I am doing you know what, or You know who I am.

While zo'e is the ‘don't care’ noun, co'e is the ‘don't care’ verb. For example, when I say mi klama lo barja, I'm not bothering to specify my point of origin, route, or vehicle. And when I say mi co'e lo barja I don't specify what I'm doing to the bar, probably I'm visiting it. So mi co'e lo barja means something like I thingummy the bar: the bar and I are in some relationship, but I'm not bothering to say what it is. I might be going to it, coming from it, sleeping in it, refurbishing it, or hearing about my neighbor getting drunk in it once. It just doesn't matter enough for me to say what.

The verb djica requires us to specify an event that one desires.

mi djica lo nu mi citka lo plise
I want to eat an apple.
citka = to eat
lo plise = apple/apples

Okay, but usually we just say in English I want an apple. We can't desire the apple itself, we want to do something with it.

Here we can omit the second mi and replace the verb to eat with co'e.

mi djica lo nu co'e lo plise
I want something to do with an apple.

So I let it be up to context what abstraction about the apple I desire.

There is a compact abbreviation for lo nu co'e which is tu'a:

mi djica tu'a lo plise
I want an apple.

tu'a takes a noun and converts it to an elliptical abstraction which has something to do with that noun. One always has to guess what abstraction the speaker means by tu'a + the noun, so it should only be used when context makes it easy to guess.

Another example:

za'a do gasnu tu'a lo skami
I see that you make the computer do something.
gasnu = x1 does, brings about x2 (clause)

There are situations where you cannot use tu'a, even though it would seem suitable. These situations are when I don't want the resulting noun to be an abstraction, but a concrete noun. In this case, one can use zo'e pe or its abbreviation zo'ei.

mi djuno zo'ei do or mi djuno zo'e pe do
I know about you, I know something about you.

Colloquial: an entity place into a clause place

These last two rules can be found in colloquial speech. They are sometimes avoided by careful speakers. However, if you bump into them you will know how to deal with them.

Putting an entity place into a clause place denotes an obvious relation:

mi djica lo plise
I want apples.
The second place of djica is a clause. Thus lo plise, an apple plays some role in that clause. Probably it means:
mi djica lo nu mi citka lo plise
I want to eat apples.
but maybe I just want to hold an apple in my hand. If you need vagueness or just lazy to say more you can use this method.

Thus, this situation can be viewed as omitting tu'a in mi djica tu'a lo plise.

do nabmi
You are a problem.
nabmi = x1(clause) is a problem...
probably means that there is something problematic with you.

Thus, this can be viewed as omitting tu'a in tu'a do nabmi, or (which would mean the same) as omitting jai in do jai nabmi.

This situation is also called "grammatical raising" in English. It neither recommended, nor terribly wrong. Still it won't be smoothly accepted by everyone. Compare literal English translation doesn't sounding right:
mi pacna lo so'i se dunda
I hope many presents. [literally]

instead of

mi pacna tu'a lo so'i se dunda
I hope for many presents.

Colloquial: a clause place into an entity place

A clause place in a noun can be put into an entity place of the main verb:

mi klama lo nu penmi
I go to a meeting.
klama = x1(entity) goes to x2(entity)...
The second place of klama denotes a place where you go. lo nu penmi denotes a process of meeting, thus we assume that here it is bound to some location where I go.
Another example:
lo ka kucli pu catra lo mlatu
Curiosity killed the cat.
- here curiosity is turned into an entity that is able to kill. As it's a clause with ka it has to refer to some place.
As the definition of catra says nothing about such situation we assume that it refers to the first unfilled place: here it's x2. Thus, it's the curiosity of the cat that killed it.

Lojban to English Dictionary

a [conjunction for nouns]and/or

i ei mi tavla la alis a la kevinI need to speak to Alice or Kevin (or to both of them).
Comment: means at least one of the two (of nouns connected using a).
Related words: ja, a, e, ji, o, u

a bu [pronoun]a (letter)

Comment: prefixed with me'o is a quotation of the letter. When used alone refers to the last noun with the verb starting with this letter like a bu is for the last la alis used.

a'a [interjection] — attention, a'a cu'i — inattentiveness, a'a nai — avoiding

i a'a ko ca'o skicuI'm listening, go on talking!
i a'a cu'i ko denpa lo nu mi jai gau mulno fai tiEh, just a second, let me finish this.
i do tavla da a'a naiLa, la, la, I'm not listening what you are talking about.
Related words: jundi, rivbi

a'e [interjection] — alertness, a'e naiI'm tired

i a'e ba vlile tcimaIt's going to be a storm.
i a'e nai mi ba klama lo ckanaYaaaawn, I'm going to bed.
Related words: sanji, cikna, tatpi

a'i [interjection]Oomph! (effort, endeavor), a'i cu'i — no special effort, a'i nai — repose

i a'i mi ca'o ralteI'm trying to hold it!
i a'i cu'i la'e ti friliAh, this is easy.
i a'i nai cikre tuNah, why bother fixing it.
Related words: snada, fliba, gunka, nandu, troci

a'o [interjection] — hope, a'o naiGah! (despair)

i a'o pluka be do nicteGood night to you!
i a'o vamji fa lo nu zukteI hope, it's worth doing it.
i a'o nai mi co'u ponse daGah, I lost all my property.
Related words: pacna

a'oi [vocative]Ahoy! (greeting in a piratic manner)

i a'oi la kevin ma nuzbaAhoy, Kevin! What's up?
Related words: coi, co'oi

a'u [interjection]Hmm... I wonder ... (interest), a'u cu'iHo-hum (disinterest), a'u naiEww! Yuck! (repulsion)

i a'u ro jbopre cu stati prenuInteresting, all Lojbanists are smart people.
i a'u ma krinuHm, what is the reason?
i a'u cu'i do ne ka'ai pa nanla cu se zdaniIt's none of my business that you live with a boy.
i a'u nai do co'i speni lo fangeYou married a stranger, it's none of my business, I'd avoid this topic.
i a'u nai iu nai panci fa lo kalci i ai nai mi citka tiYuck, that smells like shit! I'm not going to eat this.
Related words: lo se cinri

ai [interjection]I'm gonna ... (intent), ai cu'i — indecision, ai nai — unintentionally, accidentally

i ai mi vitke doI'm going to visit you.
i a'i cu'i mi klama lo zarciI'm indecisive to whether I should go to a shop.
i ai nai mi pu darxi doI didn't mean to hit you.
Related words: te mukti, zukte, cuxna

aidjix1(entity) intends to do x2(property of x1)

lo se aidji — intended action.
i mi aidji lo ka klama la niponI am going to go to Japan.
Related words: lo te mukti

aktix1(entity) is running service x2(property of x1)

lo akti — active, in action, working, in operation. lo se akti — active operation.
i gau ko ta to'e aktiTurn that off.
i gau ko ta aktiTurn it on.
i mi ba jai gau akti fai le minjiI will get the machine running.
i le zarci ca aktiThe shop is open.
i le minji ca akti lo ka cupra lo purmoThe machine is now in operation producing flour.
Related words: zukcfu, spofu

ankax1(entity) is a thigh, hip of x2(entity)

i le verba pu jai gau spofu lo anka be lo no'aThe child broke his thigh.
Related words: tornozelo

ankabutax1(entity) is a spider of species x2(taxon)

lo ankabuta — spider.
i xu do terpa tu'a lo ankabutaAre you afraid of spiders?
Related words: insekto, cinki, danlu

artex1(entity) is a piece of artwork

lo arte — piece of artwork.
i le vi arte pu jai rinka so'i nu darluThere've been a lot of debates caused by this artwork.
Related words: larcu, finti, pixra

arxokunax1(entity) is a raccoon of species x2(taxon)

lo arxokuna — raccoon.
i pa arxokuna cu zvati le mi kumfa co nu jukpaThere's a raccoon in my kitchen.
Related words: danlu, mabru

asnax1(property of x2) is a posture, stance, asana of body x2(entity)

lo asna — posture (of body), body position, stance (of body), asana.
i ra co'a se asna pa ckape ne'a le barda fenraHe took a dangerous pose near the abyss.
Related words: morna

au [interjection]Wish ... (desire), au cu'imeh (indifference), au naiNuh-uh! (disinclination, reluctance)

i au e'o tcatiI'd like some tea, please.
i au cu'i do jai gau bredi fai lo cidjaYou prepare the food or not ... I don't have any preferences.
i au nai do clivaI don't want you to leave.
i au mi stali bu'u lo zdani gi'e nai kansa le nakniI'd rather stay at home than come with him.
Related words: djica

ba [preposition of tense]after ... (in time), adverb: in future (expresses future tense)

i mi ba bevriI will bring it.
i lo snuti ba fasnuAccidents will happen.
i mi pu na kufra ba lo nu le festi cu cinba miI felt uncomfortable after she kissed me.

ba'a [interjection]I expect, ba'a cu'iI experience, ba'a naiI remember

i ba'a lo mamta be mi ca zvati le zdaniI expect my mother to be at home now.
i ba'a le pendo be mi pu jingaI expect my friend to have won.
i ba'a cu'i lo se klani be lo sovda cu lacri lo tcika be lo nu lo jipci co'a co'eIn my experience, the number of eggs depends on when a hen starts.
i ba'a nai do na nelci lo laldo prenuAs I remember, you don't like old people.
Comment: ba'a might refer to past events, which you simply don't have information about yet. ba'a marks not yet known, ba'a cu'i marks knowledge being acquired at the moment of speaking, ba'a nai marks already acquired knowledge.
Related words: lifri, vedli, kanpe

ba'e [left interjection] — puts an emphasis on the following construct

i mi djuno le du'u ma kau darxi ba'e la alisI know who hit ALICE (not someone else).
i vajni ba'e miIt's important to ME.
Related words: ba'e, za'e

ba'o [preposition of aspect]in the aftermath (retrospective aspect)

i mi ba'o citka pa pliseI have eaten an apple.
i mi'o ba'o tavlaWe are done talking.
i mi ba'o xagjiI'm no longer hungry.

ba'u [interjection] — exaggeration, ba'u cu'ito be precise, literally, ba'u naito put it mildly (understatement)

i do no ba'u roi jimpe fi miYou never understand me.
i le pa tadni pu no ba'u cu'i roi jimpe zo'e noi mi ciksi fo ke'aThe student literally never understood my explanations.
i le terdi cu barda ba'u naiThe Earth is big, to put it mildly.
Related words: satci, zildukse

bacrux1(entity) utters x2(sound, text)

lo se bacru — uttered text or sound.
i ko na cladu bacruDon't talk loud.
i le nakni pu bacru lu pa no li'uHe said "Ten".
Comment: bacru is to vocally utter an actual sound, cusku is to say some text (which can be in any form including vocal)
Related words: krixa, cusku, casnu, tavla, voksa, pinka

badnax1(entity) is a banana fruit or plant of species x2(taxon)

lo badna — banana.
i ma jdima lo badna poi kilto lo grakeHow much is the kilo of bananas?
Related words: grute

badrix1(entity) is sad about x2(clause, property of x1)

lo badri — sad. lo se badri — sad event.
i mi pu badri lo nu mi pu e'ande le fetsi lo ka zukte ma kauI was sad of what I had allowed her to do.
Related words: klaku, gleki, betri, cinmo, junri

bai [preposition from bapli]compelled by force ...

i mi pu stali bu'u lo zdani bai lo ka bilmaI stayed at home forced by my illness.

bajrax1(entity) runs on surface x2(entity) using limbs x3(entity) ...

lo bajra — runner.
i mi bajra vi'i lo mitre be li ci ki'oI ran three thousands meters.
i xu do su'o roi senva lo ka bajra lo jdika grana loi xance be doHave you ever dreamt of running on your hands on a narrow rod?
Comment: doesn't necessarily imply any destination point. bajra muvdu can be used to describe both moving to and from some places by running.
Related words: cadzu, klama, litru, stapa, plipe, cpare

bakfux1(entity) is a pack or bundle containing x2(entity group) held together by x3(entity)

lo bakfu — pack, bundle. lo se bakfu — content of a pack.
i ti bakfu lo se dunda lo dasriThis is a gift packed with a ribbon into a bundle.
Related words: daski, dakli, tanxe

baknix1(entity) is a cow or bovine of species x2(taxon)

lo bakni — cow.
i mu bakni cu zvati le purdiThere are five cows in the garden.
Related words: danlu

bakrix1(entity) is some chalk ...

lo bakri — chalk.
i mi xebni lo bakri i ki'u bo ri punji lo purmo lo xanceI hate chalk. It leaves powder on hands.
Related words: pinsi, blabi, jilka

baktux1(entity) is a pail, bucket containing x2(entity) ...

lo baktu — bucket, pail. lo se baktu — contents of a bucket.
i ko bevri le baktu be lo festi fo le dinjuTake the pail of bucket out of the house.
Related words: botpi, patxu, tansi, lante, lanka

baljix1(entity) is a bulb of plant x2(taxon)

lo balji — bulb (of a plant).
i ra pu sombo pa balji be lo xrula le purdiShe planted a flower bulb in the garden.
Related words: spati

balnemax1(entity) is a baleen whale of species x2(taxon)

lo balnema — baleen whale.
i lei litru ca'o zgana lo melbi nu muvdu fa le balnemaThe tourists are watching the graceful movement of a baleen whale.

balnix1(entity) is a balcony or shelf of structure x2(entity)

lo balni — balcony. lo se balni — building with a balcony.
i mi cpana lo balni be le mi zdaniI am on the balcony of my home.
i lo jvinu be fi le balni cu melbiThe view from the balcony is beautiful.
Related words: kajna

balrex1(entity) is a blade of tool or weapon x2(entity)

lo balre — blade. lo se balre — tool with a blade, weapon with a blade.
i le balre be le dakfu cu kinliThe blade of the knife is sharp.
Related words: dakfu, tunta, tutci, guska, kinli, katna

balvix1(clause) is in the future of x2(clause) ; x1 is later than x2

lo balvi — later event, future event. lo se balvi — earlier event, past event.
i lo nu la kevin cu cliva pu balvi lo nu mi tsuku le xotliKevin left, and that happened after my arrival to the hotel.
Related words: lidne, cabna, purci, farna

bambolax1(entity) is a doll

lo bambola — doll.
i le nixli cu nelci tu noi bambolaThe girl likes that doll.
Related words: keltci, kelci

bambux1(entity) is a bamboo of variety x2(taxon)

lo bambu — bamboo.
i le bambu cu torni lo brifeBamboo bends before the wind.
Related words: spati, tricu

bancux1(entity) is beyond boundary x2(same type as x1) from x3(same type as x1) in x4(property of x1)

i da lalxu gi'e bancu le tcaduThere is a lake beyond the city.
i lo tai fasnu cu bancu lo se kakne be miSuch things are beyond my powers.
i le zdani cu bancu le vu tricu ti lo ka darno tiThe house is beyond those trees from here in how far it is from here.
Related words: zildukse, ragve, zmadu, kuspe

bandux1(clause) defends x2(entity) from threat x3(property of x2)

i lo nu brife e lo nu carvi cu bandu le dinju lo ka jelcaWind and rain protect the house from burning.
Related words: ckape, fanta, fapro, marbi, rivbi, zunti, snura, binra, lunbe, pulji

banfix1(entity) is an amphibian of species x2(taxon)

lo banfi — amphibian.
i lo remna cu simsa lo banfi lo ka se tarmiHumans look like amphibians.
Related words: danlu, respa

bangux1(entity) is a language used by x2(entity) to express x3(proposition)

lo bangu — language. lo se bangu — user of a language.
i xu do se bangu la lojbanDo you speak Lojban?
i le nanmu pu pilno lo bangu be fi lo mablaThe man used foul language.
Comment: x2 are usually live beings or computer programs.
Related words: tance, cusku, ve tavla, valsi, gerna, jufra, natmi, slaka

banlix1(entity) is great, magnificent in x2(property of x1) ...

lo banli — great (superior).
i le xamsi cu banli lo ka se jvinu ma kau le kumfa be le xotliThe sea looks magnificent from the hotel room.
Related words: barda, nobli, se sinma, pluja, misno, vajni, fasnu, cizra, traji, mutce, marvele

banrox1(entity) grows to size or into form x2(entity) from x3(entity)

i le spati ca'o banro lo tricu lo se katna jimcaThe plant is growing into a tree from a cut off branch.
Related words: farvi, zenba, jmina, barda, makcu, ferti

banxax1(entity) is a bank owned by x2(entity) for banking functions x3(clause)

lo banxa — bank. lo se banxa — bank owner, bank system. lo te banxa — function of bank.
i ti banxa le gugde lo ka canja fo lo kagni i je to'u ti banxa fi lo kagniThis bank owned by state works with companies, in short, this is a commercial bank.
Comment: x2 can be a banking system.
Related words: sorcu, zarci, canja, kagni

banzux1(clause) is enough for purpose x2(clause) to take place ...

i lo nu mi tavla fo la lojban na banzu lo nu mi jimpe doMy level of speaking Lojban isn't enough to understand you.
i lo nu do ca klama cu da'i banzu lo nu do tsuku ca le se tcikaLeaving now would be enough for you to arrive on time.
i banzu lo se djica be miIt's enough for me.
Related words: zildukse, claxu, nitcu, ricfu, e'ande

baplix1(clause) forces, convinces x2(clause) to occur

lo bapli — force.
i le tcima pu bapli lo nu le nakni cu stali lo zdaniThe violent weather forced him to stay at home.
i le snuti pu bapli lo nu le prenu cu zenba co jundiThe accident convinced him to be more careful.
Related words: fanta, rinju, jimte, jitro, rinka, krinu, zukte, tolpro, danre, bai, marxa, tinsa, xarnu

bardax1(entity) is big, large in length/width etc. x2(property of x1) ...

lo barda — large, big.
i le tanxe pu barda lo ka se canluThe box occupied large space.
i le nu penmi pu barda lo ka se ditcuThe meeting lasted for a large amount of time.
Related words: banli, clani, ganra, condi, plana, cmalu, rotsu, banro, xanto

bargux1(entity) is an arch over or around x2(entity) ...

lo bargu — arch.
i lei tricu cu bargu le darguThe trees form an arch over the road.
Related words: cripu, korcu, condi

barjax1(entity) is a bar serving x2(entity) to customers x3(entity)

lo barja — bar.
i ti barja lo ckafi lo litruThis is a bar serving coffee to tourists.
Related words: gusta, birje, jikru, sanmi, vanju, xotli, ckafi, se pinxe

barnax1(entity) is a mark, spot on x2(entity) ...

lo barna — mark, spot.
i le barna be le kamju cu flalu barna le darguThe mark on the pillar is a road sign.
Related words: sinxa, pixra, se ciska, se prina

bartux1(entity) is outside of x2(entity)

lo bartu — something outside. lo se bartu — something inside.
i ei mi klama lo bartu be lo zdaniI should go out.
Related words: jibni, nenri, sruri, lamji, korbi, calku, vasru

basnax1(entity) emphasizes x2(entity) by action x3(property of x1)

lo se basna — emphasis (something emphasized).
i mi pu basna lo nu lo nu ca'o gunka cu vajni vau lo ka cladu cuskuI emphasized the importance of continuing to work by saying it aloud.

bastix1(entity) is a replacement for x2(entity) ; x1 is instead of x2 ...

lo basti — replacement (object). lo se basti — something replaced.
i ma ba basti doWho will replace you?
Related words: se ba'i, binra

batcix1(entity) bites or pinches x2(entity) ...

lo se batci — bitten.
i pa gerku pu batci mi re'o lo tupleA dog bit me in the leg.
Related words: denci, jgalu, guska, citka

batkex1(entity) is a button or knob on x2(entity) ...

lo batke — button.
i ra pu ru'i jgari pa batke be lo kosta pe vo'aHe was holding a button of his coat.
Related words: jadni, balji, punji, jgari, lasna

bau [preposition]in language ...

i mi tavla bau la lojbanI talk in Lojban language.
Comment: in the clause where bau is used x1 is user of the language, the clause itself describes what is expressed in this language.

bavlamdeix1(clause) is tomorrow, the day that follows the day x2(clause)

lo bavlamdei — tomorrow, the day that follows.
i ko klama ca lo bavlamdeiCome tomorrow!
i ca lo bavlamdei be lo nu mi tsuku vau mi co'a ganse lo cizraOn the day following my arrival I started feeling something strange.
Related words: djedi, cabdei, prulamdei, cedra, ditcu

bavmix1(entity) is some barley of species x2(taxon)

lo bavmi — barley.
i lo bavmi cu ralju se cupra bu'uBarley is the main product here.
Related words: gurni

be — continues the verb by adding more nouns to it (by default starting from x2) and prepositions

i lo tixnu be mi cu melbiMy daughter is pretty.
Related words: bei

be'e [vocative] — request to send/speak

i be'e lo nobli do mulno xuPardon, Sir/Madam, are you finished?
i be'e le pendoHello, are you still there, friend?

be'i [preposition from benji]sent by ...

i ti me lo se dunda ne be'i la kevinThis a present sent by Kevin.

be'o [terminator] — ends a construct started with: be, bei

be'u [interjection modifier] — lack/need, be'u cu'i — presence/satisfaction, be'u nai — satiation

i u'i be'u ko skicu lo pa drata lisriHehe, not that funny, tell me another story.
i ui be'u cu'i do bevri le re verba mlatu noi mi pu djicaYay, you brought the two kittens whom I wanted.
i u'i be'u nai ba'a mi ca farlu lo loldiHa-ha-ha, so funny, I can't laugh anymore, I might fall down to the floor now.
Related words: claxu, nitcu, mansa

bebnax1(entity) is foolish, stupid in x2(property of x1)

lo bebna — fool, stupid. lo se bebna — foolish action.
i ko na bebna lo ka fe da ca'o cuskuDon't be silly in repeating the same.
Related words: fenki, xajmi, prije, fliba

bei [middle separator] — separates nouns attached to verb with be — ends a construct started with: be

bekpix1(entity) is the back, dorsum, 'posterior' body-part of x2(entity)

lo bekpi — back (of body).
i lo bekpi be mi za'o se cortuMy back still hurts.
Comment: not necessarily at the back of body (determined by bilateral symmetry of the body).
Related words: trixe, cutne

bemrox1(entity) is North American in x2(property of x1)

lo bemro — North American.
i mi nelci lo bemro tumlaI like North American lands.
Related words: merko, ketco

bendex1(entity) is a team or crew of persons x2(entity group) led by x3(entity) ...

lo bende — team (crew). lo se bende — member of a team. lo te bende — leader of a team.
i mi cmima pa bende be lo stati prenu bei la robin bei te fi'e lo ka tadni la lojbanI am a member of a team of smart people led by Robin and learning Lojban.
Related words: gunma, girzu, dansu, jatna, jitro, kagni, kamni, minde, ralju, cecmu, gidva

benjix1(entity) transmits x2(entity) to receiver x3(entity) from origin x4(entity) via x5(entity)

lo benji — transmitter. lo te benji — transmission receiver. lo ve benji — origin of a transmission. lo xe benji — medium of transmission.
i mi ba benji lo xatra do fu la internet fo lo skami pe lo mi zdaniI will send you a letter via the internet from my home computer.
i pa gunka pu benji pa sinxa pa drata gunka lo galtu lo sanceA worker sent a sound signal to another worker from the above.
Comment: transmitter in English can denote both lo benji and lo xe benji.
Related words: muvdu, dunda, mrilu, nirna, volta, cradi, tivni, preja, be'i, bevri, mrilu, tcana

bersax1(entity) is a son of x2(entity)

lo bersa — son. lo se bersa — parent of a son.
i mi se bersa re daI have two sons.
Related words: tixni, se rirni, verba, nanla, nakni, patfu, bruna

bertix1(entity) is to the northern side of x2(entity) ...

lo berti — northern.
i za'u pa purdi be fi lo grute cu berti le tcaduFruit gardens are to the north of the city.
Related words: snanu, stici, stuna, farna

besnax1(entity) is a brain of x2(entity)

lo besna — brain.
i ro remna da se besnaAll humans have brains.
Related words: menli, stedu, rango, pensi

betfux1(entity) is a belly, abdomen, lower trunk of body x2(entity)

lo betfu — abdomen, belly.
i lo betfu be mi cu se cortuMy belly hurts.
Related words: cutne, livga, canti

betkax1(entity) is a beet of variety x2(taxon)

lo betka — beet.
i ti na ciblu gi'e ja'a betkaIt's not blood. It's beet.
Related words: stagi

betrix1(property of x2) is a tragedy for x2(entity)

lo betri — tragedy.
i pu betri le nakni fa lo ka co'u se bersa lo ro pa meiIt was a tragedy for him to lose his only son.
Related words: badri, xlali, morsi, binra

bevrix1(entity) brings, transports x2(entity) to x3(entity) from x4(entity) by path x5(entity)

lo bevri — carrier. lo se bevri — cargo.
i mi pu bevri pa patxu be lo nudle fu'e ta'o fi pa purdi fo pa nu jukpa vau kumfa fu pa rokci dargu fu'oI carried a bowl of noodles (to the garden from the kitchen via a rocky road).
i la kevin pu bevri pa gerku lo zdaniKevin brought a dog home.
i mi pu bevri pa fonxa fo pa daskiI took the phone out of the pocket.
Related words: bevri, marce, muvdu, benji, klama

bi [digit/number]8, eight

i bi xrula ca zvati le purdiThere are 9 pencils that I use.

bi'i [conjunction]between ... and ...

i mi sanli pa dinju bi'i pa rirxeI am standing between a house and a river.

bi'o [conjunction]between ... and ... (ordered)

i mi gunka de'i li cy bi bi'o li cy pa zeI work from 8 to 17 o'clock.

bi'u [interjection] — newly introduced information, bi'u nai — previously introduced information

i lo bi'u nai nixli pu klama pa panka i bi'u le nixli ca tavla pa nanla bu'u le pankaThat girl (mentioned earlier), she went to a park. What is new is that she is talking to a boy there.
Comment: the situation may be not new but that the noun marked with bi'u appears in it is new. bi'u introduces new objects, events facts, not just rephrases earlier facts.
Related words: cnino

bidjux1(entity) is a bead, pebble ...

lo bidju — pebble, bead.
i mu bidju pu zvati tiThere were five pebbles here.
Related words: bolci, canre, lakse, dirgo

bifcex1(entity) is a bee or wasp of species x2(taxon)

lo bifce — bee, wasp.
i lo bifce cu vofli ne'a lo xrulaBees are flying near the flowers.
Related words: cinki, sfani, lakse

biklax1(entity) whips, lashes

lo bikla — whip.
i lo carvi pu bikla ta'i lo ka janli pa cankoThe rain whipped against the window.
Related words: skori, darxi

bilgax1(entity) is obligated to do x2(property of x1) by agreement x3(proposition)

lo se bilga — obligation, duty.
i mi bilga lo ka jai gau volta fai ti noi cukta vau ca lo cabdei vau pa pu se nupre be miI must return this book today fulfilling my earlier promise.
Related words: zifre, fuzme

bilmax1(entity) is ill, sick with symptoms x2(property of x1) from disease x3(clause)

lo bilma — ill. lo se bilma — symptom of an illness. lo te bilma — disease.
i ra pu terpa lo ka co'a bilma fi la zukamShe was afraid to catch a cold.
i mi bilma lo ka cortu lo denci vau lo influ'enzaI've got the flu and my teeth hurt.
Related words: kanro, mikce, spita, senci, kafke, binra

binrax1(entity) insures x2(entity) against threat x3(clause) with benefit x4(entity)

lo binra — insurer, underwriter. lo se binra — insured thing or person. lo ve binra — insurance compensation.
i le kagni cu binra lo se esporte lo xrani lo ka pleji lo jdiniThe company insures the sportsman against injuries by paying money as an insurance.
Related words: bandu, cirko, betri, basti, bilma

binxox1(entity) transforms into x2(entity) ...

i ba zi ku mi binxo lo glekiSoon I will become happy.
i do pu binxo lo lazniYou became lazy.
Comment: binxo describes that entity turns into another entity, galfi is to turn one entity into another one. cenba describes how entity changes its state while remaining the same entity, stika is to make entity change its state.
Related words: cenba, galfi, stika, zasni

birjex1(entity) some beer brewed from x2(entity)

lo birje — beer, ale.
i ti birje lo badnaThis is banana beer.
Related words: pinxe, barja, jikru, vanju, xalka, fusra

birkax1(entity) is an arm of body x2(entity)

lo birka — arm.
i ra jai se torni pa birka be miShe twisted my arm.
Related words: jimca, janco, xance, rebla

birtix1(entity) is convinced that x2(proposition) is true

lo birti — convinced, sure.
i mi birti le du'u do ba snadaI am sure you will succeed.
i xu do mo'u jai gau birti fai loi rirni lo nu le nu litru na ckapeHave you persuaded your parents that the journey wouldn't be dangerous?
Related words: jetnu, jinvi, krici, djuno, senpi, sruma

bislix1(entity) is some ice ...

lo bisli — ice.
i au mi viska lo bisli cmanaI'd like to see ice mountains.
Related words: kunra, litki, lenku, krili, bratu, snime, carvi

bitmux1(entity) is a wall of construct x2(entity) ...

lo bitmu — fence, wall. lo se bitmu — building with walls.
i lo bitmu be le purdi jo'u le foldi cu rotsuThe fence between the garden and the field is thick.
i pa me ti noi bitmu le malsi cu sinxa lo pu nu le gugde cu vlipaOne of these walls of the temple is a sign of the past power of the country.
Related words: jbini, sepli, fendi, canko, drudi, kumfa, loldi, senta, snuji, pagre, gacri, kuspe, marbi, vorme

bitnix1(entity) is x2(number) bits in size

lo se bitni — bit (data).
i le vreji cu bitni lo kiltoThe file is 1000 bit.
Related words: datni

blabix1(entity) is white

lo blabi — white.
i lo denci be le fetsi pu blabiHer teeth were white.
Related words: skari, xekri, grusi, kandi, manku, carmi, bakri, blanu, bunre, cicna, crino, narju, nukni, pelxu, xunre, zirpu

blacix1(entity) is some glass ...

lo blaci — glass (substance).
i le kabri cu blaciThe cup is made of glass.
Related words: kabri

blanux1(entity) is blue

lo blanu — blue.
i lo tsani cu blanu ca lo cabdeiThe sky is blue today.
Related words: skari, blabi, xekri, zirpu, kandi, carmi, cicna

blatox1(entity) is a cockroach, termite of species x2(taxon)

lo blato — cockroach.
i lo blato cu mipri lo nei ca lo donriCockroaches hide themselves during daytime.
Related words: cinki, civla, manti

blikux1(entity) is a block ...

lo bliku — block.
i le dinju cu te zbasu lo rokci blikuThe house is built of stone blocks.
Related words: tapla, kubli, tanbo, canlu, kojna, sefta, bolci, kurfa, tarmi

blondinex1(entity) is blond, fair-haired

lo blondine — blond.
i pa blondine nixli pu tsuku te zu'e lo ka penmi doA girl with blond hair arrived to meet you.
Comment: blond is a color special to mammal and human hair.
Related words: brunete, kerfa

blotix1(entity) is a boat or ship for carrying x2(entity) ...

lo bloti — boat. lo se bloti — cargo of a boat, passenger of a boat.
i mi pu ca'o se bloti pa te falnuI was a passenger on a sailboat.
Related words: falnu, fulta, marce, jatna, sabnu

bo [1st meaning] — more tightly binds two parts inside a compound verb

i mi pu penmi pa drata merko bo jbopreI met another American Lojbanist.
i ko catlu lo barda se kanla melbiLook at the beauty with big eyes.
i ko catlu lo barda se kanla bo melbiLook at the big beauty-with-eyes.
Related words: ke

bo [2nd meaning] — placed after preposition to bind the sentence to the previous sentence

i mi pu plipe i ja'e bo mi pu kuspe lo drudiI jumped so that I reached the roof.
Related words: i

bo [3rd meaning] — placed after preposition to bind constructs from both sides of a conjunction

i la tom pu bilma gi'e ja'e bo pu na kakne lo ka klamaTom was ill and that's why couldn't come.
i mi e ba bo do klama lo nenriFirst I, then you enter.
Related words: i

boi — ends a string of numbers

i mi pu citka ci boi ro moi jbariI ate three last berries.
Comment: usually used to separate a number from the next number belonging to another construct.

bolcix1(entity) is a ball ...

lo bolci — ball, sphere.
i le bolci pu gunro fe'e mo'u lo flu'enteThe ball rolled into the stream.
Related words: bliku, cukla, bidju, gunro

bombilax1(entity) is a light bulb

lo bombila — light bulb.
i le bombila cu spofuThe light bulb is broken.
Related words: minji, cabra, matra, tutci

bongux1(entity) is a bone of body part or body x2(entity) ...

lo bongu — bone.
i mi pu darxi lo bongu be lo tuple be mi se pi'o pa granaI hit my leg bone with a stick.
Related words: greku, denci, jirna, sarji

boskex1(entity) is a forest with components x2(taxon)

lo boske — forest, selva, jungles.
i ti boske lo clani tricu jo'u lo kliti dertuThis is a forest of long trees and clay loams.
Related words: foldi, tricu, mudri, gumri, danlu

botpix1(entity) is a bottle for x2(entity) ...

lo botpi — bottle, jar, flask. lo se botpi — contents of a bottle.
i le botpi be lo birje cu blaciBottles of beer are made of glass.
Comment: bottle described by botpi must have a lid by design. For bottles without lids use kabri or patxu.
Related words: baktu, lante, patxu, tansi, tanxe, vasru, gacri

boxfox1(entity) is a sheet ...

lo boxfo — sheet, blanket.
i mi ba bevri pa boxfo doI will bring you a blanket.
Related words: plita, cinje, polje, slasi, tinci

boxnax1(entity) is a wave in x2(entity) ...

lo boxna — wave.
i da pu barda boxna le xamsiThere was a big wave in the sea.
Related words: slilu, dikni, cinje, polje, morna, canre

bradix1(entity) is an enemy of x2(entity) in struggle x3(property of x1 and x2)

lo bradi — enemy. lo se bradi — someone who has an enemy. lo te bradi — struggle between enemies.
i lo tance be mi mi bradi lo nu mi troci lo ka pilno le tance lo ka bacru lo lojbo valsiMy tongue is my enemy when I'm trying to use it to utter Lojban words.
Related words: damba, jamna, darlu, pendo, fapro, gunta, sarji, jivna, jinga

bramlatux1(entity) is a big cat of species x2(taxon)

lo bramlatu — tiger, lion, panther, leopard, cheetah.
i ju'o cu'i lo bramlatu cu se zdani le tutraBig cats may inhabit this area.
Related words: cinfo, mlatu

bratux1(entity) is hail ...

lo bratu — hail, sleet.
i le bratu pu vlileThe hailstorm was violent.
Related words: carvi, snime, bisli, tcima

brazox1(entity) is Brazilian in x2(property of x1)

lo brazo — Brazilian.
i le finti cu brazoThe author is Brazilian.
Related words: porto, ketco

bredix1(entity) is ready for x2(clause)

lo bredi — ready.
i mi bredi lo ka cadzu ka'ai doI am ready to walk with you.
Related words: spaji, jukpa

bridix1(proposition) is a predicate relationship with the main relation x2(property of nonce place, has places for ce'u applied to x3) and having arguments x3(ordered entity group)

i le du'u mi dunda ti do cu bridi lo ka dunda vau mi ce'o ti ce'o doThat I give this to you is a relationship with the main relation of giving and sequential arguments being me, this and you.
i le du'u mi prami do cu bridi lo ka ce'u prami ce'u vau mi ce'o doThat I love you is a grammatical relationship with the main relation of someone loving someone and the roles being me and you correspondingly.
Related words: sumti, fancu

brifex1(entity) is wind from direction x2(entity) ...

lo brife — wind. lo se brife — direction of a wind.
i oi le brife be lo berti se la'u li du'e carmiOh, the northern wind is too strong.
Related words: tcima

brijux1(entity) is an office or bureau of workers x2(entity) ...

lo briju — office (bureau).
i ti briju le mikceThis is the doctor's office.
Related words: jibri, gunka

brisnix1(text) is a clause with the main verb x2(text) that has arguments x3(ordered text group)

lo brisni — grammatical clause. lo se brisni — main verb of a clause. lo te brisni — places of a grammatical clause.
i lu ma nuzba li'u brisni"What's up?" is a grammatical clause.
i lu mi dunda ti do li'u brisni zo dunda zo mi ce'o zo ti ce'o zo do"I give this to you." is a clause with the main verb "give" that has sequential places "I","this","you".
Related words: bridi, sumti, fancu

broda [verb] — to be the thingumajig No. 1 (predicate variable 1)

i mi pu klama cei broda le zarci i ba bo mi ze'a sipna i xu do ba brodaI went to the market, and then I slept. Will you go to the market?
Comment: a placeholder for any verb (that thus can have any place structure). broda, brode etc. are just variables, they can denote different verbs or the same verb. broda brode is a generalized representation of a compound verb (lo tanru) made of two verbs.
Related words: bu'a

brode [verb] — to be the thingumajig No. 2 (predicate variable 2)

i la alis mo'u citka cei brode pa plise i je la kevin cu brodeAlice has eaten up an apple. And Kevin ate an apple too.
Comment: can have any place structure.
Related words: bu'a, broda

brodi [verb] — to be the thingumajig No. 3 (predicate variable 3)

i la alis cu zbasu cei brodi lo pixra i mi na brodiAlice draw pictures. I don't.
Comment: can have any place structure.
Related words: bu'a, broda

brodo [verb] — to be the thingumajig No. 4 (predicate variable 4)

i ma pu renro cei brodo le rokci i mu'a mi pu na brodoWho threw the rock? For example, I didn't.
Comment: can have any place structure.
Related words: bu'a, broda

brodu [verb] — to be the thingumajig No. 5 (predicate variable 5)

i ti gusta lo se nelci be mi cei brodu i ku'i lo mamta be mi ku ji'a cu zbasu lo broduThis restaurant serves the food that I like. However, my mother as well makes the food that I like.
Comment: can have any place structure.
Related words: bu'a, broda

brunax1(entity) is a brother of x2(entity) bonded by x3(property of x1 and x2)

lo bruna — brother. lo se bruna — sibling of a brother.
i do bruna mi lo ka se mamtaYou are my brother since we are born from the same mother.
Related words: mensi, tunba, tamne, famti, bersa

brunetex1(entity) is a brunet/brunette, having brown or black hair

lo brunete — brunet.
i doi la alis do te rai nelci lo blondine ji lo bruneteAlice, whom do you like more, blondes or brunets?
Related words: blondine, kerfa

bu — turn one word into letter pronoun

i mi pilno la'e me'o vy bu vy bu vy buI use WWW.
i la alis pu klama pa zarci i je ku'i mi na djuno le du'u a bu pu te vecnu ma kauAlice went to a store, but I don't know what A (Alice) bought.
Comment: From verbs: xy zei kantu bu (lujvo formed with zei). From nouns: vy. bu (it denotes the letter "w" and thus isn't the same as vy.), zo a bu, zoi ly.klama.ly. bu, lo'u klam le'u bu. The following sequences are not grammatical: bu bu, si bu, sa bu, zei bu, fa'o bu, zo bu, zoi bu, lo'u bu.

bu'a [verb]there exists some relation: 1st verb of bu'a, bu'e, bu'i series

i fau lo nu do djica lo nu bu'a cu bu'a gau koIf there is something you want to happen, make it happen.

bu'e [verb]there exists some relation: 2nd verb of bu'a, bu'e, bu'i series

i su'o bu'a su'o bu'e su'o bu'i zo'u lo nu bu'a cu ka'e se jalge lo nu bu'e ca lo nu bu'iThere is an event X, an event Y and event Z such that X can lead to Y during Z.

bu'i [verb]there exists some relation: 3rd verb of bu'a, bu'e, bu'i series

i su'o bu'a su'o bu'e su'o bu'i zo'u lo nu bu'a cu ka'e se jalge lo nu bu'e ca lo nu bu'iThere is an event X, an event Y and event Z such that X can lead to Y during Z.

bu'o [interjection modifier] — shows the start of emotion, bu'o cu'i — shows the continuation of emotion, bu'o nai — shows the end of emotion

i za'o ku do tsuku ui bu'oAt last you arrived, and I'm happy now!
i ua nai bu'o cu'i la alis cu simsa fi lo ka na zvatiWhat's going on, Alice is also not present.
i u'i bu'o nai mi di'a gunkaEnough laughing, I'm back to work.

