BPFK Section: Evidentials

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Proposed Definitions And Examples

Proposed Definition of ba'a

ba'a (UI2)
Evidential. Used to express anticipation as the source of information or idea. This word comprises a scale, along with "ba'a cu'i" and "ba'a nai". See also ba'acu'i, ba'anai, the preface. (cf. bavykri, lifri, morji)
    • Keywords: I anticipate

Examples of ba'a Usage

ba'a seems to be used in a mostly non-temporal sense. That is, it is rarely used to express "I expect that X will happen", but rather something like "I presume that X would be the case". A borderline-temporal case is to interpret it as "I presume that X will be the answer to my question".

ba'anai does seem to be unambiguously used to refer to things in the past.

Temporal usages

ba'a do bazu djuno fi ro djedi

I expect that in the far future, you will know about every day.

.ua .i ba'anai

Oh yeah, I remember now.

Non-temporal usages

.i y xu ro pipybanfi cu respa - ba'a na mabru

Are frogs reptiles? I don't expect them to be mammals.

.i lenu mi joi la tal. puzi casnu ti cu mukti lenu mi te preti fo do .i ba'a loi mlatu loi gerku cu zmadu leka kukte .i xu tugni

Me and Tal's recent discussion prompted me to ask you. I expect cats to taste better than dogs. Agree?

ma se xabju do vi la astn - ba'a vi la ubuty. xabju

Where near Austin do you live? Probably near UT.

ba'a do xabju le jecrsautkarolaina

You probably live in South Carolina.

I rule that usage to be in error, and that the temporal interpretation should remain/become the official interpretation.

Proposed Definition of ba'a cu'i

ba'a cu'i (UI*2)
Evidential. Used to express experience as the source of information or idea. This word comprises a scale, along with "ba'a" and "ba'a nai". See also ba'a, ba'anai, the preface.
    • Keywords: I experience.

Examples of ba'a cu'i Usage

ba'acu'i cumki fa le nu mi sutra bacru ta'i tu'a lo nu lo denpa cu jbini ro valsi

In my experience, it is possible for me to speak quickly with pauses between every word.

Proposed Definition of ba'a nai

ba'a nai (UI*2)
Evidential. Used to express memory/recollection as the source of information or idea. This word comprises a scale, along with "ba'a" and "ba'a cu'i". See also ba'a, ba'acu'i, the preface.
    • Keywords:

Examples of ba'a nai Usage

ko tcidu .i ba'anai do pante vu'e le za'i le banrglico cu bangu le jboskepre

Read it. I recall that you objected to the fact that the lojbanologists discussed in English.

Proposed Definition of ca'e

ca'e (UI2)
Evidential. Used to mark a performative/speech act, that is, an utterance that is true because the speaker says so. See also the preface.
    • Keywords: I define

Examples of ca'e Usage

ca'e le mi tubnu cu na'ebo marna tubnu

I say my pipe is a non-pot pipe.

ca'e la bais cu mulno

BAI is hereby done.

ca'e le re do cu simxu speni

I hereby pronounce that the two of you are mutual spouses.

I pronounce you husband and wife.

Proposed Definition of ja'o

ja'o (UI2)
Evidential. Used to express other (stated or unstated) information or ideas as the source of information or idea. (cf. selni'i, ni'ikri)
    • Keywords: I conclude.

Examples of ja'o Usage

ja'o mi tolnelci le gejbirje

So, I dislike root beer.

ja'o do na prenu citka prenu

Then you cannot be a cannibal.

ja'o do gento

Then you must be Argentinian.

ja'o do se bangu le glico .e la lojban .enai lo drata

So you know only English and Lojban.

za'a cladu carvi .i ja'o carmi carvi

I can hear the loud sound of rain. So it must be raining heavily.

ro bu'a zo'u le ka bu'a cu xamgu .inaja la cev traji le ka bu'a .i le ka zasti cu xamgu .i ja'o la cev traji le ka zasti

Of all good properties, God is the entity that has the most of it. Existence is a good property. Hence, God is the entity that is the most existent of all.

Proposed Definition of ju'a

ju'a (UI2)
Evidential. Used to express a non-specific/elliptical source of information or idea. See also xusra, the preface.
    • Keywords: I state.

