Difference between revisions of "BPFK Section: Logical Connectives"

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{{BPFK Section from tiki|BPFK Section: Logical Connectives|83}}
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__TOC__
  
{maketoc}
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== Proposed Tags ==
  
==  Proposed Tags ==
+
These are words that might be used pedagogically to mark these word types per [http://teddyb.org/robin/Documentation+Standards+For+Lojban].
 
 
These are words that might be used pedagogically to mark these word types per [http://teddyb.org/robin/tiki-index.php?page=Documentation+Standards+For+Lojban].
 
  
 
* (sumti/bridi-tail/general) afterthought logical connective, which we're just calling ALC
 
* (sumti/bridi-tail/general) afterthought logical connective, which we're just calling ALC
 
** We might want to come up with something better than "bridi-tail" there.
 
** We might want to come up with something better than "bridi-tail" there.
 
 
** needs a Lojban equivalent?
 
** needs a Lojban equivalent?
 
** some piece of documentation needs to specify what "general ALC" actually can connect
 
** some piece of documentation needs to specify what "general ALC" actually can connect
 
 
* (tanru/general) forethought logical connective (FLC)
 
* (tanru/general) forethought logical connective (FLC)
 
** some piece of documentation needs to specify what "general FLC" actually can connect
 
** some piece of documentation needs to specify what "general FLC" actually can connect
 
 
** needs a Lojban equivalent?
 
** needs a Lojban equivalent?
  
== Notes ==
+
== Notes ==
  
 
* Should we do ijeks as well as jeks?  That would simplify the jek definitions, but should we bother?
 
* Should we do ijeks as well as jeks?  That would simplify the jek definitions, but should we bother?
 
* Unlimited forethought connection would be really nice.  This would need a new cmavo something like {bei}, for all but the last connection.  So {ge ko'a gi ko'e} is unchanged, but {ge ko'a gi'oi ko'e gi ko'i} means the same as {ko'a .e ko'e .e ko'i}.  {gi} marks "this is the last branch of the next-outer-most FLC".
 
* Unlimited forethought connection would be really nice.  This would need a new cmavo something like {bei}, for all but the last connection.  So {ge ko'a gi ko'e} is unchanged, but {ge ko'a gi'oi ko'e gi ko'i} means the same as {ko'a .e ko'e .e ko'i}.  {gi} marks "this is the last branch of the next-outer-most FLC".
 
 
** < ksion> Plus probably a terminator in case you forgot saying {gi} before the last argument. < ksion> (That's mostly for speech convienience though).
 
** < ksion> Plus probably a terminator in case you forgot saying {gi} before the last argument. < ksion> (That's mostly for speech convienience though).
 
* Since all LC are theoretically syntactic sugar for {.i JA}, how to GOhA interact with them?
 
* Since all LC are theoretically syntactic sugar for {.i JA}, how to GOhA interact with them?
 
 
** Example: {ko'a brode gi'e broda} -- what's {go'i} after that? {ko'a broda}? Or {ko'a brode gi'e broda} whatever that means as single bridi.
 
** Example: {ko'a brode gi'e broda} -- what's {go'i} after that? {ko'a broda}? Or {ko'a brode gi'e broda} whatever that means as single bridi.
 
* Also {vo'A}.  What does {ko'a broda ko'e gi'e brode ko'i vo'e} mean? Does {vo'e} refer to {ko'e} or {ko'i}?
 
* Also {vo'A}.  What does {ko'a broda ko'e gi'e brode ko'i vo'e} mean? Does {vo'e} refer to {ko'e} or {ko'i}?
 
 
** In most cases it probably should be "refers to the bridi it itself is embedded in".
 
** In most cases it probably should be "refers to the bridi it itself is embedded in".
 
* What is the meaning of SE + logical connective, when the SE is something other than {se}?
 
* What is the meaning of SE + logical connective, when the SE is something other than {se}?
 
 
* There are gismu equivalents of A and E, but not O and U.  This seems unfortunate.  Does {nibli} count as an equiv of O?
 
* There are gismu equivalents of A and E, but not O and U.  This seems unfortunate.  Does {nibli} count as an equiv of O?
 
** We've apparently known this for a while; see [http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/563490005c777f3b/7d65a87fc99f8163]
 
** We've apparently known this for a while; see [http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/563490005c777f3b/7d65a87fc99f8163]
 
 
* Speaking of which, what do {kanxe} and {vlina} actually ''mean''?  Is {le kanxe be ko'a bei ko'e cu broda} semantically equivalent to {ko'a .e ko'e cu broda}?  If not, what *is* it semantically equivalent to?
 
* Speaking of which, what do {kanxe} and {vlina} actually ''mean''?  Is {le kanxe be ko'a bei ko'e cu broda} semantically equivalent to {ko'a .e ko'e cu broda}?  If not, what *is* it semantically equivalent to?
 