bu'u [preposition of place]at ... (some place)

i mi xabju ze'a lo nanca be li ci lo bu'u dinjuI've been living for three years in this house.
i le verba ca sipna bu'u le kumfaThe child is now sleeping in the room.

budjox1(entity) is Buddhist in x2(property of x1)

lo budjo — Buddhist.
i xu do budjoAre you a Buddhist?
Related words: latna, lijda

bukpux1(entity) is some cloth ...

lo bukpu — cloth.
i le bukpu cu cpana le jubmeThe cloth is on the table.
Related words: mapni, matli, sunla, slasi, silka

bumrux1(entity) is covered by a fog or mist of liquid x2(entity)

lo bumru — foggy. lo se bumru — fog, mist.
i le xamsi cu bumru lo lenku dirgoThe sea is covered by a fog of cold drops.
Related words: djacu, carvi, danmo, lunsa, tcima, gapci

bundax1(entity) is x2(number) weight units in standard x3(property of x1) ...

i ti noi tanxe cu bunda li pa no lo ka ki'ograThis box is 10 kilograms in weight.
Related words: grake, junta, tilju, rupnu, fepni, dekpu, gutci, minli, merli, kramu

bunrex1(entity) is brown

lo bunre — brown.
i le bunre gerku pu zvafa'i pa blabi ractuThe brown dog found a white rabbit.
Related words: skari, blabi, xekri, kandi, carmi

burcux1(entity) is a brush for doing x2(clause) with bristles x3(entity)

lo burcu — brush. lo se burcu — purpose for a brush. lo te burcu — bristle of a brush.
i ti burcu lo nu punji lo cinta vau lo cmaluThis is a brush for painting with small bristles.
Related words: kombitu, pinsi

burnax1(entity) is flustered, disconcerted by x2(clause)

lo burna — flustered. lo se burna — befuddling event.
i xu do burna lo ka pilno la lojbanAre you disconcerted of using Lojban?
Related words: cinmo

by [pronoun]b (letter)

Comment: prefixed with me'o is a quotation of the letter. When used alone refers to the last noun with the verb starting with this letter like by is for the last lo bredi used.

ca [preposition of tense]during ..., at ... (at time), simultaneousely with ... (in time), adverb: meanwhile, now, currently (expresses present tense)

i lei rirni pu zvati lo barja i ca bo lei verba cu kansa no da bu'u lo zdaniThe parents were in the bar; meanwhile the children were alone at home.
i ko smaji ca lo nu mi tavlaBe quite while I'm talking.
i ca lo nu do cinmo lo ka kansa no da zo'u ko morji lo se gleki be mi'o mokcaWhen you feel lonely, remember the happy moments we had together.
i mi pu prami do i mi ca prami do i mi ba prami doI loved you. I love you. I will love you.

ca'a [preposition of potential]actually is ..., actually does ...

i mi ca'a limnaI'm actually swimming.
i la kevin ca ca'a jatnaKevin is now acting as a captain.
Comment: describes demonstrated activity.
Related words: jarco, pu'i, fau

ca'e [interjection]I define

i ca'e do zutse vaYou sit there!
i ca'e do klama ka'ai miYou go with me!
i ca'e lo se gunka cu mulnoThe work is hereby done.
i ca'e gusniLet there be light!
Related words: jetnu

ca'o [preposition of aspect] — progress of the event. be doing ... (someone or something), being ... (someone or something), already

i le verba ca'o citkaThe child is eating.
Comment: describes an event as progressing whether or not it is continuous (for which ru'i is to be used); progressive aspect.

ca'u [preposition of cardinal direction]to the front of ..., between me and ...

i lo snime cu mitre li pa ca'u lo vorme pe doThere is snow one meter thick in front of your door.

cabdeix1(clause) is today, the same day as x2(clause)

lo cabdei — today.
i lo cabdei cu detri li jy dy zeToday is Sunday.
Related words: djedi, prulamdei, bavlamdei, cedra, ditcu

cabnax1(clause) is current with x2(clause) in time

lo cabna — current, concurrent, simultaneous.
i lo xamgu fasnu cu cabna lo xlali fasnuGood and bad events happen at the same time.
Related words: zvati, balvi, purci, ca, ca'a

cabrax1(entity) is apparatus for function x2(clause) controlled by agent x3(entity)

lo cabra — apparatus. lo se cabra — function of an apparatus.
i ti cabra lo ka zalvi lo gurni vau lo xanceThis is a hand-controlled machine for grinding grain.
Comment: cabra is for devices controlled by external force, minji is for machines working automatically, zmiku is for robots in general.
Related words: tutci, minji, finti, girzu, ganzu, pilno

cacrax1(clause) is x2(number) hours in duration ...

lo cacra — hour-long event.
i ca ku lo nicte cu cacra li muAt this time, night is 5 hours long.
Comment: if x2 is not used denotes one hour in duration
Related words: junla, mentu, snidu, tcika, temci

cadzux1(entity) walks on surface x2(entity) with limbs x3

lo cadzu — walker.
i mi pu ru'i cadzu lo srasu lo jamfu ca lo nu do tsukuI was walking on the grass on foot when you arrived.
Related words: stapa, bajra, klama, litru

cafnex1(clause) occurs frequently ...

lo cafne — frequent event.
i banzu cafne fa lo nu mi vitke lo patfu be miIt's quite often that I visit my father.
Related words: rirci, fadni, kampu, rapli, krefu, lakne, so'i roi

cagnax1(entity) at locus x2(entity)

lo cagna — wound.
i ti cagna lo pu se zvati be pa denci bu'u lo moklu be le nakni ri'a lo nu lo mikce mo'u vimcu le denciThis is a wound in his mouth at the place where there was a tooth and caused by removal of the tooth by a doctor.
Related words: xrani, bilma

cai [right scalar particle] — critical, extreme intensity

i oi caiAh, pain, I'm going to lose consciousness now!!!

caklax1(entity) is some chocolate or cocoa

lo cakla — chocolate.
i mi nelci lo blabi cakla ne se mau lo manku caklaI prefer white chocolate to dark chocolate.
Related words: ckafi

calkux1(entity) is a shell or husk around x2(entity) ...

lo calku — shell.
i mi nitcu lo calku be lo steduI need a head helmet.
Related words: pilka, skapi, gacri, bartu

cancix1(entity) vanishes from location x2(entity) ...

i do canci lo jvinu be fi miYou disappeared from my view.
Related words: cliva, ganse, zgana, lebna, vimcu

cangex1(entity) is a farm or ranch at x2(entity) farmed by x3(entity) that raises or produces x4(entity)

lo cange — farm. lo te cange — farmer. lo ve cange — farm production.
i ti cange lo barda tumla lo mensi be mi lo vanjbaThis is a farm covering a large parcel of land; it's kept by my sister and produces grapes.
Related words: purdi, nurma, ferti, foldi, xarju

canjax1(entity) trades commodity x2(entity, property of x1) for x3(entity, property of x4) with x4(entity)

lo canja — trader. lo se canja — commodity.
i e'u mi canja lo bidju lo ka jarco lo tatru be do mi vau doLet me give you these beads in exchange that you show me your breast.
Comment: jdima is for cost/price/value distinction.
Related words: dunda, friti, vecnu, zarci, jdini, pleji, jdima, jerna, kargu, banxa, cirko, dunda, janta, kargu, prali, sfasa, zivle

cankox1(entity) is a window or portal in wall or building x2(entity)

lo canko — window. lo se canko — building with a window.
i le canko be le karce cu kalriThe window in the car is open.
Related words: vorme, bitmu, ganlo, murta, pagre, kevna, jvinu, kalri, kuspe

canlux1(entity) is a space or room occupied by x2(entity)

lo canlu — space.
i lo canlu be le purdi cu bardaThe garden occupies a large space.
Related words: kensa, bliku, kumfa, kevna, kunti, tubnu, dekpu

canpax1(entity) is a shovel or spade for doing x2(clause)

lo canpa — shovel.
i ti canpa lo nu kakpa lo dertu vau ji lo nu katna lo genjaIs this spade for digging ground or for cutting roots?
Related words: kakpa, guska, tutci

canrex1(entity) is some sand or grit ...

lo canre — sand.
i mi pu zvafa'i lo jamfu prina be lo canreI found some footprints in the sand.
i mi pu se nandu lo ka cadzu lo canre poi gunma lo cmalu rokciIt was hard for me to walk on the sand made of small stones.
Related words: bidju, rokci, zalvi, boxna

cantix1(entity) is the intestines or guts of x2(entity)

lo canti — intestine, gut.
i lo jurme co'a xabju lo canti be lo cifnu ba zi lo nu ri jbenaBacteria colonize the intestines of a child soon after it is born.
Related words: betfu

carcex1(entity) is a carriage or wagon with wheels for carrying x2(entity) ...

lo carce — carriage. lo se carce — cargo of a carriage.
i mi sazri pa carce be lo karceI am driving a car transporter.
Comment: carce is designed to be with wheels, marce isn't and is more generic.
Related words: karce, xislu, marce, matra

carmix1(entity) is bright or intense in x2(property of x1) ...

lo carmi — bright, intense.
i ei do carmi lo ka tadniYou should study hard.
i ti noi bombila cu carmi lo ka te gusniThis light bulb gives a bright light.
Related words: denmi, gusni, kandi, ruble, skari, tilju, tsali, mutce, blabi, blanu, bunre, cicna, crino, grusi, narju, nukni, pelxu, xekri, xunre, zirpu

carnax1(entity) turns or rotates around axis x2(entity) in direction x3(entity)

lo carna — rotating. lo se carna — axis of rotation. lo te carna — direction of rotation.
i ko carna klama lo prituTurn to the right.
i ko pritu carnaTurn right.
i le xislu pu carna lo grana lo zunle ki lo galtuThe wheel was rotating around the rod counterclockwise when viewed from above.
Comment: in x3 use lo pritu for clockwise movement and zunle for counterclockwise movement.
Related words: gunro, jendu

cartux1(entity) is a chart or diagram of x2(entity) showing information x3(proposition)

lo cartu — chart. lo se cartu — picture on a chart.
i ti cartu pa fange tcadu lo darguThis is a map showing roads of an alien city.
i gau ko zgana fa mi lo cartu be lo nu'o se zvati be mi'oShow me a map of a place where you and I haven't been.
Related words: platu

carvix1(entity) rains or showers to x2(entity) from x3(entity)

lo carvi — rain. lo te carvi — rain cloud.
i ca ca'o carviIt's raining.
i lo snime pu carmi carvi le lalxu lo barda dilnuIt was snowing hard onto the lake from a large cloud.
Related words: bratu, dilnu, santa, snime, tcima, bisli, bumru

casnux1(entity group) discuss x2(entity)

lo casnu — debaters. lo se casnu — topic of a discussion.
i le fetsi jo'u mi pu casnu pa arteShe and I discussed a piece of art.
Comment: do jo'u mi casnu means You and I discuss with each other, la alis jo'u do jo'u bo mi casnu means Alices discusses with us (you and me) (not necessarily that you and I discuss it), do e mi casnu means You discuss, I discuss (not necessarily with each other, each of us might be discussing with different people).
Related words: bacru, cusku, darlu, tavla

catkex1(entity) shoves or pushes x2(entity) ...

i ko catke la'e me'o so pa paDial 911!
i le nixli pu catke le nanla re'o lo stedu be riThe girl pushed the boy on his head.
Comment: danre is for non-agentive force.
Related words: danre, darxi, lacpu

catlux1(entity) looks at x2(entity)

i ko catlu miLook at me.
Related words: jvinu, minra, simlu, viska, lanli, zgana, setca, viska

catnix1(entity) has authority over matter x2(property of x1) on the basis of x3(property of x2)

lo catni — someone with authority.
i mi co'a catni lo ka te cange ti vau lo ka te e'ande mi lo patfu be miThe authority to be a farmer on this land has been given to me by my father.
Related words: turni, tutra, krati, jaspu, pulji

catrax1(entity) kills x2(entity) ...

lo catra — killer. lo se catra — killed.
i le nakni cu kakne lo ka catra se pi'o pa rokci re cipniHe can kill two birds with one stone.
Related words: morsi, xarci

cau [preposition from claxu]lacked by ...

caucnix1(entity) misses, feels the lack of x2(entity)

i mi caucni doI miss you.
Related words: claxu, cinmo, badri, klaku, gleki, betri

caxnox1(entity) is shallow in direction x2(entity) away from reference point x3(entity) ...

lo caxno — shallow.
i ti noi lalxu cu caxno lo ka tsuku lo loldi be ce'u vau lo seftaThis lake is shallow in reaching the bottom from the surface.
Related words: condi, tordu, jarki, cinla, cmalu, jarki, jmifa

ce'i [digit/number] — '%' (percentage symbol), hundredths

i lo ninmu cu ji'i mu no ce'i si'ei lo remnaApproximately 50% of humans are women.

ce'o [conjunction]and then ... (forms ordered sequence)

i li pa ce'o li re ce'o li ci cu porsi1,2,3 is a sequence.
Comment: joins nouns to create a new noun of ordered group type.
Related words: ce, je, e

ce'u [pronoun] — inside an abstraction of a verb ce'u is applied to another place of that verb

i mi nitcu lo ka da tavla ce'uI need someone to talk to me.
Comment: definitions of verbs show which place ce'u is applied to. If not explicitly stated then ce'u is applied to the first place of the verb. To apply to the head of a relative clause use ke'a.

ceclax1(entity) launches projectile or missile x2(entity) ; x1 is a gun ...

lo cecla — gun. lo se cecla — missile.
i ti cecla lo fagriThis is a fire gun.
Related words: renro, danti, jakne, jbama, spoja

cecmux1(entity) is a community or colony of organisms x2(entity group)

lo cecmu — community. lo se cecmu — member of a community.
i pa cecmu be lo cipni mo'u muvdu lo bu'u tcaduA colony of birds moved to this city.
Related words: bende, kulnu, natmi, tcadu, jecta, girzu

cedrax1(clause) is an era or age characterized by x2(clause)

lo cedra — era.
i lo cabna cu cedra lo nu pilno lo skamiThese days are the era of using computers.
Related words: ranji, temci, citsi

ceithat will from now on be called ... (main verb follows)

i mi ba klama cei broda lo zarci i au do brodaI will go to the store. I'd like you go there too.
Comment: cei copies the whole main verb with all its places that can later be filled with another nouns.

cenbax1(entity) varies in x2(property of x1) in amount x3(entity) ...

lo cenba — variable.
i do cenba lo ka ma kau se cpedu vau lo bardaYour demands vary to much degree.
Comment: binxo describes that entity turns into another entity, galfi is to turn one entity into another one. cenba describes how entity changes its state while remaining the same entity, stika is to make entity change its state.
Related words: cenba, galfi, stika, stodi, zasni, binxo

censax1(entity) is holy or sacred to x2(entity)

lo censa — holy.
i lo bu'u tcadu cu censa ro prenu pe viThis city is holy to all people here.
Related words: cevni, krici, latna, pruxi, lijda, sinma

centerox1(entity) is in the center of x2(entity)

lo centero — center.
i ti noi tcadu cu centero le gugdeThis city is in the center of the country.
Comment: lo midju is center point, lo centero is central subset (of a set or territory), lo kernelo is core.
Related words: xadba

centix1(entity) is a hundredth of x2(same type as x1) in x3(property of x1)

lo centi — 1/100.
i le insekto cu centi be lo mitre lo ka claniThe insect is 1 centimeter long.
Related words: grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu, litce, merli, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro

cerdax1(entity) inherits x2(property of x1 and x3) from x3(entity) according to rule x4(proposition)

lo cerda — inheritor, heir. lo se cerda — inherited, heritage.
i mi cerda le dinju lo patfu be mi lo se djica be riI inherited the house from my father according to his will.
Related words: jgina

cermursex1(entity) happens at the dawn of day x2(entity)

lo cermurse — dawn.
i mi ba klama lo boske ca lo cermurse be lo bavlamdeiI will go to forest tomorrow at dawn.
Related words: cerni, kandi, vanci

cernix1(entity) happens in the morning of day x2(entity) ...

lo cerni — morning.
i cerni coiGood morning!
i ti cerni pa cnino djediIt is the morning of a new day.
Related words: vanci, cermurse, vacmurse, tcika

certux1(entity) is skilled at x2(property of x1) ...

lo certu — expert, master. lo se certu — field of expertise.
i fau ei ro da mi se zu'e se marvele lo nu le prenu se la'u li xo kau certu lo ka limnaI cannot but wonder at his skill in swimming.
Related words: djuno, stati, kakne

cevnix1(entity) is a god of people or religion x2(entity) with dominion over x3(property of x1)

lo cevni — god.
i do cevni mi lo nu carviYou are a god of rain for me.
Related words: censa, krici, lijda, malsi

cfarix1(clause) commences, begins, or starts

lo cfari — beginning, start.
i de'i li cy xo lo se tigni cu cfariAt what time does the performance begin?
Related words: sisti, krasi, fanmo, mulno

cfikax1(entity) is a work of fiction about plot or theme x2(entity) ...

lo cfika — work of fiction. lo se cfika — plot of a work of fiction.
i la'e lu la lunra cu kusru turni li'u cfika lo logji bangu 'The Moon is a harsh mistress' is a fiction about logical languages.
Related words: cukta, lisri, prosa, fatci, jitfa, jetnu, xanri

cfilax1(property of x2) is a flaw or defect in x2(entity) causing x3(clause)

lo cfila — flaw. lo se cfila — flawed.
i mi se cfila lo nu lo drata cu xankaI have my faults making other nervous.
Related words: cikre, srera, fenra, fliba, prane

cfinex1(entity) is a wedge ...

lo cfine — wedge.
i mi pu setca pa cfine lo loldi te zu'e lo nu le vorme co'a kalriI drove a wedge into the floor so that the door was open.
Related words: tutci

cfipux1(clause) confuses, baffles observer x2(entity) ...

lo cfipu — confusing. lo se cfipu — confused, baffled.
i zo zabna jai cfipu mi fai lo ka se smuniTo me zabna is confusing in meaning.
i do je'a xu se cfipu lo ka cuxna lo ka zukte ma kauAre you really confused of deciding what to do?
Related words: pluja, senpi, zunti

ci [digit/number]3, three

i ci delfinu ca limna ne'a lo korbiThere are three dolphins swimming near the shore.

ci'angulox1(entity) is a triangle

lo ci'angulo — triangle.
i ma se sinxa ti noi ci'anguloWhat does this triangle signify?

ci'e [preposition from ciste]in system/context ...

i ci'e la internet lo vrici prenu ka'e jikca zu'aiIn the system of the internet, various people can socialize with each other.

ci'i [digit/number] — infinite number

i ci'i da te cuxnaThere is an infinite number of possibilities.
i ci'i da te cuxna fi lo pa prenu i je ci'i re da te cuxna fi lo re prenuThere is an infinite number of possibilities for one man, and twice as many for two men.
Comment: when followed by digits denotes aleph cardinality.

ciblux1(entity) is blood of organism x2(entity)

lo ciblu — blood.
i lo ciblu be mi cu klesi li a bu ma'u buMy blood type is A positive.
Related words: risna, flu'ente

cicnax1(entity) is torquoise or cyan

lo cicna — cyan (color).
i lo vanci tsani co'a cicnaThe evening sky became turquoise.
Related words: skari, blabi, xekri, kandi, carmi, crino, blanu

cidjax1(entity) is food or nutriment for x2(entity)

lo cidja — food.
i lo rectu na cidja lo xirmaMeat is not a food for horses.
i mi nelci lo jungo cidjaI like Chinese food.
Related words: citka, nitcu, pinxe, xagji, cpina

cidnix1(entity) is a knee, elbow, or other hinged joint of limb x2(entity) ...

lo cidni — knee, elbow.
i lo cidni be lo tuple be mi cu se xraniMy knee is injured.
Related words: korcu, jarco, jganu

cidrox1(entity) is a quantity of hydrogen

lo cidro — hydrogen.
i lo cidro cu traji linto se ratniHydrogen is the lightest element.
Related words: gapci, xukmi

cifnux1(entity) is a baby, young living being of species x2(taxon)

lo cifnu — baby, young living being, infant.
i xu le cifnu xa'o jimpe lo lojbo se smuskuDoes the infant understand Lojban yet?
Related words: makcu, verba, citno, panzi

ciglax1(entity) is a gland secreting x2(entity) in body x3(entity)

lo cigla — gland. lo se cigla — secretion of a gland.
i ti cigla lo xasne lo remnaThis human gland secrets sweat.
Related words: vikmi, xasne

ciknax1(entity) is awake

lo cikna — someone awake.
i xu su'o do ciknaIs any of you awake?
i mi pu co'a clira ciknaI got up early.
i ko jai gau cikna fai mi de'i li cy biWake me up at 8.
Related words: sanji, sipna, tatpi

cikrex1(entity) repairs or mends x2(entity) for use x3(property of x2)

lo cikre — repairer. lo se cikre — repaired.
i mi cikre le spofu stizu lo ka ka'e se zutseI repair the chair so that one can sit on it.
Related words: cfila, spofu

ciksix1(entity) explains x2(proposition) to x3(entity) with explanation x4(proposition)

lo ciksi — expounder. lo ve ciksi — explanation.
i mi pu ciksi fi le ctuca fe lo nu mi na zvati le nu penmi vau fo lo nu mi na pu djuno le du'u sarcu fa lo nu mi zvati nu buI explained to the teacher my absence at the meeting that I didn't know that I should've been there.
Related words: cipra, danfu, jalge, jinvi, krinu, mukti, nabmi, retsku, rinka, sidbo, zukte, tavla

cilcex1(entity) is wild or untamed

lo cilce — wild.
i ti noi foldi cu cilceThis field is untamed.
i ra sazri pa cilce xirmaHe rides an untamed horse.
Related words: pinfu, panpi, tarti

cilmox1(entity) is moist or damp with liquid x2(entity)

lo cilmo — damp, moist, wet.
i ko lumci le canko se pi'o lo cilmo bukpuClean the window with a damp cloth.
Related words: litki, lunsa, sudga

cilrex1(entity) learns some fact or information x2(proposition) about x3(entity) from doing or being x4(clause) ...

lo cilre — learner. lo se cilre — learned.
i mi cilre fi la lojbanI learn Lojban.
i mi pu cilre le du'u lo remna na smaniI learnt that humans are not monkeys.
i mi tcidu mu'i lo nu mi cilreI read in order to learn.
i mi so'i da pu'i cilre fo lo nu mi pu zgana lo cipniI learned a lot from watching birds.
Related words: info, saske, ctuca, tadni, djuno, ckule

ciltax1(entity) is a thread, wire, filament ...

lo cilta — thread (cord), cord.
i mi pu katna le cilta lo ci meiI cut the wire into three pieces.
Comment: unlike skori doesnt describe the object as consisting of more than one filament.
Related words: fenso, nivji, skori, silka

cimdex1(entity) is a dimension of space or object x2(entity) according to rule or model x3(property of x2)

lo cimde — dimension.
i lo mitre be li re cu cimde le kumfa lo ka claniTwo meters is the dimension of the room in length.
Related words: morna, ckilu, merli, manri

cimnix1(entity) in infinite in x2(property of x1) ...

lo cimni — infinite.
i si'au le nu penmi cu cimni lo ka se ditcuIt seems to me, the meeting will never end.
i le munje cu cimni lo ka se canluThe world is infinite in space.
Related words: vitno, renvi, munje, fanmo, sisti

cinbax1(entity) kisses x2(entity) ...

lo se cinba — kissed.
i mi pu cinba le fetsi re'o pa kerloI kissed her in the ear.
Related words: ctebi

cindux1(entity) is an oak of species x2(taxon)

lo cindu — oak.
i xu da cindu bu'u le cmanaAre there oak trees on the mountain?
Related words: tricu

cinfox1(entity) is a lion of species x2(taxon)

lo cinfo — lion.
i mi pu se spaji lo ka viska lo cinfoI was surprised to see a lion.
Related words: bramlatu, mlatu

cinjex1(entity) is a wrinkle in x2(entity)

lo cinje — wrinkle. lo se cinje — wrinkled.
i da cinje lo bukpuThere are creases in the cloth.
i gau ko ri xutlaSmooth out it.
Related words: korcu, polje, boxfo, boxna

cinkix1(entity) is an arthropod of species x2(taxon)

lo cinki — arthropod.
i lo insekto cu cinkiInsects are arthropods.
Related words: insekto, civla, danlu, blato, ankabuta, manti, sfani, toldi, bifce

cinlax1(entity) is thin in length/width etc. x2(property of x1) ...

lo cinla — thin.
i le ninmu cu cinla lo ka se tupleThe woman has thin legs.
Comment: the third largest dimension. tordu, jarki and cinla specify the three dimensions of objects.
Related words: rotsu, jarki, tordu, cmalu, caxno, plana, jarki

cinmox1(entity) feels emotion x2(property of x1) about x3(entity)

lo cinmo — emotional (live being). lo se cinmo — emotion, feeling (impression).
i mi cinmo lo ka gleki vau lo nu mi'o tavla zu'ai bau la lojbanI feel happy that we talk in Lojban.
Related words: cumla, jilra, nelci, xendo, ckeji, cortu, jgira, kecti, kufra, marvele, prami, steba, zungi, badri, burna, gleki

cinrix1(clause) interests observer x2(entity)

lo cinri — interesting. lo se cinri — interested.
i ma se cinri lo nu ca ma kau le fetsi co'a speniWho cares when she gets married?
i mi se cinri lo nu xu kau sarcu fa lo nu mi cusku fi la alis fe lo se du'u mi pu zi zukte ma kauI wonder if I should tell Alice what I just did.
Related words: zdile, kucli, marvele, kurji

cintax1(entity) is some paint of substance x2(entity) in a base of x3(entity)

lo cinta — paint (coloring substance). lo se cinta — pigment of a paint. lo te cinta — paint base.
i mi pu punji lo cinta be lo kliti bei lo sovda le bitmuI put an oil paint (with clay as a pigment) on to the wall.
Comment: lo te cinta (paint base) is the part of the paint that is not a lo se cinta (pigment).
Related words: pixra, skari

cinturax1(entity) is a waist of body x2(entity)

lo cintura — waist (of body).
i lo cintura be do cu klani ma lo ka claniWhat is the length of your waist?
Related words: xadni, cutne, midju, cinla, rotsu

cinzax1(entity) is a pincer, pair of chopsticks, tongs, pliers for doing x2(property of x3) to x3(entity)

lo cinza — tongs.
i ko jgari lo cinza be lo nu jukpa bei lo glareTake chopsticks for cooking hot food.
Related words: tutci

cipnix1(entity) is a bird of species x2(taxon)

lo cipni — bird.
i le pa cipni ca'o vofliThe bird is flying.
Related words: datka, gunse, jipci, nalci, pimlu, vofli, xruki, danlu

ciprax1(clause) is a test, act of examination, study of x2(entity) ...

lo cipra — study, test (act of examination). lo se cipra — tested.
i lo nu catlu lo kanla be do cu cipra lo nu do stace se la'u li xo kauTo look into your eyes is a test of your sincerity.
i mi pu gasnu lo cipra be tu'a le karceI tested the car.
i ba zi ku mi jai se cipraI will have a test soon.
Related words: ciksi, troci, jarco, pajni, saske

cirkox1(entity) loses x2(property of x1) at x3(entity, property of x1)

lo cirko — loser. lo se cirko — lost, not in possesion.
i mi cirko lo ka kakne lo ka sazri lo xirma vau lo ka xabju lo tcaduI lost my ability to ride a horse while living in the city.
Related words: facki, ralte, sisku, claxu, jinga, pleji, canja, sfasa, dapma, binra, mipri

cirkulox1(entity) is a circle

lo cirkulo — circle.
i mi pu ciska pa cirkuloI drew a circle.
Related words: cukla, djine

cirlax1(entity) is some cheese ...

lo cirla — cheese.
i xu do djica tu'a lo cirlaWould you like cheese?
Related words: ladru

ciskax1(entity) writes x2(text) on medium x3(entity) ...

lo ciska — writer. lo se ciska — written text. lo te ciska — writing medium.
i mi ba ciska lu coi munje li'u lo peljiI will write "Hello, world!" on the paper.
Comment: for 'author' or specific authorial works use finti.
Related words: papri, penbi, pinsi, tcidu, xatra, pixra, prina, finti, barna, pinka

cismax1(entity) smiles

i se ja'e ma do cismaWhy are you smiling?
Related words: xajmi, cmila, frumu

cistex1(entity) is a system with structure x2(entity) ...

lo ciste — system. lo se ciste — structure of a system.
i lo kibro cu ciste lo se tcana be lo skami poi se pi'o ce'u lo prenu cu jikcaThe internet is a system with computer nodes, using which people communicate.
Related words: ci'e, cmima, girzu, gunma, stura, tadji, munje, farvi, ganzu, judri, julne, klesi, morna, tcana

citkax1(entity) eats x2(entity)

lo citka — eater. lo se citka — eaten.
i mi mo'u citka pa badna e re mangoI've eaten a banana and two mangoes.
Related words: cidja, pinxe, tunlo, xagji, xaksu, batci, gusta, kabri

citnox1(entity) is young in that it has x2(property of x1)

lo citno — young.
i le nixli cu citno lo ka lifri lo xo kau meiThe girl is young in how much she experienced.
Related words: laldo, cnino, slabu, verba

citrix1(entity) is a history of x2(entity) according to x3(entity)

lo citri — history. lo se citri — having a history.
i mi tadni lo citri be le kagni bei lo cnino lanliI'm studying the history of the company according to new analysts.
Related words: muzga, purci

citsix1(entity) is a season defined by x2(clause) of year x3(entity, number)

lo citsi — season.
i ca citsi lo nu carvi vau lo pa no no mu moiNow it's the season of rains of year 2005.
i vi ku lo dunra cu citsi lo nu lenkuHere, winter is a cold season.
Related words: cedra, crisa, critu, dunra, ranji, temci, vensa, jbena

civlax1(entity) is a flea or louse of species x2(taxon) parasitic on x3(entity)

lo civla — flea, louse.
i xu lo civla be fi lo gerku cu ckape lo remnaAre dog louses dangerous to humans?
Related words: insekto, cinki, blato

cizrax1(entity) is strange to x2(entity) in x3(property of x1)

lo cizra — strange.
i le valsi cu cizra mi lo ka se smuniThe word is strange to me in meaning.
i cizra fa lo nu la tom na zvatiIt's strange that Tom is not present.
Related words: ranxi, rirci, fange, banli

ckabux1(entity) is some rubber ...

lo ckabu — rubber.
i lo bolci poi ckabu cu plipe ri'a lo ka pruniA rubber ball jumps because it is elastic.
Related words: pruni

ckafix1(entity) is some coffee ...

lo ckafi — coffee.
i do pinxe lo ckafi ji lo tcatiWill you drink coffee or tea?
Related words: tcati, barja, cakla

ckajix1(entity) is characterized by x2(property of x1)

lo se ckaji — property.
i le prenu na simlu gi'e ku'i ja'a ckaji vau lo ka ninmuThe person doesn't look like a woman but she is.
i lo ka masno bacru cu se ckaji tu noi nanmuSlow speech is the characteristic of that man.
Related words: kai, tcaci, tcini

ckanax1(entity) is a bed ...

lo ckana — bed.
i au mi vreta lo ckanaI want to lie down in bed.
Related words: kamju, kicne, nilce, palta, cpana, vreta, jubme, stizu, matci, zbepi, palne, sarji

ckapex1(clause) is dangerous to x2(clause) ...

lo ckape — dangerous. lo se ckape — threatened.
i ka'e ckape lo nu do kanro vau fa lo nu do zukte lo se stidi be la kevinIt can be dangerous for your health to do what Kevin suggested.
i do jai se ckape fai lo ka co'a bilmaYou are at risk of getting ill.
Related words: te bandu, te kajde, te marbi, se snura, se xalni

ckasux1(entity) mocks at x2(entity) about x3(property of x2) by doing x4(property of x1)

i pa pendo pu ckasu mi lo ka cadzu tai ma kau vau lo ka cusku lo mablaA friend mocked at the manner I walk by saying bad words.
Related words: cmila

ckejix1(entity) feels ashamed, mortified about x2(clause) before audience x3(entity)

lo ckeji — ashamed. lo se ckeji — shameful event.
i lo mamta be mi pu ckeji lo nu mi tarti ma kau vau loi prenuMy mother was ashamed in front of the crowd of my conduct.
Related words: cinmo

ckikux1(entity) is a key fitting lock x2(entity) ...

lo ckiku — key (of a lock). lo se ckiku — lock (of a key).
i ti ckiku lo xunre vorme i ma ckiku lo jaspu be doWhat is the password to your account?
i mi mo'u cirko lo pe mi ckikuI lost my keys.
Comment: x2 can describe doors in the sense of entities that lock access.
Related words: stela

ckilux1(property of nonce place with kau) is a scale of units for measuring x2(property of nonce place with kau)

lo ckilu — scale.
i lo ka mitre ma kau cu ckilu lo ka te sepli ma kau ma kauMetric scale measures the distance between two points.
Related words: gradu, merli, cimde, manri

ckinix1(entity) is related to x2(entity) by relationship x3(relation between x1 and x2, contains two places for ce'u)

lo ckini — related. lo te ckini — relationship.
i mi na jimpe lo te ckini be le panci bei lo se vecnu be fi doI don't understand the relation between the smell and your purchases.
i ti'e le sance cu ckini lo barda mabru lo ka ce'u cupra ce'u fau lo nu ri pagre tiThey say the sound is related to a large mammal that produces it while passing here.
i lo nu da'i mi pu zvati la nipon cu ckini fi no daThe fact that I was in Japan is totally irrelevant.
Related words: ponse, srana, steci, mapti, sarxe, fange

ckirex1(entity) is grateful or thankful to x2(entity) for x3(property of x2)

lo ckire — thankful. lo te ckire — reason for gratitude.
i mi ckire do le ka sidju miThank you for helping me.
i ckire fi lo balviThanks in advance.
Related words: cinmo, friti, pluka

ckulex1(entity) is a school serving at area x2(entity), teaching x3(proposition) to x4(entity) ...

lo ckule — school. lo te ckule — subject taught in a school. lo ve ckule — pupil of a school.
i ti ckule lo bu'u gugde lo ve mikce lo citno tadniThis is a medical school serving in this area teaching therapy methods to young students.
i mi ve ckule fi lo raljuI'm in primary school.
Related words: cilre, ctuca, tadni

ckunux1(entity) is a conifer of species x2(taxon) ...

lo ckunu — conifer.
i xu lo tsiju be ti noi ckunu cu kukteAre pine nuts of this conifer tasty?
Related words: tricu

cladux1(entity) is loud at observation point x2(entity) ...

lo cladu — loud (producing loud sound). lo se cladu — loud place.
i lo zgike cu cladu lo bu'u kumfa ku ji'aThe music is loud even when you are in this room.
Related words: tolycladu, sance, savru

clanix1(entity) is long in length/width etc. x2(property of x1) ...

lo clani — long.
i la tom cu clani lo ka srajiTom is tall.
i le cmana cu claniThe mountain is high.
i le nu penmi pu clani lo ka se ditcuThe meeting was long.
i clani lo ka mitre li reThe length is two meters.
Comment: the first largest dimension. ganra, rotsu and clani specify the three dimensions of objects. clani can be used to describe 'tall' or 'high' (in the sense of vertical length). For lengthy time intervals barda is also used (choice depends on personal philosophy of the speaker).
Related words: slabu, condi, ganra, rotsu, tordu, barda, ganra, gutci, minli, rotsu

claxux1(entity) lacks x2(entity, property of x1)

lo claxu — deficient.
i mi claxu lo ka djica lo ka citkaI lack the desire to eat.
i si'au do claxu lo ka cinmo daLooks like you lack any emotions.
i mi claxu su'o penbiI don't have a pen.
Related words: cau, cirko, kunti, nitcu, pindi, banzu

clikax1(entity) is lichen or moss of species x2(taxon) growing on x3(entity)

lo clika — moss.
i ti clika fi lo rokciThis is moss growing on rocks.
Related words: mledi

clirax1(clause) is early by standard x2(proposition)

lo clira — early event.
i lo nu la alis cu cliva le briju pu clira lo se sruma be miAlice leaving the office was early according to my assumption.
Related words: lerci

clitex1(entity) is polite in matter x2(property of x1) (clause) ...

lo clite — polite. lo se clite — polite behaviour.
i do pu na clite lo ka cusku lo se du'u le ctuca na draniYou wasn't polite in saying that the teacher isn't right.
Related words: ritli

clivax1(entity) leaves x2(entity, property of x1) via x3(entity)

i ra pu cliva le kumfa pa cankoHe left the room via a window.
Related words: litru, canci, vimcu, lebna, muvdu

clupax1(entity) is a loop of material x2(entity)

lo clupa — loop.
i ko jai se torni le skori ja'e lo nu ri clupaTwist the rope into a loop.
Related words: djine

cmacix1(proposition) is mathematics describing x2(entity)

lo cmaci — mathematics. lo se cmaci — field of mathematics.
i mi tadni lo cmaci be lo klaniI study arithmetic (mathematics of quantity).
Related words: mekso

cmalux1(entity) is small in length/width etc. x2(property of x1) ...

lo cmalu — small.
i lo nu penmi ba cmalu lo ka ditcuThe meeting will be short in duration.
i le cukta cu cmalu lo ka jai vajniThe book is of little importance.
Related words: caxno, cinla, jarki, tordu, barda

cmanax1(entity) is a mountain projecting from land-mass x2(entity)

lo cmana — mountain. lo se cmana — land mass with a mountain.
i so'i da cmana lo bu'u tumlaThis land has a lot of mountains.
Related words: punli, derxi

cmavox1(text) is a grammatical particle of class x2(text) ...

lo cmavo — grammatical particle. lo se cmavo — selma'o.
i zo ka cmavo ma'oi nuka is a grammatical particle of class "NU" (clause prefix)
Comment: a Lojban word starting with one vowel or one consonant followed by vowels or '. i, ui, le, co'o etc. are cmavo.
Related words: gismu, lujvo, gerna, smuni, valsi

cmenex1(text) is the name for x2(entity) used by x3(entity)

lo cmene — name. lo te cmene — namegiver.
i ma jetnu cmene doWhat is your real name?
i mi se cmene zo glekiMy name is Gleki.
i lo bruna be mi cu te cmene mi zo ractuMy brother calls me "Rabbit"
i le kamni pu xusra lo du'u le prenu pu zukte no se cmene be lu na'e drani li'u bei la kamniThe committee asserted that the person had done nothing "incorrect" (quoting the committee's words).
Comment: the first place of cmene requires a quote using e.g. zo or lu ... li'u.
Related words: gismu, tcita, valsi, judri

cmevlax1(text) is a cmevla (Lojban word ending in a consonant)

lo cmevla — cmevla.
i zo lojban cmevla"Lojban" is cmevla.
Comment: lojban, nipon are cmevla.
Related words: selbrivla, gismu, zi'evla, cmavo, cmene

cmilax1(entity) laughs ...

i ra pu co'a cmilaShe started laughing.
Related words: ckasu, frumu, xajmi, cisma

cmimax1(entity) is a member of set x2(entity)

lo cmima — member. lo se cmima — set.
i mi cmima pa kamni pe le gugdeI am a member of a state committee.
Comment: x1 describes members of a set. To specify all members of a set use gunma.
Related words: ciste, porsi, jbini, girzu, gunma, klesi, mei, kampu, lanzu, liste

cmonix1(entity) howls, utters, moans x2(sound) expressing x3(property of x1)

lo cmoni — moaner.
i le prenu pu cmoni zo a lo ka glekiThe person uttered "A!" expressing his happiness.
Comment: cmoni describes emotional utterances. For uttering text use bacru, for shouting text use krixa.
Related words: krixa, bacru, cusku, cortu

cnanox1(entity) is normal in x2(property of x1) among x3(same type as x1) ...