Examples of ju'a Usage

ju'a loi xalka cu danfu .i mi na morji le preti

Alcohol is the answer. I can't remember the question.

ju'a ba'e ro da cu se senpi .ei

Everything should be doubted, I say.

Proposed Definition of ka'u

ka'u (UI2)
Evidential. Used to express cultural context/myth/custom as the source of information or idea. See also kluju'o, the preface.
    • Keywords: I know culturally. I culturally know.

Examples of ka'u Usage

.i tatpi joi xagji .i ka'u ca le cabdei mi na .ei citka je pinxe mu'i tu'a le lijda

I'm tired and hungry. Tomorrow I mustn't eat or drink for religious reasons.

.i ka'u so'a nanmu cu xebni .iku'i mi certu le ka .o'o zei cinmo

Almost all men hate something, but I am very good at being patient.

Proposed Definition of pe'i

pe'i (UI2)
Evidential. Used to express opinion as the source of information or idea. See also jinvi, the preface.
    • Keywords: I opine.

Examples of pe'i Usage

pe'i le nu ma'a na frili kakne le nu benji la nomoi cu mukti .ei le nu ma'a na troci le nu benji ja vecnu le remoi

In my opinion, the fact that we can't easily send the zeroth one should be a reason for us not to try to send and sell the second one.

Proposed Definition of ru'a

ru'a (UI2)
Evidential. Used to express postulate/assumption/presumption as the source of information or idea. See also sruma, the preface.
    • Keywords: I postulate. I presume. I assume. I take it that. presumably.

Examples of ru'a Usage

ru'a no le prenu cu nanca lo zmadu be li 25

Presumably, none of the people are more than 25 years old.

.i ru'a mi milxe leka bilma

I am slightly ill, I assume.

Proposed Definition of se'o

se'o (UI2)
Evidential. Used to express internal experience, such as a dream, vision, or personal revelation, as the source of information or idea. See also senva, the preface.
    • Keywords: I know internally.

Examples of se'o Usage

se'o tunta le mi tamji .i da poi palci cu klama jibni

I know internally that it stabbed my thumb. Something evil was coming close.

Proposed Definition of su'a

su'a (UI2)
Evidential. Used to express other (stated or unstated) information as the source of the information or idea that is a generalization of the former. This word comprises a scale, along with "su'a nai". See also su'anai, sucta, sucni'i, the preface.
    • Keywords: I generalize.

Examples of su'a Usage

.i le mi skami se tcana prenu cu krici le se go'i

su'a le skami se tcana prenu cu so'eroi bebna

- My server people believe that.

- Which goes to show that server people are stupid most of the time.

Proposed Definition of su'a nai

su'a nai (UI*2)
Evidential. Used to express other (stated or unstated) information as the source of the information or idea that is a particularization of the former. This word comprises a scale, along with "su'a". See also su'a, the preface.
    • Keywords: I particularize.

Examples of su'a nai Usage

mi pu te cusku lo nu go'i .i su'anai samselmri

I was told that. E-mail, in particular.

Proposed Definition of ti'e

ti'e (UI2)
Evidential. Used to express hearsay/relayed information as the source of information or idea. See also tirna, sitna, tcidu, the preface.
    • Keywords: I hear.

Examples of ti'e Usage

ti'e lo bangu cu kensa vidru

They say that language is a virus from outer space.

ti'e le rokci pe la titan cu bisli jenai rokci

I hear that the "rocks" on Titan are actually made of ice, not rock.

Proposed Definition of za'a

za'a (UI2)
Evidential. Used to express direct observation or perception as the source of information or idea. Said perception may be visual, but need not be. See also zgana, lanli, the preface.
    • Keywords: I observe. apparently.

Examples of za'a Usage

.i le do cmene cu za'a xelso

I see that you have a Greek name.

.i za'a le ca me la taral. cu cnino

Apparently the present Taral is new.

Notes

The template for "ju'a" seems to have got slots for scalars by mistake. These have been removed.

Impact

"ba'a" is now explicitly temporal, which is in accordance with the CLL, but invalidates much usage.

Added clarificationary note that "za'a" is not restricted to visual observation.

{POLL(pollId=>25)}BPFK Poll: Evidentials{POLL}