** Yet another use/mention problem in the gismu.  How many does that make?
 
** Yet another use/mention problem in the gismu.  How many does that make?
 
 
** ksion in #lojban suggests: {la'e lu ko'a broda .ije ko'a brode li'u cu kanxe lo du'u ko'a broda kei lo du'u ko'a brode}, which is horrible; I (camgusmis) would rather redefine than be stuck with shit like that.
 
** ksion in #lojban suggests: {la'e lu ko'a broda .ije ko'a brode li'u cu kanxe lo du'u ko'a broda kei lo du'u ko'a brode}, which is horrible; I (camgusmis) would rather redefine than be stuck with shit like that.
 
** {i lo du'u ge broda gi brode cu kanxe lo du'u broda kei lo du'u brode} from dbrock; same thing
 
** {i lo du'u ge broda gi brode cu kanxe lo du'u broda kei lo du'u brode} from dbrock; same thing
 
 
* xorxes had a proposal that replaces ''all'' the logical connectives with JA, which is rather impressive.  See [http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/131b44ba66d8a108/bac4b378caafbdeb]
 
* xorxes had a proposal that replaces ''all'' the logical connectives with JA, which is rather impressive.  See [http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/131b44ba66d8a108/bac4b378caafbdeb]
 +
** selpa'i has a similar proposal which doesn't overload {gi}: [http://selpahi.weebly.com/lojban/how-to-substantially-simplify-the-lojban-connective-system-my-connective-system]
 
* All of the definitions need Lindar's touch - I mean, they need expanding into something more, um, conversational English. - .aionys., at prompting from arj.
 
* All of the definitions need Lindar's touch - I mean, they need expanding into something more, um, conversational English. - .aionys., at prompting from arj.
 
 
* Order of operations for multiple sumti connectives in a bridi needs to be resolved. Is {ko'a .a ko'e broda fo'a .e fo'e} the same as {ko'a broda fo'a .e fo'e .i ja ko'e broda fo'a .e fo'e} (LtR) or is it {ko'a .a ko'e broda fo'a .i je ko'a .a ko'e broda fo'e} (RtL, which would be unusual, or if "and" takes precedence over "or", as in many formal systems)?
 
* Order of operations for multiple sumti connectives in a bridi needs to be resolved. Is {ko'a .a ko'e broda fo'a .e fo'e} the same as {ko'a broda fo'a .e fo'e .i ja ko'e broda fo'a .e fo'e} (LtR) or is it {ko'a .a ko'e broda fo'a .i je ko'a .a ko'e broda fo'e} (RtL, which would be unusual, or if "and" takes precedence over "or", as in many formal systems)?
 
+
** Here ([http://http://mw.lojban.org/index.php?title=Expansion_of_logical_connections]) is a page about logical connective expansions, which has a section about sumti connections. According to the jbocre to whom I asked, the LtR expansion is the correct one (see the linked page).
== Impact ==
+
== Impact ==
  
 
The current definitions are expected to have no particular impact;
 
The current definitions are expected to have no particular impact;
 
 
they should just clarify the current state.
 
they should just clarify the current state.
  
== Proposed Definitions and Examples ==
+
== Proposed Definitions and Examples ==
 
 
===  cmavo: .a (A) ===
 
  
====  Proposed Definition ====
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 +
=== cmavo: .a (A) ===
  
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 
A sumti ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for at least one of the connected sumti.
 
A sumti ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for at least one of the connected sumti.
  
==== See Also ====
+
==== See Also ====
 
 
 
* {.e}
 
* {.e}
 
* {.o}
 
* {.o}
 
 
* {.u}
 
* {.u}
 
* {ji}
 
* {ji}
 
 
* {vlina}
 
* {vlina}
  
==== Proposed Keywords ====
+
==== Proposed Keywords ====
 
 
 
* or (sumti ALC, inclusive)
 
* or (sumti ALC, inclusive)
 
* inclusive or (sumti ALC)
 
* inclusive or (sumti ALC)
 
 
* and/or (sumti ALC)
 
* and/or (sumti ALC)
  
==== Usage Examples ====
+
==== Usage Examples ====
 
+
;.i ju'o la .alis. .a la .bab. djuno: ''I’m sure Alice or Bob knows.''
;.i ju'o la .alis. .a la .bab. djuno:I’m sure Alice or Bob knows.
+
;.i mi na ponse lo jdini .a lo kacma: ''I have neither money nor a camera.''
 
+
{{BPFK Section box close}}
;.i mi na ponse lo jdini .a lo kacma:I have neither money nor a camera.
 
 
 
===  cmavo: .e (A) ===
 
  
====  Proposed Definition ====
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 +
=== cmavo: .e (A) ===
  
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 
A sumti ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for each of the connected sumti.
 