lo cnano — norm.
i lo ki'ogra be li ci cu cnano lo ka se junta vau lo ca zi jbena3 kilograms is a normal weight of newborns.
Comment: cnano is the generalized opposite to any/all of these concepts: cizra, fadni, cafne, kampu.
Related words: tcaci, fadni, kampu, lakne, tarti, rirci

cnebox1(entity) is a neck of body x2(entity)

lo cnebo — neck.
i lo cnebo be lo za'u vi ninmu cu claniThese women have long necks.
Related words: galxe, cutne

cnemux1(entity) rewards x2(entity) for atypical x3(property of x2) with x4(entity, property of x1)

lo cnemu — rewarder. lo se cnemu — rewardee. lo te cnemu — reason for a reward. lo ve cnemu — reward.
i mi pu cnemu le gerku lo ka bevri lo grana vau lo ka te cpacu lo sakta le gerkuI rewarded the dog for bringing the stick by giving it sugar.
Related words: dunda, friti, jerna, jinga, jivna, pleji, sfasa, venfu, prali, dapma

cnicix1(entity) is neat or orderly in x2(property of x1)

lo cnici — neat.
i le kerfa cu cnici lo ka se ganzu fi lo carmiThe hair is neat in being organized into a shining part.
Related words: cunso, kalsa

cninox1(entity) is new to observer x2(entity) in property x3(property of x1) ...

lo cnino — new.
i lo pendo be mi co'a cnino mi lo ka kakne lo ka zgipli lo pipnoMy friend appeared new to me in being able to play the piano.
i cnino fa no cnita be le lunraNothing is new under the Moon (saying).
Related words: nuzba, slabu, citno, se djuno

cnisax1(entity) is some quantity of lead metal

lo cnisa — lead (metal).
i ra pu troci lo ka zbasu lo solji lo cnisaHe tried to make gold out of lead.
Related words: jinme, tinci

cnitax1(entity) is directly beneath, directly below x2(entity) ...

lo cnita — what is beneath. lo se cnita — what is above.
i le pelji cu cnita le cuktaThe paper is below the book.
Related words: dizlo, gapru, galtu, farna, loldi

co — inverts the order of parts of compound verb

i lu lo ractu co melbi li'u dunli lu lo melbi ractu li'u"Pretty bunnies" is the same as "bunnies, the pretty".

co'a [preposition of aspect] — at the start of the event (inchoative aspect)

i pu co'a ru'i carviIt started raining.
i le plise co'a fusraThe apple has begun to decay.
i co'a pelxuIt's turning yellow.

co'e [verb] — main verb unspecified or known from context

i mu'i ma do co'e miWhy are you doing this to me?
i za'o co'eIt's going on for too long.
i ei do troci lo ka co'e bu'u lo drataYou should try it somewhere else.

co'i [preposition of aspect] — aspect treating the whole event without internal structure (perfective aspect), co'i nai — aspect treating the whole event as having internal structure (imperfective aspect)

i mi pu co'i nai citka pa mango ca lo nu ra co'i klama lo nenriI was eating a mango when she entered.
i mi co'i cirkoI've lost it.

co'o [vocative]Goodbye! Bye!

i co'o lo tumla pe miGoodbye, my land!
i co'o ro doGoodbye to all of you!

co'oi [vocative]Ciao! (hello! or goodbye! depending on context)

i co'oi lo pendo be miCiao, my friend!
Related words: a'oi, coi, co'o, rinsa

co'u [preposition of aspect] — quitting, stopping even if before the expected end (cessative aspect)

coi [vocative]Hello! Hi!

i coi le munjeHello, world!
i coi ro doHello, everyone!

cokcux1(entity) soaks up x2(entity) from x3(entity) into x4(entity)

lo cokcu — absorber. lo se cokcu — absorbed.
i le verba cu cokcu lo ladru lo tatru lo mokluChildren suck up milk from breast into the mouth.
Related words: panje, sakci, lacpu

condix1(entity) is deep in x2(property of x1) away from reference point x3(entity) ...

lo condi — deep.
i ti noi xamsi cu condi lo ka tsuku lo loldi be ce'u vau lo seftaThis sea is deep in reaching the bottom from the surface.
i e'o do bevri pa condi kabriPlease, bring a deep glass.
Related words: clani, caxno, bargu, ganra, rotsu, barda, gutci, minli

cortux1(entity) feels pain at x2(entity)

lo cortu — who feels pain, person in pain. lo se cortu — location of pain.
i mi cortu lo xanceMy hand hurts.
i mi cortu lo galxe be miI have a sore throat.
Comment: often the second place of x2 is the same as x1.
Related words: cinmo, xrani

cpacux1(entity) acquires or gets x2(entity, property of x1) from x3(entity)

lo se cpacu — acquired.
i mi ba cpacu lo grute miI'll get fruits for myself.
i mi ne lo xance pu te cpacu fi la kevin fe lo dakfuI handed Kevin a knife.
Related words: punji, lebna, vimcu

cpanax1(entity) is on top of x2(entity) ...

lo cpana — what is on top. lo se cpana — what is below.
i su'o bisli cu se cpana lo cmanaThere is ice on top of the mountain.
Comment: to lay upon is punji.
Related words: se vasru, jbini, zvati, nenri, vreta, ckana, diklo, jibni, lamji, zutse, punji, sarji, zbepi

cparex1(entity) climbs on x2(entity) ; x1 wades through x2 ...

i ra pu mo'u cpare le cmanaShe has climbed on the mountain.
Related words: klama, litru, bajra, farlu, plipe

cpedux1(entity) requests or asks for x2(clause, property of x3) from x3(entity) ...

lo se cpedu — something requested.
i le nanmu pu cpedu lo ka jai gau kalri fai le vorme vau mi ta'i lo ka jai gau muvdu fai lo xanceThe man asked me to open the door by moving his hand.
Comment: a request may be indicated in speech, in writing, or by an action (e.g. petitions are often in writing, while begging/panhandling may be indicated by an action or even demeanor).
Related words: cusku, pikci, retsku, se spuda, danfu

cpinax1(entity) is pungent or irritating to observer x2(entity)

lo cpina — pungent, irritating.
i le sanso cu cpinaThe sauce is hot.
i le panci cu cpinaThe smell is irritating.
Related words: vrusi, kukte, cidja, panci, sumne

cradix1(entity) broadcasts or transmits x2(entity) via station or frequency x3(entity) to receiver x4(entity)

lo cradi — broadcaster. lo se cradi — broadcasted. lo te cradi — broadcasting station. lo ve cradi — broadcast receiver.
i ti cradi lo vajni notci lo tordu boxna lo se bevriThis is a radio transmitter sending important messages on short waves to portable receivers.
Related words: tivni, benji, tcana

cranex1(entity) is in front of x2(entity) facing x3(entity)

lo crane — something in front.
i pa tricu cu crane la alis la kevinA tree is before (in front of) Alice from Kevin's position.
i pa tricu cu crane miA tree is in front of me.
i pa ctino cu pagre bu'u lo crane be le lunraA shadow passed before the moon.
Related words: sefta, flira, trixe, mlana, pritu, zunle

crekax1(entity) is a shirt ...

lo creka — shirt.
i do poi dasni lo creka cu simlu lo ka statiYou look smart in the shirt.
Related words: taxfu

crepux1(entity) harvests, plucks x2(property of x3) from x3(entity)

lo crepu — harvester. lo se crepu — harvested crop. lo te crepu — crop field.
i ra crepu lo vanjba le purdiShe is harvesting grapes from the garden.
Related words: lebna, vimcu, katna, critu, sombo, jmaji

cribex1(entity) is a bear of species x2(taxon)

lo cribe — bear (animal).
i lo cribe cu se zdani lo vi boskeBears live in this forest.
Related words: danlu, mabru

cridax1(entity) is a fairy, elf, or other mythical humanoid ...

lo crida — fairy, elf.
i mi pu cusku pa lisri be lo za'u cridaI told a story about fairies.
Related words: ranmi, lijda

crinox1(entity) is green

lo crino — green.
i ca lo crisa lo pezli poi crino co'a xunreIn the fall leaves that are green, turn red.
Related words: skari, blabi, xekri, kandi, carmi, cicna

cripux1(entity) is a bridge across x2(entity) between points x3(entity group) ...

lo cripu — bridge.
i mi'a muvdu fo lo cripu be pa rirxe bei pa tcadu jo'u lo nurmaWe are moving over the bridge across a river that connects a city and the rural zone.
Related words: bargu, kruca, ragve, kuspe

crisax1(entity) is summer of year x2(entity) at location x3(entity)

lo crisa — summer.
i ca crisa lo re no no mu moi be lo nanca tiNow it's summer of year 2005 at my place.
Related words: citsi, critu, dunra, vensa

critux1(entity) is autumn of year x2(entity) at location x3(entity)

lo critu — autumn.
i xu ca critu lo re no no mu moi be lo nanca doIs it now autumn of year 2005 at your place?
Related words: citsi, crisa, dunra, vensa, crepu

ctarux1(entity) is a tide in x2(entity) ...

lo ctaru — tide.
i lo ctaru be lo xamsi cu bardaThe tide in the sea is high.
Related words: xamsi

ctebix1(entity) is a lip of orifice x2(entity) ...

lo ctebi — lip. lo se ctebi — orifice with a lip.
i lo se dekpu be lo ctebi be le vlagi cu banzu lo nu lo panzi cu pagreThe size of the hole of the vagina is enough for the child to pass.
Related words: moklu, korbi, cinba

ctekix1(property of x3) is a tax on x2(property of x3) levied against x3(entity) by authority or collector x4(entity)

lo cteki — tax. lo se cteki — taxable property. lo te cteki — taxpayer. lo ve cteki — collector of a tax.
i lo prenu pu na nelci lo noi cnino vau cteki be lo ka ralte lo bakni bei ro lo xabju bei loi turniPeople didn't like the new tax on keeping cows levied against everyone by the government.
i lo rupnu be li re mu cu cteki lo ka ralte lo bakni25 dollars is the tax for keeping cows.
Related words: pleji, flalu, turni

ctilex1(entity) is some petroleum ...

lo ctile — petroleum.
i ti minji lo nu cokcu lo ctileThis is a machine for pumping out oil.
Related words: grasu

ctinox1(entity) is a shadow of x2(entity) made by light source x3(entity)

lo ctino — shadow.
i mi pu terpa tu'a lo ctino be lo tricu bei le lunraI was afraid of shadows of trees in moonlight.
Related words: manku, gusni

ctucax1(entity) teaches to x2(entity) ideas or method x3(property of x2) ...

lo ctuca — teacher. lo se ctuca — taught audience. lo te ctuca — subject taught.
i le prenu pu ctuca mi'a lo traji tasmi be lo nu tavla fo la lojbanThe person taught us the best style of speaking Lojban.
i le mamta cu ctuca le verba le du'u lo nu cladu tavla na se cliteThe mother taught the child that talking loud isn't polite.
i le laldo pu ctuca mi lo tadji be lo nu na ganse lo ka cortuThe old one taught me the method of not feeling the pain.
Related words: ckule, cilre, tadni

cu — shows that the main verb of the clause is coming next; in other words, shows the beginning of the clause tail

i lei rirni cu zvati ti caThe parents are here now.
Comment: cu can be omitted if the previous word is a pronoun of the same clause, can also be replaced with prepositions.

cu'e [preposition] — asks for an appropriate preposition or a combination of them

i lu do cu'e vitke la nipon li'u lu pu'o li'u"Have you been to Japan?" "I'm about to."
i lu le penbi cu'e zvati li'u lu pu vu li'u"Where is the pen?" "It was over there."

cu'i [right scalar particle] — shows middle meaning of interjection or interjection modifier

i au cu'i le bruna mo'u tsukuThe brother arrived, meh.
Comment: au cu'i means indifference (middle attitude between desire and reluctance). Definitions of interjections and interjection modifiers contain meanings of them with nai too.

cu'o [verb] — turn number into verb denoting probability

i le nu casnu cu su'o cu'o lo nu le jatna cu klamaThe discussion is possible if the boss comes.
i lo nu mi ricfu cu ro cu'o lo nu mi ponse lo megdo be lo rupnuHad I a million dollars I'd be rich.
Comment: x1(entity) has probability (n) of occurring under conditions x2(entity). The number (n) is put in front of cu'o.

cu'u [preposition from cusku]as said by ...

i cu'u la gleki la lojban cu vlipa banguAs said by La Gleki, Lojban is a powerful language.
Comment: used for quotations.

cuklax1(entity) is round

lo cukla — round.
i le lunra noi pelxu gi'e cukla gi'e carmi cu zvati lo tsaniThe Moon, yellow, round and bright, is in the sky.
Related words: djine, ranji, bolci, tarmi

cuktax1(entity) is a book with work x2(entity) ...

lo cukta — book. lo se cukta — work in a book.
i mi tcidu fi pa cukta be lo cinriI read a book with an interesting content (an interesting book).
Related words: cfika, prina, prosa, tcidu, papri

culnox1(entity) is full of x2(entity)

lo culno — full.
i le lanka cu culno lo peljiThe basket is full of paper.
Related words: tisna, kunti, mulno, setca, tisna

cumkix1(clause) is possible ...

lo cumki — possible.
i cumki fa lo nu la alis ba jai lerciIt's possible that Alice will be late.
Related words: lakne

cumlax1(entity) is modest or humble about x2(property of x1)

lo cumla — modest.
i mi'ai pu cumla lo ka kanpe ma kauWe were modest in our expectations.
Related words: cinmo, jgira

cunmix1(entity) is some millet or grain of species x2(taxon)

lo cunmi — millet.
i lo jipci cu citka lo cunmiHens eat millet.
Related words: gurni

cunsox1(clause) is random, unpredictable ...

lo cunso — random.
i lo nu ca ma kau le prenu cu tsuku pu cunsoWhen would he come was unpredictable.
Related words: cnici, lakne, funca, kalsa, snuti

cuntux1(clause) is an affair or organized activity involving persons x2(entity)

lo cuntu — affair, business (activity).
i ra pu se cuntu lo zekriHe was involved in a crime.
Related words: jikca, srana

cuprax1(entity) produces product x2(entity) by process x3(property of x1)

lo cupra — producer, origin, source. lo se cupra — product. lo te cupra — process of production.
i lo karce cu cupra lo nejni lo ka jai gau jelca lo livlaCar produces energy by burning fuel.
i lo tricu cu se cupra lo gruteTrees come from fruits.
Related words: zbasu, farvi, gundi, jukpa, genja, jicmu

curmix1(entity) lets x2(clause) happen; x1 makes x2 possible ...

i lo saske cu curmi lo nu jimpe lo munjeScience allows understanding the world.
i le canko cu curmi lo nu lo vifne vacri cu pagreThe window permits the passage of the fresh air.
Related words: e'ande, rinju, banzu, ralte, jimte, jaspu, zifre

curnux1(entity) is a worm of species x2(taxon)

lo curnu — worm.
i le cipni mo'u kavbu lo curnuThe bird caught a worm.
Related words: since, silka

curvex1(entity) is pure in x2(property of x1)

lo curve — pure.
i ti noi djine cu curve lo ka soljiThis ring is of pure gold.
Related words: prane, jinsa, manfo, sampu, sepli, traji, lumci, xukmi

cuskux1(entity) says x2(text) for audience x3(entity) ...

lo cusku — who says. lo se cusku — what is said. lo te cusku — audience.
i ba bo mi pu cusku fi le ninmu fe lu do mutce xendo li'uAnd then I said to the woman "You are very kind."
i do pu cusku lo se du'u do ba katna lo nanbaYou said that you would cut the bread.
Comment: skicu is to tell, cusku is to say, tavla is to talk, cusku lo notci is to notify.
Related words: retsku, spusku, spuda, cu'u, bacru, tavla, casnu, bangu, dapma, jufra, pinka

cutcix1(entity) is a shoe for covering x2(entity) ...

lo cutci — shoe.
i ti noi prenu cu zbasu lo cutci be lo suftiThis person makes horseshoes.
Related words: smoka, taxfu, skiji

cutnex1(entity) is the chest of body x2(entity)

lo cutne — chest.
i le nanla pu ca'o jgari lo gerku re'o lo cutneThe boy was holding the dog near the chest.
Related words: cnebo, betfu, xadni, tanxe

cuxnax1(entity) chooses, decides on x2(property of x1) from complete set x3(group of same type as x2)

lo se cuxna — what is chosen. lo te cuxna — set of choices, menu of choices.
i mi nu'o mo'u cuxna lo ka zukte ma kauI haven't yet decided what to do.
i nandu fa lo ka cuxnaIt's hard to choose.
i mi pu cuxna la alis lo nixliI chose Alice from the girls.
i la alis pu cuxna lo blanu lo taxfuAlice chose the blue dress out of all.
i mi pensi cuxna lo nu mi citka ma kauI'm thinking about what to eat.
Comment: pajni is for judging matters, jdice is for actual decisions, cuxna is for deciding (choosing) on something out of options.
Related words: jdice, pajni, nelci

cy [pronoun]c (letter)

Comment: prefixed with me'o is a quotation of the letter. When used alone refers to the last noun with the verb starting with this letter like cy is for the last lo carvi used.

da [pronoun] — there exists something or someone: 1st pronoun of da, de, di series

i mi se bruna daI have a brother.
i mi nelci ro daI like everything.

da'a [digit/number]all except ..., all but ... (number follows; by default 1)

i da'a re prenu pu zvati vaAll but two people were present there.

da'i [interjection]supposing, da'i naiin fact

i da'i mi ricfuI could be rich.
i da'i nai mi se zdani lo dapluI do live on an island.
Related words: se xanri, sruma

dacrux1(entity) is a drawer in x2(entity) ...

lo dacru — drawer.
i pa junla ca cpana lo se dacru be lo bardaA clock stands on a chest of big drawers.
Related words: nilce, tanxe

dactix1(entity) is a thing, a material object enduring in space-time

lo dacti — material object.
i tu noi dacti cu moWhat is that object over there?
Related words: marji, xanri

dadjox1(entity) is Taoist in x2(property of x1)

lo dadjo — Taoist.
i le tcaci cu dadjoThe tradition is Taoist.
Related words: lijda, jegvo

dai [interjection modifier] — marks empathetic use of interjection, shows another's feelings

i oi ro'o dai tuple doi le cifnuI know it hurts, baby!
i do jinga ui daiYou won, yay you!
i ui nai dai lo gerku pe do co'a morsiYou must be sad, your dog died.
Related words: kansa

dakfux1(entity) is a knife for cutting x2(entity) ...

lo dakfu — knife.
i ti dakfu lo nanbaThis is a knife for cutting bread.
Related words: denci, balre, katna, tunta, forca, smuci, kinli

daklix1(entity) is a bag or sack containing x2(entity) ...

lo dakli — bag. lo se dakli — contents of a bag.
i mi ba bevri pa dakli be lo tamca lo nenriI will take a bag of tomatoes inside.
Comment: pouch is lo daski.
Related words: daski, bakfu

dambax1(entity) fights or struggles with x2(entity) over issue x3(clause)

lo damba — fighter.
i mi pu damba lo mensi be mi le du'u ma kau klama ka'ai loi rirniI fought with my sister of who would go with parents.
Comment: war (lo nu jamna) usually consists of battles (lo nu damba).
Related words: bradi, gunta, talsa, darlu, fapro, jamna, sonci

damrix1(entity) is a drum, gong or other percussion instrument with beater x2(entity)

lo damri — drum. lo se damri — beater of a drum.
i le nakni pu zgipli pa damri be lo xanceHe was playing a hand struck drum.
Related words: rilti, zgike

damva'ux1(entity) smokes, inhales smoke x2(entity)

lo damva'u — smoker.
i le prenu cu damva'u lo se panci be lo mablaThe person smokes something that has a shitty smell.
Related words: danmo, vasxu

dandux1(entity) is suspended, hangs from x2(entity) at joint x3(entity)

i le smani pu dandu lo galtu jimca lo reblaThe monkey was hanging its tail from a high branch.
Related words: lasna, jorne

danfux1(entity) is the answer or solution to question or problem x2(clause)

lo danfu — solution to a problem. lo se danfu — problem.
i lo ka pilno lo drata ckiku cu danfu lo tadji be lo ka jai gau karli fai le vormeUsing another key is the answer to the problem of opening the door.
Comment: spuda is for agentive response/reply.
Related words: ciksi, retsku, nabmi, spuda, cpedu

danlux1(entity) is an animal of species x2(taxon)

lo danlu — animal, creature.
i mi pu viska pa danlu bu'u le boske i le danlu cu jutsi maI saw an animal in the forest. What species does it belong to?
Related words: banfi, cinki, cipni, finpe, ankabuta, respa, since, mabru, bakni

danmox1(entity) is smoke from source x2(entity)

lo danmo — smoke.
i lo danmo be lo noi ca'o jelca vau tricu co'a denmiThe smoke from the burning trees is becoming dense.
Related words: pulce, gapci, sigja, bumru

danrex1(entity) puts pressure on or applies force to x2(entity)

lo danre — pressure.
i lo brife cu danre le falnuWind puts pressure on the sail.
Related words: catke, bapli, prina, tinsa

dansux1(entity) dances to accompaniment or rhythm x2(entity)

lo dansu — dancer.
i e'u mi'o dansu lo ca zgikeLet's dance to this music.
Related words: bende, zgike, zajba

dantix1(entity) is a bullet, missile, or other ballistic projectile for firing by x2(entity)

lo danti — bullet. lo se danti — gun.
i pa danti be lo cecla cu tsuku le dinjuA bullet from a gun reached the house.
Related words: cecla, renro, jakne

daplux1(entity) is an island ...

lo daplu — island.
i fe'e ro roi le daplu lo remna cu xabjuPeople live all over the island.
Related words: lalxu, rirxe, xamsi, dirgo

dapmax1(entity) wishes to x2(entity) luck or fate x3(property of x2)

lo se dapma — condemned.
i mi pu dapma le fetsi lo ka se funca lo zabnaI wished her good luck.
i le monsuta pu dapma le virnu lo ka ba zi morsiThe monster cursed the brave person to die soon.
Comment: can describe any type of fate: good luck or bad luck (to condemn, to curse).
Related words: mabla, dimna, cnemu, sfasa, dunda, cusku, cirko, jdima, di'ai

dargux1(entity) is a road or highway ...

lo dargu — road.
i da bisli vi'a le darguThere is ice on the road.
Related words: flu'ente, naxle, pluta, klaji, tcana

darlux1(entity) argues for stance x2(proposition) against stance x3(proposition)

lo se darlu — stance (in a discussion).
i loi enge pu darlu lo nu le dargu cu se stuzi lo berti vau lo nu le dinju cu se zbasu fi lo rokciEngineers argued for the road to be located to the north and against the house to be built of rock.
Comment: opponent is not necessary.
Related words: fapro, jamna, sarji, talsa, sumti, tugni, casnu, damba, bradi, tavla

darnox1(entity) is distant from x2(entity) in x3(property of x1)

lo darno — distant.
i le muzga cu darno tiThe museum is far from here.
i lo jungo bangu cu darno lo glico bangu lo ka va'o ce'u ma kau tarmi lo nu bacruChinese language is far from English in the manner of pronunciation.
Related words: jibni

darsix1(entity) shows audacity in behavior x2(property of x1)

lo darsi — cheeky. lo se darsi — audacious behaviour.
i la edvard ca darsi lo ka na cusku lo jetnu la tomEduard dares not tell Tom the truth.
Related words: virnu

darxix1(entity) hits or strikes x2(entity) ...

lo darxi — who strikes. lo se darxi — struck, stricken.
i mi pu darxi lo xedja be le nakni se pi'o lo xanceI hit his jaw with hand.
i mi pu darxi la alis se pi'o lo zunle jamfu be mi re'o lo betfuI kicked Alice with my left foot in the belly.
Related words: bikla, gunta, jenca, tunta, janli, jgari, pencu

daskix1(entity) is a pocket or pouch in x2(entity)

lo daski — pocket.
i mi pu punji lo xance be mi lo daski be lo kosta pe miI put my hand into the pocket of my coat.
Related words: dakli, taxfu, bakfu

dasnix1(entity) wears x2(entity) as garment of type x3(property of x1)

lo dasni — who wears a garment. lo se dasni — garment worn.
i e'o do co'a dasni lo cutciPlease put on your shoes.
i le nixli cu dasni lo creka lo skaciThe girl wears a shirt as a skirt.
Related words: taxfu

daspox1(entity) destroys x2(entity, property of x1)

lo daspo — destroyer. lo se daspo — destroyed.
i ra pu daspo lo ka kanroHe ruined his health.
i lo fagri pu daspo ci me lo dinjuThe fire destroyed three of the buildings.
Related words: spofu, xrani, marxa, zalvi, xaksu

dasrix1(entity) is a ribbon ...

lo dasri — ribbon, strip.
i le jai se dunda pu se bakfu fi pa dasriThe gift was tied with a ribbon.
Related words: djine

datkax1(entity) is a duck of species x2(taxon)

lo datka — duck.
i so'o datka ru'i limna le lalxuSeveral ducks are swimming in the lake.
Related words: cipni

datnix1(property of x2) is information about x2(entity) gathered by method x3(property of x2)

lo datni — information. lo te datni — method of getting information.
i lo ka zukte lo zekri cu datni le nanmu lo ka zgana lo se zukte be ce'uBeing a criminal are the data about the man collected by monitoring his actions.
i ai mi tavla do lo datni be fi lo cipraI'm going to talk to you about experimental data.
Comment: synonym of info.
Related words: fatci, saske, vreji

dau [digit/number] — hex digit A (decimal 10), ten

i ei mi'o denpa ze'a lo djedi be li dauWe should wait for 10 days.

dau'i [right scalar particle] — shows equal intensity of interjection or interjection modifier

i ju'o la alis ba tsukuI'm sure Alice will arrive.
i ju'o dau'i ji'a la kevin ba vitke mi'aAnd I'm equally sure that Kevin will visit us.
Comment: usually specifies an intensity of an interjection equal to the intensity of the same interjection earlier used.
Related words: dau'i, mau'i, me'ai, cu'i, sai, ru'e

de [pronoun] — there exists something or someone: 2nd pronoun of da, de, di series

i ro da poi ke'a sinma ke'a cu se sinma ro de poi ke'a sinma diEveryone who respects oneself is respected by everyone who respects someone.

de'a [preposition of aspect] — pause (pausative aspect)

i le fetsi pu de'a vasxuShe ceased to breathe.
i mi de'a jundiI won't be paying attention for a while.
Related words: di'a

de'e [pronoun] — text of a near future utterance

i de'e cinri jufra i au do tirna mi i lo xunre cu srana lo nu fenguThe utterance that comes is interesting. I'd like you to listen to me. Red is related to the state of being angry.

de'i [preposition from detri]on date/time ... (date stamp follows)

i de'i li ly ci dy pa mu mi pu zvati la niponOn March 15 I was in Japan.
i de'i li cy pa ci mi'a clivaWe leave at 1 pm.
i mi'a cliva de'i li cy so my ci noWe leave at 9:30
Comment: ny is put before years, ly is put before months, dy is put before days, cy is put before hours, my is put before minutes, sy is put before seconds.

de'u [pronoun] — text of a recent utterance

i sei suksa co'a gusni bu'u lo darno i ba bo le gusni cu canci i ro le re mei pu troci lo ka ganse le gusni vau za'u re'u i ku'i le re mei na pu djuno le du'u xu kau la'e de'e cu du lo sinxa poi le re mei ze'u kanpe tu'a ke'aSuddenly a light appeared far away and then the light disappeared. They both tried to observe it once again. But they didn't know whether that was the sign they had been expecting for so long.

dectix1(entity) is a tenth of x2(same type as x1) in x3(property of x1)

lo decti — 1/10.
i le bitmu cu decti be lo mitre lo ka rotsuThe fence is 10 centimeters thick.
Related words: centi

degjix1(entity) is a finger, toe, or digit on limb x2(entity) ...

lo degji — finger, toe, digit (of body). lo se degji — limb with fingers or toes.
i lo degji be lo pritu xance be mi cu cortuThe fingers of my right hand hurt.
Related words: nazbi, tamji, tance, xance

dei [pronoun] — text of this utterance

i le nu casnu pe dei ca zenba lo ka cinriThis discussion is getting more interesting.

dejnix1(entity) owes debt x2(entity, property of x1) to creditor x3(entity) in return for service x4(entity, property of x1)

lo dejni — debtor. lo se dejni — debt. lo te dejni — creditor of debt.
i mi dejni lo ka sidju vau do lo ka se sidju doI am obliged to help you in return for your help.
i mi dejni fi lo patfu be mi fo lo ka snadaI owe my success to my father.
Related words: jbera, janta, zivle

dekpux1(entity) is x2(number) volume units in standard x3(property of x1) ...

i ti noi botpi cu dekpu li pa lo ka litceThis bottle is one liter in volume.
Related words: canlu, litce, rupnu, fepni, gutci, minli, merli, bunda, kramu

dektox1(entity) is ten of x2(same type as x1) in x3(property of x1)

lo dekto — 10.
i le dinju cu dekto be lo mitre lo ka claniThe house is 10 meters high.
Related words: centi

delfinux1(entity) is a dolphin of species/breed x2(taxon)

lo delfinu — dolphin.
i lo'e delfinu cu statiDolphins are generally smart.
Comment: see mabru, xamsi, flu'ente.
Related words: mabru, xamsi, rirxe

delnox1(entity) is x2(number) candela in luminosity ...

i ti noi bombila cu delno li ji'i pa re noThis light bulb has a luminous intensity of around 120 candela.
Related words: centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, centi

dembix1(entity) is a legume, bean, or pea from plant x2(entity)

lo dembi — legume seed. lo se dembi — plant with legumes.
i mi ca ca'o citka lo stasu be lo dembiI am eating a bean stew.
Related words: grute, sobde, tsiju

dencix1(entity) is a tooth of x2(entity)

lo denci — tooth.
i lo denci be mi cu cortuI have a toothache.
Related words: dakfu, pagre, jgalu, moklu, dakfu, pagre, jgalu, batci, bongu

denmix1(entity) is dense in x2(property of x1) ...

lo denmi — dense.
i lo karce flu'ente cu denmi lo ka se pagbu lo xo kau karce bu'u lo klajiThe car traffic is intense in the streets.
Related words: carmi, midju, viknu

denpax1(entity) waits or pauses for x2(clause) at state x3(property of x1) before doing x4(property of x1)

i ko ze'i denpaWait a bit. Just a moment!
i xu do pu denpaDid you wait?
i mi denpa lo nu lo patfu cu volta vau lo ka kelci vau lo ka clivaI am waiting for my father to arrive playing before leaving.
Related words: dicra, fanmo, sisti, fliba, basna

dertux1(entity) is some soil or dirt ...

lo dertu — soil, dirt, ground (soil), earth (soil).
i pu ze'a ku le karce cu muvdu bu'u lo dertuFor a while, the car moved on the soil.
Related words: kliti, terdi, loldi

derxix1(entity) is a heap or stack of x2(entity) ...

lo derxi — heap.
i mi pu cupra pa derxi be lo mudriI chopped a pile of wood.
Related words: gunma, cmana

deskux1(entity) is shakes or vibrates from force x2(clause)

lo desku — something vibrating.
i ra pu desku lo ka terpaShe was shaking with fear.
Related words: slilu, janbe

detrix1(number) is the date of x2(clause) ...

lo detri — datestamp.
i li ly pa dy pa ze ny re no pa xa detri lo nu mi co'a tadni la lojbanJanuary 17, 2016 is the date when I started studying Lojban.
Comment: in x1 ny is put before years, ly is put before months, dy is put before days, cy is put before hours, my is put before minutes, sy is put before seconds.
Related words: de'i, djedi, jeftu, masti, nanca, tcika, judri

di [pronoun] — there exists something or someone: 3rd pronoun of da, de, di series

i ku'i la'a nai su'o da cizra ro de ro diBut it is unlikely that something is strange to everyone in every way.

di'a [preposition of aspect] — resuming (resumptive aspect)

i mi na ba di'a zgipli lo pipnoI won't play the piano again.
i mi di'a jundiI'm listening again.
Related words: de'a

di'ai [vocative] — expression of well-wish, di'ai nai — expression of curse

i di'ai doGood luck to you.
i mi pacna lo nu do ba jinga di'ai doI hope you will win, good luck to you.
i ko na raktu mi di'ai nai doDon't disturb me, damn you!
Comment: used to express well-wishes/curses.
Related words: dimna, dapma, ki'e, doi, fu'au

di'anzix1(entity) is an electronic device

lo di'anzi — electronic.
i gau do e'i to'e akti fa lo di'anzi pe doTurn off your electronic devices.
Related words: letri

di'e [pronoun] — text of the next utterance

i di'e na drani i la djon cu cmene mi i lu zo djon cmene mi li'u drani ku'iThe following sentence isn't correct. Someone called John is my name. "John is my name" is correct, though.

di'i [preposition of aspect]regularly (iterative aspect), di'i naiirregularly

i mi di'i cadzu bu'u le pankaI regularly walk in the park.
i pa cukta di'i te tcidu miI read the same book again and again.
i mi di'i nai citka lo koksoI eat coconuts here and there.

di'u [pronoun] — text of the last utterance

i ma zabna traji tadji lo nu tadni la lojban i di'u zabna se retskuWhat is the best method of learning Lojban? That is a good question.
i la alis ze'a lo djedi be li za'u re na zvati i la'e di'u cizraAlice isn't present for more than two days. That is strange.

dicrax1(entity) interrupts or disrupts x2(entity) due to quality x3(property of x1)

i lo sance pu dicra lo nu mi sipna vau lo ka claduThe sound woke me up since it was loud.
Related words: zunti, fanza, raktu, denpa

diklox1(entity) is confined to location x2(entity) within range x3(entity)

lo diklo — local.
i lo ca carvi cu diklo lo stuna lo bu'u tcaduWithin the borders of this city, the rain is in the south.
Related words: bu'u, zvati, jibni, cpana, nenri, lamji, stuzi, tcila

diknix1(entity) is regular or periodic in x2(property of x1) with interval x3(entity)

lo dikni — regular.
i mi dikni lo ka lumci lo kumfa pe mi vau lo jeftuI am regular in cleaning my room every week.
Related words: slilu, rilti, xutla, manfo, boxna

dilcux1(number) is a quotient of x2(number) divided by x3(number), leaving remainder x4(number)

lo dilcu — quotient. lo se dilcu — dividend of a quotient. lo te dilcu — divisor of a quotient. lo ve dilcu — remainder of a quotient.
i li re dilcu li pa ci li mu li ci2 is the quotient of 13 divided by 5 with the remainder 3.
Related words: frinu, fendi, katna, parbi, mekso

dilnux1(entity) is a cloud of material x2(entity) ...

lo dilnu — cloud.
i le cmana cu cupra lo dilnu be lo danmoThe mountain produces clouds of smoke.
Related words: carvi, tcima

dimnax1(property of x2) is a fate or destiny of x2(entity)

lo dimna — destiny.
i lo ka xabju ti cu dimna miTo live here is my fate.
Related words: dapma

dinjux1(entity) is a house, building for purpose x2(property of x1)

lo dinju — house, building.
i ti dinju lo nu lumciThis is a bathhouse.
Related words: ginka, zdani, zarci

dinkox1(entity) is a nail or tack for purpose x2(entity) ...

lo dinko — nail (tack).
i mi pu lasna le pixra le bitmu pa dinko se pi'o pa mruliI nailed the picture to the wall using a hammer.
i ti dinko lo ka lasna lo cutci lo xirma ce'uThis is a nail for fastening horseshoes.
Related words: pijne, lasna

dirbax1(entity, property of x2) is dear, precious to x2(entity)

lo dirba — precious, dear (of great value).
i do pu zvati ma doi lo dirbaWhere have you been, dear?
i lo nu jmive cu dirba ro daLife is dear to everybody.
Related words: tcika, kargu, vamji, vajni, pleji, jadni, jemna

dircex1(entity) radiates, emits x2(property of x1) ...

lo dirce — emitter. lo se dirce — radiation.
i le jinto cu dirce lo djacuThe spring of fluid emits water.
Related words: gusni

dirgox1(entity) is a drop of x2(entity) ...

lo dirgo — drop.
i sa'u ti dirgo lo djacuIt's just a drop of water.
Related words: daplu, bidju

ditcux1(clause) is the time-duration/period of x2(clause)

lo ditcu — period.
i ma ditcu lo nu do limna le rirxeHow long have you been swimming in the river?
Related words: cedra, ranji, tcika, renvi, temci, canlu, kuspe

dizlox1(entity) is low compared to x2(entity) (entity) ; x1 is a lower part of x2 ...

lo dizlo — low, bottom.
i le gerku cu dizlo le mlatu poi cpare le tricuThe dog stands low compared to the cat climbing the tree.
i mi mo'u farlu lo dizlo be le bitmuI fell down to the foot of the fence.
Related words: cnita, galtu, gapru, farna, loldi

djacux1(entity) is some water

lo djacu — water.
i le nakni pu pinxe lo djacu pa kabriHe drank some water from a cup.
Related words: lalxu, rirxe, xamsi, limna, litki, lumci, bumru, jinto

djedix1(clause) happens during x2(number) full days ...

lo djedi — day (full day). lo se djedi — number of full days.
i mi volta ba zi lo djedi be li pa noI will return in 10 days.
Comment: if x2 is not used denotes one full day in duration
Related words: donri, detri, jeftu, masti, nanca, nicte, tcika

djicax1(entity) desires or wants x2(clause, property of x1) for purpose x3(property of x1)

lo se djica — something desired.
i mi djica lo nu mi cusku lo xajmi vau lo nu do cismaI want to tell something funny to make you smile.
i mi djica tu'a lo pliseI want apples.
i mi djica lo nu do smadiI want you to guess.
Related words: taske, xagji, mukti, nitcu, nelci, pacna, prami, rigni, trina, xebni, xlura

djinex1(entity) is a ring ...

lo djine — ring.
i ti solji djineThis is a golden ring.
Related words: cukla

djunox1(entity) knows fact x2(proposition) about x3(entity) on grounds x4(proposition)

lo se djuno — known fact. lo ve djuno — grounds of knowledge.
i mi djuno le du'u mi zasti vau fo le du'u mi pensiI know that I exist since I think.
i mi djuno so'i da la lojbanI know a lot about Lojban.
i mi djuno mo'a da lo cmaciI know too little about math.
Comment: to be familiar with is se slabu, na'e se cnino, na'e se fange.
Related words: krici, jinvi, cilre, certu, facki, jijnu, jimpe, senpi, smadi, kakne, birti, mipri, morji, saske, viska

do [pronoun]you (the listener)

i xu do djica lo nu mi sidju doDo you want me to help you?

do'a [interjection]generously, broadly construed, do'a naiat least (parsimoniously)

i do'a mi do ka'e ctuca lo se jminaI could teach you some additional things.
i do'a nai do no da zekri lebnaAt least you didn't steal anything.
i a'o mi te dunda lo pa kargu karce a ke do'a nai lo pa karce poi na spofuHopefully, I'll be given an expensive car or at least one that isn't broken.
Related words: sa'e nai

do'e [preposition from co'e] — preposition with the meaning unspecified or known from context

i ti karda do'e lo valsiIt's a card with a word.
Comment: used in speech when it's hard to find an appropriate preposition on the fly.

do'i [pronoun] — tex of an utterance unspecified or known from context

i do'i me lo jufra pe pa se cukta poi mi pu tciduThat sentence is from a book that I had read.

do'o [pronoun]you and others (the listener + other persons not in the dialog)

i lu mi'a pu casnu lo nu litru li'u lu do'o pu cuxna ma li'u"We discussed travelling." "What did you choose?"

do'u [terminator] — ends a construct started with: be'e, co'o, co'oi, coi, di'ai, fe'o, fi'i, je'e, ju'i, ke'o, ki'e, mi'e, mu'o, nu'e, a'oi, re'i, ta'a, vi'o, ki'ai, cu, cu'e, do'u, doi

doi [vocative] — general vocative, identifies intended listener.

i doi lo nobli do co'u morji fi lo ckiku pe doOh, sir! You forgot your keys.

donrix1(entity) happens during daytime of day x2(entity) ...

lo donri — day (daylight time), daytime.
i ca lo donri be lo prulamdei ra pu stali lo zdaniYesterday in the daytime, he stayed at home.
Related words: nicte, djedi, tcika

dracix1(entity) is a drama or play about x2(entity) ...

lo draci — play (drama). lo se draci — plot of a drama.
i pa pendo be mi cu finti pa draci be lo nabmi pe lo te seksiMy friend is the author of a drama about the problem of sexes.
Related words: finti, cukta, lisri, cfika

dranix1(entity) is correct in x2(property of x1) ...

lo drani — correct.
i do drani lo ka pilno ma kau noi valsiYou are correct in what words you use.
Related words: srera, mapti

dratax1(entity) is not the same as x2(entity) ...

