Letter pairs in gismu

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The following statistics is extracted from the official gismu list, which contains 1342 gismu (root words) total.

See also Usage of rafsi space.


Single letters

The following tables show the frequency of single letters in particular positions of in a gismu. Each entry shows the number of gismu where that letter occurs in that position. The numbers restricted to gismus of form CCVCV and CVCCV are shown first, then the numbers for all gismu together.

First letter.
  332 CCVCV:                            9x 25p  25t 21k 14f  82s  62c            8m      19b 11d 12g 10v 11z 23j
 1010 CVCCV:                           45x 69p  63t 70k 45f  84s  96c  54l  56r 81m  37n 69b 64d 43g 33v 22z 79j
 1342 total:                           54x 94p  88t 91k 59f 166s 158c  54l  56r 89m  37n 88b 75d 55g 43v 33z 102j
Second letter.
  332 CCVCV:                               16p  27t 23k  9f   5s  12c  68l 101r 21m  15n  9b  8d  9g  2v  2z  5j
 1010 CVCCV:  390a 147e 245i  75o 153u                                                                          
 1342 total:  390a 147e 245i  75o 153u     16p  27t 23k  9f   5s  12c  68l 101r 21m  15n  9b  8d  9g  2v  2z  5j
Third letter.
  332 CCVCV:  120a  39e 108i  17o  48u                                                                          
 1010 CVCCV:                           15x 30p  79t 65k 18f  61s  38c  89l 143r 58m 270n 36b 34d 21g 23v 12z 18j
 1342 total:  120a  39e 108i  17o  48u 15x 30p  79t 65k 18f  61s  38c  89l 143r 58m 270n 36b 34d 21g 23v 12z 18j
Fourth letter.
  332 CCVCV:                            6x 14p  34t 22k  6f  18s  28c  25l  24r 13m  68n 13b 27d  4g  5v  4z 21j
 1010 CVCCV:                           28x 27p 102t 54k 24f  62s  94c  87l 123r 47m 158n 37b 46d 30g 17v 10z 64j
 1342 total:                           34x 41p 136t 76k 30f  80s 122c 112l 147r 60m 226n 50b 73d 34g 22v 14z 85j
Fifth letter.
  332 CCVCV:   93a  32e 113i  24o  70u                                                                          
 1010 CVCCV:  242a 126e 335i 126o 181u                                                                          
 1342 total:  335a 158e 448i 150o 251u                                                                

For example, "v" occurs as the second letter in two gismu: "zvati" and "jvanu". The letter "o" is generally rare in gismu. It occurs as third letter in 17 gismu only, 5 of which is the "broda"-series.

First and second

The first and second letter of gismu take the following combinations. The numbers show the number of gismu starting with that letter pair. The empty places in the table are not valid initial consonant pairs, so they must not occurr in gismu.

25xa  9xe  5xi  1xo  5xu                                     2xl  7xr                                         
24pa 12pe 18pi  7po  8pu                                    12pl 13pr                                         
27ta  6te 13ti  5to 12tu                           5ts 12tc       8tr                                         
33ka  9ke  5ki  9ko 14ku                                    10kl 11kr                                         
20fa 12fe  4fi  4fo  5fu                                     5fl  9fr                                         
29sa 12se 21si 11so 11su      11sp 21st 10sk  4sf           12sl  9sr  7sm  8sn                               
27ca 10ce 40ci  3co 16cu       5cp  6ct 13ck  5cf            8cl 10cr  8cm  7cn                               
23la  5le 16li  4lo  6lu                                                                                      
21ra  6re 16ri  6ro  7ru                                                                                      
32ma 11me 17mi  9mo 12mu                                     5ml  3mr                                         
17na  3ne 10ni  2no  5nu                                                                                      
32ba 11be 14bi  5bo  7bu                                     5bl 14br                                         
27da 14de 13di  2do  8du                                          4dr                                2dz  5dj 
16ga  5ge  5gi  2go 15gu                                     5gl  7gr                                         
10va  4ve 15vi  3vo  1vu                                     4vl  6vr                                         
 8za  4ze  4zi  0zo  6zu                                               2zm       4zb  2zd  2zg  1zv           
19ja 14je 29ji  2jo 15ju                                               4jm       5jb  6jd  7jg  1jv           

Only 1 possible letter pair is missing: zo.


Second and third letters

This table shows the pairs that occur as second and third letter in gismu. The entries for "x" as the second letter are omitted from the table because "x" is not the second letter of an initial consonant pair.

 5ax 12ap 32at 22ak  4af 24as 16ac 35al 54ar 22am 109an 14ab 15ad  8ag  7av  4az  7aj 
 2ex  4ep 10et  5ek  2ef  6es  8ec 12el 25er  8em  46en  7eb  2ed  3eg  4ev  1ez  2ej 
 4ix  8ip 18it 17ik  6if 19is 10ic 23il 23ir 14im  63in  6ib 11id  6ig 10iv  2iz  5ij 
 2ox  1op  6ot  6ok  2of  2os  1oc 11ol 21or  3om  10on  3ob  2od  1og  1ov  1oz  2oj 
 2ux  5up 13ut 15uk  4uf 10us  3uc  8ul 20ur 11um  42un  6ub  4ud  3ug  1uv  4uz  2uj 
                         
 7pa  2pe  3pi  2po  2pu 
 9ta  7te  6ti  1to  4tu 
10ka  1ke  7ki  2ko  3ku 
 3fa  0fe  4fi  1fo  1fu 
 3sa  0se  2si  0so  0su 
 4ca  1ce  7ci  0co  0cu 
25la  7le 23li  2lo 11lu 
33ra 12re 29ri  7ro 20ru 
10ma  1me  6mi  2mo  2mu 
 3na  2ne  7ni  0no  3nu 
 5ba  3be  1bi  0bo  0bu 
 2da  0de  5di  0do  1du 
 4ga  1ge  4gi  0go  0gu 
 1va  0ve  1vi  0vo  0vu 
 0za  1ze  1zi  0zo  0zu 
 1ja  1je  2ji  0jo  1ju 

There are 20 combinations missing: fe se so su co cu no bo bu de do go gu ve vo vu za zo zu jo.