lo drata — different, another, other.
i lo drata be mi ka'e sidjuSomeone else but me can help.
Related words: mintu, frica, dunli

drudix1(entity) is a roof or lid of structure x2(entity)

lo drudi — lid. lo se drudi — something with a lid.
i lo drudi be le dinju cu ei se cikreThe roof of the building needs fixing.
Comment: lo drudi is designed to be over, above lo se drudi and shelters it from other things above lo drudi.
Related words: bitmu, stedu, galtu, gapru, loldi, marbi, gacri, mapku

dux1(entity), x2(entity), x3 are the same thing

lo du — identically equal.
i li pa su'i pa du li re li pa no fe'i mu1 + 1 = 2 = 10 / 5.
i xu do du lo prenu poi mitysisku mi ca lo prulamdeiAre you the same person who searched for me yesterday?
Comment: corresponds to the operator = in math, can have any number of places.
Related words: bitmu, stedu, galtu, gapru, loldi, marbi, gacri, mapku

du'e [digit/number]too many

i le vacri ca se la'u li du'e glareIt's too hot.
i du'e prenu cu zvati le klajiThere are too many people in the street.
Comment: subjective estimate.

du'i [preposition from dunli]as much as ..., adverb: equally

i mi'a du'i casnu lo mintuWe equally discussed the same.
i xu do pe du'i mi zukcfuAre you as busy as I am?
Comment: noun after du'i is compared with x1 of the clause, the clause itself describes the comparison.

du'u [clause prefix] — turn clause into verb

i mi djuno le du'u do na fuzmeI know that you are not responsible.
Comment: x1 (entity) is the clause (that follows) expressed in sentence x2(text).

dugrix1(number) is the logarithm of x2(number) to base x3(number)

lo dugri — logarithm. lo te dugri — base of a logarithm.
i li ci dugri li pa no no no li pa no3 is the logarithm of 1000 to base 10.
Related words: tenfa

duktix1(entity) is opposite or contrary to x2(entity) in x3(property of x1 and x2 with kau)

lo dukti — opposite.
i la alis la kevin pu dukti lo ka catlu ma kauAlice and Kevin looked in the opposite directions.
Related words: ranxi, ragve

dundax1(entity) gives or donates x2(entity) to x3(entity)

lo dunda — giver. lo se dunda — gift, present. lo te dunda — receiver of a gift.
i mi pu dunda tu'a pa plise doI gave you an apple.
Comment: lo se dunda doesn't need to be only special present.
Related words: benji, muvdu, canja, pleji, vecnu, friti, sfasa, dapma, cnemu, prali

dunjax1(entity) freezes ...

i ra na ru'e dunjaHe almost froze.
Related words: febvi, lunsa, litki, sligu

dunkux1(entity) is distressed or anguished by x2(clause)

lo dunku — distressed. lo se dunku — distressing event.
i mi pu dunku lo ka kansa no daI was distressed at being alone.
i xu do dunku lo nu lo mensi be do cu bilmaAre you distressed at your sister being ill?
Related words: fengu, surla

dunlix1(entity) is equal to x2(entity) in x3(property of x1 and x2 with kau) ...

lo dunli — equal.
i mi dunli lo mensi be mi lo ka clani i ku'i mi na mintu le mensiI am as long as my sister is. But I'm not her.
i mi dunli do lo ka jinvi ma kau lo se zukte be le prenuI am in concord with you in what we think about his actions.
Related words: du'i, satci, frica, simsa, mintu

dunrax1(entity) is winter of year x2(entity) at location x3(entity)

lo dunra — winter.
i ca lo dunra be lo re no no mu moi bei la australiias mi pu zvati tiDuring Australian winter of year 2005 I was here.
Related words: citsi, crisa, critu, vensa

dy [pronoun]d (letter)

Comment: prefixed with me'o is a quotation of the letter. When used alone refers to the last noun with the verb starting with this letter like dy is for the last lo drudi used.

dzenax1(entity) is an elder or ancestor of x2(entity) by bond x3(property of x1 and x2)

lo dzena — ancestor. lo se dzena — descendant.
i do dzena mi lo ka ce'u ce'u lidne lo ka jbena ca ma kauYou are my ancestor since you were born before me.
Related words: patfu, rirni, tamne

dzipox1(entity) is Antarctican in x2(property of x1)

i au mi vitke lo dzipo tumlaI want to visit the Antarctica.
Related words: ketco, friko, sralo, terdi

e [conjunction for nouns]and

i mi e do pu casnu lo za'u banguI discussed languages, and you discussed languages (maybe not with each other, maybe in different discussions).
Related words: ce, je, a, e, ji, o, u

e bu [pronoun]e (letter)

Comment: prefixed with me'o is a quotation of the letter. When used alone refers to the last noun with the verb starting with this letter like e bu is for the last la edvard used.

e'a [interjection]help yourself, you may, I allow, e'a nai — prohibiting

i e'a do klama lo nenriYou may come in.
i e'a nai fagriNo fire allowed!
i e'a nai crepu lo xrulaYou may not pick the flowers.
Related words: e'ande

e'andex1(entity) allows, permits x2(entity) to do x3(property of x2)

lo e'ande — who allows. lo se e'ande — who has permission. lo te e'ande — what is allowed.
i e'o do e'ande mi lo ka tcidu le cukta ba lo nu do mo'u tcidu riPlease, allow me to read the book after you finish reading it.
i le rirni pu e'ande le verba lo ka kelci bu'u le pankaThe parent let the child play in the park.
Related words: curmi, rinju, banzu, ralte, jimte, jaspu, zifre

e'e [interjection]Come on! (encouragement, instigation, provokation), e'e nai — discouragement, demoralization

i e'e klama lo zdaniLet's go home.
i do e'e co'u denpaC'mon, what are you waiting for?
i e'e do jarco lo ka vlipaShow your strength, go for it!
i e'e mi kuspe doI'll reach you.
i e'e nai mi claxu lo se ditcuSorry, I lack time.
Related words: kakne, certu

e'i [interjection] — command, instruction, imposing obligation (imperative interjection)

i e'i mi clivaI have to leave.
i do sanga e'iSing!
i e'i do carmi gunkaYou ought to work hard.
Related words: bapli, rinju

e'o [interjection]please (request), e'o nai — offer, grant

i e'o mi zganaLet me see.
i e'o do dunda le jisra miWill you pass the juice, please?
i e'o nai ko lebna lo titlaHere, take some candies.
Related words: cpedu, pikci

e'u [interjection]Let's (suggestion), e'u nai — warning, disadvise

i e'u mi'o trociLet's try.
i e'u klamaLet's go.
i e'u nai do stapa le cripuYou'd better not step onto the bridge.
i e'u do dasni lo kostaYou ought to wear a coat.
Related words: stidi, kajde

ei [interjection]I should ..., one should ..., as I feel it it should be so that ... (obligation), ei nai — freedom, how things might need not be

i ei do ca sipnaYou should be sleeping now.
i ei do djunoYou ought to know.
i ei nai do mipri lo neiYou needn't hide yourself.
i ro da cu se senpi eiEverything should be doubted.
Related words: bilga, zifre

engex1(entity) is an architect/designer/engineer of x2(entity)

lo enge — designer.
i lo patfu be mi pu enge ti noi dinjuMy father was an architect of this building.
Related words: zbasu, platu

entuzix1(entity) is enthusiastic, excited about x2(clause, property of x1)

lo entuzi — enthusiastic.
i la kevin cu mutce lo ka entuzi lo ka co'a se jibri lo cninoKevin is very enthusiastic about getting a new job.
Comment: carmi akti is for the meaning excited (in high energy state).
Related words: xanka, carmi, akti

esportex1(entity) is a type of sports practiced by x2(entity)

lo esporte — sports. lo se esporte — sportsperson, sportsman, sportswoman.
i mi se esporte la tenisI practice tennis.
Related words: zajba, sluji, dansu

fa [case tag] — prefix for the 1st place of the current clause

i fe zo coi cusku fa miHello, said I.
i fe ma fa mi zukte eiWhat should I do?
i sarcu fa lo nu do zvatiIt's required that you are present.

fa'a [preposition of place]directly towards ...

i ko catlu fa'a le cankoLook in the direction of the window.
i xu le pa cipni ca'o vofli fa'a lo solriIs the bird flying towards the Sun?

fa'u [conjunction]and respectively ... (forms unmixed set)

i zmadu fa'u mleca fi lo ka sampu fa'u lo ka draniIt's more easy and less correct, respectively.

fackix1(entity) discovers fact x2(proposition) about x3(entity) ; x1 finds out that x2 is true

lo facki — discoverer. lo se facki — discovery.
i mi facki lo jitfa lo pu se cusku be la alisI discovered false statements in what Alice said.
i mi facki le du'u le tcadu cu jibniI found that the city is near.
i mi pu facki le du'u le lisri cu xajmiI found the story funny.
Comment: for searching for objects and finding them use mitysisku and zvafa'i.
Related words: cirko, djuno, jijnu, smadi, sisku

fadnix1(entity) is ordinary in x2(property of x1) among x3(entity)

lo fadni — typical, ordinary.
i fi lo pendo be mi cu fadni fa la kevin lo ka cusku lo simsa noi srana miAmong my friends, it's common for Kevin to say such things about me.
Related words: cafne, rirci, kampu, lakne, tcaci, cnano

fagrix1(entity) is a fire in fuel x2(entity) burning in x3(entity: 'oxygen' by default)

lo fagri — fire. lo se fagri — fuel for fire. lo te fagri — oxidizer of fire.
i lo fagri be le boske bei lo brife co'a carmiThe fire in the forest burning in the wind becomes intense.
i le mudri cu se fagriThe wood is burning.
Related words: jelca, sacki

fai [case tag] — restores the part of a clause omitted using jai

i lo nu jimpe la'e ti cu nandu i la'e ti jai nandu fai lo ka se jimpeUnderstanding this is hard. This is hard to understand.

falnux1(entity) is a sail for gathering wind x2(entity) on vehicle x3(entity)

lo falnu — sail. lo se falnu — wind for a sail. lo te falnu — sailboat.
i ti noi bloti cu te falnuThis is a sailboat.
i ti noi molki cu te falnu lo djacu pa xisluThis mill operates on a water wheel.
Comment: x2 can be wind, water or other forces enabling the sail to work.
Related words: bloti

famtix1(entity) is an aunt or uncle of x2(entity) by bond x3(property of x1 and x2)

lo famti — aunt, uncle. lo se famti — niece, nephew.
i do famti mi lo ka ce'u mensi lo mamta be ce'uYou are my aunt since you are a sister of my mother.
Related words: bruna, mamta, mensi, patfu, rirni, tamne

fancux1(entity) is a function mapping argument domain x2(entity) to function range x3(entity) defined by rule x4(text) ; x1 is a function of x2

lo fancu — function. lo se fancu — domain of function arguments. lo te fancu — range of function.
i lo nu se la'u li xo kau mi'o snada cu te fancu lo nu se la'u li xo kau mi'o trociOur success depends on how hard we try.
i lo jdima be lo broda cu te fancu lo nu le broda tai ma kau cu se sabji jo'u lo nu le broda cu se cpedu xo kau daThe price of a good is a function of its supply and demand.
i lo nu mi jimpe la'e ti na te fancu tu'a doI don't depend on you to understand this.
i li fy pe li xy cu fancu li ma'u li ma'u no me'o vei xy su'i pa ve'o pi'i vei xy vu'u pa ve'of(x) = (x + 1) (x − 1), where x>1, f(x)>0.
Related words: mekso, bridi

fangex1(entity) is alien or unfamiliar to x2(entity) in x3(property of x1)

lo fange — alien, unfamiliar.
i ra fange mi lo ka zukte ma kauHe is alien to me in what he does.
Related words: cizra, jbena, ckini

fanmox1(clause) is the final, last part leading up to completion of x2(clause)

lo fanmo — finish, finale, final part, end (ending). lo se fanmo — process being finished.
i do te mukti lo ka mo ca lo fanmo lo ca jeftuWhat are you going to do on weekend?
i lo fanmo be le te jivna ba cinri ba'aI expect the final part of the competition interesting.
Comment: can refer to place.
Related words: cfari, sisti, krasi, mulno, denpa, jipno, traji

fanrix1(entity) is a factory or mill producing x2(entity) from x3(entity)

lo fanri — factory, mill. lo se fanri — product of a factory. lo te fanri — raw material for a factory.
i ti fanri lo nanba lo gurniThis is a mill producing bread from grain.
Related words: molki, gundi

fantax1(entity) prevents x2(clause) from occurring

lo se fanta — event being prevented.
i lo bumru pu fanta lo nu mi'a viska daFog prevented us from seeing anything.
Related words: pinfu, bandu, zunti, rinju, jimte, bapli, rivbi

fanvax1(entity) translates x2(text) to language x3(entity) from language x4(entity) with result x5(text)

lo fanva — translator. lo se fanva — text to be translated. lo te fanva — target language for translation. lo ve fanva — source language for translation. lo xe fanva — translation (text).
i mi pu fanva lu coi ui li'u lo glico lo lojbo zoi gy.yay, hello!.gy.I translated coi ui to English from Lojban as "Yay, hello!"
i xu lu coi do li'u drani xe fanva zoi gy.Hello, you!.gy.Is coi do a correct translation of "Hello, you!""?
Comment: traduki is an alternative to fanva.
Related words: cusku, bangu, traduki

fanzax1(clause) annoys x2(entity)

lo fanza — annoying event. lo se fanza — annoyed person.
i lo nu lo verba cu klaku cu fanza lo mamta be le verbaBaby crying annoys his mother.
i do fanza miYou annoy me.
Related words: fengu, raktu, dicra, tunta, zunti, jicla

faprox1(entity) opposes, doesn't surrender to x2(entity) about x3(entity, property of x1) ; x1 refuses to do x3

i mi pu fliba lo ka fapro lo nu do cismaI couldn't resist your smile.
i xu do fapro fi lo ka sidju miDo you refuse to help me?
Related words: bandu, bradi, darlu, damba, jivna, lanxe, rivbi, sarji, xarnu

farlux1(entity) falls to x2(entity) from x3(entity) ...

i mi pu farlu fi pa skalera fe lo dertuI fell down from the stairs onto the ground.
i la alis pu jai gau farlu fai le dakli le jubmeAlice dropped the bag on the table.
Related words: lafti, cpare, klama, sfubu

farnax1(entity) is the direction of x2(entity) from origin x3(entity)

lo farna — direction, trend.
i le canko cu farna lo nu la alis pu catlu vau miFrom my viewpoint, Alice was looking at the direction of the window.
Related words: zunle, pritu, galtu, gapru, cnita, dizlo, berti, snanu, stuna, stici, purci, balvi, lidne

farvix1(entity) evolves or develops into x2(entity) from x3(entity) through stages x4(ordered entity group)

lo ve farvi — stage of development, version in development.
i lo'e nanba cu farvi lo bredi lo te zbasu lo nu co'a mixre lo purmo jo'u lo matne jo'u lo sovda jo'u lo sakta vau jo'u ba bo lo nu glare jo'u ba bo lo nu satre vo'a lo matneOne makes a standard cake from raw materials by mixing flour, butter, eggs and sugar together, then heating, then greasing the cake with butter, and after that, it is ready.
Related words: pruce, banro, makcu, ciste, cupra, ferti

fasnux1(clause) occurs or happens

lo fasnu — occurrence, case (occurrence).
i lo cizra pu va fasnuThere were strange things happening there.
i lo ei ba fasnu ba fasnuWhatever shall be will be.
Related words: fau, krefu, lifri, fatci, rapli, gasnu, zukte, banli

fatcix1(proposition) is a fact

lo fatci — fact, factual.
i mi se la'u li me'i ro birti le du'u ro se djuno be mi bei le munje cu fatciI'm not completely sure that all that I know about the world are actual facts.
Related words: datni, jitfa, xanri, jetnu, fasnu, zasti, cfika, saske

fatrix1(entity) is distributed among x2(entity) with portions x3(entity)

lo fatri — distributed. lo te fatri — portion of a distributed thing.
i gau mi fatri fa lo titla lo verba lo pa meiI handed out candies to children one candy to each of them.
Related words: fa'u, fendi, preja, katna, tcana

fau [preposition]with the event of ...

i fau lo nu do djica vau ko cpedu fi miIf you want, ask me.
i ro da zo'u fau ro nu do nitcu da vau ko da lebnaWhenever you need something, take it.
i fau ro da da'i mi snadaI would succeed anyway.
i da'i ma fasnu fau lo nu ro remna no roi sipnaWhat would happen if humans never slept?

fe [case tag] — prefix for the 2nd place of the current clause

i fe ma zvati fa la alisWhere is Alice?

fe'e [prefix for a preposition] — explicitly marks the following preposition as referring to space, not time

i ko vi'i fe'e di'i sombo le gurniSow the grain in a line and evenly!

fe'i — division operator (symbol / or : in math)

i le jubme cu mitre li pa fe'i reThe table is half a meter in length.
Comment: fe'i is used only in math expressions, for fractions use fi'u..

fe'o [vocative]over and out (at the end of discussion)

i ca ti mi cliva e'i fe'oNow I have to leave, have a nice day!

fe'u [terminator] — ends a construct started with: fi'o

febvix1(entity) evaporates, boils ...

lo febvi — something boiling.
i le djacu za'o febviThe water is already boiling.
Related words: dunja, lunsa, litki

feglix1(entity) is ugly to observer x2(entity) in aspect x3(property of x1)

lo fegli — something ugly.
i le djacu cu fegli lo ka se panci ma kauThe water has an ugly smell.
Related words: rigni, melbi, pluka

fei [digit/number] — hex digit B (decimal 11), eleven

i mi ba volta de'i li cy feiI will return at 11 o'clock.

femtix1(entity) is 10-15 of x2(same type as x1) in x3(property of x1)

i lo pa protoni cu femti lo mitre be li ji'i pa pi xa boi lo ka klani ma kauA proton has a size of about 1.6 femtometres.
Related words: centi

fendix1(entity) divides x2(entity) into x3(entity) ...

lo fendi — divider. lo se fendi — divided.
i mi fendi le najnimre ci spisaI divide the orange into three pieces.
Related words: sepli, bitmu, fatri, dilcu, katna, frinu

fengux1(entity) is angry with x2(entity) for x3(property of x2)

lo fengu — angry.
i ra pu fengu mi lo ka pu na klamaShe was angry with me for not coming.
Related words: fanza, dunku

fenkix1(clause) is crazy ...

lo fenki — crazy action.
i le tcini cu fenkiThe situation is crazy.
i lo ka fengu cu klesi lo ka jai fenkiAnger is a form of madness.
Related words: bebna, racli, xajmi

fenrax1(entity) is a crack in x2(entity)

lo fenra — crack.
i da fenra le bitmuThere is a crack in the wall.
Related words: kevna, cfila, jinto

fensox1(entity) sews or stitches x2(entity group) together with tool x3(entity) using filament x4(entity)

i le nixli pu fenso pa bukpu pa jesni pa ciltaThe girl sewed pieces of cloth using a needle and a thread.
Related words: cilta, jivbu, jorne, nivji, pijne, lasna

fepnix1(entity) is x2(number) cents/copecks in value in monetary system x3(entity) ...

i le penbi cu fepni li mu no lo ropnoThe pen costs 50 eurocents.
Comment: describes money subunits like cents, kopecks.
Related words: sicni, jdini, jdima, vecnu, rupnu, dekpu, gutci, minli, merli, bunda, kramu

feprix1(entity) is the lung of x2(entity)

lo fepri — lung.
i ro da pu sanga se rai lo ka pilno lo fepri be vo'aEverybody sang at the top of their lungs.
Related words: pambe, vasxu

fertix1(entity) is fertile for growing x2(entity, property of x1)

lo ferti — fertile.
i lo vi tumla cu ferti lo ka te crepu lo vanjbaThis land is fertile for reaping grapes.
i ti noi fetsi cu ferti lo ka se tarbiThis female is fertile for conception.
Comment: covers both potential and actual/realized fertility.
Related words: vanbi, sidju, rorci, farvi, banro, cange

festix1(entity) is waste from x2(entity)

lo festi — waste.
i ko bevri lo festi be lo grute lo klajiTake the fruit scraps to the street.
Related words: xaksu, kalci, pinca

fetsix1(entity) is a female of species x2(taxon) with feminine traits x3(property of x1)

lo fetsi — female. lo te fetsi — feminine trait.
i ti fetsi lo finpe lo ka se ganti ma kauThis fish is female in having a certain kind of gonads.
Related words: nakni

fi [case tag] — prefix for the 3rd place of the current clause

i mi dunda fe ti fi doI give this to you.
i mi co'i klama fi le tsaniI came from the sky.

fi'a [case tag] — asks for the case tag like fa, fe, fi, fo, fu (that should go into the place to which fi'a is put)

i lu do klama fi'a le zdani li'u lu fi li'u"Are you going home, from home or?" "From home."

fi'i [vocative]you are welcome, make yourself at home (expression of hospitality), fi'i nai — expression of inhospitality

i fi'i lo vitke be lo zdani be mi'aWelcome to our house.
i do le'o co'e ne'a lo zdani be mi fi'i naiHow dare you show up near my house, go away!
Comment: je'e is you are welcome for replies to thanks.

fi'o — turn clause into preposition/adverb

i le mlatu pu plipe fi'o suksaThe cat jumped quickly.
i le nabmi cu nandu fi'o jinvi so'i prenuThe problem is difficult according to many people.
Comment: used in the form of 'fi'o + verb' or 'fi'o + verb + the first place of the verb' (thus the first place of the verb goes after it).

fi'u [digit/number] — fraction slash; if no number to the left then '1' is assumed; when used alone equals to golden ratio (approximately '1.618')

i mi pu citka pa fi'u ci pliseI ate 1/3 of an apple.
i lo re fi'u ci si'ei be lo prenu na kakne lo ka limnaTwo thirds of people can't swim.
i lo se klani be fi lo ka clani be'o fi'u lo se klani be fi lo ka ganra cu du li fi'uThe length is in golden ratio to the length.
i mi pu te vecnu pa re fi'u re sovdaI bought half a dozen eggs.
Comment: for divisions in math expressions use fe'i.

figrex1(entity) is a fig of species x2(taxon)

lo figre — fig.
i mi nelci ti noi crino figreI like these green figs.
Related words: grute

finpex1(entity) is a fish of species x2(taxon)

lo finpe — fish.
i mi se pluka lo ka kalte lo finpeI like fishing.
Related words: danlu

fintix1(entity) invents or creates x2(entity) for purpose x3(entity) from existing elements or ideas x4(entity)

lo finti — creator. lo se finti — creation (object created), creature. lo te finti — purpose of creation. lo ve finti — raw materials for creation.
i mi pu finti pa lisri lo ka jai gau zdile le verba vau lo se vedli be miI created a story out of my real experience to amuse the child.
Related words: ciska, pemci, zbasu, larcu, prosa, skina

fircax1(entity) flirts with x2(entity) by doing x3(property of x1)

i ko sisti lo ka firca lo mensi be mi lo ka benji lo jai se dunda riStop flirting with my sister by sending her gifts.
Related words: seksi, prami, jikca, melbi, tirna, tarti, gletu

flalux1(entity) is a law specifying x2(property of x3) for community x3(entity) ...

lo flalu — law.
i lo flalu be lo ka na ralte lo gerku bei ro se zdani cu cizraThe law specifying that no citizen should keep a dog is crazy.
Comment: x1 is the name of the law.
Related words: javni, ritli, zekri, pulji, tinbe

flanix1(entity) is a flute, fife

lo flani — flute.
i lo sance be le flani cu jai plukaThe flute has a pleasant sound.
Related words: zgike

flaumex1(entity) is a plum of species x2(taxon)

lo flaume — plum.
i lo pa spisa be lo flaume torta ije uo mi ba'o xagjiA piece of a plum cake, and, voilà, I'm no longer hungry.
Comment: lo flaume poi grute is @@plum (fruit), lo flaume poi tricu is @@plum tree. flaume alone can denote either of them.
Related words: jbari, titla, grute, tricu

flecux1(entity) is a current in x2(entity) flowing towards x3(entity) from x4(entity)

lo flecu — current (flow), flow (current).
i ti flecu lo condi pa lalxu pa galtu krasi pe bu'u loi cmanaThis is a current in a deep bed running towards a lake from high springheads in the mountains.
Comment: flu'ente that has a place structure identical to muvdu.

flibax1(entity) fails at doing x2(property of x1)

i mi za'u re'u fliba le cipraI failed the test again.
i le se troci pu se flibaThe attempt failed.
i mi fliba lo ka zvafa'i le penbiI can't find the pen.
Related words: cfila, snada, srera, troci, sisti, ranji, denpa, bebna, zunti

flirax1(entity) is a face of body x2(entity)

lo flira — face.
i u'e melbi flira raWhat a nice face she has!
i ra pu minde mi lo ka lumci lo flira be miHe told me to wash my face.
Related words: sefta, stedu, crane, mebri

flu'entex1(entity) is a fluid flowing to x2(entity) from x3(entity) via the route x4(entity)

lo flu'ente — fluent, fluid, flow.
i ti flu'ente pa lalxu pa galtu krasi pe bu'u loi cmana lo condiThis is a current in a deep bed running towards a lake from high springheads in the mountains.
i lo flu'ente pe lo bu'u tcadu cu carmiThe traffic in this city is intense.
i lo nazbi be mi cu ve flu'enteI have a runny nose.
i le cmana mo'u se flu'ente lo glareThe mountain erupted jetting hot matter.
Comment: muvdu is a more general term. senta is for where no directionality is implied.
Related words: rirxe, naxle, senta, rinci, xampo, letri, sakci, gapci, litki, ciblu

fo [case tag] — prefix for the 4th place of the current clause

i mi pu ciksi fe le nu mi pu na zvati vau fo lo nu mi pu bilmaI explained that I was absent because I was ill.

foldix1(entity) is a field made of material x2(entity)

lo foldi — field.
i mi vreta bu'u pa foldi be lo xrulaI'm lying on a flower field.
Related words: purdi, cange

fonmox1(entity) is some foam or froth of material x2(entity) with bubbles of material x3(entity)

lo fonmo — foam. lo te fonmo — bubble in foam.
i le glare pu ru'i cupra lo fonmo be lo djacu bei lo gapciThe heat was producing bubbles of gas in the water.
Related words: zbabu

fonxax1(entity) is a phone or modem in network x2(entity)

lo fonxa — telephone, phone. lo se fonxa — phone network.
i ti fonxa lo skori e nai lo te cradiThis is a landline phone, not a radiophone.
Related words: tcana

forcax1(entity) is a fork for x2(clause) with tines x3(entity) on base x4(entity)

lo forca — fork.
i ti forca lo nu jukpa vau lo ci mei lo mudriThis is a wooden fork for cooking with three tines.
Related words: dakfu, smuci, kombitu, tutci

fragarix1(entity) is a strawberry of species/breed x2(taxon)

lo fragari — strawberry.
i lo fragari cu je'a titlaStrawberries are really sweet.
Related words: jbari, grute, rozgu

frasox1(entity) is French in x2(property of x1)

lo fraso — French.
i xu do tavla fo lo frasoDo you speak French?
Related words: ropno

fraxux1(entity) forgives x2(entity) for x3(property of x2)

lo te fraxu — action forgiven.
i ko fraxu mi lo ka jai lerciForgive me for being late.
Related words: dunda, e'ande, zungi

fricax1(entity) differs from x2(entity) in x3(property of x1 and x2 with kau)

lo frica — something different.
i mi frica do lo ka nelci ma kauYou and I differ from each other in what we like.
Related words: ranxi, drata, dunli, simsa, vrici

frikox1(entity) is African in x2(property of x1)

lo friko — African.
i au mi viska lo friko xantoI want to see African elephants.
Related words: ropno, xazdo

frilix1(property of x2) is easy for x2(entity) ...

lo frili — easy.
i ti noi karce cu jai frili fai lo ka se sazriThis car is easy to handle.
i na pu frili mi fa lo ka zvafa'i lei ckikuIt wasn't easy for me to find the keys.
Related words: nandu, sampu, zifre

frinux1(entity) is a fraction of x2(entity) divided by x3(entity)

lo frinu — fraction. lo se frinu — numerator of a fraction. lo te frinu — denominator of a fraction.
i li re frinu li bi li vo2 = 8 / 2.
Related words: parbi, dilcu, mekso, fendi

fritix1(entity) offers x2(clause) to x3(entity) ...

lo se friti — offering.
i mi pu friti fi le mamta fe lo nu mi sidju le verba lo ka klama lo cnitaI offered the mother to help the child to go down.
Related words: canja, dunda, rinsa, vecnu, jdima, cnemu, pleji, vitke

frumux1(entity) grimaces, frowns ...

i le nakni pu frumu ca lo nu ri catlu miHe frowned looking at me.
Related words: cmila, cisma

fu [case tag] — prefix for the 5th place of the current clause

i mi ba benji lo xatra fu lo kibroI will send the letter via the internet.

fu'au [interjection]luckily, fu'au naiunluckily

i fu'au mi se e'ande fi lo ka dasni lo tordu skaciLuckily, I'm allowed to wear a short skirt.
i do ca zvati lo zdani fu'au daiYou are now at home, lucky you.
i fu'au nai lo vi dacti na mutce da'i lo ka plixauUnluckily, this thing wouldn't be of big help.
i fu'au nai no da pu ganse le nu le ninmu ba'o kansa mi'aUnluckily, no one noticed that she was no longer with us.
Related words: zabna, funca, ui, di'ai

fu'e — creates a scope (brackets) of influence for an interjection

i mi viska pa fu'e ia cizra zdani fu'oI can see what I believe is a strange house.
i mi ca klama lo drata tcadu fu'e ta'o de'i li jy dy re te zu'e lo ka viska loi rirni be mi fu'oI am going to another city (on Tuesday, by the way, to visit my parents).

fu'i [interjection modifier] — the state has been achieved easily, fu'i nai — state has been achieved hard

i e'e fu'i mi cpare le cmanaI can easily climb the mountain, I can go for it!
i ui fu'i nai mi tsuku lo korbi be le tcaduYay, that was hard but now I'm at the edge of the city.
Related words: frili

fu'o [terminator] — ends a construct started with: fu'e

fukpix1(entity) is a copy of x2(entity) in form x3(entity) made by method x4(clause)

lo fukpi — copy, replica.
i mi ralte pa fukpi be ti noi pixra bei pa bukpu pe lo jubme bei lo nu prinaI have a printed copy of this picture made as a tablecloth.
Related words: krefu, rapli, gidva, zi'evla

fultax1(entity) floats in or on gas or fluid x2(entity)

i lo morsi pezli xu fulta lo sefta be le djacuDead leaves float on the surface of the water.
Related words: limna, bloti, sakli

funcax1(clause) is determined by the good or bad luck of x2(entity)

lo funca — luck (good or bad).
i mi se funca lo ka se jundi ro daI'm lucky in that everybody listens to me.
Related words: cunso, mabla, zabna

fusrax1(entity) rots or decays ...

lo fusra — rotting.
i pa perli mo'u fusraThere is one pear and it is rotten.
Related words: birje, vanju, vifne

fuzmex1(entity) is responsible for x2(clause) to authority x3(entity)

lo fuzme — responsible for, accountable for.
i la alis pu jai se facki fai lo ka na fuzme le zekri vau le kamniAlice was found not responsible for the crime by the committee.
Related words: bilga

fy [pronoun]f (letter)

Comment: prefixed with me'o is a quotation of the letter. When used alone refers to the last noun with the verb starting with this letter like fy is for the last lo frumu used.

ga [forethought conjunction]and/or

i ga mi citka gi mi kelciI either eat or play, or do both.
Comment: used to connect nouns, adverbs, verbs, clauses. Shows that at least one of the constructs inside ga ... gi is true.

ga'a [preposition from zgana]to observer ..., observed by ..., adverb: being observed

i ga'a mi ca cerniTo me it's morning now.
Comment: not limited to vision. When used as a preposition (with a noun after it) the clause itself describes what is being observed. When used after ne the clause itself describes sense via one observes.

ga'i [interjection] — expressing hauteur, ga'i cu'i — expressing equal rank, ga'i nai — meekness (used with one of lower rank)

i do nitcu ma doi lo pikci ga'iWhat do you need, you beggar?
i mi ro do ga'i cu'i tavlaI'm talking to you, my peers.
i e'o doi lo turni ko sidju mi'a ga'i nai saiPlease, governor, help us, worthless people.
Related words: gapru, cnita

ga'u [preposition of cardinal direction]up from ..., adverb: above

i pu bumru ga'u lo lalxuThere was mist over the river.

gacrix1(entity) is a lid for covering x2(entity)

lo gacri — lid. lo se gacri — something with a lid.
i lo snime cu gacri le dertuSnow covers the ground.
Related words: pilka, gapru, marbi, drudi, botpi, bitmu, calku

gadrix1(text) is a gadri, a grammatical particle producing noun out of verb x2(text) ...

lo gadri — gadri (grammatical particle).
i zo le gadri lu nu dansu li'ule is a gadri.
Comment: lo, le, la, lai, loi, lei, lo'e, le'e are the most common gadri.
Related words: valsi, cmavo

gai [digit/number] — hex digit C (decimal 12), twelve, dozen

i mi citka de'i li cy gaiI eat at noon (12 o'clock).

galfix1(entity) transforms, modifies, changes x2(entity) into x3(entity)

lo galfi — modifier, transformer.
i le mamta pu galfi le rectu jo'u le nanba lo pluka snujiMother turned the meat and the bread into lovely sandwiches.
i ju'o le ninmu ba galfi la kevin lo speni be vo'aI'm sure she will make Kevin her spouse.
i lo lenku brife pu galfi le pezli lo bunreThe cold wind turned the leaves brown.
Comment: binxo describes that entity turns into another entity, galfi is to turn one entity into another one. cenba describes how entity changes its state while remaining the same entity, stika is to make entity change its state.
Related words: stika, binxo, cenba, zasni

galtux1(entity) is high in reference frame x2(entity) ; x1 is an upper part of x2 ...

lo galtu — high.
i le cipni cu galtu miThe bird is high compared to me.
Related words: gapru, dizlo, cnita, drudi, farna

galxex1(entity) is a throat of x2(entity)

lo galxe — throat.
i da'i lo djacu cu xamgu lo galxe be doWater would be fine for your throat.
Related words: cnebo, kevna, tunlo

ganlo — portal x1(entity) is closed, preventing access to place x2(entity) for object x3(entity)

lo ganlo — closed.
i le vorme cu ganlo lo nenri lo fangeThe door is closed not letting the strangers in.
Related words: kalri, pagre, canko, vorme, zunti

ganrax1(entity) is broad or wide in length/width etc. x2(property of x1) ...

lo ganra — broad, wide.
i le tricu cu ganra lo ka se midjuThe tree is thick in the middle.
Comment: the second largest dimension. ganra, rotsu and clani specify the three dimensions of objects.
Related words: clani, jarki, rotsu, condi, barda, gutci, minli

gansex1(entity) detects or senses x2(entity) by means x3(property of x1) ...

lo se ganse — feeling (sensation).
i mi ganse lo nu ti cpina vau lo ka smaka riI sense it being irritating by tasting it.
Related words: pencu, sanji, viska, sumne, tirna, zgana, canci, simlu

gantix1(entity) is a gonad/ovary of x2(entity) of sex x3(entity)

lo ganti — gonad. lo te ganti — sex (biological).
i lo xanto cu se ganti lo barda lo nakniMale elephants have large testicles.
Related words: plibu, sovda, nakpinji, gutra, mabla

ganxox1(entity) is the anus of x2(entity)

lo ganxo — anus.
i le mikce pu kucli tu'a lo nabmi pe lo ganxo be le nanmuThe doctor was curious about the problem with the anus of the man.
Related words: zargu, kalci, mabla, rinci

ganzux1(entity) organizes chaos x2(entity) into order x3(entity) by principle x4(proposition)

lo ganzu — organizer. lo se ganzu — chaotic, not organized. lo te ganzu — organized.
i le turni pu ganzu lo ruble prenu lo vlipa jenmi lo ka bapli lo nu le jenmi cu zukte lo te mindeHe turned weak people into a powerful army by making them execute orders.
Related words: ciste, morna, stura, cabra

gapcix1(entity) is a gas ...

lo gapci — gas.
i ti noi karce cu se livla lo gapciThis car is powered by gas.
Related words: pambe, vacri, litki, sligu, danmo, bumru, cidro, flu'ente

gaprux1(entity) is directly above x2(entity) ...

lo gapru — something above.
i le solri ca gapru miThe Sun is now above me.
Related words: tsani, galtu, cnita, drudi, gacri, dizlo, farna

garnax1(entity) is a railing or bar supporting or restraining x2(entity) ...

lo garna — rail.
i ti garna lo xanceThis is a handrail.
Related words: kamju, grana, tutci

gasnux1(entity) causes x2(clause) to happen

lo gasnu — agent.
i do pu gasnu lo nu mi klakuYou made me cry.
Comment: lo zukte is who do something themselves, lo gasnu is agent who causes something, lo se jalge is event that causes something.
Related words: gau, gunka, zukte, rinka, fasnu, jibri, kakne, pilno

gastax1(entity) is some steel ...

lo gasta — steel.
i lo balre be ti noi dakfu cu gastaThe blade of this knife is made of steel.
Related words: jinme, molki, tirse

gau [preposition from gasnu]with active agent ...

i ba gau mi do clivaI will make you leave.
i mi pu jai gau citka fai le verbaI fed the child.
Comment: the clause describes the event cause by the agent; agent/ergative case tag.

ge [forethought conjunction]and

i mi ge citka pa torta gi pinxe lo jisraI both eat a cake and drink some juice.
Comment: used to connect nouns, adverbs, verbs, clauses. Shows that both constructs inside ge ... gi are true.

ge'e [interjection] — attitude unspecified or known from context

i ge'e lo mlatu pe mi mo'u se jbena pa no daWell, my cat has given birth to ten kittens.

ge'i [forethought conjunction] — question

i lu do ge'i citka lo torta gi pinxe lo jisra li'u lu ge li'u"What connective of GA series matches your situation: you eat a cake, you drink some juice?" "I do both."
Comment: used to connect nouns, adverbs, verbs, clauses.

ge'u [terminator] — ends a construct started with: goi, ne, pe, po'e

genjax1(entity) is a root of x2(entity)

lo genja — root.
i ti noi spati cu se genja lo claniThis plant has long roots.
Related words: jamfu, jicmu, patlu, samcu, spati, krasi

genxux1(entity) is a hook ...

lo genxu — hook.
i mi pu kavbu pa finpe pa genxuI caught a fish with a hook.
Related words: korcu

gerkux1(entity) is a dog of species x2(taxon)

lo gerku — dog.
i mi jai gau citka fai lo gerku pe mi re roi ro djediI feed my dog twice a day.
Related words: lorxu, labno, mlatu

gernax1(proposition) is the grammar of language x2(entity) for structure x3(text)

lo gerna — grammar. lo te gerna — text.
i le du'u lo gadri cu lidne lo se du'u selbri cu gerna la lojban lo sumtiThat gadri precede selbri is the grammar of Lojban for sumti.
i zoi ry.привет.ry. te gerna lo rusko"привет" is a Russian text.
Related words: bangu, stura, cmavo, jufra

gi [middle separator] — separator of the two parts in the forethought connection

i ge do gi mi nelci lo perliBoth you and I like pears.

gi'a [connective for clause tail]and/or

i mi citka gi'a sangaI do at least one of the following: I drink and I sing. I drink or I sing.
Comment: means at least one of the two (of clause tails connected using gi'a).

gi'e [connective for clause tail]and

i ai mi lumci lo kumfa gi'e jukpa lo tortaI'm going to clean the room and cook a cake.

gi'e nai [connective for clause tail]and not

i mi tavla bau la lojban gi'e nai certu tu'a riI speak Lojban but I'm not an expert in it.

gi'i [connective for clause tail] — question

i do klama gi'i staliAre you going or staying?

gi'o [connective for clause tail]both or none

i ro da ka'e prenu gi'o ka'e tavlaEveryone either can be a person and can talk, or have none of that.
Comment: describes event requiring both connected main verbs to be true in respect to their shared nouns.

gi'u [connective for clause tail]whether or not

i mi citka gi'u sangaI eat (whether or not I sing).

gidvax1(entity) guides or leads x2(entity) in x3(property of x2)

lo gidva — guide (conductor).
i ra gidva mi lo ka tadni la lojbanHe guides me in studying Lojban.
Related words: jitro, ralju, sazri, te bende, jatna, fukpi, morna

gigdox1(entity) is a billion, 109 of x2(same type as x1) in x3(property of x1)

i lo vi tcana cu gigdo lo bitni lo ka benji ca ro sniduThis network station sends 1 gigabit of data per second.
Related words: centi

ginkax1(entity) is a camp of inhabitants x2(entity) ...

lo ginka — camp. lo se ginka — camper.
i mi'ai pu zbasu pa ginka pe bu'u le lalxuWe made camp near the lake.
i mi'ai pu se ginka ze'a lo jeftuWe camped there for a week.
Comment: temporary residence.
Related words: dinju, xabju, zdani

girzux1(entity) is a group with common feature x2(property of x1) ...

lo girzu — group.
i mi cmima pa girzu be lo ka tadni la lojbanI am a member of a group of those who learn Lojban.
Related words: bende, ciste, cmima, gunma, panra, cabra, cecmu, kansa, klesi, lanzu, liste, vrici

gismux1(text) is a root verb ...

lo gismu — gismu (root verb).
i zo zgana gismuzgana is a gismu (root verb).
Related words: selbrivla, lujvo, zi'evla, cmevla

glarex1(entity) is hot ...

lo glare — hot.
i le tcati cu glareThe tea is hot.
Related words: lenku

glekix1(entity) is happy about x2(clause, property of x1)

lo gleki — happy.
i mi gleki lo nu do jingaI am happy that you won.
Related words: badri, cinmo

gletux1(entity) copulates or mates with x2(entity)

i ko na gletu ra mu'i lo nu do djica ku po'oDon't have sex with her just because you want to.
Related words: seksi, nakpinji, plibu, vibna, vlagi, mabla, speni

glicox1(entity) is English in x2(property of x1)

lo glico — English.
i mi traduki lo vi uenzi lo glicoI'm translating this text to English.
Related words: sralo

glutax1(entity) is a glove or mitten ...

lo gluta — glove.
i le gluta pu jai gau stodi fai lo xance be ra lo ka mliglaThe gloves kept her hands warm.
Related words: taxfu

go [forethought conjunction]both or none

i go la alis ba lumci lo kumfa gi la kevin cu sidju la alisAlice will clean a room if, and only if, Kevin helps her.
Comment: used to connect nouns, adverbs, verbs, clauses. Shows that the whole assertion is true if each of its parts (the construct inside go ... gi and the construct after gi) are true..

go'a [verb] — copies a recent completed main level clause

i au mi ne ka'ai do zgana pa cnino skina i ku'i za'a do ca zukcfu so'i da i ca ma mi'o ka'e go'aI'd like to watch a new movie with you. But as I can see you are very busy now. When can we do that?

go'i [verb] — copies the last completed main main level clause

i au mi penmi do i xu lo nu go'i cu cumkiI'd like to meet you. Is this possible?

go'o [verb] — copies the next main main level clause

i sa'u mi pu jinvi lo nu go'o i do mutce lo ka tatpiI simply thought this: you are very tired.

goctix1(entity) is 10-24 of x2(same type as x1) in x3(property of x1)

i lo pa protoni cu gocti lo grake be li ji'i pa pi ze bei lo ka tiljuProton is approximately 1.7 Yoctogram.
Related words: centi

goithat will from now on be called ... (a noun follows)

i i'a da goi ko'a dinjuOkay, so there is a house, let's call it ko'a from now on.
i ko'a simlu lo ka zarci i je so'i prenu ta'e klama lo nenri jo'u lo bartu i ji'a cinri fa lo nu pa canko be ko'a cu spofuko'a looks like a store, many people go in and out. In addition, it's interesting that there is a window in ko'a that is broken.

gotrox1(entity) is 1024 of x2(same type as x1) in x3(property of x1)

i lo terdi cu gotro lo grake be li ji'i pa ki'o boi lo ka tiljuThe mass of the Earth is approximately 6000 Yottagram.
Related words: centi

gradux1(entity) is a unit on scale x2(property of x1 with kau) measuring x3(property of x1 with kau)

lo gradu — unit. lo se gradu — scale with units.
i lo centi be lo mitre cu gradu lo ka mitre vau lo ka te sepliCentimeter is a unit on metric scale, which measures distance.
Related words: ckilu, kantu, kelvo, merli, ranti, selci

grakex1(entity) is x2(number) grams in weight ...

lo se grake — weight in grams.
i lei plise cu grake li pa ki'oThe apples are 1 kilogram in weight.
Related words: junta, kilto, bunda, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, litce, centi

granax1(entity) is a rod or pole ...

lo grana — rod, stick.
i ra pu jgari pa granaHe was holding a rod.
Related words: garna

grasux1(entity) is some grease, oil ...

lo grasu — grease.
i ko punji lo so'o grasu le xisluPut some grease on the wheel.
i ri se savruIt squeaks.
Related words: ctile, matne, plana

gredilex1(entity) is a grill/grid/graticule consisting of lines x2(entity)

lo gredile — grill, grid. lo se gredile — line of a grid.
i ti gredile lo ci pinta jo'u lo re srajiIt's a grid with three horizontal and two vertical lines.
Comment: see cartu, sraji, pinta, kamju.
Related words: greku, kamju, sraji, pinta

grekux1(entity) is a frame or structure supporting x2(entity)

lo greku — frame.
i lo greku be le bitmu cu mudriThe frame of the fence is wooden.
Related words: korbi, stura, tsina, bongu

grusix1(entity) is gray

lo grusi — gray.
i ca lo nicte ro mlatu cu grusiAt night, all cats are grey.
Related words: skari, blabi, xekri, kandi, carmi

grutex1(entity) is a fruit of species x2(taxon)

lo grute — fruit (of a plant).
i ti noi grute be lo plise cu crinoThis apple fruit is green.
Related words: badna, dembi, figre, tcilokoiotli, narge, perli, pilka, plise, spati, stagi, tamca, tsiju, tarbi, panzi, rorci, te pruce, jbari, nimre

gu [forethought conjunction]whether or not

i la alis cu gu stati gi melbiAlice is smart whether or not she is beautiful.
Comment: used to connect nouns, adverbs, verbs, clauses.

gu'a [forethought conjunction for tanru]and/or

i le nu litru ba gu'a clani gi ckapeThe journey will be dangerous or long.

gu'e [forethought conjunction for tanru]and

i ca pa djedi mi ba gu'e badri gi gleki daOne day there will be something so that I will be both sad and happy about.

gu'i [forethought conjunction for tanru] — question

i lu do gu'i citka gi pinxe li'u lu ge li'u"Do you eat or drink?" "Both."

gu'o [forethought conjunction for tanru]both or none

i ai mi te vecnu pa gu'o cnino gi kargu karceI'm going to buy an expensive car if and only if it is new.

gu'u [forethought conjunction for tanru]whether or not

i ai mi te vecnu pa gu'u kargu gi cnino karceI'm going to buy a new car whether or not it is expensive.

gubnix1(entity) is public to community x2(entity)

lo gubni — public. lo se gubni — community with something public.
i le panka cu gubni lo prenuThe park is public and open to people.
Related words: sivni

gugdex1(entity) is the country of inhabitants x2(entity) with territory x3(entity)

lo gugde — country. lo se gugde — citizen of a country. lo te gugde — territory of a country.
i ti gugde lo cilce prenu lo na'e bardaThis is a country of wild people covering not a big territory.
Related words: turni, natmi, jecta, tumla, tutra, lanci

gumrix1(entity)  is a mushroom of species x2(taxon)

lo gumri — mushroom.
i ti noi gumri cu vindu lo remnaThis mushroom is poisonous to humans.
Related words: mledi

gundix1(entity) is industry producing x2(entity) by process or means x3(clause)

lo gundi — industry. lo se gundi — product of an industry. lo te gundi — industrial process.
i le gundi be lo taxfu be lo ka macnu se cupra cu carmi lo ka farviThe industry of producing handmade dresses is intensely developing.
i mi se cuntu lo gundi be lo zgikeI am involved in music industry.
Related words: cupra, fanri, rutni, zbasu

gunkax1(entity) works on x2(property of x1) with goal x3(clause, property of x1)

lo gunka — worker. lo se gunka — work activity. lo te gunka — work goal.
i mi gunka lo ka tadni la lojban vau lo ka sutra tavla bau la lojbanI'm working on learning Lojban in order to quickly talk in it.
Comment: zukte need not be labor.
Related words: sazri, gasnu, se jibri, briju, lazni, akti, selfu

gunmax1(entity) is a joint mass, team of components that are x2(entity group)

lo gunma — mass, aggregate. lo se gunma — component of a mass.
i pa gunma be lo prenu ca'o sruri le dinjuThe crowd of people is surrounding the building.
Comment: x2 describes the whole set. For a particular member of a set use cmima.
Related words: bende, girzu, pagbu, loi, lei, lai, ciste, cmima, kansa, joi

gunrox1(entity) rolls on surface x2(entity) rotating on axis or axle x3(entity)

i ba bo le verba co'a gunro pa salpo mo'i ni'a fi lo cutne be vo'aAnd then the child started rolling down the slope rotating around his chest.
i mi ca'o gunro lo vacriI am spinning in the air.
Related words: bolci, carna, jendu, slanu

gunsex1(entity) is a goose of species x2(taxon)

lo gunse — goose.
i ju'i do ci gunse ca'o limna le lalxuHey, look, three geese are swimming in the lake.
Related words: cipni

guntax1(entity) attacks x2(entity) with goal x3(property of x1)

lo gunta — attacker. lo se gunta — attacked.
i loi ratcu ca'o gunta le dinju lo ka cpacu lo gurniRats are attacking the building to get the grain.
Related words: bradi, damba, darxi, jamna, jenca, jursa

gurnix1(entity) is grain from plant x2(entity)

lo gurni — grain.
i mi vi ku ralte lo gurni be lo zumriI keep here maize grain.
Related words: bavmi, cunmi, mavji, maxri, molki, mraji, rismi, sobde, spati, zumri, nanba, sorgu

guskax1(entity) erodes x2(entity) from x3(entity)

lo guska — blade, scraper, erosive, abrasive.
i mi pu guska lo skapi lo cidni be miI scraped the skin off my knees.
Related words: balre, sraku, batci, canpa, mosra

gusnix1(entity) is light falling down on x2(entity) from source x3(entity) ; x3 illuminates x2 with illumination x1

lo gusni — light (illumination). lo se gusni — illuminated. lo te gusni — illuminator.
i lo fagri pu te gusni le kevna lo xunreThe fire illuminated the cave with red light.
Related words: dirce, manku, solri, carmi, ctino, kantu

gustax1(entity) is a restaurant serving food x2(entity) to x3(entity)

lo gusta — restaurant.
i banli gustaNice restaurant.
i bu'u le xotli da gusta lo kukte lo vitke be le xotliIn the hotel there is a restaurant serving tasty food to guests of the hotel.
Related words: selfu, barja, citka, kukte, sanmi, xotli

gutcix1(entity) is x2(number) short distance units in standard x3(property of x1) ...

i le jubme cu gutci li re lo ka mitreThe table is two meters in size.
Comment: describes measurement of an object in one dimension. x3 desribes the scale that might not be metric. minli is used in the same way but for subjectively large objects.
Related words: minli, clani, ganra, rotsu, condi, mitre, dekpu, merli, bunda, kramu

gutrax1(entity) is the womb of x2(entity)

lo gutra — womb.
i lo gutra be lo mamta be mi pu se vimcuMy mother had uterus removed.
Related words: jbena, rorci, sovda, tarbi, ganti, mabla

gy [pronoun]g (letter)

Comment: prefixed with me'o is a quotation of the letter. When used alone refers to the last noun with the verb starting with this letter like gy is for the last lo grana used.

i — separates sentences

i da vi fasnu i je lo nu da mo kau cu na klinaSomething is happening here, and what it is isn't exactly clear.

i bu [pronoun]i (letter)

Comment: prefixed with me'o is a quotation of the letter. When used alone refers to the last noun with the verb starting with this letter like i bu is for the last lo intele used.

i'a [interjection]OK (acceptance), i'a nai — resistance

i i'a mi ba denpaOkay, I will wait.
i i'a mi na certuWell, I'm not an expert.
i lo danfu i'a nai cu ei drataNo, the solution doesn't satisfy me, it should be different.
Related words: mansa, fapro, fi'i

i'e [interjection]Fine! (approval), i'e cu'i — non-approval, i'e naiBoo! (disapproval)

i i'e do pu gunka lo vajniVery good! You did an important work.
i i'e cu'i do pu tsuku ca le se tcikaWell, okay, you arrived on time.
i i'e nai do jai lerciOy, you are late.
Related words: zanru

i'i [interjection] — togetherness, comradeship, i'i nai — antagonistically

i i'i do badri doi lo pendoYou are sad, I know that feeling, bro.
i i'i nai mi zukte lo na me do moiIt's your problems, I'm not doing your work.
Related words: kansa, gunma, sivni, sepli

i'o [interjection] — appreciation, i'o nai — envy

i i'o do je'a pendoAh, you're a true friend.
i i'o nai do ro roi se funca lo zabnaMmm, you are always lucky.
Related words: ckire, jilra

i'u [interjection] — familiarity, i'u nai — unfamiliarity, mystery

i coi i'uGreetings, old friend.
i i'u ti noi plise so'i mei cu kukteYes, these apples are sweet.
i ti i'u nai xotliIt's some hotel.
Related words: slabu

ia [interjection] — belief, ia cu'iallegedly (skepticism), ia naiPshaw! (disbelief)

i ia draniI believe that's correct.
i mi viska pa ponse be ia pa blanu zdaniI see an owner of what I believe to be a blue house.
i ia cu'i le prenu cu catraAllegedly, he is the murderer.
i ia nai le prenu cu stace miI don't believe, he is frank with me.
Related words: krici, jinvi

ie [interjection]Yeah! Aye! (agreement), ie nai — disagreement

i ie la kevin ka'e pu zvati tiYes, Alice could be here.
i le danlu cu morsi ie naiNo, I don't agree that the animal is dead.
Related words: tugni

ii [interjection]Eek! Yikes! (fear), ii nai — safeness

i ii da klamaEek, there is someone coming!
i ii nai le djacu na ba kuspe mi'oThe water won't reach us.
Related words: terpa, snura

influ'enzax1(entity) is an influenza, grippe, flu

lo influ'enza — influenza, grippe, flu.
i mi bilma fi lo influ'enzaI've got the flu.
Related words: bilma

infox1(proposition) is information about x2(proposition) gathered by method x3(clause)

lo info — information. lo te info — method of gathering information.
i lo info be lo nu vofli cu vajni miThe information about flights is important to me.
i lo ka zukte lo zekri cu info le nanmu lo ka zgana lo se zukte be ce'uThat he is a criminal is the information about the man collected by monitoring his actions.
Related words: datni, vreji, kucli, djuno

insektox1(entity) is an insect of species x2(taxon)

lo insekto — insect.
i mi se cinri lo ka tadni lo insektoI am interested in studying insects.
Related words: cinki, civla, danlu, blato, ankabuta, manti, sfani, toldi, bifce

intelex1(property of x2) is an intellect of bearer x2(entity)

lo intele — intellect.
i lo ka facki le du'u ma kau drani cu intele lo panzi be miThe ability to determine who is right is the sign of high intellect of my child.
Comment: the realized capacity of thinking, judging, abstract reasoning, and conceptual understanding; the cognitive capacity.
Related words: menli, besna, morji, mucti, pensi, sanji, xanri, sevzi, xadni

io [interjection] — respect, io nai — disrespect

i ko io jersi miThis way, Sir!
i ko io nai ti klamaGet your asses over here!
Related words: sinma

ircix1(entity) is an IRC user, chats in IRC on channel x2(entity) in network x3(entity)

lo irci — IRC user.
i la tom cu irci la'o .net.#lojban.net. la'o gy.freenode.gyTom chats in IRC channel #lojban of freenode network.
Related words: jikca, kibro

iu [interjection]Aww! Mm! (love), iu nai — hatred

i da'i mi stali iuI'd love to stay.
i do iu nai na pu sidju miYou didn't help me, hate you!
i cakla iu naiI hate chocolate.
Related words: prami

ja [conjunction]and/or

i ba'a le tanxe cu barda ja tiljuI expect the box to be big or heavy (at least one of the two characteristics).
Comment: means at least one of the two (of constructs connected using ja).

ja'a [preposition of truth/falsehood]It is true that ...

i mi ja'a jimpeI do understand.

ja'a [2nd meaning] — left affirmer in conjunctions

i la alis pu ku sinma ja'a gi'e nai sidju vau miAlice did respect me but didn't help me.

ja'ai [1st meaning: interjection] — affirms attitude. Used as a modifier of interjection

i ui ja'aiYay indeed!
Comment: affirmative/negation pairs are ja'ai/nai, ja'a/na, je'a/na'e, jo'a/na'i.

ja'ai [2nd meaning: right scalar particle] — affirms prepositions, pronouns, clauses, verb words

i mi pu citka se pi'o ja'ai lo forcaI ate indeed using a fork.

ja'ai [3rd meaning] — placed after a connective affirms the part after that connective

i mi djica na gi'e ja'ai brediI don't want but I'm ready.

ja'e [preposition from jalge]resulting in ...

i pu lerci i ja'e bo mi pu bilga lo ka voltaI was late. Therefore, I had to return.
i mi pu tatpi i ja'e bo mi co'a sipnaI was so tired that I fell asleep.

ja'o [interjection]I conclude

i ja'o do merkoThen, you must be an American.
i ja'o do na nelci lo birjeSo, you don't like beer.
Related words: nibli

jabrex1(entity) brakes or slows activity x2(clause) with mechanism or principle x3(property of x1)

i do jabre lo nu mi gunka vau lo ka ru'i tavlaYou slow my work down by your constant talk.
Related words: mosra

jadnix1(entity) is a decoration of x2(entity)

lo jadni — ornament, decoration (ornament). lo se jadni — adorned.
i lo tarci cu jadni le tsaniStars decorate the sky.
Related words: jemna, dirba, batke

jai [1st meaning] — Splits a clause into "some noun + cu jai" and "fai lo ka+the rest of the clause"

i lei ckiku cu jai nandu fai lo ka se zvafa'i i va'i lo nu zvafa'i lei ckiku cu nanduThe keys are hard to find. In other words, to find the keys is difficult.
i lo bangu cu jai nandu i lo bangu cu jai nandu fai lo ka cilre fi ce'uLanguages are difficult. Languages are difficult in learning things about them.
i ko cusku lo jai se djica be doSay what you want.
i do ro roi cusku lo jai nandu be fai lo ka jimpe fi ce'uYou always say something hard to understand.
Comment: lei ckiku cu jai nandu - not keys themselves are hard but e.g. finding them is hard. lo bangu cu jai nandu - not languages themselves can be difficult but e.g. learning things related to them is difficult like in the example.

jai [2nd meaning] — Some noun + jai + some preposition take the first place of the main verb. The old first place can be expressed with the case marker fai

i mi jai gau farvi fai pa proga i va'i pa proga gau mi farviI develop a program. In other words, with me as the agent a program develops.

jaknex1(entity) is a rocket ...

lo jakne — rocket.
i le jakne ba klama fi le terdi fe le lunraThe rocket will go from the Earth to the Moon.
Related words: cecla, danti, spoja

jalgex1(clause) is the result or outcome of x2(clause)

lo jalge — outcome of an event, result of an event.
i le snuti pu se jalge lo nu le nakni pu na jundiThe accident happened because he hadn't been careful.
i lo cizra pu jalgeThere ensued something strange.
Related words: se mukti, te zukte, se rinka, se krinu, se nibli, mulno, sumji, pilji, mekso, ja'e, ciksi

jalnax1(entity) is some starch ...

lo jalna — starch.
i ta'i ma jukpa lo rismi se pi'o nai lo jalnaHow to cook rice without starch?
Related words: patlu, samcu

jamfux1(entity) is a foot of x2(entity)

lo jamfu — foot.
i lo jamfu be mi cu lenkuMy feet are cold.
Related words: jicmu, genja, zbepi, tuple, jubme, xance, tamji

jamnax1(entity) wars against x2(entity) over territory or matter x3(proposition)

lo te jamna — reason for a war.
i la alis jo'u la meilis pu jamna zu'ai le du'u jdice le du'u ma kau traji lo ka melbi vau lo me vo'aAlice and Mei Lee were at war with each other in deciding who was prettier among them.
Comment: war (lo nu jamna) usually consists of battles (lo nu damba).
Related words: bradi, gunta, panpi, damba, darlu

janbex1(entity) is a bell or chime producing sound x2(entity)

lo janbe — bell. lo se janbe — sound of a bell.
i mi pu tirna lo janbe be lo claduI heard a loud bell ringing.
Related words: zgike, tonga, desku, slilu

jancox1(entity) is a joint attaching limbs x2(entity group) ...

lo janco — joint. lo se janco — limb with a joint.
i lo anka cu janco lo tuple jo'u lo cutneAnkle is a joint between chest and leg.
Comment: lo tornozelo is ankle, lo anka is hip.
Related words: birka, tornozelo, anka

janlix1(entity) collides with or crashes into x2(entity)

i bu'u le klaji mi co'i janli pa pendo be miI bumped into a friend of mine in the street.
Related words: darxi

jansux1(entity) is a diplomat representing polity x2(entity) in negotiation/with function x3(property of x1) ...

lo jansu — diplomat. lo te jansu — diplomatic negotiation.
i mi jansu lo gugde pe mi lo ka du lo prenu poi jdice vau fau lo nu casnu lo nu lebna lo ctileI represented my country in discussions on getting oil as a person that takes decisions.
Comment: lo krati (representative) is a more broad term.
Related words: jecta, krati

jantax1(entity) is a bill, invoice for goods or service x2(property of x3) billed to x3(entity) by x4(entity)

lo janta — bill, invoice, account (bill).
i ti jatna lo grute lo kagni pe mi lo te vecnu pe lo drata gugdeThis is a bill for the fruits issued to my company by customers from another country.
Related words: jdima, vamji, vecnu, canja, jerna, dejni, jbera

jarbux1(entity) is a suburban area of x2(entity)

lo jarbu — suburban area.
i mi se zdani lo jarbu be la londonI live in the suburbs of London.
Related words: nurma, se tcadu

jarcox1(entity) demonstrates or shows x2(property of x1) to x3(entity)

lo se jarco — demonstrated, manifested property.
i fi mi'a fa la alis cu jarco lo ka statiTo us Alice appeared to be smart.
i la kevin cu jarco lo ka gidvaKevin acts as a guide.
Related words: tigni, cipra, zgana, jvinu, lanli, mipri, simlu

jarkix1(entity) is narrow in length/width etc. x2(property of x1) ...

lo jarki — narrow.
i le dargu cu jarki lo ka se pagbu tiThe road is narrow here.
Comment: the second largest dimension. tordu, jarki and cinla specify the three dimensions of objects.
Related words: caxno, cinla, tordu, tagji, cmalu

jaspux1(entity) is a passport issued to x2(entity) by x3(entity) allowing x4(property of x2)

lo jaspu — passport, account (registry to a service), permit (document). lo se jaspu — something having a passport.
i e'o lo jaspu be doYour passport, please.
i ti jaspu mi lo jecta lo ka klama la niponThis is my passport issued by the state allowing me to go to Japan.
Related words: pikta, catni, e'ande

jatnax1(entity) is a commander or leader of x2(entity)

lo jatna — commander, leader, captain, boss.
i le jatna be lo kamni pe mi'o cu jinvi maWhat does the commander of our committee think?
Related words: jitro, lidne, te bende, minde, ralju, gidva, bloti

jau [digit/number] — hex digit D (decimal 13), thirteen

i e'u mi'o zu'ai penmi de'i li cy jauLet's meet at 1pm.

javnix1(property of x3) is a rule mandating x2(property of x3) in x3(entity)

lo javni — rule. lo se javni — prescribed by a rule. lo te javni — people to whom the rule is applied.
i mi te javni lo ka co'u tavla gi'e co'a jundiI should stop talking and start listening.
i e'u zukte lo javni be lo ka di'i retskuI suggest you follow the rule or regularly asking questions.
i ma javni lo nu pilnoWhat are the terms of usage?
Related words: flalu, ritli, marde, tcaci, tinbe, zekri

jbamax1(entity) is a bomb with explosive x2(entity)

lo jbama — bomb. lo se jbama — explosive of a bomb.
i lo jbama be lo djacu cu se pilno mi'a lo ka jai gau sisti lo nu fagriWater bombs are used by us to stop fire.
Related words: cecla, spoja

jbarix1(entity) is a berry of plant x2(entity)

lo jbari — berry.
i mi pu citka so'o jbari be lo fragariI ate several strawberries.
Related words: grute, tsiju, narge

jbenax1(entity) is born to x2(entity) ...

lo jbena — born. lo se jbena — birth giver.
i le speni be mi mo'u se jbena pa tixnuMy wife gave birth to a daughter.
Related words: fange, gutra, rorci, mamta, salci, citsi

jberax1(entity) borrows x2(entity) from x3(entity) for time x4(clause)

lo se jbera — borrowed.
i e'a pei mi jbera lo vi penbi doMay I borrow this pen from you?
i mi ba te jbera pa karce doI will lend you a car.
Related words: dejni, janta, zivle

jbinix1(entity) is between x2(group of same type as x1) in x3(property of x1)

lo jbini — something between.
i la alis cu jbini li re no jo'u li ci no lo ka jai nancaAlice is between 20 and 30 years old.
Related words: se vasru, nenri, zvati, cpana, snuji, senta, bitmu, jimte, kuspe, jibni, lamji, sruri, vanbi, midju, cmima, setca

jboprex1(entity) is a Lojbanist

lo jbopre — Lojbanist.
i ju'i lo jbopre do se zdani maHey, Lojbanist! Where do you live?
Related words: lojbo, prenu

jdarix1(entity) is firm or resistant to force x2(clause) ...

lo jdari — firm.
i lo cilmo mudri cu jdari lo ka jelcaWet wood is resistant to burning.
Related words: nandu, ralci, fapro, ranti, tinsa, toltinsa, sligu, stodi

jdicex1(entity) makes a judgement, decides that x2(proposition) is true about x3(entity)

i mi mo'u jdice le du'u sarcu fa lo nu mi'a staliI decided that we need to stay.
i xu do jdice lo ka jai se kufra vau lo zdani be doHave you decided that your home is comfortable?
i mi'a zanru lo se jdice be le kamniWe welcome the decision of the committee.
Comment: pajni is for judging matters, jdice is for actual decisions, cuxna is for deciding (choosing) on something out of options.
Related words: pajni, cuxna, manri

jdikax1(entity) decreases in x2(property of x1) by amount x3(entity)

lo jdika — decreasing.
i lo prenu pu jdika lo ka gunma vau lo ci meiPeople decreased in number by three persons.
Related words: zenba, mleca, vimcu

jdimax1(property of x3) is the price of x2(property of x3) to x3(entity) set by x4(entity)

lo jdima — price. lo se jdima — something having a price. lo ve jdima — price-maker.
i ma jdima ti fo doWhat is your price for this?
i lo rupnu be li ci cu jdima lo ka sazri lo se kelci karce vau lo verba lo ponse be lo karceThree dollars is the price of riding a toy car for children set by the owner of the car.
Comment: lo vamji is value, lo ve vecnu is for cost.
Related words: canja, friti, janta, jdini, kargu, pleji, dapma, vamji, ve vecnu, fepni, jerna, jinga, prali, rupnu, sfasa

jdinix1(entity) is money issued by x2(entity)

lo jdini — money.
i xu ti du lo pe do jdiniIs this your money?
i lo jdini be loi merko turni ba se pilno fi lo nu sidju lo pindiMoney issued by the American government will be used to help the poor.
Related words: fepni, jdima, rupnu, sicni, canja

jdulix1(entity) is some jelly of material x2(entity)

lo jduli — jelly. lo se jduli — contents of a jelly.
i lo jduli be lo vanjba se rai se nelci miI like grape jelly best.
Related words: pesxu, litki, sligu

je [conjunction]and

i do pu je ca je ba pendo miYou were, are and will be my friend.

je'a [left scalar particle]indeed ... (affirms the position on the scale)

i do je'a stati doi loi prenuYou are really smart, people.
i lei grute cu se tasta lo je'a rigniThe fruits are indeed disgusting in taste.

je'ai [left scalar particle] — asks which particle fits the place where je'ai is put: je'a, na'e, no'e or to'e

i lu do je'ai nelci lo gerku li'u lu to'e li'u"You like/dislike dogs?" "I hate them."

je'e [vocative]roger, I got your message; not at all, you are welcome (in reply to thanks), je'e naiI didn't get your message

i lu ki'e do li'u lu je'e do li'u"Thank you!" "You are welcome!"
Comment: fi'i is you are welcome for expressing hospitality.

je'i [conjunction] — question

i do ba'o je'i pu'o citkaHave you eaten yet or are you only about to eat?

je'u [interjection]truly, yes, je'u naino (false)

i je'u do stati prenuTruly, you are a smart person.
i le purdi je'u nai cu se ponse lo za'u cizra prenuThis "garden" (which is in fact not a garden) is owed by some weird people.
i xu do kansa mi'a i je'u naiAre you with us? No.
Related words: jetnu

jectax1(entity) is a polity or state governing x2(entity)

lo jecta — polity, state.
i lo nu se sazri za'u pa turni cu jecta lo vi tutraBeing controlled by more than one government is the political system of this area.
Related words: gugde, tutra, turni, natmi, jansu, lanci, cecmu

jeftux1(clause) is x2(number) weeks long ...

lo jeftu — week-long event.
i mi'o ba volta ti za lo jeftu be li reWe'll return here in two weeks.
Comment: if x2 is not used denotes one week in duration
Related words: detri, djedi, masti, nanca

jegvox1(entity) is Abrahamic (Judaic, or Christian, or Moslem) in x2(property of x1)

lo jegvo — Judaic or Christian or Moslem.
i xu do se lijda lo jegvoDo you belong to an Abrahamic religion?
Related words: lijda, muslo, dadjo, xriso

jelcax1(entity) burns ...

i le mudri cu jelcaThe wood is burning.
Comment: se fagri is preferable to jelca.
Related words: fagri, kijno, sigja, livla, sacki

jemnax1(entity) is a gem ...

lo jemna — gem.
i pa nixli pu zvafa'i pa rokci noi ba ku jai se facki fai lo ka jemnaA girl found a stone that later was turned out to be a gem.
Related words: kunra, rokci, jadni, dirba, kargu, krili, pulji

jencax1(clause) shocks or stuns x2(entity)

lo jenca — shocking event. lo se jenca — shocked.
i lo ka ka'e tsuku lo drata gugde pu jenca le fetsiIt shocked her that she could get to another country.
Related words: darxi, gunta, spaji

jendux1(entity) is an axle on which x2(entity) rotates ...

lo jendu — axle.
i le jendu be lo re xislu cu mudriThe axle of the two wheels is wooden.
Related words: se carna, gunro, tutci

jenmix1(entity) is an army serving x2(entity) in doing x3(property of x1)

lo jenmi — army.
i ti jenmi lo vi gugde lo ka vimcu be lo fagriThis is an army of firefighters of this country.
i le re ki'o sonci cu jenmi le pagbu be le gugdeThe two thousand soldiers is an army of this part of the country.
Related words: sonci, xarci

jernax1(entity) deserves, earns salary or payment x2(entity, property of x1) for work x3(property of x1)

lo jerna — deserving. lo se jerna — deserved, salary.
i do jerna lo ka se sinma vau lo ka carmi gunkaYou are worth being respected for your hard work.
i mi pu jerna lo rupnu be li pa no no lo ka lumci loi paltaI earned 100 dollars for washing the dishes.
Comment: jerna doesn't imply that one is actually paid for the work. pleji is for actual paying.
Related words: jibri, pleji, vecnu, cnemu, canja, jdima, jinga, prali, sfasa, janta, kargu, vamji

jersix1(entity) chases x2(entity)

lo jersi — chaser. lo se jersi — chased.
i loi gerku cu jersi pa lorxuDogs are in pursuit of a fox.
i e'o do jersi miPlease, follow me.
Related words: kavbu, rivbi, kalte, lidne

jesnix1(entity) is a needle ...

lo jesni — needle.
i gau mi tunta fa lo tamji be mi pa jesniI pricked my thumb with a needle.
Related words: konju, pijne, jipno, kinli

jetnux1(proposition) is true by standard x2(proposition)

lo jetnu — true.
i pa da poi prije prenu zo'u le du'u lo remna cu xendo cu jetnu lo se jinvi be daAccording to one wise person, it's true that all humans are kind.
i u'a la'e di'u se jetnu lo du'u mi draniAha, that proves that I am right.
Related words: stace, jitfa, fatci, birti, cfika

jgalux1(entity) is a claw of x2(entity)

lo jgalu — claw, nail, fingernail.
i le cipni cu se jgalu lo kinliThe bird has sharp claws.
Related words: denci, jirna, batci

jganux1(entity) is an angle from vertex x2(entity) subtended by lateral x3(entity)

lo jganu — angle. lo se jganu — vertex of an angle. lo te jganu — lateral of an angle.
i ti jganu me'o a bu lo mitre be li pi mu gi'e stero be li reThis is an angle from vertex A having the lateral of 0.5 meters and subtending two steradians.
Related words: kojna, linji, konju, mokca

jgarix1(entity) holds, clutches x2(entity) ...

lo jgari — holder. lo se jgari — held.
i le nakni mo'u co'a jgari lo stedu be la alis se pi'o lo xance be le nakniHe grasped Alice's head with his hand.
Related words: ralte, pencu, darxi, batke, rinju

jgenax1(entity) is a knot in x2(entity)

lo jgena — knot. lo se jgena — something with a knot.
i ti jgena so'i blanu skori jo'u pa xunre skoriThis is a knot of many blue ropes and one red rope.
Related words: pluja, julne, lasna, skori

jginax1(entity) is a gene of x2(entity) determining trait x3(property of x2)

lo jgina — gene.
i xo da jgina lo remna lo ka lo skapi be ce'u cu skari ma kauHow many genes in humans determine the color of skin?
Related words: cerda

jgirax1(entity) feels pride in x2(clause, property of x1)

lo jgira — proud.
i mi jgira lo nu do co'a kakne lo ka zgipli lo pipnoI am proud that you are now able to play the piano.
Related words: cinmo, cumla, sevzi, sinma, snada

jgitax1(entity) is a guitar or stringed musical instrument with plectrum or bow x2(entity)

lo jgita — guitar, stringed musical instrument. lo se jgita — bow of a guitar, bow of a stringed musical instrument.
i xu do kakne lo ka zgipli lo jgita be loi ze meiCan you play a 7-stringed guitar?
Related words: zgike

ji [conjunction] — asks for the connective (that should go into the place to which ji is put)

i do djica tu'a lo ckafi ji lo tcatiDo you want tea or coffee (make a choice)?
Related words: a, e, ji, o, u

ji'a [interjection]additionally, too

i mi ji'a je'a nelciI like it too.
i lo xagji cribe cu citka lo insekto ku ji'a saiA hungry bear will eat even insects.
Comment: ji'a means 'additionally', si'a means 'similarly' implying that there is another salient difference.
Related words: jmina

ji'e [preposition from jimte]up to limit ..., to the degree of ..., adverb: limitedly

i mi tsali ji'e lo nu mi ka'e lafti lo pipnoI'm strong to the degree that I can lift the piano.
i la kevin cu ricfu ji'e lo nu ri ponse so'i dinjuKevin is so rich that he owns several houses.

ji'i [digit/number]approximately ... (number follows; by default the typical value in this context)

i ji'i pa no tadni ca zvati le kumfaAbout 10 students are in the room.

jibnix1(entity) is near or close to x2(entity) in x3(property of x1)

lo jibni — near.
i zo xagri zo tabra cu jibni lo ka se smuniThe terms "pipe instrument" and "horn" are close in their meanings.
Comment: See notes for simsa.
Related words: simsa, darno, nenri, vanbi, jbini, lamji, zvati, cpana, bartu, diklo, stuzi

jibrix1(property of x2) is a job of person x2(entity)

lo jibri — job. lo se jibri — employed, in a job.
i mi se jibri lo ka vecnu lo gruteI have a job as a fruit seller.
i xu do se jibri lo ka samplaDo you have the job of a programmer?
Comment: lo te jerna is work that is worth paying, lo ve pleji is work actually paid.
Related words: briju, gunka

jiclax1(entity) stirs fluid x2(entity)

i ko jicla le tcatiStir the tea.
i ko jicla le stasu co'u lo nu ri febviStir the soup until it boils.
Related words: fanza, tunta, mixre

jicmux1(proposition) is the fundamental principle, basis of x2(entity)

lo jicmu — basis, fundamental principle.
i lo logji cu jicmu la lojbanLogic is the foundation of Lojban.
i lo tcica cu jicmu ro nu jamnaTrickery is the basic of every war.
i lo nu zgana gi'e lanli cu jicmu ro saskeMonitoring and analysis is the foundation of every science.
Related words: jamfu, zbepi, genja, krasi

jijnux1(entity) intuitively knows x2(proposition) ...

lo se jijnu — intuitively known.
i mi pu jijnu le du'u le fetsi cu smusku lo jitfaI knew intuitively that she was lying.
Related words: djuno, facki, jimpe, jinvi, nabmi, pensi, sidbo, smadi

jikcax1(entity) socializes, interacts socially with x2(entity)

i ra jikca lo so'i prenu gi'e di'i gasnu lo te salciHe is a sociable person interacting with many people and regularly organizing parties.
Related words: tarti, penmi

jiknix1(entity) is the economic market, system of political body or sector x2(entity)

lo jikni — economic system.
i lo nu frili vecnu cu jikni lo vi tutraFree market is the economy of this region.
Related words: vecnu, cupra, canja, jecta

jikrux1(entity) is some liquor distilled from x2(entity)

lo jikru — strong alcoholic drink, liquor, spirits.
i mi pu pinxe lo jikru be lo mrajiI drank an alcoholic drink distilled from rye.
Related words: barja, vanju, birje, xalka

jilkax1(entity) is a quantity of alkali of metal x2

lo jilka — alkali.
i mi pu lumci lo palta se pi'o lo jilka be lo sodnaI washed dishes using soda.
Related words: sodna, bakri, sodva

jilrax1(entity) is envious or jealous of x2(entity) about x3(property of x2)

lo jilra — envious, jealous.
i mi pu jilra lo bruna be mi lo se frili poi tai ke'a tavla fa ce'u bau la lojbanI envied the ease at which my brother talked in Lojban.
Related words: cinmo

jimcax1(entity) is a branch of x2(entity)

lo jimca — branch.
i lo jimca be lo za'u vi tricu cu snime blabiBranches of these trees are snow white.
Related words: birka, rebla, tuple

jimpex1(entity) understands x2(proposition) about x3(entity)

i mi na jimpe zo'ei doI don't understand you.
i mi na jimpe lo smuni be lo se cusku be doI don't understand the meaning of said by you.
Related words: djuno, jijnu, morna, smuni, saske, viska

jimtex1(entity) is a limit or border of x2(entity) in x3(property of x1 and x2, has two places for ce'u)

lo jimte — limit. lo se jimte — something with a limit.
i ti noi mokca cu jimte mi lo ka se tsukuThis point is the limit that I can reach.
Related words: ji'e, traji, korbi, kuspe, rinju, bapli, e'ande, fanta, jbini

jincix1(entity) are shears or scissors for cutting x2(entity)

lo jinci — scissors.
i ti jinci lo peljiThese are scissors for cutting paper.
Related words: katna

jingax1(entity) wins prize x2(entity, property of x1) from competitors x3(entity) in competition x4(clause)

lo jinga — winner. lo se jinga — prize won.
i la alis pu jinga lo ralju lo drata nixli pa nu vi'i ve'u bajraAlice won the main prize gaining the victory over other girls in a long distant race.
Related words: cirko, jivna, talsa, cnemu, prali, pleji, sfasa, jdima, jerna, bradi, kargu, kelci

jinkux1(entity) is a vaccine protecting x2(entity) against x3(property of x2) introduced by method x4(property of x1)

lo jinku — vaccine. lo se jinku — vaccinated. lo te jinku — disease prevented by vaccine. lo ve jinku — method of vaccination.
i ti jinku lo remna tu'a lo vidru lo ka se setca fi lo cibluThis a vaccine for human use, it protects against viruses and is to be injected into the blood.
Related words: jinku, jurme, kanro, mikce, senci, kafke, jesni, bilma

jinmex1(entity) is a quantity of metal ...