Third and fourth letters

The third and fourth letter of gismu take the following combinations. The numbers show the number of gismu matching. For example, the entry "4tf" covers the following 4 gismu: betfu, jitfa, patfu, natfe. The empty places in the table are not valid consonant pairs, so they must not occurr in gismu.

 2ax  4ap 11at  5ak  1af  9as  9ac  9al  9ar  6am 29an  5ab  8ad  3ag  1av  1az  8aj 
 0ex  2ep  3et  4ek  1ef  1es  3ec  1el  3er  1em  8en  3eb  5ed  0eg  0ev  0ez  4ej 
 3ix  6ip 12it 10ik  2if  5is 11ic 11il  6ir  4im 22in  3ib  5id  1ig  2iv  1iz  4ij 
 0ox  0op  2ot  1ok  2of  1os  1oc  0ol  1or  0om  1on  0ob  6od  0og  1ov  0oz  1oj 
 1ux  2up  6ut  2uk  0uf  2us  4uc  4ul  5ur  2um  8un  2ub  3ud  0ug  1uv  2uz  4uj 
      0xp  0xt       2xf  2xs       2xl  4xr  0xm  5xn                               
 0px       2pt  1pk  0pf  1ps  2pc  7pl  8pr  1pm  8pn                               
 1tx  2tp       6tk  4tf  7ts 17tc  8tl 17tr  3tm 14tn                               
      6kp 10kt       3kf  9ks  9kc  8kl  7kr  2km 11kn                               
 0fx  0fp  5ft  1fk       2fs  1fc  1fl  5fr  0fm  3fn                               
 2sx  5sp 13st 10sk  0sf            4sl  9sr  3sm 15sn                               
      1cp 12ct  2ck  1cf            6cl  7cr  3cm  6cn                               
 4lx  1lp 10lt  7lk  2lf  6ls 14lc       7lr  3lm 16ln  2lb  3ld  2lg  3lv  0lz  9lj 
 9rx  3rp 13rt  8rk  3rf  8rs 18rc 11rl       8rm 24rn  8rb  9rd  8rg  3rv  1rz  9rj 
 1mx  4mp  8mt  1mk  2mf  2ms  9mc  4ml  5mr      10mn  4mb  1md  2mg  0mv       5mj 
11nx  5np 29nt 18nk  7nf 25ns 24nc 20nl 28nr 18nm      13nb 24nd 14ng  5nv  7nz 22nj 
                                    8bl  8br  2bm 13bn       1bd  0bg  1bv  0bz  3bj 
                                    0dl  8dr  0dm 11dn  2db       1dg  2dv  1dz  9dj 
                                    1gl  5gr  0gm  4gn  1gb  3gd       2gv  0gz  5gj 
                                    4vl  2vr  1vm  7vn  3vb  2vd  1vg       1vz  2vj 
                                    2zl  2zr  2zm  1zn  2zb  1zd  2zg  0zv           
                                    1jl  1jr  1jm 10jn  2jb  2jd  0jg  1jv           

The following 32 letter pairs are missing even though they would be possible: ex eg ev ez ox op ol om ob og oz uf ug xp xt xm px pf fx fp fm sf lz mv bg bz dl dm gm gz zv jg.

Fourth and fifth letters

The fourth and fifth letters take the following combinations.

 6xa  9xe  4xi  4xo 11xu 
11pa  6pe  9pi  5po 10pu 
34ta 13te 49ti 15to 25tu 
28ka  8ke 14ki  8ko 18ku 
 8fa  2fe  3fi  3fo 14fu 
21sa 10se 25si 13so 11su 
18ca 19ce 56ci  5co 24cu 
29la 10le 44li  8lo 21lu 
42ra 20re 50ri 16ro 19ru 
14ma 10me 19mi  8mo  9mu 
70na 23ne 75ni 29no 29nu 
15ba  5be 14bi  7bo  9bu 
12da  9de 24di 11do 17du 
 9ga  5ge  3gi  4go 13gu 
 5va  3ve  9vi  5vo  0vu 
 3za  0ze  4zi  1zo  6zu 
10ja  6je 46ji  8jo 15ju 

There are 2 possible combinations missing: vu ze. The only gismu ending in "zo" is "brazo".


Vowel combinations

The following table shows the combinations of two vowels that occur in the gismu. The rarest combination, e-e, occurs in only 4 gismu: cmene, trene, jetce, bende.

 91a-a  57a-e 196a-i  44a-o 122a-u
 47e-a   4e-e  72e-i  30e-o  33e-u
112i-a  55i-e  80i-i  43i-o  63i-u
 19o-a   8o-e  32o-i  17o-o  16o-u
 66u-a  34u-e  68u-i  16u-o  17u-u