lo jinme — metal.
i ti noi grana cu jinmeThis rod is metallic.
i lo slami cu daspo lo jinmeAcid destroys metal.
Related words: cnisa, gasta, lastu, margu, nikle, ransu, romge, sodna, tinci, tirse, tunka, zinki, kunra, sodva

jinrux1(entity) is immersed or submerged in liquid x2(entity)

lo jinru — immersed.
i le ba'o tricu pu jinru lo djacuThe stump was immersed in the water.
Related words: lumci, nenri, jinsa

jinsax1(entity) is clean of material x2(entity) ...

lo jinsa — clean.
i mi pu jai gau jinsa fai le jubme loi paltaI cleared the table of dishes.
Related words: lumci, jinru, curve, sepli

jintox1(entity) is a well or spring of fluid x2(entity) ...

lo jinto — well (of fluid), spring (of fluid). lo se jinto — fluid of a well, spring water.
i ti jinto lo jinsa djacuThis is a spring of clean water.
Related words: krasi, djacu, fenra

jinvix1(entity) has an opinion that x2(proposition) is true about x3(entity) on grounds x4(proposition)

lo jinvi — having an opinion. lo se jinvi — opinion.
i mi pu darsi lo ka tugni ra pa se jinvi be raI dared to support his opinion.
i mi jinvi lo ka na jinga vau la alis le du'u ri tatpiI think Alice won't win since she is tired.
Comment: for thinking (musing upon something) use pensi.
Related words: pe'i, djuno, krici, ciksi, jijnu, nabmi, pensi, senpi, sidbo, birti, pinka

jinzix1(property of x2) is an innate or natural property of x2(entity)

lo jinzi — intrinsic, innate, character (property), nature (property).
i le fetsi cu se jinzi lo ka certu lo ka zgipliShe has a natural talent for playing the music.
i do se jinzi lo ka badriYou are a boring person.
Related words: lakne, rarna, stati, ka'e, tcaci

jipcix1(entity) is a chicken of species x2(taxon)

lo jipci — chicken.
i lo jipci cu nelci lo tsijuChickens like seeds.
Related words: cipni

jipnox1(entity) is a tip or point on object x2(entity) at location x3(entity)

lo jipno — tip.
i mi pu pencu le plise se pi'o lo jipno be lo mi tanceI touched the apple with the tip of my tongue.
i lo jipno be lo nazbi be mi mo'u dunjaThe tip of my nose is frozen.
Related words: mokca, jesni, fanmo, kojna, krasi

jirnax1(entity) is a horn of body x2(entity)

lo jirna — horn.
i le mirli cu se jirna lo claniThe deer has long horns.
Related words: jgalu, bongu

jisrax1(entity) is some juice from x2(entity)

lo jisra — juice.
i bu'u ma te vecnu lo jisra be lo gruteWhere can one buy fruit juice?
Related words: pinxe, djacu, grute, stagi

jitfax1(proposition) is false by standard or epistemology x2(proposition)

lo jitfa — false.
i le du'u le nanla cu se slabu la alis cu jitfa le du'u le nanla cu kucli lo nu la alis cu mo kauIt's false that the boy is familiar with Alice since he is wondering who she is.
Related words: fatci, stace, jetnu, cfika

jitrox1(entity) has control over x2(entity) in activity x3(property of x2)

lo jitro — in control. lo se jitro — under control.
i lo jatna be mi cu jitro mi lo ka gunka tiMy boss controls me in working on this.
i loi pulji cu jitro lo sruriThe police controls the surroundings.
Comment: gidva - does not necessarily control or command.
Related words: bapli, te bende, gidva, jatna, macnu, minde, ponse, ralju, rinka, sazri, turni, vlipa, xance, xlura

jivbux1(entity) weaves x2(entity) from material x3(entity)

lo te jivbu — yarn for weaving.
i lo ankabuta cu jivbu lo julne lo se cigla be fi vo'aSpiders weave nets from secrets of their glands.
Related words: fenso, nivji

jivnax1(entity) competes with competitors x2(entity) in contest x3(clause) for the reward x4(entity)

lo jivna — competitor. lo se jivna — opponent in a competition. lo te jivna — competition. lo ve jivna — prize in a competition.
i la alis pu jivna lo drata nixli pa nu vi'i ve'u bajra vau lo ka cpacu lo jdiniAlice competed with other girls in a long distance race with a monetary prize for the winner.
Related words: cnemu, jinga, talsa, bradi, fapro, kelci

jmajix1(entity group) gather at location x2(entity) from locations x3(entity group)

lo jmaji — gatherers. lo se jmaji — location of gathering.
i lo jbopre pu jmaji pa dinju lo vrici gugdeLojbanists from various countries gathered in a house.
Related words: crepu

jmifax1(entity) is a shoal or reef ...

lo jmifa — shoal.
i pu zdile fa lo ka limna ne'a loi jmifaIt was amusing to swim near the reefs.
Related words: caxno

jminax1(entity) combines or adds x2(entity, property of x3) to x3(entity) with result x4(entity, property of x3)

i le sfofa cu jmina lo ka se kufra vau le kumfaThe sofa adds comfort to the room.
i mi ba jmina lo so'o crino spati le nanba lo pa snujiI will add some greenery to bread getting a sandwich.
Related words: zmadu, banro, sumji, zenba, setca

jmivex1(entity) is alive in that it does x2(property of x1)

lo jmive — alive, living being.
i le danlu cu jmive lo ka ruble muvduThe animal is alive since it is weakly moving.
Related words: lifri, morsi, stuzi, zvati, xabju

jo [conjunction]both or none

i ai mi te vecnu lo karce poi kargu jo cninoI'm going to buy an expensive car if and only if it is new (or not to buy any cars if they don't satisfy this condition).

jo nai [conjunction]either ... or ...

i mi tavla i jo nai do tavlaEither I talk or you talk.

jo'a [interjection] — the clause can make sense in meaning (metalinguistic affirmer)

i lu xu le prenu noi sanli ne'a tu noi dinju cu ninmu li'u lu jo'a i mi na djuno li'u"Is the person standing near that building a woman?" "Good question! I don't know! (there is a person standing near the building, the question of whether it's a woman is applicable)."
Comment: na'i is metalinguistic negation.
Related words: drani

jo'e [conjunction] — forms union of sets

i e'o doi io lo ninmu jo'e lo ctuca ko cliva le kumfaRespected women and teachers, please, leave the room.

jo'u [conjunction]in common with ..., along with ...

i do jo'u mi casnu lo za'u banguYou together with me discussed languages (not necessarily with each other but just taken as a single entity).

joi [conjunction]mixed together with ..., forming a mass ... (forms mixed mass)

i ti du lo sovda joi lo purmoThis is a mass of eggs and flour.

jornex1(entity) is joined to x2(entity) at location x3(entity)

lo jorne — tightened, connected, tied, joined, fastened.
i la alis cu jorne pa stizu pa skoriAlice is tied to a chair with a rope.
i ko jorne la'e me'o so pa paCall 911!
i mi ba jorne do ba lo nu mi cliva lo ckuleI will call you after I leave the school.
Comment: x1 and x2 form a union.
Related words: lasna, fenso, kansa, pencu, penmi

ju [conjunction]whether or not

i ei zukte i ju le nanmu cu klamaLet's do it whether or not he comes.

ju'a [interjection]I state (non-specified source of information)

i la alis cu jinvi lo du'u ju'a le nakni cu fenkiAlice has an opinion that the man is crazy, and it is so, I say.
Comment: ju'a is always assumed to be present in the main clause. Inner clauses within places are not stated with ju'a unless explicitly specified..
Related words: xusra

ju'e [conjunction] — forms two independent sentences

i mi ju'e do casnu lo za'u banguI discussed languages. You discussed languages.
Comment: mi ju'e do klama means the same as mi klama .i do klama.

ju'i [vocative]Hey! Psst! Ahem! Attention!, ju'i cu'iAt ease!, ju'i naiIgnore me! Nevermind!

i ju'i lo nixli ma cmene doHey, girl, what is your name?
i ju'i cu'i sonciAt ease, soldiers.
i mi co'a si'u nai jimpe ju'i naiI understood myself, never mind.

ju'o [interjection]I'm sure (certainty), ju'o cu'imaybe, perhaps (uncertainty), ju'o naiI have no idea! (lack of certainty)

i ju'o do pu pensi daYou must have thought of something.
i ju'o cu'i le nakni cu zukte xau le fetsiMaybe, he is doing it for her, I'm not sure.
i ju'o nai xu lo tai valsi cu se pilnoAre such words used? I have no idea!
Related words: birti, cumki

jubmex1(entity) is a table ...

lo jubme — table.
i xu da kunti jubmeIs there a free table?
Related words: ckana, jamfu, nilce, zbepi, tsina, stizu

judrix1(entity) is an address of x2(entity) in system x3(entity)

lo judri — address. lo te judri — address system.
i ma judri do lo tcaduWhat is your city address?
i ma judri do lo kibro ve mriluWhat is your e-mail address?
Related words: tcita, cmene, ciste, stuzi

jufrax1(text) is a sentence or statement about x2(entity) in language x3(entity)

lo jufra — sentence. lo se jufra — topic of a sentence. lo te jufra — language of a sentence.
i lu i lo mlatu cu pinxe li'u jufra lo danlu la lojbani lo mlatu cu pinxe is a sentence about animals in Lojban language.
Related words: valsi, bangu, gerna, cusku, smuni

jukpax1(entity) cooks or prepares food x2(entity) by recipe x3(property of x1)

lo jukpa — cook. lo se jukpa — cooked food. lo te jukpa — recipe for cooking.
i le mamta pu jukpa pa torta lo ka punji pa pu'o torta lo toknuMother cooked a cake by putting a raw "cake" in the oven.
Comment: x2 is the result of cooking, the product ready to use.
Related words: cupra, bredi

julnex1(entity) is a filter passing x2(entity) and prohibiting x3(entity) ...

lo julne — filter.
i ti julne fi lo finpeThis is a fishing net.
i tu julne lo djacu lo rismiThat is a colander that lets the water pass and retains rice.
Related words: kombitu, ciste, jgena

jundix1(entity) pays attention to x2(entity)

lo jundi — attentive. lo se jundi — object of attention.
i mi pu jundi lo nu ra pu cusku ma kauI was attentive at was he was saying.
Related words: kurji, zvati

jungox1(entity) is Chinese in x2(property of x1)

lo jungo — Chinese.
i le fetsi cu jungo lo ka tcila be lo flira be ce'uThe girl is Chinese in her face features.
Related words: xazdo

junlax1(entity) is a timer, clock measuring time units x2(entity) ...

lo junla — clock, timer, watch (timer). lo se junla — unit of time.
i ti junla lo snidu be li pi muThis clock measures seconds to the precision of 0.5 seconds.
Comment: x2 can be show the precision to which time units are measured.
Related words: cacra, mentu, snidu, tcika, temci

junperox1(entity) is a juniper (genus Juniperus) of species x2(taxon)

i mi pu jmina so'o jimca be lo junpero lo fagriI added some juniper twigs to the fire.
Comment: Some junipers are commonly called "cedars".
Related words: spati, tricu, ckunu

junrix1(entity) is earnest about x2(property of x1)

lo junri — someone serious, earnest.
i xu do junri lo ka te mukti lo ka cliva lo bu'u gugdeAre you serious in your intent to leave this country?
Related words: tilju, xalbo, badri, ritli

juntax1(entity) is the weight of x2(entity group) in field x3

lo junta — weight.
i lo gunka pe lo kensa cu se junta lo ki'ogra be li pa no no le terdiThe space worker weights 100 kilograms in the gravity of the Earth.
Related words: grake, linto, tilju, bunda

jurmex1(entity) is a bacteria or germ of species x2(taxon)

lo jurme — bacteria.
i le lanli pu pilno lo jurme lo cipraThe researcher used bacteria for tests.
Related words: vidru

jursax1(property of x2) is harsh or severe to x2(entity)

lo jursa — harsh event.
i lo ka jivna pu jursa miCompetition was fierce for me.
Related words: gunta, vlile

jutsix1(entity) is a taxon of super-taxon x2(entity) ; x1 is a species of genus x2, family x3, etc. ...

lo jutsi — taxon, species.
i mi zgana lo cinki poi jutsi ro daI watch insects of all kinds.
Comment: this verb potentially has infinite number of places.
Related words: klesi, lanzu

juxrex1(entity) is clumsy in doing x2(property of x1)

lo juxre — clumsy.
i mi pu ca'o juxre lo ka muvduI was getting clumsy in my movements.
i le fonxa pu juxre lo ka se pilnoThe phone was clumsy to use.
Related words: sluji, muvdu

jvinux1(entity) is a view of x2(entity) from viewpoint x3(entity)

lo jvinu — view. lo te jvinu — viewpoint.
i lo jvinu be lo xamsi bei lo kumfa pe mi cu banliI have a great view of the sea from my room.
Related words: catlu, kanla, viska, canko, jarco

jy [pronoun]j (letter)

Comment: prefixed with me'o is a quotation of the letter. When used alone refers to the last noun with the verb starting with this letter like jy is for the last lo jorne used.

ka [clause prefix] — turn clause into infinitive

i mi djica lo ka sipnaI want to sleep.
i la alis cu nitcu lo ka te dunda lo birjeAlice needs to be given beer.
i ta'i ku do ba cirko lo ka sinma ce'uThis way you will lose respect.
i lo ka pendo ku po'o cu tadji lo ka se pendoThe only way to have a friend is to be a friend.
Comment: x1 (property) is the property of the clause that follows. Has at least one ce'u inside being applied to a noun of the outer clause. ka without a ce'u inside is the same as ka ce'u. Used to express infinitives.

ka bu — refers to the last ka-clause used

i mi je'a djica lo ka tadni i ku'i ka bu nandu miI do want to study. But it's difficult to me.

ka'ai [preposition from kansa]with ..., with a companion ...

i mi cadzu ka'ai lo gerkuI walk with a dog.

ka'e [preposition of potential]possibly can ...

i ro da ka'e te tavlaEverything can be talked about.
Comment: not necessarily innately capable, might describe what can potentially happen to the thing described.

ka'o [digit/number]imaginary i, square root of -1

i li te'o te'a vei ka'o pi'i pai ve'o su'i pa du li noe(i × π) +1 = 0.

ka'u [interjection]I know by cultural means (myth, custom)

i ka'u so'a prenu cu xebni daWe know that most people hate something.
Related words: kulnu

kabrix1(entity) is a cup or mug containing x2(entity) ...

lo kabri — cup. lo se kabri — content of a cup.
i e'o do te cpacu lo pa kabri be lo ckafi miPlease, give me a cup of coffee.
Comment: lo kabri is normally lifted when eaten from it, lo palta is not.
Related words: palta, citka, blaci, tansi

kacmax1(entity) is a camera recording images of illumination type x2(entity) to medium x3(entity)

lo kacma — camera.
i ti kacma le tcadu pa datni centeroThis is a camera recording images of the city to a data center.
Related words: lenjo

kafkex1(entity) coughs, farts, burps x2(entity) from orifice x3(entity)

i ra pu kafke lo barda lo ganxoHe made a big fart.
Related words: bilma, senci, sputu, vamtu

kagnix1(entity) is a company, corporation chartered by authority x2(entity) for purpose x3(property of x1)

lo kagni — company, corporation, business (company). lo te kagni — business (commercial activity).
i pa kagni be lo jbopre bei lo nu kakpa lo ctile pu zvafa'i lo ctile lo loldi be lo xamsiThe Lojbanists' chartered oil drilling company discovered oil at the bed of the sea.
Related words: kansa, kamni, banxa, bende

kai [preposition from ckaji]characterizing ..., with ... having this property

i zildukse kai lo kilto be lo grakeOne kilogram was too much.
Comment: in the clause where kai is used the first unfilled place is applied to the noun that kai tags, the clause itself is the property characterizing the noun after kai; subject case tag.

kajdex1(entity) warns x2(entity) of danger x3(clause)

i loi rirni pu kajde mi'a lo ba vlile tcimaParents warned us about heavy weather.
Related words: ckape, nupre, snura, tcica, xlura

kajnax1(entity) is a shelf or counter on x2(entity) ...

lo kajna — shelf.
i mi pu punji le pelji le kajna be lo fagri stuziI put the paper on the mantel.
Related words: balni

kaknex1(entity) is capable of doing x2(property of x1) ...

lo kakne — capable, able.
i mi na kakne lo ka sipnaI can't sleep.
i lo mamta be mi ku po'o cu kakne lo ka jai bapli lo nu mi clivaOnly my mother has power to make me leave.
Comment: for e.g. "I can't wait" ka'e is more appropriate. kakne is about ability. vlipa is to be powerful enough to bring about events in other entities.
Related words: vlipa, stati, certu, gasnu, ka'e, nu'o, pu'i, djuno, zifre

kakpax1(entity) digs x2(entity) out of x3(entity) ...

lo kakpa — digger.
i la tom pu jai se bapli fai lo ka kakpa pa karce pe vo'a lo snimeTom had to dig his car out of the snow.
Related words: katna, plixa, sraku, canpa, sraku

kalcix1(entity) is excrement or feces of x2(entity)

lo kalci — excrement.
i lo kalci be lo bakni cu jai rinka lo nu lo dertu cu fertiCow dung makes soil fertile.
Related words: ganxo, pinca, vikmi, mabla, festi

kalrix1(entity) is open, giving access to place x2(entity) for object x3(entity)

lo kalri — open.
i le canko cu kalri lo nenri lo vifne vacriThe window is open letting the fresh air in.
i gau ko kalri fa le cankoOpen the window.
i ko jai gau kalri fai le cankoOpen the window.
Related words: ganlo, pagre, canko, vorme

kalsax1(entity) is a chaos, chaotic in x2(property of x1)

lo kalsa — chaos, chaotic.
i lo kumfa pe mi cu kalsa lo ka bu'u ce'u lo bukpu pe mi cu zvati ma kauMy room is a mess (in where are my clothes).
Related words: cunso, cnici

kaltex1(entity) hunts prey x2(entity) for purpose x3(property of x1)

lo kalte — hunter. lo se kalte — prey.
i lei certu pu kalte lo finpe lo ka lanli riThe researches were hunting fishes to study them.
Related words: jersi, kavbu, sisku, rivbi

kamjux1(entity) is a column ...

lo kamju — pillar.
i le pa kamju cu sarji lo korbi be le drudiThe column supports the edge of the roof.
Related words: ckana, garna, sanli, slanu

kamnix1(entity) is a committee with task x2(property of x1) ...

lo kamni — committee. lo se kamni — purpose of a committee.
i le kamni be lo ka jai gau farvi le bangu cu gunma za'u pa no prenuThere are more than 10 members in the committee for developing the language.
Related words: bende, kagni

kampux1(property of x2) is universal among x2(entity)

lo kampu — common, general, universal. lo se kampu — group with something in common.
i pa da zo'u lo ka dasni da cu kampu ro tadniWearing the same uniform is common for every student.
Related words: fadni, cafne, rirci, fadni, cnano, tcaci, lakne, cmima, simxu

kanbax1(entity) is a goat of species x2(taxon)

lo kanba — goat.
i le cirla cu se zbasu fi lo ladru be lo kanbaThe cheese is made from goat's milk.
Related words: lanme, sunla

kancux1(entity) counts the number in x2(entity) to be x3(number) by units x4(property of x2)

i mi pu kancu le prenu li pa re lo ka re meiI counted the people as 12 couples.
Related words: namcu, satci, merli

kandix1(entity) is dim, non-intense in x2(property of x1) received by observer x3(entity)

lo kandi — dim, non-intense.
i fi mi fa le valsi cu kandi lo ka se smuniTo me the word is dim in meaning.
Related words: blabi, carmi, klina, linto, manku, cermurse, vacmurse, ruble, skari, milxe, blanu, bunre, cicna, crino, grusi, narju, nukni, pelxu, xekri, xunre, zirpu

kanlax1(entity) is an eye of x2(entity)

lo kanla — eye.
i la alis cu se kanla lo barda je melbiAlice has big beautiful eyes.
Related words: jvinu, kerlo, viska, kumte

kanpex1(entity) expects x2(clause) with likelihood x3(number: from 0 to 1, by default li so'a, i.e. near 1)

i fi li so'u fa mi pu kanpe lo nu do clira voltaI didn't expect you to return early.
i lo nu mi tsuku pu na se kanpe daMy arrival wasn't expected by anyone.
Comment: expecting here may imply even undesirable events that are nevertheless expected to occur.
Related words: djica, pacna, lakne, cunso, fau, da'i

kanrox1(entity) is healthy or well in x2(property of x1)

lo kanro — healthy.
i mi kanro lo ka na cortu lo galxeI'm healthy in that my throat doesn't ache.
Related words: bilma, mikce

kansax1(entity) accompanies x2(entity) in state x3(clause)

i le gerku pe mi fe'e ro roi kansa miMy dog is everywhere with me.
i ro roi pu pluka fa lo ka kansa do lo ka gunkaIt was pleasant to work with you.
Related words: kagni, jorne, gunma, girzu, lasna

kantux1(entity) is a quantum of x2(property of x1)

lo kantu — quantum.
i mi pu xaksu re kantu be lo cacra ta'i lo ka denpa tu'a doI wasted two hours waiting for you.
i ti du lo re kantu be lo makfaHere are two pieces of magic.
Comment: selci is for masses and most objects.
Related words: selci, ratni, gradu, gusni, nejni, linji

karcex1(entity) is a car, truck, van for carrying x2(entity) ...

lo karce — car, truck, van. lo se karce — cargo of a car.
i ti karce lo festiIt's a trash truck.
i do te mukti lo ka te vecnu lo pa karce pe ma noi kagniA car of what company are you going to buy?
Comment: karce and carce are designed to be with wheels, marce isn't and is more generic.
Related words: carce, xislu, marce, sabnu

kardax1(entity) is a card ...

lo karda — card.
i xu ka'e pleji se pi'o lo dejni kardaIs it possible to pay with a credit card?
Related words: matci, tapla, plita

kargux1(entity, property of x2) is expensive to x2(entity) ...

lo kargu — expensive.
i lo ka tai litru cu kargu mi se la'u li du'eSuch trip is too expensive to me.
Related words: vamji, dirba, vajni, jdima, pleji, canja, jerna, jinga, jemna, sfasa, vecnu

karlix1(entity) is a belt or collar surrounding x2(entity) ...

lo karli — collar.
i le fetsi pu punji pa karli lo sruri be lo cinturaShe put a waist around her waist.
Related words: sruri, djine

karnix1(entity) is a newspaper, magazine with content x2(entity) ...

lo karni — journal, newspaper, magazine, press (media). lo se karni — contents of a magazine.
i mi tcidu pa karni be lo pu zi nuzbaI'm reading a magazine about recent news.
Related words: papri, pelji, tcidu

katnax1(entity) cuts x2(entity) into pieces x3(entity)

i mi pu katna le nanba lo pa no meiI cut the bread into 10 pieces.
Comment: sraku is for cutting into without division.
Related words: kakpa, sraku, plixa, dakfu, jinci, porpi, spofu, tunta, xrani, fatri, fendi, balre, dilcu

kau [interjection] — marks word as an indirect question

i mi djuno lo du'u ma kau darxi ba'e la alisI know who hit Alice (not someone else).
i mi pu na birti lo nu xo kau prenu cu zvatiI wasn't sure how many people were present.

kavbux1(entity) captures x2(entity) with trap x3(entity)

lo te kavbu — trap used for capture.
i mi pu kavbu lo ka bilma fi la zukam vau lo ka cadzu bu'u lo bartuI caught cold by walking outside.
i le nanla pu kavbu le bolci pa xanceThe boy caught the ball with one hand.
Comment: kalte is to hunt, jersi is to follow, to chase.
Related words: jersi, kalte, pinfu, sisku, se rinju

ke — starts a new group inside a construct

i ko catlu lo barda ke se kanla melbiLook at the big beauty-with-eyes.
i ko catlu lo barda se kanla melbiLook at the beauty with big eyes.
i la alis e ke la kevin a la edvard ba vitke lo nu penmiAlice and either Kevin or Eduard will visit the meeting.
i la alis e la kevin a la edvard ba vitke lo nu penmiEither Alice and Kevin or Eduard will visit the meeting.
i au do jukpa lo nanba gi'e ke lumci le kumfa gi'o nai cadzu ka'ai le gerkuI wish you cooked the bread and either cleaned the room or walked with the dog.
Related words: bo

ke'a [pronoun] — shows the head (noun) of the clause, to which this relative clause is attached

i mi pu vitke pa dinju poi bu'u ke'a mi'a se zdani ze'a lo nanca be li so'oI visited a house where we lived for several years.

ke'e [terminator] — ends a construct started with: ke

ke'o [vocative]Eh? Please repeat!, ke'o naiI heard you. No need to repeat

i ke'o do mi pu na tirnaEh? What did you say? I didn't hear.
i ke'o nai do mi co'i te benji ro daAll right, no need to repeat, I got everything.

ke'u [interjection]I repeat, as I already said, ke'u naifurthermore, what is more (continuing)

i ke'u mi na tugni doI repeat, I don't agree with you.
i ke'u nai mi se zdani na ku lo tcaduFurthermore, I live not in a city.
Related words: basna, krefu, rapli

kectix1(entity) feels sorry for x2(entity) about x3(proposition)

i mi kecti do le nu do fliba lo ka jingaI feel sorry for you that you failed to win.
Related words: cinmo, xendo

kei [terminator] — ends a construct started with: nu

kelcix1(entity) plays game x2(entity)

lo kelci — player. lo se kelci — game (played).
i xu do kelci la fudbolDo you play soccer?
Related words: keltci, jivna, jinga, zdile

keltcix1(entity) ia a toy played by x2(entity)

lo keltci — player. lo se keltci — game (played).
i pa nixli ca'o zukte lo ka se keltci lo bambola pe vo'aA girl is playing with her doll.
Comment: use kelci for playing games, of which keltci may be a component.
Related words: kelci, bambola, verba, zdile, jivna, jinga

kelvox1(entity) is x2(number) degrees Kelvin ...

i lo vacri ca kelvo li ji'i re ze ciIt's around 273 degrees Kelvin (0 degrees Celsius).
Comment: temperature in Kelvin is temperature in Celsius + 273 (approximately). Temperature in Celsius is temperature in Kelvin - 273 (approximately).
Related words: gradu, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, centi

kenrax1(entity) is a cancer disease in x2(entity)

lo kenra — cancer.
i lo kenra be lo tatru ka'e mo'u te mikceBreast cancer can be cured.
Related words: bilma, mikce, spita

kensax1(entity) is outer space near x2(entity)

lo kensa — outer space.
i so'i mluni cu vofli bu'u lo kensa be le terdiThere are many satellites flying in outer space near the Earth.
Related words: canlu, munje, terdi, tsani

kerfax1(entity) is the hair of x2(entity) ...

lo kerfa — hair, fur.
i lo kerfa be mi cu claniMy hair is long.
Related words: skapi, sunla, pimlu

kerlox1(entity) is an ear of x2(entity)

lo kerlo — ear.
i doi lo gerku ko na pencu lo kerlo be miDog, don't touch my ears!
Related words: kanla, savru, smaji, tirna, ractu

kernelox1(entity) is a kernel, nucleus, 'nut' of x2(entity) ; x1 is central

lo kernelo — kernel, nucleus.
i lo kernelo be le terdi cu glareThe core of the Earth is hot.
Comment: lo midju is center point, lo centero is central subset (of a set or territory), lo kernelo is core.

ketcox1(entity) is South American in x2(property of x1)

lo ketco — South American.
i ti'e le fetsi cu klama fi pa ketco gugde ku i'u cu'iThey say she is from some South American country.
Related words: brazo, spano

kevnax1(entity) is a cavity or hole in x2(entity)

lo kevna — cavity, hole.
i da kevna le drudiThere is a hole in the roof.
Related words: fenra, kunti, canlu, canko, galxe, tubnu

ki [preposition] — sets the default tense. As a preposition sets the viewpoint in time-space

i le dinju cu darno ki miThe house is far from me.

ki'a [interjection question]Huh? (confusion about something said), ki'a naiI understand (understanding about something said)

i lu mi pu te vecnu pa granate li'u lu granate ki'a li'u"I bought granate." "Huh, granate?"
i lu sa'u le verba cu mutce lo ka tatpi li'u lu ki'a nai li'u"The child is just very tired." "I understand."
Related words: cfipu, kucli

ki'ai [vocative] — makes a nonce (for this case) interjection out of the following sumti or selbri

i ki'ai salamSalam!

ki'e [vocative]Thank you! Thanks!, ki'e cu'iNo thanks to you, ki'e nai — resentment

i ki'e sai doThank you very much!
i do pu mutce sidju mi ki'e sai doYou helped me a lot, thank you very much!
i mi si'u nai mo'u zvafa'i ki'e cu'i la alisI found myself, no thanks to you, Alice.
i mi pu tsuku ca le se tcika ki'e cu'i doI arrived on time, no thanks to you.
i mi jai lerci ki'e nai la kevinI was late, and that's because of you, bastard Kevin.

ki'o [digit/number] — number comma; shows groups of 3 digits each in decimal number

i pa ki'o mu no no prenu cu tadni ti noi ckuleOne thousand and five hundred (1,500) people study in this school.

ki'ograx1(entity) is x2(number) kilograms in weight

i lei plise cu ki'ogra li reThe apples are 2 kilograms in weight.
Related words: kilto, grake

ki'otrex1(entity) is x2(number) kilometers in x3(property of x1)

i ti noi dargu cu ki'otre li pa lo ka claniThis box is one kilometer in length.
Related words: kilto, mitre

ki'u [preposition from krinu]because of reason ..., adverb: justifiably

i mi na ka'e tavla do i ki'u bo mi zvati le brijuI can't talk to you since I'm in the office.

kibrox1(entity) pertains to the internet in x2(property of x1)

lo kibro — internet.
i pa pendo be mi cu finti pa karni poi kibro lo ka se benji fu ma kauA friend of mine is an author of a magazine that is delivered via the internet.
Related words: skami, se tcana, jikca

kicnex1(entity) is a cushion ...

lo kicne — cushion.
i ko jgari lo kicne gi'e sipnaTake a cushion and go to sleep.
Related words: ckana, matci

kijnox1(entity) is some oxygen

lo kijno — oxygen.
i lo kijno joi lo cidro cu se gunma lo djacuOxygen and hydrogen make water.
Related words: jelca, vacri, vasxu

kiltox1(entity) is a thousand of x2(same type as x1) in x3(property of x1)

lo kilto — 1000.
i le xamsi cu kilto be lo mitre lo ka condiThe sea is 1'000 meters deep.
Related words: centi

kinlix1(entity) is sharp at location x2(entity)

lo kinli — sharp.
i le balre cu kinli lo jipnoThe tip of the blade is sharp.
Related words: balre, dakfu, jesni

klajix1(entity) is a street or alley at x2(entity) allowing access to x3(entity)

lo klaji — street, avenue, alley.
i ti ralju klaji le tcadu lo vrici zarciThis is the main street of the city giving access to various shops.
Related words: panka, pluta, dargu, naxle

klakux1(entity) weeps or cries tears x2(entity) ...

lo se klaku — tear wept.
i ra pu klaku lo bardaShe cried large tears.
Related words: badri, krixa

klamax1(entity) goes to x2(entity) from x3(entity) via the route x4(entity) using means x5(entity)

lo klama — passenger, goer, rider. lo se klama — destination of a ride. lo te klama — origin of a ride. lo ve klama — route, track. lo xe klama — vehicle.
i xu do klama fi la niponAre you from Japan?
i le dargu cu se kruca lo pu ve klama be lo ractuThe road crossed what was the rabbit's track.
i mi'a pu klama fu pa bloti fo pa lalxu fi le zdani fe pa dapluWe sailed on the boat along the lake from the home to an island.
i mi pu klama fi la nipon fu lo vinjiI flew from Japan.
i xu do pu klama fu lo aftobuso fe la parisDid you ride the bus to Paris?
i le nakni pu klama lo nenriHe came in.
Comment: if the destination is away from the speaker, klama means to go; if the destination is near the speaker, klama means to come
Related words: cadzu, bajra, marce, vofli, litru, muvdu, cpare, se ka'a, te ka'a, pluta, bevri, farlu, limna, vitke

klanix1(entity) is measured by x2(number) on x3(property of x1 with kau)

lo se klani — amount, quantity, level (degree or amount).
i le pa mlatu cu klani li pi mu lo ka mitre ma kau lo ka claniThe cat is measured 0.5 meters in length.
i lei mlatu cu klani li ci lo ka gunma ma kau i je va'i le mlatu cu vo meiThe mass of the cats is measured as having 4 units, in other words, there are 4 cats.
Comment: to specify the number of object loi is usually used in x1 of klani. To specify size fill x3 of klani.
Related words: pa, namcu

klesix1(entity) is a type, kind, class of x2(same type as x1) defined by x3(property of x1)

lo klesi — subset, type, kind, class.
i mi cmima lo klesi be lo se zdani bei lo ka vecnuI belong to the merchant class of inhabitants.
i do na cmima lo klesi pe miYou are not my type.
i ti cmima lo klesi be lo notci bei lo drataThis is another type of message.
Related words: me, cmima, jutsi, ciste, girzu, lanzu, vrici

klina — the medium x1(entity) is transparent, clear, penetratable to signal x2(entity)

lo klina — clear, penetrable, transparent.
i lo vacri pu klina lo darno voksaThe air was clean to pass a distant voice.
i le nanla pu klina lo ka te smuni ma kauThe boy was pretty clear in what he meant.
Comment: lo na zunti is unhindered.
Related words: kandi, zunti

klirux1(entity) is a quantity of halogen ...

lo kliru — halogen.
i la iodi'um cu kliruIodine is a halogen.
Related words: xukmi

klitix1(entity) is some clay ...

lo kliti — clay.
i xu do mo'u zbasu le kabri lo ranti klitiHave you worked the cup out of soft clay?
Related words: dertu, pesxu, staku

kluzax1(entity) is loose, bloused on x2(entity) in x3(property of x1)

lo kluza — loose.
i le creka pu kluza mi lo ka se pagbu lo tubnuThe shirt was loose on me in sleeves.
Related words: tagji, trati, rinju

ko [pronoun]you !, make it true so that you ... (imperative 'you')

i ko kurji koTake care of yourself.
i ko sistiStop it!
i kukte koEnjoy your meal.
i ko dasni lo taxfuGet dressed.
Comment: doesn't necessarily imply a command. Can be used for mild requests too.

ko'a [pronoun] — 1st pronoun for assignments. Specified by adding goi

i ko'a e ko'e e ko'i e ko'o e ko'u prenu i je ko'a fa'u ko'e nelci ko'e fa'u ko'i i je ko'o fa'u ko'u na nelci ko'a fa'u ko'e i je se ni'i bo ko'e se nelci maLet ko'a, ko'e, ko'i, ko'o and ko'u be people. Now ko'a and ko'e like ko'e and ko'i respectively, and ko'o and ko'u don't like ko'a and ko'e, respectively. Thus, ko'e is liked by whom?

ko'e [pronoun] — 2nd pronoun for assignments. Specified by adding goi

Related words: ko'a

ko'i [pronoun] — 3rd pronoun for assignments. Specified by adding goi

Related words: ko'a

ko'o [pronoun] — 4th pronoun for assignments. Specified by adding goi

Related words: ko'a

ko'oi [interjection] — imperative

i do o nai ko'oi mi co'a morsiEither you or I die!
i ko'oi mi'o klamaLet's go!
i le prenu ku ko'oi citka le gruteLet him eat the fruit!
i lo ko'oi se platu be do cu te snadaLet your plan be successful!
Comment: hortative. ko is a short form of do ko'oi. ko'oi is a broader term than e'o, e'u, e'a, e'e, e'i.
Related words: minde, cpedu, e'ande, pacna, stidi, djica, bilga

ko'u [pronoun] — 5th pronoun for assignments. Specified by adding goi

Related words: ko'a

koblix1(entity) is a cabbage of species x2(taxon)

lo kobli — cabbage, lettuce.
i mi pu citka lo kobli stasuI ate a cabbage soup.
Related words: stagi

kojnax1(entity) is a corner in x2(entity) ...

lo kojna — corner.
i le baktu cu jibni pa kojna be le kumfaThe bucket is in a corner of the room.
Related words: jipno, konju, bliku, fanmo, jganu, krasi

koksox1(entity) is a coconut of variety/cultivar x2(taxon)

lo kokso — coconut.
i xu do kakne lo ka jai gau porpi fai lo koksoCan you crack the coconut?
Related words: grute

kolmex1(entity) is a quantity of coal ...

lo kolme — coal.
i lo kolme ca'o jelcaCoal is burning.
i mi mo'u xaksu le kolmeI've used up the coal.
Related words: tabno, tarla

kombitux1(entity) is a comb for doing x2(clause) with teeth, needles x3(entity)

lo kombitu — comb. lo te kombitu — tooth of a comb, needle of a comb.
i ti kombitu lo nu jai gau cnici fai lo kerfa vau lo cinlaThis is a comb with thin teeth for putting hair in order.
Related words: kerfa, forca

konjux1(entity) is a cone with base x2(entity) and vertex x3(entity)

lo konju — cone. lo se konju — base of a cone. lo te konju — vertex of a cone.
i lo tarci jadni cu te konju fi le tricuThe star is the tip of the tree.
Related words: jesni, djine, sovda, kojna, jganu

korbix1(entity) is an edge or border between x2(entity group) ...

lo korbi — edge. lo se korbi — something with an edge.
i ti korbi lo re rirxeThis is the border between the two rivers.
Related words: greku, mlana, jimte, ctebi, bartu

korcux1(entity) is bent or crooked

lo korcu — bent.
i loi cidni be la alis mo'u korcuAlice's knees buckled.
i le jukpa pu korcu ga'u lo fagriThe cook leaned over the fire.
Related words: cinje, polje, sarlu, sirji, bargu, genxu

korkax1(entity) is some cork from tree x2(entity)

lo korka — cork.
i lo korka be lo cindu cu rotsuThe cork of oak trees is thick.
Related words: tricu, calku, skapi, stagi

korvox1(entity) is a crow of species x2(taxon)

lo korvo — crow, raven.
i le korvo cu xekri du'i lo ka kolmeThe raven is black as coal.
Related words: cipni, xekri

kostax1(entity) is a jacket or sweater ...

lo kosta — jacket.
i ko co'a dasni le kostaPut the coat on.
Related words: pastu, sunla, taxfu

kralix1(property of x2) is a legal/moral right of x2(entity) in legal system x3(entity)

lo krali — legal right, moral right.
i lo prenu poi nanca li su'o po'o pa bi cu se krali lo ka co'a speni vau lo jecta be lo vi gugdePeople of not less than 18 years only have a right to marry under the polity of this country.
Related words: flalu, zifre, pikta, zekri

kramux1(entity) is x2(number) area units in standard x3(property of x1) ...

i lo vi foldi cu kramu li re ki'o lo ka mitreThis field is 2000 square meters.
Related words: rupnu, fepni, dekpu, gutci, minli, merli, bunda

krasix1(entity) is the beginning, the initial stage, first part of x2(entity)

lo krasi — beginning (first part) of an event.
i lo nu zgipli cu krasi le se tigniPlaying music is the initial part of the performance.
i pa jinto cu krasi ti noi rirxeA well is the beginning of this river.
i ma krasi doWhat is your origin?
Related words: cfari, sisti, fanmo, mulno, denpa, jipno, traji, ra'i, sabji, jinto

kratix1(entity) represents x2(entity) in function x3(property of x1)

lo krati — representative.
i pa krati be lo turni bei lo ka ckini fi lo gubni co'a tavla lei se natmiA representative of the governor in public relations started talking to the nation.
Related words: jansu, catni, vipsi, pulji

krefux1(clause) is a recurrence of x2(clause) happening for the x3(number) -th time

lo krefu — recurrence, occurrence, case (recurrence). lo te krefu — number of recurrences.
i lo na te snada cu krefu lу nu troci vau li ciThe attempt ended in a failure for the third time.
Related words: fukpi, rapli, cafne, fasnu, volta

kricix1(entity) believes x2(proposition) is true about x3(entity)

lo krici — believer. lo se krici — belief (fact in which one believes).
i mi pu krici lo ka volta vau doI believed that you would return.
Comment: believing doesn't require evidence or proof. For expressing opinions use jinvi.
Related words: jinvi, djuno, censa, cevni, lijda, makfa, malsi, senpi, birti

krilix1(entity) is quantity of crystal of material x2(entity) ...

lo krili — crystal.
i ti du lo za'u krili be lo silnaThese are the crystals of salt.
Related words: jemna, bisli

krinux1(clause) is a reason for x2(clause)

lo krinu — justification, reason. lo se krinu — event justified.
i ma krinu lo nu do jai lerciWhat is the reason for your lateness?
Related words: ciksi, rinka, nibli, mukti, se jalge, te zukte, ki'u, bapli

krixax1(entity) yells or cries out x2(sound, text)

i ra pu krixa zo sidjuHe cried, "Help!"
Related words: klaku, bacru

krokodilox1(entity) is a crocodile of breed x2(taxon)

lo krokodilo — crocodile, animal of family Crocodylidae.
i lo krokodilo cu zvati maWhere are the crocodiles?
Related words: respa

krucax1(entity) intersects x2(entity) at location x3(entity)

lo te kruca — point of an intersection.
i ko carna fi lo zunle bu'u lo te krucaTurn left at the crossroad.
i mi pu denpa bu'u lo te kruca be lo ralju dargu bei lo dertu darguI was waiting at the place where the main road was intersected by a dirt road.
Related words: cripu, ragve

krujix1(entity) is some cream ...

lo kruji — cream.
i au pei bisli krujiWould you like ice cream?
Related words: ladru, matne

krumamix1(entity) has the umami taste to x2(entity)

lo krumami — having umami taste.
i le stasu be lo jipci cu krumami miThe chicken soup tastes umami to me.
Related words: titla, slari, kurki, silna

ku [terminator] — ends a construct started with: la, lai, le, lei, lo, le'e, lo'e, loi

ku [2nd meaning] — shows the end of an adverb

Comment: adverb is formed with one or more prepositions without arguments and a ku at the end, e.g. na ku, ba zi ku.

ku'a [conjunction] — forms intersection of sets

i e'o doi lo ninmu ku'a lo ctuca do klama lo nenriThose who are women and teachers, please, enter.

ku'i [interjection]however, although, contrarily, but, in contrast, ku'i naiin line

i ku'i mi na ralte su'o jdiniHowever, I don't have money.
i le fetsi pu ku tatpi gi'e ku'i nai co'a sipnaShe was tired and in line with that she fell asleep.
Comment: English 'but' is also a conjunction and this corresponds more to je ku'i / gi'je ku'i / e ku'i. ku'i nai is used to draw conclusions in accordance with those statements which were said previously.
Related words: frica, dukti, na panra

ku'o [terminator] — ends a construct started with: noi, poi, voi

kublix1(entity) is a cube ...

lo kubli — cube.
i mi pu punji lo kubli bisli le te runtaI put ice cubes into the drink.
Related words: kurfa, bliku, tanbo, tapla, tarmi

kuclix1(entity) is curious about x2(clause)

lo kucli — curious. lo se kucli — subject of curiosity.
i mi kucli lo nu tu noi ninmu cu zukte maI'm curious what is that woman doing?
Related words: marvele, sisku, se cinri

kufrax1(entity) is comfortable with x2(property of x1)

lo kufra — comfortable.
i mi kufra lo ka vreta bu'u lo jbini be re kicneI feel comfortable lying between the two pillows.
Related words: cinmo

kuktex1(entity) is tasty or delicious to x2(object)

lo kukte — tasty.
i lo vi badna cu kukte miFor me this banana is sweet.
i ko se kukteBon appetite!
Related words: gusta, ralci, vrusi, cpina

kulnux1(property of x2) is culture of x2(entity)

lo kulnu — culture.
i lo ka citka lo insekto cu kulnu so'e remnaEating insects is the culture of most of humans.
Comment: x1 are customs, ideas, arts, skills.
Related words: ka'u, natmi, cecmu

kumfax1(entity) is a room in x2(entity) ...

lo kumfa — room.
i lo vi kumfa be lo xotli cu bardaThis hotel room is large.
Related words: bitmu, canlu, zdani

kumtex1(entity) is a camel or llama of species x2(taxon)

lo kumte — camel, llama.
i lo gidva be mi'a cu kakne lo ka sazri lo kumteOur guide can ride a camel.
Related words: sunla, kanla, xirma, xasli

kunrax1(entity) is an ore containing material x2(entity) mined from x3(entity)

lo kunra — mineral.
i ti kunra lo tirse lo cmanaThis is an iron containing ore mined from mountains.
Related words: jinme, bisli, rokci, jemna

kuntix1(entity) is empty of material x2(entity)

lo kunti — empty.
i le kabri cu kuntiThe glass is empty.
Related words: culno, tisna, claxu, canlu, kevna, setca

kurfax1(entity) is a rectangle defined by vertices x2(entity group) ...

lo kurfa — rectangle.
i loi sonci pu kurfa lo vo mitre be li muSoldiers formed together a rectangle 5 meters in each side.
Related words: bliku, kubli, tapla, salpo, tarmi

kurjix1(entity) takes care of x2(entity)

lo kurji — caretaker.
i ei kurji lo bilmaWe should take care of the patient.
Related words: jundi, cinri, prami, raktu, zgana

kurkix1(entity) is bitter, acrid to x2(entity)

lo kurki — bitter (taste).
i le birje cu kurkiThe beer is bitter.
Related words: titla, slari

kuspex1(entity) extends or reaches over range x2(entity) ; x1 has scope over x2

lo kuspe — having scope. lo se kuspe — scope.
i lu na ku mi nelci li'u zo'u lo mulno brisni poi du lu mi nelci li'u cu se kuspe lu na ku li'uAs for i naku mi nelci the whole clause mi nelci is in the scope of naku.
i mi na kakne lo ka kuspe tu noi forcaI can't get that fork.
Related words: ranji, renvi, tcena, bancu, cripu, ragve, vorme, canko, bitmu, sirji, jbini, jimte, preja

kusrux1(entity) is cruel to victim x2(entity) in actions x3(property of x1)

lo kusru — cruel action. lo se kusru — victim of cruelty.
i ko na kusru miDon't be cruel to me.
i lei rirni pu kusru mi lo ka na e'ande mi lo ka kelci bu'u lo bartuThe parents were cruel to me in not allowing playing outside.
Related words: xendo, jursa

ky [pronoun]k (letter)

Comment: prefixed with me'o is a quotation of the letter. When used alone refers to the last noun with the verb starting with this letter like ky is for the last lo kosta used.

la [lo gadri] — turn verb into name (sumti)

i la alis ba vitke la parisAlice will visit Paris.
i zo bruna cmene la kevin pa pendo be miBrother is how friends call Kevin.
Comment: the one that is called ... Creates personal name from verbs or cmevla.

la'a [interjection]probably, la'a naiimprobably

i la'a ti traji lo ka misnoProbably, this is the most popular one.
i la'a ru'e la'e do'i cu ve ciksiProbably, it's the explanation.
i la'a nai ka'e ku gau la kevin la alis co'a birtiIt's improbable that Kevin can convince Alice.
i la'a le nakni ba zi mo'u zukteHe ought to finish soon.
Related words: lakne

la'ewhat can be referred to by ... (noun follows)

i do jo'u mi pu casnu da i la'e di'u pu cacra li ji'i paThere was something you and I discussed. And that lasted for approximately an hour.
i la'e zo alis cu cinri cukta"Alice" is an interesting book.
Comment: la'e [noun] is the same as lo se sinxa be [noun].

la'o — turn foreign text into noun that is a name

i la'o gy.The wild bears.gy. jai cinri skina"The wild bears" is an interesting movie.
Comment: quotes a text that can be not Lojbanic. The quotation is to be wrapped with pauses from both sides and with an additional Lojbanic word around them from both sides (this word must not be used within the text quoted). Usually the separating words is the name of the first letter of the language of the quotation.
Related words: zoi, la'o, zo, lu ... li'u, lo'e, lo'u, mu'oi

labnox1(entity) is a wolf of species x2(taxon)

lo labno — wolf.
i mi pu tirna lo nu lo labno cu cmoniI heard wolfs howling.
Related words: gerku

labyxu'ex1(entity) is pink, of rose color

lo labyxu'e — pink, rose (of color).
i lo va nixli pe lo labyxu'e cu moWho is that girl in pink?
Related words: xunre, blabi

lacpux1(entity) pulls or drags x2(entity) ...

lo se lacpu — something pulled, something dragged.
i la alis pu lacpu la kevin re'o lo kerfaAlice dragged Kevin upstairs by the hair.
Related words: catke, sakci, cokcu

lacrix1(entity) relies, counts on, trusts x2(entity) to bring about, ensure, maintain state x3(property of x1 with kau)

i mi lacri do lo ka ma kau sidjuI rely on you to help me.
i mi xebni lo ka lacri lo karce pe mi lo ka klama lo jai se djica be mi fu ma kauI hate having to rely on my car to get where I want.
Related words: minde, nitcu, tinbe

ladrux1(entity) is some milk from x2(entity)

lo ladru — milk.
i e'o do sabji lo pa kabri be lo ladru miPlease give me a glass of milk.
i le nixli ca'o di'i pinxe lo ladru poi se cupra lo mamta be vo'aThe girl still regularly her mother's milk.
Related words: lanbi, mabru, tatru, cirla, kruji

laftix1(entity) lifts x2(entity) ...

lo se lafti — something lifted.
i xu do kakne lo ka lafti le rokciCan you lift the stone?
Related words: farlu, plipe

lai [lo gadri] — turn verb into name (sumti) denoting a mass

i lai djonson pu se zdani tiThe Johnsons lived here.
Comment: the mass of those that are called ... Creates personal name that denote a mass.

laknex1(clause) is probable, likely ...

lo lakne — probable.
i lakne fa lo nu ba carviI will probably rain.
i le nabmi cu jai lakne fai lo ka na nanduThe problem is probably not hard.
Related words: cumki, jinzi, kampu, tcaci, cunso, cafne, fadni, cnano

laksex1(entity) is some wax ...

lo lakse — wax.
i lo bifce cu cupra lo lakseBees produce wax.
Related words: bifce, ranti, bidju

laldox1(entity) is old/aged in that it has x2(property of x1)

lo laldo — old, aged.
i ti noi kosta cu laldo lo ka ze'a ma kau se dasniThis jacket is old in how long it has been worn.
Related words: citno, slabu

lalxux1(entity) is a lake at site x2(entity)

lo lalxu — lake, pool. lo se lalxu — place with a lake.
i ai mi vitke lo lalxu be le pankaI'm going to visit a lake in the park.
Related words: daplu, djacu, rirxe, xamsi, zbani

lamjix1(entity) is adjacent, next to x2(entity) in x3(property of x1 and x2) in direction x4(property of x1 and x2, has two places for ce'u)

lo lamji — immediate (adjacent).
i lo zdani be la alis cu lamji lo ckule lo ka stuzi vau lo ka ce'u ce'u stici vo'aAlice's home is adjacent to the school in where it is located and it is to the east of the school.
Related words: zvati, cpana, jibni, diklo, stuzi, bartu, jbini

lanbix1(entity) is a quantity of protein ...

lo lanbi — protein.
i lo nanba cu vasru lo so'i lanbiBread contains a lot of protein.
Related words: ladru, sovda

lancix1(entity) is a flag or banner symbolizing x2(entity) ...

lo lanci — flag, banner.
i ti lanci la lojbanThis is the flag of Lojban.
Related words: gugde, jecta

lankax1(entity) is a basket containing x2(entity) ...

lo lanka — basket. lo se lanka — contents of a basket.
i ko jgari lo lanka be lo fragariTake a basket with strawberries.
Related words: vasru, baktu

lanlix1(entity) analyzes x2(entity) by method x3(property of x1)

lo lanli — analyst. lo se lanli — something analysed. lo te lanli — method of analysis.
i le mikce cu lanli lo bilma lo ka tirna lo fepriThe doctor examines the patient by listening to the lungs.
Related words: cipra, catlu, zgana, jarco, pensi, pinka

lanmex1(entity) is a sheep of species x2(taxon) ...

lo lanme — sheep.
i ti noi cirla cu se zbasu fi lo ladru be lo lanmeThis cheese is made from sheep's milk.
Related words: kanba, sunla

lantex1(entity) is a can for x2(entity) ...

lo lante — can, pre-sealed container. lo se lante — something canned.
i ti lante lo festiIt's a can for waste.
Related words: botpi, baktu, tinci

lanxex1(entity group) is in balance under forces x2(entity)

lo lanxe — balanced.
i lo nu mi gunka jo'u lo nu mi surla cu lanxe lo se zukte be miI keep my work and my leisure time in balance.
Related words: fapro, midju, nutli

lanzux1(entity) is a family with member x2(entity) who is tied to it by bond x3(relation between members of x2, contains two places for ce'u)

lo lanzu — family. lo se lanzu — family member.
i ti lanzu lo citno lo ka ce'u ce'u pramiThis is a family of young people bound by mutual love.
Related words: natmi, cmima, girzu, jutsi, klesi

larcux1(property of nonce place) is an art, creative application of skill x2(proposition)

lo larcu — art. lo se larcu — craft.
i za'a do certu lo larcu be lo ka finti lo melbi se sangaI can see, you are an expert in creating beautiful songs.
i lo ka prami cu larcuLove is an art.
Related words: finti, zbasu, stati

lasnax1(entity) fastens or binds x2(entity) to x3(entity) with x4(entity)

lo lasna — fastener. lo se lasna — fastened.
i le prenu pu lasna la kevin pa kamju pa skoriThe person tied Kevin to a pillar with a rope.
Related words: jorne, fenso, jgena, batke, dinko, kansa

lastux1(entity) is a quantity of brass ...

lo lastu — brass.
i lo lastu cu mixre lo tunka joi lo zinkiBrass is an alloy of copper and zinc.
Comment: lo lastu is an alloy made of copper and zinc.
Related words: jinme, ransu, tunka

latnax1(entity) is a lotus of species x2(taxon) ...

lo latna — lotus.
i le latna co'a me lo xrula poi se panci lo plukaThe lotus turns into a flower with a pleasant scent.
Related words: budjo, censa, lijda, spati

laznix1(entity) is lazy concerning action x2(property of x1)

lo lazni — lazy. lo se lazni — action lazily avoided.
i mi lazni lo ka catlu le matraI am lazy to look at the engine.
Related words: nejni, vreta, gunka

le [lo gadri] — turn verb into noun of what is mentioned

i mi pu viska pa fetsi i le fetsi cu melbiI saw a female. She is pretty.
Comment: the, creates pronoun like she, he from noun. le fetsi is she, le nakni is he, le za'u mei is they.

le'ai [terminator] — ends a construct started with: lo'ai, sa'ai

le'e [lo gadri] — turn verb into noun denoting a typical thing previously mentioned

i lo'e cipni cu kakne lo ka vofli i mi tadni le'e cipniTypical birds can fly. And I study such birds.
Comment: the typical one that does or is ... (previously defined).
Related words: le, lo, lo'e

le'o [interjection]Grr! (aggression), le'o cu'i — expressing passive (non-agressive) emotion, le'o nai — expressing defensive emotion

i le'o ro ko tinbe fi miEverybody follow my orders!
i le'o cu'i sa'u mi pu retsku zo'ei lo nu do se la'u li xo kau kanroHey, I just asked you about your health.
i le'o nai mi jimpe lo du'u ei mi zutse tiOkay, okay, I understand that I have to sit here.
Related words: gunta, bandu

le'u [terminator] — ends a construct started with: lo'u

lebnax1(entity) takes or seizes x2(entity, property of x3) from x3(entity)

lo se lebna — something taken.
i le za'u mei pu lebna fi mi fe lo ka se krali lo ka ponse le karceThey took my rights on owning the car.
i mi pu lebna pa titla le tanxe ca lo nu lo drata na jundiI took a candy from the box when other weren't attentive.
Comment: lebna implies possession taken, cpacu doesn't imply previous possession, vimcu doesn't imply acquiring possession.
Related words: punji, cpacu, vimcu, canci, cliva

lei [lo gadri] — turn verb into noun denoting a mass previously mentioned

i mi pu zgana loi prenu gi'e ba co'a sanli i ba bo mi pu muvdu fa'a lei prenuI noticed a crowd and stood up. After that, I moved into the direction of the crowd.
Comment: the ..., the mass of those that are ... (previously mentioned).

lenjox1(entity) is a lens focusing rays x2(entity) to the focus x3(entity) ...

lo lenjo — lens. lo se lenjo — rays focused by a lens. lo te lenjo — focus of a lens.
i ti lenjo lo gusni lo darnoThis lens focusing light has a long focal length.
i mi co'a dasni loi lenjo te zu'e lo ka sfubuI put on goggles in order to dive.
i ko bevri fi mi fe loi lenjo pe miBring me my glasses.
Comment: x2 is usually light. Light from the original object comes through x1 in the form of x2 onto x3.
Related words: kacma, minra

lenkux1(entity) is cold ...

lo lenku — cold.
i lo vacri cu zenba lo ka lenkuIt's getting cold.
i le jisra pe ne'i le lenku minji pu xlaliThe juice in the fridge was no good.
Related words: glare, bisli

lercix1(clause) is late by standard x2(proposition)

lo lerci — late event.
i lo nu mi volta lo zdani cu lerci lo se jinvi be lo mamta be miAccording to my mother, I returned home late.
Related words: clira

lerfux1(entity) is a letter, symbol in word or alphabet x2(entity, text) representing x3(entity, sound)

lo lerfu — letter, alphabetic symbol.
i zoi ry.д.ry. lerfu lo rusko zo dд is a letter of Russian alphabet representing sound d.
Related words: mifra, namcu, sinxa

letrix1(entity) is electric in x2(property of x1)

lo letri — electric.
i lo dilnu cu letri lo ka cupra lo lindiThe cloud are electric in that they produce lightning.
Related words: magneti, trina, xlura

li — turn number into value

i li vo cu sumji li re li re4 is the sum of 2 and 2.
Comment: value of the following number or a math expression.

li'a [interjection]clearly, of course, li'a nai — obscurely

i li'a do xankaYou are clearly worried.
i li'a no da poi te ckini la alis la kevin pu na draniClearly, nothing in their relations was amiss.
i li'a mi pu no roi vitke lo dzipo tumlaOf course, I have never been to Antarctica.
i li'a nai lo tcima cu funca le solriWeather depends on the sun, I see, but it's complicated.
Related words: klina

li'anpix1(entity) is a cheek of x2(entity)

lo li'anpi — cheek.
i ra pu se li'anpi lo planaShe had chubby cheeks.
Related words: flira, mlana

li'anzix1(entity) is a length of chain with links or rings x2(entity)

lo li'anzi — chain. lo se li'anzi — link of a chain, ring of a chain.
i ti li'anzi lo barda je rijnoThis is a chain with big silver rings.
Related words: djine, cukla, gunma, lasna

li'i [clause prefix] — turn clause into verb

i lo pluka ko li'i se senvaHave a pleasant dream (sweat dreams!)
i lo pluka ko li'i se citkaHow did you like the party?
i ma do li'i salciThe length is two meters.
Comment: x1 (property of x2) is an experience of ... (clause follows) experienced by x2. The first omitted place of the clause is assumed to be the second place of the li'i clause.

li'o [interjection]and so on (omitted text)

i la kevin cu pa moi i la edvard cu re moi i li'oKevin is the first. Eduard is the second, and so on.

li'u [terminator] — ends a construct started with: lu

Comment: seldom elidable except at end of text.

lidnex1(entity) precedes x2(same type as x1) in x3(property of x1 and x2)

i lo mlatu ba lidne lo gerku lo ka se casnu ca ma kauCats will be discussed before dogs.
Comment: purci is for time sequence.
Related words: balvi, ralju, rebla, purci, jersi, porsi, jatna, farna

lifrix1(entity) experiences x2(clause)

lo lifri — experiencer, patient (experiencer). lo se lifri — experienced event, feeling (what is felt).
i mi lifri lo ka pu se nanduI've had a hard life.
i do ba lifri lo nabmiYou'll get into trouble.
i mi pu lifri lo ka ganse lo cizraI underwent strange sensation.
Related words: ri'i, jmive, fasnu, renvi

lijdax1(entity) is a religion of believers x2(entity) sharing beliefs x3(proposition)

lo lijda — religion. lo se lijda — religious believer. lo te lijda — religious belief.
i lo na krici tu'a pa cevni na te lijdaNot believing in God is not a religion.
i la animism cu lijda lo remna poi se zdani lo vi tumla le du'u ro dacti cu vasru lo pruxiAnimism is a religion of people living on this land that asserts that every object contains a spirit.
i do se lijda maWhat is your religion?
Related words: budjo, censa, cevni, crida, dadjo, jegvo, krici, latna, malsi, marde, muslo, pruxi, ranmi, ritli, xriso, zekri

limnax1(entity) swims in x2(entity)

lo limna — swimmer.
i e'a nai do limna lo xamsiDon't swim in the sea!
Related words: djacu, fulta, klama, litru

limxonex1(entity) is a lemon of species x2(entity)

lo limxone — lemon.
i au mi pinxe lo jisra be lo limxoneI'd like to drink a lemon juice.
Related words: pelxu, nimre, najnimre

lindix1(entity) is a lightning striking at x2(entity) from x3(entity)

lo lindi — lightning.
i sa'u tu pe pu ku cu lindi lo darno pa dilnuThat was just a lightning that stroke far away from here striking from a cloud.
Related words: letri

linjix1(entity) is a line segment defined by points x2(entity group)

lo linji — line. lo se linji — points defining a line.
i loi pulji pu se linji lo clani te zu'e lo ka kurji lo cadzu prenuThe police officers formed long lines in order to protect walking people.
Related words: korcu, sirji, jganu, kantu, mokca

lintox1(entity) is lightweight ...

lo linto — lightweight, light (not heavy).
i le mlatu verba cu lintoThe kitten is lightweight.
Comment: lo xalbo is light (not serious), lo gusni is light (illumination).
Related words: junta, tilju

lisrix1(text) is a story about x2(entity) ...

lo lisri — story, tale, yarn (story), narrative. lo se lisri — plot of a story.
i ko skicu pa lisri be lo crida miTell me a story about fairies.
Related words: ranmi, cfika, skicu, prosa, pemci

listex1(entity) is a list, log of x2(entity group) ...

lo liste — list, log. lo se liste — logged.
i mi pu tcidu lo liste be lo notci noi fi ke'a porsi lo ka se benji ca ma kauI read a log of messages, which were sorted in the order of being sent.
Comment: unlike porsi the word liste describes an actual object with the sequence formed as is.
Related words: porsi, girzu, cmima

litcex1(entity) is x2(number) liters ...

i ti noi djacu cu litce li reIt's two liters of water.
Related words: centi

litkix1(entity) is liquid ...

lo litki — liquid.
i ko satre le litki pa panjeWipe the liquid with a sponge.
i le bisli ca'o co'a litkiThe ice is melting.
Related words: cilmo, djacu, lumci, runta, pambe, sudga, gapci, sligu, flu'ente, jduli

litrux1(entity) travels via route x2(entity) ...

lo litru — traveller. lo se litru — travelling route.
i mi pu litru lo fange gugdeI travelled abroad.
Related words: bajra, cadzu, cpare, tcana, klama, cliva, pluta, limna, muvdu

livgax1(entity) is a liver of x2(entity)

lo livga — liver.
i xu lo ka citka lo livga be lo jipci cu xamgu doIs eating chicken liver good for you?
Related words: rango, betfu

livlax1(entity) is a fuel for powering x2(entity)

lo livla — fuel.
i le toknu cu se livla lo mudriThe furnace is stoked up with wood.
i lo livla na banzuThere isn't enough fuel.
Related words: nejni, xaksu, jelca

lo [lo gadri] — turn verb into noun

i lo mlatu cu danluCat is an animal.
i pa sazri ca denpaA driver waits.
i za'u pa sazri ca denpaDrivers wait.
Comment: the one which does ..., the one which is ..., those which do ..., those which are .... Creates noun from verb. Often corresponds to English '-er' like in 'singer', 'player'. Without numbers specified refers to noun in general and thus can refer both singular and plural nouns depending on context. Nouns ends in a selbri (main verb).

lo'ai — To correct yourself say lo'ai, then the incorrect construct, then sa'ai, then the same but corrected construct, then le'ai.

i mi pu vitke lo dzipo le'ai naiI visited Antarctica (sic!)
i mi pu klama lo zarci y lo'ai pu sa'ai ba le'aiI went to the store, ehm, no, will go!
i sa'ai ba klama le'ai peiIs it "will go" that should have been said?
Comment: You may just start with sa'ai if it's obvious what is corrected. The word le'ai on its own indicates that an obvious mistake was made. le'ai dai indicates that the other partner made a mistake. le'ai pei asks whether the partner made a mistake. le'ai nai explicitly denies mistakes.

lo'e [lo gadri] — turn verb into noun denoting a typical thing

i lo'e cipni cu kakne lo ka vofliTypical birds can fly.
Comment: the typical one that does or is ....

lo'o [terminator] — ends a construct started with: li, me'o

lo'u — turn main verb into noun that is a quote

i ma smuni lo'u vau ua le'u poi do cuskuWhat's the meaning of vau ua that you said?
Comment: lo'u ... le'u is a noun quoting any number of Lojban words.

logjix1(proposition) is a logic for reasoning about x2(proposition)

lo logji — logic.
i le du'u lo prina be fi lo jamfu be pa nixli cu nenri le dinju cu logji le du'u la alis pu zvati tiBy the fact that there are footprints of a girl inside the house, one concludes that Alice was here.
Related words: nibli

loi [lo gadri] — turn verb into noun denoting a mass

i loi tadni pu sruri le dinjuStudents surrounded the building.
i mi ralte pa loi re glutaI have a pair of mittens.
Comment: the mass of those that are .... Creates noun that denotes a mass.

lojbox1(entity) is Lojbanic in x2(property of x1)

lo lojbo — Lojbanic.
i mi lojbo lo ka se cinri la lojban vau e no drata i je mi na tavla bau la lojbanI'm a Lojbanic person only in that I'm interested in Lojban; I don't speak it.
Related words: bangu, logji

loldix1(entity) is a floor, ground of x2(entity)

lo loldi — floor.
i mi pu sipna bu'u lo loldi be lo kumfa pe miI slept on the floor of my room.
Related words: bitmu, drudi, dertu, dizlo, cnita, zbepi, sarji, skalera

lorxux1(entity) is a fox of species x2(taxon)

lo lorxu — fox.
i lo lorxu cu citka lo jipciFoxes eat hens.
Related words: gerku

lu — turn main verb into noun that is a quote

i mi pu cusku lu coi lo pendo li'uI said "Hello, friends!"
Comment: lu ... li'u is a noun quoting grammatically correct text in Lojban (can contain any number of words).

lu'ewhat refers to (noun follows)

i lo re cirkulo cu du lu'e lo logjiTwo circles is a symbol of logic.
i lo vi janbe pe lo vorme cu du lu'e miThis doorbell is to call me.
Comment: lu'e [noun] is the same as lo sinxa be [noun].

lu'u [terminator] — ends a construct started with: la'e, lu'e, tu'a, zo'ei

lujvox1(text) is a lujvo, verb made of affixes with meaning x2(entity), arguments meaning x3(ordered entity group), with affixes built from components x4(ordered text group)

lo lujvo — lujvo (compound verb made of affixes).
i zo ki'ogra lujvo le du'u kilto lo grake vau lo kilto ce'o lo se grake zo kilto ce'o zo grakeki'ogra is a lujvo meaning "is a thousand of grams" with arguments meaning "what is measured in thousands", "the number of grams"; affixes of the lujvo are built from kilto and grake attached sequentially.
Related words: stura, cmavo, gismu, rafsi, smuni

lumcix1(entity) washes x2(entity) of contaminant x3(entity) ...

lo lumci — washer.
i mi pu lumci so'o palta lo staliI washed off the remains from some dishes.
Related words: djacu, jinru, litki, zbabu, jinsa, curve

lunbex1(entity) is naked or bare

lo lunbe — naked, bare.
i le cifnu ca lunbeThe baby is naked now.
Related words: taxfu, bandu

lunrax1(entity) is the Moon, major natural satellite of planet x2(entity)

lo lunra — Moon (major natural satellite). lo se lunra — planet with a moon.
i le terdi cu se lunra pa daThe Earth has one natural moon.
Related words: planeta, solri, terdi, mluni

lunsax1(entity) condenses ...

lo lunsa — condensing.
i lo bisli lunsa pu gacri le dertuFrost covered the ground.
Related words: cilmo, dunja, febvi, litki, bumru

luskax1(entity) is a mollusk of species x2(entity)

lo luska — mollusc.
i ti noi luska cu cpare co masnoThis mollusk moves slowly.
Related words: curnu, danlu, xamsi, rirxe

ly [pronoun]l (letter)

Comment: prefixed with me'o is a quotation of the letter. When used alone refers to the last noun with the verb starting with this letter like ly is for the last lo lalxu used.

ma [pronoun] — asks for the noun (that should go into the place to which ma is put)

i do djica maWhat do you want?
i ma noi prenu pu zvati tiWho was here?
i ma noi dacti pu zvati tiWhat object was here?

ma'a [pronoun]we with you (includes other persons not in the dialog)

i ma'a se zdani lo bu'u planetaWe inhabit this planet.
i lo rarna munje cu vajni ca lo nu ma'a se lifriNature plays an important role in our lives.
Comment: mi'ai is a more vague pronoun.

ma'oi — quotes one next word and treats it as the name of a selma'o (class of particles). The quoted word must be delimited by pauses (in speech) or whitespace (in writing)

i zo di'ai cmavo ma'oi coidi'ai is a grammatical particle of class "COI" (vocative).
Comment: selma'o are often written in English text in capital letters e.g.: COI.
Related words: ra'oi

ma'u [digit/number] — plus sign (number follows; by default any positive)

i li ma'u re du li bi vu'u xa"+2 = 8 - 6."

mablax1(entity) is shitty, awful in x2(property of x1) according to x3(entity) ; x1 stinks, sucks

lo mabla — shitty, awful, execrable.
i fi mi le cidja cu mabla lo ka se zalvi lo denciFor me the food is awful in chewing it.
Related words: palci, dapma, xlali, zabna, funca, ganti, ganxo, gletu, gutra, kalci, pinca, nakpinji, plibu, vibna, vlagi, zargu

mabrux1(entity) is mammal of species x2(taxon)

lo mabru — mammal.
i lo delfinu cu mabruDolphins are mammals.
Related words: danlu, ladru, tatru, ractu, xanto, xarju

macnux1(entity) is manual in function x2(property of x1) ...

lo macnu — manual. lo se macnu — function done manually.
i ti noi karce cu macnu lo ka gau cenba lo ka sutraThe speed of this car is changed manually.
Related words: zmiku, jitro

magnetix1(entity) is magnetic in x2(property of x1)

lo magneti — magnet.
i le rokci cu magneti lo ka snipa lo jinmeThe stone is magnetic in that it sticks to metal.
i le rokci co'u magneti lo ka co'a glareThe stone becomes non-magnetic when being heat up.
Related words: letri, trina, xlura

mai — turn number into numbered item or paragraph

i pa mai la meilis ze'i se zdani tiFirst, Mei Li has been living here for a short time.
i re mai la meilis ka'e sidju ma'aSecondly, she can help us.
i ro mai la meilis cu stati nixliLastly, she is a smart girl.
Comment: suffix of a number that marks a paragraph or item when they are ordered.

makcux1(entity) is mature in x2(property of x1)

lo makcu — mature.
i le nanmu cu simlu lo ka makcu lo ka seksiThe man seems to be mature in his sexuality.
Related words: cifnu, ninmu, verba, banro, farvi, nanmu

makfax1(clause) is magic or supernatural to x2(entity) performed by x3(entity)

lo makfa — magical event. lo te makfa — wizard, magician.
i lo nu le ractu cu canci cu makfa le verba la djonThe disappearance of the rabbit performed by John was magical for the child.
Related words: krici, marvele

malsix1(entity) is a church, temple of people x2(entity) ...

lo malsi — church, temple.
i ti malsi lo budjoThis is a Buddhist temple.
Related words: cevni, krici, lijda, ritli

mamtax1(entity) is a mother of x2(entity)

lo mamta — mother. lo se mamta — child of a mother.
i lo mamta be do pu zukte ma ca lo nu do mo'u klama lo zdaniWhat was your mother doing when you got home?
Related words: patfu, sovda, rirni, rorci, tarbi, famti, bersa, jbena

manfox1(entity) is uniform, homogeneous in x2(property of x1)

lo manfo — uniform, homogeneous.
i le bukpu ca manfo lo ka se tenguThe cloth is uniform in texture.
Related words: vrici, prane, curve, ranji, vitno, stodi, dikni, sampu, traji

mangox1(entity) is a mango of variety x2(taxon)

lo mango — mango.
i mi pu no roi citka lo mangoI have never eaten mangoes.
Related words: grute

mankux1(entity) is dark

lo manku — dark.
i le kumfa cu mankuThe room is dark.
Related words: blabi, gusni, ctino, kandi, xekri, ctino

manrix1(entity) is a standard for observing x2(entity) with rules x3(property of x1)

lo manri — standard.
i mi manri lo nu ma kau ba jinga vau lo ka jdice ma kauI'm the standard of determining of who will win, however I decide that will be so.
i tu noi ve'i cmana ba manri lo nu zgana le tumlaThat hill will be the reference frame for observing the land.
Related words: ckilu, merli, pajni, cimde, jdice, marde

mansax1(entity) satisfies x2(entity) in x3(property of x1)

lo mansa — satisfying. lo se mansa — satisfied.
i lo zdani be mi cu mansa mi lo ka tcini bu'u ce'uI'm satisfied with the conditions in my house.
Related words: pajni

mantix1(entity) is an ant of species x2(taxon)

lo manti — ant.
i lo sakta cu trina lo mantiSugar attracts ants.
Related words: cinki, blato

mapkux1(entity) is a hat, helmet ...

lo mapku — hat, helmet.
i ai mi dasni lo mapkuI'm going to put on a hat.
Related words: taxfu, stedu, drudi

mapnix1(entity) is some cotton

lo mapni — cotton.
i le mapni cu zabnaThe cotton is of high quality.
Related words: bukpu

maptix1(entity) is compatible with or matches x2(entity) in x3(property of x1)

lo mapti — compatible, proper (fitting).
i lo se cusku be do na mapti lo se cusku be lo jatna pe do lo ka se smuniYour words are inconsistent in meaning with what your boss said.
i ti ckiku lo na mapti be ti noi stelaThis is a key incompatible with this lock.
i ta mapti lo zabna lo ka jai se djica miThat is exactly what I want.
Related words: satci, tugni, sarxe, drani, tarmi, ckini, mintu

marbix1(entity) is a shelter protecting x2(entity) against threat x3(property of x2)

lo marbi — shelter, haven, refuge, retreat, harbor.
i mi pu jai se bapli fai lo ka se marbi pa laldo dinju fi lo ka cilmoI had to take shelter in an old building in order not to become wet.
Related words: bandu, ckape, snura, drudi, sepli, bitmu, gacri

marcex1(entity) is a vehicle for carrying x2(entity) ...

lo marce — vehicle. lo se marce — passenger.
i ti marce lo se vecnuThis is a vehicle for carrying goods.
i ti marce ge lo se vecnu na'o ku gi lo remna ca'a kuThis is a vehicle intended to transport goods but actually used for transporting people.
Comment: karce and carce are designed to be with wheels, marce isn't and is more generic.
Related words: klama, matra, bevri, bloti, carce, karce, xislu, sabnu, skiji

mardex1(property of x2) is the ethics of performer x2(entity) ...

lo marde — ethics, morals, moral standards, ethical standards.
i lo ka zukte lo se cpedu be lo bilma cu marde ei doDoing what the ill person asks should be you ethics.
Related words: palci, vrude, lijda, manri, javni, tarti, zekri

margux1(entity) is a quantity of mercury

lo margu — mercury.
i xu lo margu cu jinmeIs mercury a metal?
Related words: jinme

marjix1(entity) is material of composition x2(entity) in shape x3(entity)

lo marji — material, stuff, matter. lo se marji — composition of matter. lo te marji — shape of matter.
i ti noi nanba cu marji lo mraji lo blikuThis bread is made of rye and has the form of a block.
Related words: morna, mucti, nejni, tarmi, dacti

marnax1(entity) is a quantity of hemp of species x2(taxon)

lo marna — hemp.
i ti skori lo marnaThis is a cable made of hemp.
Related words: skori, tanko, sigja, xukmi

marvelex1(entity) is marvelous, astonishing to x2(entity)

lo marvele — marvelous.
i lo bu'u stuzi cu marvele miThis place is marvelous to me.
Related words: melbi

marxax1(entity) crushes or smashes x2(entity) into x3(entity)

i mi pu marxa lo patlu lo pesxuI made mashed potatoes.
Related words: daspo, pesxu, zalvi, bapli

masnox1(entity) is slow at doing x2(property of x1)

lo masno — slow.
i le verba ca simlu lo ka masno lo ka cadzuThe child seems to be slow at walking.
Related words: sutra

mastix1(clause) is x2(number) months long ...

lo masti — month-long event.
i lo lidne dunra cu masti li ciThe past winter lasted for 3 months.
Comment: if x2 is not used denotes one month in duration
Related words: detri, djedi, jeftu, nanca

matcix1(entity) is a mat or pad ...

lo matci — mat, pad.
i ko jai mosra lo cutci pe do le matciWipe your shoes on the mat.
Related words: kicne, tapla, karda, ckana

matlix1(entity) is some flax, linen

lo matli — linen.
i ti noi creka cu matliThis shirt is linen.
Related words: bukpu

matnex1(entity) is some butter ...

lo matne — butter.
i mi pu citka pa snuji be lo matne bei lo nanbaI ate a sandwich with butter and bread.
Related words: grasu, kruji

matrax1(entity) is an engine driving x2(entity)

lo matra — engine.
i ti noi karce cu se matra lo vlipaThis car has a powerful engine.
Related words: marce, minji, carce

mau [preposition from zmadu]with ... doing more, with ... being more

i nelci do fa mi ne mau ku'i la alisI like you but Alice likes you more.
Comment: the clause itself describes the comparison.

mau'i [right scalar particle] — shows stronger intensity of interjection or interjection modifier

i ua do ti zvati i ua mau'i ji'a la alis ti zvatiWow, you are here. Wow, wow, Alice is here too!
Comment: usually specifies an intensity of an interjection stronger than the intensity of the same interjection earlier used.
Related words: dau'i, mau'i, me'ai, cu'i, sai, ru'e

mavjix1(entity) is some oats of species x2(taxon)

lo mavji — oats.
i ze'u ku lo mavji gau ralju cidja lo xirmaOats have long been the main food for horses.
Related words: gurni

maxrix1(entity) is some wheat of species x2(taxon)

lo maxri — wheat.
i lo nanba cu se zbasu fi lo maxriBread is made of wheat.
Related words: gurni

mex1 is among the referents of ... (a noun follows)

i xu do me lo ctucaAre you a teacher?

me'ai [right scalar particle] — shows weaker intensity of interjection or interjection modifier

i ua do tsuku doi la alis i ua me'ai ro drata ti zvati ji'aWow, you arrived, Alice! Oh well, the others are here too.
Comment: usually specifies an intensity of an interjection weaker than the intensity of the same interjection earlier used.
Related words: dau'i, mau'i, me'ai, cu'i, sai, ru'e

me'i [digit/number]less than ... (number follows)

i me'i mu prenu ca zutse bu'u le kumfaThere are less than five people sitting in the room now.

me'o — turn number into text

i ko catke la'e me'o so pa paDial 911!
i me'o pa re ci123 (as a text).
Comment: marks the following sequence of numbers as a text.

me'o denpa bu [letter]., full stop, period, dot

me'o slaka bu [letter], (comma)

me'u [terminator] — ends a construct started with: me

mebrix1(entity) is a forehead of x2(entity)

lo mebri — forehead, brow.
i le fetsi pu se mebri lo kalriShe had a forehead open.
Related words: stedu, flira

megdox1(entity) is a million of x2(same type as x1) in x3(property of x1)

i mi ponse lo megdo be lo rupnu be li ciI own three million dollars.
i e'o do cuxna fi lo pixra poi klani lo megdo be li su'e pa bei lo ka se bitni li biPlease choose an image that does not exceed 1 Megabyte.
Related words: centi

mei [verb] — turn number into verb denoting quantity

i mi'o re meiYou and I are two.
i pa mei lo nabmiIt is one of the problems.
i le vo mei pu klama le kumfaThe four entered the room.
Comment: x1(entity) are (n) in number and are among x2(entity). The number (n) is put in front of mei.
Related words: cmima, gunma, moi

meksox1(text) is a mathematical expression under rules x2(proposition)

lo mekso — math expression.
i lu li vo du li re su'i re li'u mekso la lojbanli vo du li resu'i re is a mathematical expression in Lojban.
i zoi cy.(x+15&~15).cy. mekso lo bangu poi du la c"(x+15&~15)" is a mathematical expression in C language.
Related words: cmaci, dilcu, fancu, frinu, jalge, namcu, parbi, pilji

melbix1(entity) is beautiful to observer x2(entity) in aspect x3(property of x1) ...

lo melbi — beautiful.
i le ninmu cu melbi mi lo ka se catluFor me the woman is beautiful to look at.
Related words: pluka, xamgu

menlix1(clause) is a mind of body x2(entity)

lo menli — mind.
i lo menli be lo smani cu simsa lo menli be lo remnaThe mind of monkeys is similar to the one of humans.
Comment: ability of being aware of things and of rational thought.
Related words: intele, besna, morji, mucti, pensi, sanji, xanri, sevzi, xadni

mensix1(entity) is a sister of x2(entity) by bond x3(property of x1)

lo mensi — sister. lo se mensi — sibling of a sister.
i do mensi mi lo ka se patfuYou are my brother since we are born from the same father.
Related words: bruna, tunba, tamne, famti

mentux1(clause) is x2(number) minutes long ...

lo mentu — minute-long event.
i le nu penmi cu mentu be li ji'i xa noThe meeting is approximately 60 minutes long.
Comment: if x2 is not used denotes one minute in duration
Related words: junla, cacra, snidu, tcika

merkox1(entity) is U.S. American in x2(property of x1)

lo merko — American (of the United States).
i mi'a pu rinsa le pa merkoWe greeted the American.
Related words: bemro, ketco, glico

merlix1(entity) measures x2(entity) as x3(number) units on scale x4(property of x2 and x3) with accuracy x5(number)

lo merli — measurer. lo se merli — measured.
i mi merli le jubme li pa lo ka mitre vau li pi paI measured the length of the table as 1 meter with accuracy 0.1 meters.
Related words: kancu, rupnu, fepni, dekpu, gutci, minli, bunda, ckilu, gradu, satci, cimde, kramu, manri, centi

mi [pronoun]I (the speaker or the speakers)

i mi glekiI'm happy.

mi'a [pronoun]we without you

i mi'a pu casnu doWe were discussing you.
Comment: mi'ai is a more vague pronoun.

mi'ai [pronoun]we (at least two persons including at least one of the speakers)

i mi'ai se rai trociWe try our best.
i mi'ai djuno lo krinuWe know the reason.
i da mi'ai nabmiWe have a problem.
Comment: English we. mi'a, mi'o and ma'a are more specific cases of mi'ai. Mostly used to more precisely translate texts from other languages..

mi'e [vocative]I am ... (self-identification of the speaker), mi'e naiI am not (denial of the speaker's identity)

i coi mi'e la glekiHello, I'm La Gleki.
i lu coi la kevin li'u lu mi'e nai la kevin li'u"Hello, Kevin!" "I'm not Kevin."

mi'i [conjunction]from center of ... and of distance ... around

i lo za'u xrula cu zvati lo cmana mi'i lo ki'otre be li ciThe flowers are present on the mountain and three kilometers around of it.

mi'o [pronoun]you and I (the speaker and the listener)

i mi'o ba renviYou and I will survive.
Comment: mi'ai is a more vague pronoun.

mi'u [interjection]ditto (the same thing) — another one

i mi pu zukte ra mi'uI did the same thing.
i mi pu lebna pa cukta gi'e dunda pa cukta mi'u nai la alisI took a book and gave another one to Alice.
Related words: mintu, bi'u nai, le, ri, ra

midjux1(entity) is in the middle of x2(entity)

lo midju — middle.
i ra pu sanli bu'u lo midju be le darguHe was standing in the middle of the road.
Comment: lo midju is center point, lo centero is central subset (of a set or territory), lo kernelo is core.
Related words: lanxe, jbini, nutli, snuji, milxe, denmi, ralju

mifrax1(entity, text) is an encoded x2(entity, text) made using cipher x3(property of x1 and x2, has two places for ce'u)

lo mifra — encrypted text. lo se mifra — not encrypted text. lo te mifra — cipher for encryption.
i zoi .mifr.cni rni dn.mifr. mifra lu coi ro do li'u lo ka me'o o bu pe ce'u se basti me'o ny pe ce'ucni rni dn is an encoded Lojban phrase coi ro do where n is a replacement for o.
i zo coi mifra lo nu rinsa vau lo bangucoi is a greeting encoded in language.
Related words: mipri, lerfu, sinxa

mikcex1(entity) cures or treats x2(entity) for disease x3(clause) ; x1 is a doctor ...

lo mikce — doctor. lo se mikce — patient (being cured). lo te mikce — ailment treated, disease cured.
i le mikce pu minde mi lo ka sipnaThe doctor ordered me to sleep.
i lo mamta be mi pu mikce mi tu'a lo bekpi be mi ta'i lo ka punji lo jduliMy mother treated my ill back by applying an ointment.
Comment: the process of treatment can be described using ta'i or tadji.
Related words: bilma, kanro, spita

mikrix1(entity) is a millionth of x2(same type as x1) in x3(property of x1)

i le jurme cu mikri lo mitre be li re boi lo ka ganraThe microbe is 2 micrometers wide.
Related words: centi

miltix1(entity) is a thousandth of x2(same type as x1) in x3(property of x1)

i le jubme cu milti lo mitre be li bi no no lo ka ganraThe table is 800 millimeters wide.
Related words: centi

milxex1(entity) is mild in x2(property of x1)

lo milxe — mild.
i le djacu cu milxe lo ka glareThe water is warm (not hot).
i mi milxe lo ka tatpiI'm tired to a moderate degree.
Related words: mutce, traji, kandi, ruble, midju, nutli, ralci

mindex1(entity) commands or orders x2(entity) to do x3(property of x2)

lo minde — commander. lo se minde — commanded. lo te minde — command (order).
i le turni pu minde mi lo ka klama ca lo draniThe manager ordered me to come on time.
Related words: lacri, te bende, jatna, ralju, jitro, turni, tinbe

minjix1(entity) is a machine for function x2(clause)

lo minji — machine. lo se minji — function of a machine.
i ti minji lo nu cpacu lo djacu vau lo xanceThis is a hand-controlled apparatus for getting water.
Comment: cabra is for devices controlled by external force, minji is for machines working automatically, zmiku is for robots in general.
Related words: cabra, matra, tutci, zukte, pilno, skami

minlix1(entity) is x2(number) long distance units in standard x3(property of x1) ...

i le dargu cu minli li re lo ka ki'otreThe road is two kilometers long.
Comment: describes measurement of an object in one dimension. x3 desribes the scale that might not be metric. gutci is used in the same way but for subjectively large objects.
Related words: gutci, clani, ganra, rotsu, condi, mitre, dekpu, merli, bunda, kramu

minrax1(entity) reflects or echoes x2(entity) to observer x3(entity) as x4(entity)

lo se minra — reflected, echoed.
i lo djacu pu minra lo gusni be fi la sol la alis lo marvele barnaWater reflected the sunlight that Alice could see as marvelous spots.
i le bitmu so'i roi minra lo sanceThe wall echoes the sound several times.
Related words: catlu, viska, lenjo, pensi

mintux1(entity) is identical to x2(entity) ; x1 is x2 ...

lo mintu — identical.
i tu noi nanmu gi'e dasni lo pelxu cu mintu lo patfu be doThat man wearing yellow is your father.
Comment: the same meaning as du but only has two places. For equality use dunli.
Related words: panra, satci, mapti, simsa, drata, dunli, du, simxu

miprix1(entity) keeps x2(entity) hidden from x3(entity) ...

lo se mipri — concealed, hidden.
i mi pu mipri le torta le verbaI hid the pie from the child.
Related words: stace, mifra, sivni, djuno, cirko, jarco

mirlix1(entity) is a deer of species x2(taxon)

lo mirli — deer.
i co'a lo ka jbena vau lo mirli cu kakne lo ka sanliA baby deer can stand as soon as it is born.
Related words: mabru, danlu

misnox1(clause) is famous among x2(entity)

lo misno — famous.
i la su'o da cu jai misno lo pilno be la lojbanSomeone (having such a name) is famous among Lojban speakers.
i lo lisri be lo nu pa lo ralju dinju cu se darxi so'o vlipa dacti pu traji lo ka misno lo xabju be lo bu'u gugdeThe story of one of the main buildings being hit by some powerful objects was one of the most famous events for people of this country.
i la kevin co'a jai misno fai lo ka finti lo cfikaKevin became famous as an author of fiction.
i la kevin pu zenba lo ka jai misno fai lo ka finti lo cfikaKevin rose to fame by writing fiction.
Related words: se sinma, banli

mitrex1(entity) is x2(number) meters in x3(property of x1) ...

i ti noi tanxe cu mitre li pa lo ka claniThis box is one meter in length.
Related words: centi

mitysiskux1(entity) searches for x2(entity) among x3(entity)

lo mitysisku — searcher.
i mi mitysisku lo sunla skaci lo nenri be lo vi kumfaI'm looking for a woolen skirt among things in this room.
Related words: cirko, kalte, kavbu, kucli, rivbi, marvele, facki

mixrex1(entity) is a mixture including x2(group of same type as x1)

lo mixre — mixture. lo se mixre — ingredient of a mixture.
i lo vacri cu mixre so'o gapciAir is a mixture of several gases.
Related words: salta, te runta, stasu, jicla, sanso

mlanax1(entity) is to the side of x2(entity) ...

lo mlana — lateral.
i le tanxe cu mlana le bitmuThe box is to the side of the wall.
Related words: lamji, cpana, galtu

mlatux1(entity) is a cat of species x2(taxon)

lo mlatu — cat.
i lo ka kucli cu catra lo mlatuCuriosity killed the cat.
i mi ralte pa mlatu e pa gerkuI keep a cat and a dog.
Comment: Also applies to feline animals like tigers, lions.
Related words: bramlatu, cinfo, ratcu, gerku

mlecax1(entity) is less than x2(entity) in x3(property of x1 and x2 with kau) by amount x4(entity)

lo mleca — less. lo se mleca — more.
i pe'i lo tcati cu mleca lo ckafi lo ka kukte vau lo mutceI think tea is much less tasty than coffee.
Related words: se me'a, me'i, su'o, jdika, zmadu, traji

mledix1(entity) is a mould or fungus of species x2(taxon) ...

lo mledi — mould, fungus.
i lo mledi pu sinxa lo nu le kumfa cu cilmoMold was a sign that the room was damp.
Related words: clika

mliglax1(entity) is warm

lo mligla — warm.
i lo vacri co'a mliglaThe air became warm.
Related words: glare, milxe, lenku

mlunix1(entity) is a satellite orbiting x2(entity) ...

lo mluni — satellite (in outer space). lo se mluni — celestial body with a satellite.
i so'i da rutni mluni le terdiThere are many satellites orbiting the Earth.
Related words: planeta, solri, lunra

mo [verb] — asks for a verb word (that should go into the place to which mo is put)

i do moHow are you?
i la lojban cu moWhat is Lojban?

mo'a [digit/number]too few

i mo'a snuji cu cpana le jubmeThere are too few sandwiches on the table.
Comment: subjective estimate.

mo'i — marks event as reaching the state specified by the clause following mo'i

i do mo'i ca'u cadzuYou walk towards my front.
i ko catke mo'i zu'aPush it to the left.

mo'o — turn number into numbered chapter

i pa mo'o pu zu ku zasti fa pa nanmu e pa ninmuChapter 1. Long ago lived a man and a woman.
Comment: suffix of a chapter or section number.

mo'u [preposition of aspect] — completing, being at the expected end (completive or telic aspect), mo'u nai — not having an end (incompletive or atelic aspect)

i xu do mo'u jukpaAre you done with cooking?
i mi mo'u citka ro pliseI've eaten up all apples.
i mo'u nai ku mi pu zbasu lo dinju ze'a lo mastiI built houses for a month.

moi [verb] — turn number into verb denoting ordinal position

i lo vi cukta cu me mi moiThis book is mine.
i mi ci moi lo pendo lo ka ce'u ce'u cinbaI kiss all but two of my friends.
i lo cmaci cu ro moi lo saske lo ka ce'u ce'u zmadu fi lo ka jai se djica mi fai lo ka se tadniMath is the last subject that I want to study.
i lo vlaste cu jai pa moi fai lo ka se catlu miI look into a dictionary first. Dictionaries are the first I look into.
Comment: x1(entity) is the n-th member of x2(entity) ordered by rule x3(relation between members of x2, contains two places for ce'u). The number (n) is put in front of moi. The two ce'u in the third place can specify the sequence in which members of the set are compared.

mokcax1(entity) is a point in time or at place x2(entity)

lo mokca — instant, moment.
i le nu jamna cu mokca po'o lo remna citriThe war is just a point in human history.
i le terdi cu mokca po'o le munjeThe Earth is just a point in the Universe.
Related words: jipno, jganu, linji, stuzi, tcika

moklux1(entity) is a mouth of x2(entity)

lo moklu — mouth.
i e'e kalri fa lo moklu be doOpen your mouth.
Related words: ctebi, denci, tance

molkix1(entity) is an industrial plant or mill performing x2(property of x1)

lo molki — industrial plant, mill.
i ti molki lo ka zalvi lo gurniThis is a mill grinding grain.
Related words: gasta, gurni, tirse, fanri, zalvi

molrox1(entity) is x2(number) moles ...

i lo tabno poi grake li pa re cu molro li pa12 grams of carbon is one mole in amount.
Related words: centi

monsutax1(entity) is a monster

lo monsuta — monster.
i le monsuta pu cisma tai lo ka kusruThe monster smiled in a cruel way (the monster's smile was cruel).
Related words: cizra, danlu, terpa

morjix1(entity) remembers x2(proposition) about subject x3(entity)

lo se morji — remembered.
i mi morji fi lo bu'u tcadu fe le du'u pu za lo nanca be li pa no no cu ralju tcadu lo bu'u gugdeI remember about this city that 100 years ago it was the main city of this country.
i mi co'u morji le du'u sarcu fa lo nu mi cusku ma kauI forgot what to say.
Comment: morji describes memory of general knowledge (facts, concepts), vedli describes personal experience, autobiographical events, episodic memory.
Related words: ba'a nai, menli, pensi, sanji, djuno, notci

mornax1(entity) is a pattern of forms x2(entity group) arranged according to rule x3(proposition)

lo morna — pattern.
i mi nelci lo morna be lo pezli bei le du'u lo gunma be ri cu cirkuloI like patterns of leaves that form circles.
Related words: ciste, ganzu, marji, slilu, stura, tarmi, boxna, cimde, gidva, jimpe, rilti

morsix1(entity) is dead

lo morsi — dead.
i xo da pu co'a morsiHow many died?
Related words: jmive, catra, betri

mosrax1(clause) is friction due to rubbing of x2(entity) against x3(entity)

lo mosra — friction.
i le mlatu pu ru'i se mosra lo kerfa be mi lo milxeThe cat was mildly rubbing against my head.
i ai mi jai gau mosra fi le jubme fe lo bukpuI'm going to wipe the table with a cloth.
Related words: sakli, sraku, jabre, satre, guska, pencu, spali

mrajix1(entity) is some rye of species x2(taxon)

lo mraji — rye.
i ra crepu lo mrajiHe is harvesting rye.
Related words: gurni

mrilux1(entity) mails or posts x2(entity) to x3(entity) from x4(entity) in mail system x5(entity)

lo mrilu — mailer. lo se mrilu — mailed. lo xe mrilu — mail system.
i mi pu mrilu pa se dunda pa pendo pa dizlo tcana pa sivniI mailed a present to a friend from a local post office via a private mail system.
i mi pu mrilu pa notci fu lo kibroI sent a message via the internet.
Comment: in benji the medium need not be a 3rd party service/system, and x2 need not consist of discrete units.
Related words: benji, notci, xatra, tcana

mrulix1(entity) is a hammer for doing x2(property of x1) with head x3(entity) propelled by x4(entity)

lo mruli — hammer. lo te mruli — head of a hammer.
i mi ne se pi'o pa mruli pu setca pa dinko le bitmuUsing a hammer I hammered a nail into the wall.
i ti zmiku mruli lo ka setca lo dinko se pi'o ce'u vau lo barda lo matraThis is an automatic hammer for nailing with a large head propelled by a motor.
Related words: tutci

mu [digit/number]5, five

i mu bakni pu zvati le purdiThere were 5 cows in the garden.

mu'a [interjection]for example

i mi nelci lo danlu noi mu'a du lo gerku e lo mlatuI like animals like, for example, dogs and cats.
Related words: mupli

mu'i [preposition from mukti]with the motive of ...

i mi pu penmi la alis mu'i lo ka ciksi ro daI met Alice in order to explain everything.

mu'o [vocative]I am done talking. Over. That's all I can say (in radio communications), mu'o naimore to come ... I am not done talking

i ro mai mi jinvi le du'u za'u cukta cu jai sarcu mu'oFinally, I think that more books are necessary, I'm done.
i ja'o dai le za'u sonci pu cliva le tcadu mu'o nai loi mi tadniAs you may conclude, the soldiers left the city ... no, that's not the end of the story, my students.

mu'oi — turn foreign text into verb

i la alis cu mu'oi gy.prima donna.gy.Alice is a prima donna.
Comment: turns text that can be not Lojbanic into a verb. The text is to be wrapped with pauses from both sides and with an additional Lojbanic word around them from both sides (this word must not be used within the text quoted). Usually the separating words is the name of the first letter of the language of the text quoted..
Related words: zoi, la'o, zo, lu ... li'u, lo'e, lo'u, mu'oi

muctix1(entity) is immaterial

lo mucti — immaterial, not physical.
i lo cmaci cu saske lo muctiMathematics studies immaterial things.
Related words: marji, menli, pruxi, sidbo

mudrix1(entity) is some wood from tree x2(entity)

lo mudri — wood.
i ti mudri lo laldoThis is wood from old trees.
Related words: tricu, stani

muktix1(clause) is a motive for x2(clause) done by agent x3(entity)

lo mukti — motive. lo te mukti — who is motivated.
i lo ka vasxu lo vifne cu mukti fi mi fe lo ka klama se ka'a lo purdiTo breathe fresh air is my motive to go to a garden.
i lo nu nitcu cu mukti ro nu fintiNecessity is the motive for every invention.
i mi te mukti lo ka vitke la parisI am going to visit Paris.
Comment: lo te zukte is usually used for goal, te zu'e for with goal.
Related words: mu'i, nibli, te zukte, se jalge, krinu, rinka, ciksi, djica, xlura

mulnox1(entity) is complete, whole in property x2(property of x1) ...

lo mulno — complete.
i mi mulno lo ka na kakne lo ka tavla fo lo frasoI can't speak French at all.
i do mulno lo ka jai fenkiYou are completely crazy.
Related words: fanmo, culno, pagbu, xadba, prane, jalge, sumji, munje, sisti, xadni

munjex1(entity) is a universe of x2(entity) ...

lo munje — universe. lo se munje — domain of a universe.
i la alis cu se zdani lo munje be lo se xanri be vo'aAlice lives in the world of her fantasies.
Related words: ciste, planeta, kensa, mulno

muplix1(entity) is an example of x2(property of x1) that all x3(entity) have

lo mupli — example.
i lo danlu pendo pe mi cu mupli lo ka ca da co'a morsi vau lo mabruMy pet is an example that at one point all mammals die.
i ti mupli fi lo titla vanjuThis is an example of sweet wine.
i ti mupli fi lo dinju poi jai tasmi lo laldo nu engeThis is an example of old architecture among buildings.
Related words: pixra

murtax1(entity) is a curtain for covering x2(entity) ...

lo murta — curtain. lo se murta — covered by a curtain.
i lo dilnu cu murta lo tsaniClouds are curtains of the sky.
Related words: canko, vorme

muslox1(entity) is Islamic or Moslem in x2(property of x1)

lo muslo — Muslim, something Islamic.
i le za'u mei pu casnu lo flalu be fi lo musloThey discussed Muslim law.
Related words: jegvo, lijda

mutcex1(entity) is extreme in x2(property of x1) ...

lo mutce — extreme, very.
i ti mutce lo ka karguThis is very expensive.
i mi mutce lo ka senpiI highly doubt that.
Related words: milxe, traji, banli, carmi, nutli

muvdux1(entity) moves to x2(entity) from x3(entity) over route x4(entity)

i le prenu cu muvdu lo bartu le dinju le cankoThe person is moving to the outside from the building via the window.
i la alis ba jai gau muvdu fai le tanxe pa drata kumfaAlice will move the box to another room.
Comment: klama differs in that the means of motion is explicit, litru, cliva, fatri, dunda, benji is for agentive movement that does not necessarily imply alienation from origin, preja is for similar movement with no agent implied.
Related words: rinci, klama, litru, cliva, fatri, dunda, benji, preja, bevri, vimcu

muzgax1(entity) is a museum or zoo for preserving x2(entity) ...

lo muzga — museum.
i ai mi vitke lo muzga be lo danluI'm going to visit the Zoo.
i ma stuzi le muzga be lo arteWhere is the museum of art?
Related words: citri

my [pronoun]m (letter)

Comment: prefixed with me'o is a quotation of the letter. When used alone refers to the last noun with the verb starting with this letter like my is for the last lo mlatu used.

na [preposition of truth/falsehood]It is not true that ...

i na ku lo speni be mi cu citnoIt's not true that my wife is young.

na [2nd meaning] — left negator in conjunctions

i la kevin pu ku prami na je cinba miKevin didn't love but kissed me.

na'e [left scalar particle]not ..., other than ... (on the scale). Modifies the construct to the right

i na'e vajni miIt's not important to me.
i do ba na'e snadaYou won't make it (won't succeed).
i na'e bo mi pu zukteNot I did it.

na'i [interjection] — the clause doesn't make sense (metalinguistic negator)

i lu fe pa ractu ca ma fa do pu te vecnu li'u lu le ractu na'i li'u"A rabbit, when did you buy it?" "I didn't buy a rabbit."
i lu i do jinvi ma lo pelmeni li'u lu na'i i mi na se slabu zo pelmeni li'u"What do you think of pelmeni?" "Nothing, I don't know this word."
Related words: na drani

na'o [preposition of aspect]by default

i do na'o to'e se zdileYou are a boring person.

nabmix1(clause) is a problem to x2(entity) ...

lo nabmi — problem.
i lo ka ze'a denpa na nabmi miTo wait for a while is not a problem for me.
Related words: retsku, se cfipu, danfu, ciksi, jijnu, jinvi, nandu, pensi, sidbo, spuda, raktu

nai [1nd meaning: right scalar particle] — shows opposite meaning of interjection or interjection modifier

i ui i ui naiYay! Alas!
Comment: ui nai marks unhappiness, zo'o nai marks serious (non-humorous) remarks. Definitions of interjections and interjection modifiers contain meanings of them with nai too.

nai [2nd meaning: right scalar particle]not, negates prepositions, pronouns

i si'u i si'u naiWith help. Without help.

nai [3rd meaning] — placed after a connective negates the part after that connective

i mi zgipli lo pipno gi'e nai certuI play the piano but I'm not an expert.

najnimrex1(entity) is an orange of species x2(entity)

i e'o jisra lo najnimreOrange juice, please!
Related words: narju, nimre

naknix1(entity) is a male of species x2(taxon) with masculine traits x3(property of x1)

lo nakni — male.
i ti nakni lo mlatu lo ka se nakpinjiThis is a male cat since it has a penis.
Related words: fetsi, bersa

nakpinjix1(entity) is a penis of x2(entity)

lo nakpinji — penis.
i lo nakpinji be le bakni co'i muvdu lo nenri be le vibnaThe bull's penis has entered the vagina.
Related words: seksi, gletu, vibna, plibu, vlagi, mabla, ganti

nalcix1(entity) is a wing of x2(entity)

lo nalci — wing. lo se nalci — winged.
i lo nalci be le cipni cu spofuThe bird has its wing broken.
Related words: cipni, pimlu, rebla

namcux1(number) is a number or value

lo namcu — number.
i li bi namcu8 is a number.
Related words: lerfu, mekso, klani

nanbax1(entity) is some bread ...

lo nanba — bread.
i e'o lo blabi nanba e lo matneWhite bread and butter, please!
i mi pu smaka le nanbaI tasted the bread.
Related words: gurni, panlo, toknu

nancax1(clause) is x2(number) years long ...

lo nanca — year-long event.
i mi nanca li re muI am 25 years old.
i mi se zdani ti ze'a lo nanca be li voI have been living here for 4 years.
Comment: if x2 is not used denotes one year in duration
Related words: detri, djedi, jeftu, masti

nandux1(property of x2) is difficult or challenging for x2(entity) ...

lo nandu — difficult, challenging.
i nandu mi fa lo ka cadzu lo vi boskeIt's hard for me to wade through this forest.
Related words: frili, nabmi, jdari, talsa, tinsa

nanlax1(entity) is a boy ...

lo nanla — boy.
i tu noi nanla cu moWho is that boy?
Related words: nixli, verba, nanmu, bersa

nanmux1(entity) is a man

lo nanmu — man.
i o'i le nanmu cu jgari pa xarciCareful, the man is holding a gun!
Related words: ninmu, remna, prenu, makcu, nanla, bersa

nanvix1(entity) is 10-9 of x2(same type as x1) in x3(property of x1)

i lo jgalu cu nanvi lo mitre lo ka zenba lo ka clani vau ca ro sniduOne nanometer is the length that a fingernail grows in one second.
Related words: centi

nargex1(entity) is a nut from plant x2(entity) with shell x3(entity) and kernel x4(entity)

lo narge — nut. lo te narge — nut shell. lo ve narge — nut kernel.
i ti narge pa kokso lo rotsu pa kukteThis is a coconut with a thick shell and a tasty kernel.
Related words: grute, stagi, jbari, midju

narjux1(entity) is orange (of color)

lo narju — orange.
i le solri cu narjuThe sun is orange.
Related words: skari, blabi, xekri, kandi, carmi, xunre, pelxu, solji

natfex1(proposition) contradicts or denies x2(proposition) ...

lo natfe — contradiction.
i le du'u la edvard pu zvati la nipon cu natfe lo se sruma be miThe fact that Eduard was in Japan contradicts my assumption.
Related words: tolna'e, nibli, tugni, zanru, xusra

natmix1(entity) is nation or ethnic group of people x2(entity)

lo natmi — nation.
i lo se natmi be ma cu se zdani lo vi se kuspePeople of what nationality live in this area?
i do se natmi maWhat is your nationality?
Related words: jecta, kulnu, lanzu, gugde, bangu, cecmu

navnix1(entity) is a quantity of inert gas ...

lo navni — inert gas.
i la argon cu navniArgon is an inert gas.
Related words: xukmi, gapci

naxlex1(entity) is a channel, canal to x2(entity) from x3(entity) with the route x4(entity)

lo naxle — channel, canal.
i da jdika naxle pa lalxe pa rirxe lo foldi be lo se xrulaThere is a narrow channel to a pool from a river, it goes through flower fields.
Related words: flu'ente, klama, pluta, rirxe, klaji, dargu

nazbix1(entity) is a nose of x2(entity) ...

lo nazbi — nose.
i lo nazbi be do cu lenkuYour have a cold nose.
Related words: degji, panci, sumne, tance

newhich is about ... (a noun follows)

i mi pu cusku no da pe le nabmiI said nothing about the problem.
i mi ne se mau do cu claniI'm taller than you.

ne'a [preposition of place]next to ..., beside ... (near)

i mi ca zvati ne'a le tcanaI'm near the station.

ne'i [preposition of place]inside of ..., adverb: within

i lo vacri ca lenku ne'i lo zdani be miThe air is cold inside my house.
i xu do kakne lo ka viska ne'i lo mankuCan you see in the dark?

nei [verb] — copies the current clause

i mi ca'o lumci lo neiI'm washing myself.
i do zbasu no da lo se neiYou are making nothing out of nothing.
Comment: lo nei refers to the first place of the current clause, lo se nei to the second etc.

nejnix1(entity) is energy of x2(property of x3) of object x3(entity)

lo nejni — energy. lo se nejni — type of energy. lo te nejni — form of energy.
i ba barda fa lo nejni be lo ka muvdu bei ti noi rokciIt will consume a lot of energy to move this rock.
Related words: marji, tarmi, kantu, lazni, livla

nelcix1(entity) likes x2(clause)

lo nelci — fancier. lo se nelci — liked.
i mi nelci ro nu do cusku lo simsaI like whenever you say such things.
i mi nelci lo ckafi ne se mauI prefer coffee.
Comment: prami is for to love, nelci is for to like.
Related words: cinmo, djica, pluka, prami, rigni, sinma, trina, xebni, cuxna, pendo

nenrix1(entity) is inside x2(entity)

lo nenri — inner. lo se nenri — outer.
i rau finpe cu nenri lo vi rirxeThere are plenty of fish in this river.
i le ctuca pu klama lo nenriThe teacher came in.
i mi pu punji fi lo nenri be lo minji be lo nu lenkuI put it into the fridge.
Comment: se vasru is for containment that need not be total.
Related words: se vasru, jbini, zvati, cpana, sruri, senta, snuji, bartu, diklo, jibni, jinru, setca

ni'a [preposition of cardinal direction]down from ..., adverb: under

i gau ko stodi ni'a loi papriKeep it under papers.

ni'i [preposition from nibli]logically because ..., adverb: with logical implications

i do srera fau lo ka pilno lo datni pe mi i ni'i bo u'u mi pu te mu'i nai smusku lo jitfaYou are wrong when using my data just because (sorry!) I unintentionally said a false thing.

ni'o [paragraph break] — starts a new topic

i mi ze'u na tavla do ni'o ei mi ca clivaI haven't talked to you in a long time. Well, now I should leave.
Comment: used to start paragraphs in written text.

ni'u [digit/number] — minus sign (number follows; by default any negative)

i li ni'u ci du li re vu'u mu '-3 = 2 - 5'.

niblix1(proposition) implies x2(proposition) ...

i da zo'u lo ka djica da cu nibli lo ka claxu daWanting something implies lacking it.
i lo ka frili na nibli lo ka xamguBeing easy doesn't imply that it is good.
Related words: natfe, rinka, mukti, krinu, ni'i, jalge, logji

nictex1(entity) happens during nighttime of day x2(entity) ...

lo nicte — night-time.
i a'o pluka nicteGood night! (a well-wish)
i ca lo nicte be lo cabdei mi ba zvati le boskeTonight I will be in the forest.
Related words: donri, djedi, tcika

niklex1(entity) is a quantity of nickel

lo nikle — nickel.
i lo nikle cu me lo jinme poi jdari gi'e se romgeNickel is a hard metal with reflective surface.
Related words: jinme

nilce — furniture x1(entity) furnishes x2(entity) serving the function x3(proposition)

lo nilce — furniture.
i lo za'u vi te gusni cu nilce le kumfa le du'u ri jai zdileThese light sources furnishes the room making it amusing.
Related words: ckana, jubme, sfofa, stizu, dacru

nimrex1(entity) is a piece of citrus fruit of species x2(taxon)

lo nimre — citrus.
i ti noi nimre cu kukte gi'i kurkiIs this citrus sweet or bitter?
Related words: grute, slari, slami, xukmi

ninmux1(entity) is a woman

lo ninmu — woman.
i pa melbi ninmu poi se kerfa lo pelxu pu cadzu bu'u le pankaA pretty woman with yellow hair was walking in the park.
Related words: nanmu, remna, prenu, makcu, nixli

nirnax1(entity) is a nerve or neuron of x2(entity)

lo nirna — nerve.
i lo nirna be pa degji be mi cu spofuNerves in my finger don't work.
Related words: ve benji

nitcux1(entity) needs x2(clause, property of x1) for purpose x3(property of x1)

lo nitcu — in need.
i mi nitcu lo ka volta lo zdani vau lo ka cpacu lei ckikuI need to return home to get the keys.
Comment: nitcu is to be in need, sarcu is is necessary, is a requirement
Related words: banzu, cidja, claxu, pindi, xebni, sarcu, lacri, djica, taske, xagji

nivjix1(entity) knits x2(entity) from yarn x3(entity)

lo te nivji — yarn for knitting.
i le nixli cu nivji pa creka lo lanme sunlaThe girl is knitting a sweater from fleece.
Related words: cilta, fenso, jivbu, pijne

nixlix1(entity) is a girl ...

lo nixli — girl.
i le nixli cu cisma fa'a miThe girl smiled at me.
Related words: nanla, verba, ninmu

no [digit/number]0, zero

i no bramlatu ca zvati le boskeThere are no big cats in the forest.

no'a [verb] — copies the outer clause in which the current one is embedded excluding sei-clauses

i xu la alis cu zukte lo se nupre be lo no'aDoes Alice keep her words?
i mi gleki lo nu no'aI'm happy because I'm happy.

no'e [left scalar particle] — middle on the scale. Modifies the construct to the right

i le creka cu no'e cmaluThe shirt is medium in size.
i mi no'e certu tu'a la lojbanI'm fine in Lojban, neither a newbie, nor an expert.
i lo vacri ca no'e glareIt's neither cold, nor hot now, it's in between.

no'i [paragraph break] — resumes the previous topic

i do zenba lo ka certu tu'a la lojban no'i mi jinvi le du'u lo jufra pe do na mulno draniYou are becoming more and more proficient in Lojban. Back to the previous topic, I think your sentence wasn't fully correct.

no'o [digit/number] — typical/average value

i mi se degji no'o daI have a usual number of fingers.

noblix1(entity) is noble in x2(property of x1)

lo nobli — noble.
i le nixli cu nobli lo ka tartiThe girl is aristocratic in her behavior.
i mi nobli lo ka jbena ma kauI am noble by birth.
Related words: banli

noi — turn clause into incidental relative clause

i mi nelci pa ninmu noi mi ta'e zgana bu'u lo pankaI like a woman, whom I habitually see in the park.
i mi nelci pa ninmuI like a woman.
i mi tavla do noi mi prami ke'aI'm talking to you whom I love.
Comment: who, which. Starts relative clause that only adds additional information.

nolraitrux1(entity) is a monarch (king or queen) of x2(entity)

lo nolraitru — king, queen, monarch, regent.
i xu do nolraitru le munjeAre you the king of the world?
Related words: turni, catni, minde, tutra, jecta, gugde, ponse, jitro

notcix1(entity, text) is a notice about x2(entity) ...

lo notci — message. lo se notci — subject of a message.
i mi pu cusku fi lo jatna fe lu mi'a nu'o djuno li'u noi notci lo cipraI made a statement to the boss about the experiment: "We don't know yet."
i le turni ba cusku pa notci be lo cnino jikniThe governor will announce a new economic system.
Comment: skicu is to tell, cusku is to say, tavla is to talk, cusku lo notci is to notify.
Related words: xatra, nuzba, mrilu, morji

nu [clause prefix] — turn clause into verb

i mi gleki lo nu do klamaI am happy that you came.
i lo nu prami cu nu gunkaLoving is working.
Comment: x1 (clause) is the state, process described in the clause that follows.

nu bu — refers to the last nu-clause used

i mi djica lo nu do kansa mi i xu nu bu cumkiI want you to accompany me. Is this possible?

nu'e [vocative]I promise, nu'e cu'iNo promises, nu'e naiI take my promise back

i mi ba no roi zukte lo simsa za'u re'u vau nu'e doI will never do that again, I promise you.
i nu'e cu'i do mi ba trociI'll try, but I don't promise anything.
i nu'e nai do i se la'u li du'e tiljuI take my promise back, it's too heavy.

nu'o [preposition of potential]possibly can but actually not ...

i mi nu'o zvati tu noi pankaI have never been to the park over there.
i mi nu'o snadaI haven't succeeded yet.
Comment: not necessarily innately capable, describes what can potentially happen but actually hasn't (has happened zero times).

nudlex1(entity) is a noodle

lo nudle — noodles.
i mi pu citka lo stasu poi vasru lo nudleI ate a soup with noodles.
i mi pu citka lo nudle ca lo cabdei pa re'uToday was the first time I ate noodles.
Related words: nanba, skori, gurni, panlo, toknu

nuknix1(entity) has magenta color

lo nukni — magenta (color).
i le pa xrula cu nukniThe flower has a magenta color.
Related words: skari, blabi, xekri, kandi, carmi, xunre, zirpu

nuprex1(entity) promises or threatens of x2(property of x1) to x3(entity)

lo se nupre — promised.
i mi pu nupre fi la alis lo ka sidju ri va'o lo nu ri smajiI made Alice a promise to help her on condition that she keeps silence.
Related words: kajde, xusra

nurmax1(entity) is a countryside, rural area of x2(entity)

lo nurma — countryside.
i le nurma cu jai plukaThe countryside is pleasant.
Related words: jarbu, rarna, tcadu, cange

nutlix1(entity) is neutral in x2(property of x1)

lo nutli — neutral.
i la lojban cu nutli lo ka ma kau mapti ce'u lo ka traji fi lo kulnuLojban is neutral in terms of what culture matches it best.
Related words: midju, lanxe, milxe, mutce, no'e

nuzbax1(proposition) is news about x2(entity) from x3(entity) to observer x4(entity)

lo nuzba — news.
i ma nuzbaWhat's up? What are the news?
i no da nuzba fi mi fo doNo news from me for you.
i lo nuzba be le tcini pu se terpaNews about the situation were frightening.
i nuzba fa lo nu mi pu te vecnu pa fonxaThe news are that I bought a phone.
i le du'u no da nuzba cu xamgu nuzbaNo news are good news.
Related words: cnino, notci

ny [pronoun]n (letter)

Comment: prefixed with me'o is a quotation of the letter. When used alone refers to the last noun with the verb starting with this letter like ny is for the last lo nobli used.

o [conjunction for nouns]both or none

i la alis o la kevin cu lumci lo kumfaEither both Alice and Kevin clean a room or neither of them do.
Related words: jo, a, e, ji, o, u

o bu [pronoun]o (letter)

Comment: prefixed with me'o is a quotation of the letter. When used alone refers to the last noun with the verb starting with this letter like o bu is for the last lo omle used.

o nai [conjunction for nouns]either ... or ...

i do o nai mi lumci le kumfaEither you clean the room or I do.
Related words: jo, a, e, ji, o, u

o'a [interjection] — pride, o'a cu'i — modesty/humility, o'a naiHow embarrassing. It makes me ashamed.

i o'a ca ti mi kakne lo ka limnaNow I am able to swim.
i mi pu bilga o'a cu'i i fe bo mi sidjuIt was just my duty, so I helped.
i o'a nai la alis nu'o brediWhat a shame, Alice is not ready yet.
i o'a nai se'i mi pu mrilu fi pa na draniOops, I mailed to a wrong address.
Related words: jgira, cumla, ckeji

o'e [interjection] — intimacy, closeness, rapport, o'e nai — distance

i o'e mi do ba kansa lo ka vitke lo mikceI'll go with you to see the doctor.
i o'e nai doi lo dirba mi na djunoDear, I don't know.
i o'e nai mi pensiLeave me alone, I'm thinking.
Related words: kansa

o'i [interjection]Danger! (caution), o'i nai — rashness, recklessness

i o'i pa karce ca craneBe careful, a car ahead!
i o'i nai guntaGo ahead, attack!
Related words: kajde, ckape

o'o [interjection]Patience!, o'o cu'i — mere tolerance, o'o nai — impatience, intolerance

i o'o ko za'u re'u trociPatience, try again!
i o'o cu'i ma pu mukti fi doOk, what was your motive to do it?
i o'o nai le mamta ca zvati maWhere is the mother after all?
Related words: fengu, steba, denpa

o'u [interjection]Phew! (relaxation), o'u cu'i — composure, balance, sobriety, phlegm, o'u nai — stress, anxiety

i o'u ba'o vlile tcimaPhew, the storm is over.
i o'u cu'i mi pu tinbe lo se flaluI followed the law.
i o'u nai lo bersa be mi za'o na voltaMy son is still not back.
Related words: surla, dunku

oi [interjection]Darn! Ouch! Hmph (complaint), oi nai — pleasure

i le oi tuple be miOuch, my leg!
i oi nai vifne djacuFresh water, how nice.
Related words: pante, pluka, kufra

omlex1(entity) is an omelet containing x2(entity)

lo omle — omelette, omelet.
i mi ba citka lo omle be l