A sumti ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for each of the connected sumti.
  
==== See Also ====
+
==== See Also ====
 
 
 
* {.a}
 
* {.a}
 
* {.o}
 
* {.o}
 
 
* {.u}
 
* {.u}
 
* {ji}
 
* {ji}
 
 
* {kanxe}
 
* {kanxe}
  
==== Proposed Keywords ====
+
==== Proposed Keywords ====
 
 
 
* and (sumti ALC)
 
* and (sumti ALC)
 
* but (sumti ALC)
 
* but (sumti ALC)
 
 
* both (sumti ALC)
 
* both (sumti ALC)
  
==== Usage Examples ====
+
==== Usage Examples ====
 +
;.i makfa do .e nai mi: ''Magic to you but not to me.''
 +
{{BPFK Section box close}}
  
;.i makfa do .e nai mi:Magic to you but not to me.
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 +
=== cmavo: .o (A) ===
  
=== cmavo: .o (A) ===
+
==== Proposed Definition ====
 
 
====  Proposed Definition ====
 
  
 
A sumti ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for both or neither of the connected sumti.
 
A sumti ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for both or neither of the connected sumti.
  
==== See Also ====
+
==== See Also ====
 
 
 
* {.a}
 
* {.a}
 
* {.e}
 
* {.e}
 
 
* {.u}
 
* {.u}
 
* {ji}
 
* {ji}
  
==== Proposed Keywords: ====
+
==== Proposed Keywords: ====
 
 
 
* if and only if (sumti ALC)
 
* if and only if (sumti ALC)
 
* iff (sumti ALC)
 
* iff (sumti ALC)
 
 
* both or neither (sumti ALC)
 
* both or neither (sumti ALC)
  
==== Usage Examples ====
+
==== Usage Examples ====
 
+
;.i mi djica tu'a lo jipci .o lo finpe: ''I want chicken if and only if I want fish.'' (This might be implied in English anyway using "if" instead of "if and only if")
;.i mi djica tu'a lo jipci .o lo finpe:I want chicken if and only if I want fish. (This might be implied in English anyway using "if" instead of "if and only if")
+
;.i mi .o la .alis. salci: ''Alice and I will both celebrate, or neither of us will.''
 
+
{{BPFK Section box close}}
;.i mi .o la .alis. salci:Alice and I will both celebrate, or neither of us will.
 
 
 
===  cmavo cluster: .o nai (A*) ===
 
  
====  Proposed Definition ====
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 +
=== cmavo cluster: .o nai (A*) ===
  
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 
A sumti ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for exactly one of the connected sumti.
 
A sumti ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for exactly one of the connected sumti.
  
==== See Also ====
+
==== See Also ====
 
 
 
* {.a}
 
* {.a}
 
* {.e}
 
* {.e}
 
 
* {.o}
 
* {.o}
 
* {.u}
 
* {.u}
 
 
* {ji}
 
* {ji}
 
* {nai}
 
* {nai}
  
==== Proposed Keywords: ====
+
==== Proposed Keywords: ====
 
 
 
* exclusive or (sumti ALC)
 
* exclusive or (sumti ALC)
 
* or (sumti ALC, exclusive)
 
* or (sumti ALC, exclusive)
  
==== Usage Examples ====
+
==== Usage Examples ====
 
+
;do onai lo drata ba pinxe: ''Either you or another, but not both, will drink.''
;do onai lo drata ba pinxe:Either you or another, but not both, will drink.
+
;do ca tadni lo samske .onai lo cmaci: ''You are either studying computer science or math.''
 
+
;do kakne lenu pilno le barda skami .onai le cmalu skami ku ma: ''Under what conditions are you able to use either a big computer or a small computer, but not both?''
;do ca tadni lo samske .onai lo cmaci:You are either studying computer science or math.
+
{{BPFK Section box close}}
 
 
;do kakne lenu pilno le barda skami .onai le cmalu skami ku ma:Under what conditions are you able to use either a big computer or a small computer, but not both?
 
 
 
===  cmavo: .u (A) ===
 
  
====  Proposed Definition ====
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 +
=== cmavo: .u (A) ===
  
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 
A sumti ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for the first of connected sumti.
 
A sumti ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for the first of connected sumti.
  
==== See Also ====
+
==== See Also ====
 
 
 
* {.a}
 
* {.a}
 
* {.e}
 
* {.e}
 
 
* {.o}
 
* {.o}
 
* {ji}
 
* {ji}
  
==== Proposed Keywords: ====
+
==== Proposed Keywords: ====
 
 
 
* whether (sumti connective)
 
* whether (sumti connective)
 
* whether or not (sumti connective)
 
* whether or not (sumti connective)
 
 
* regardless (sumti connective)
 
* regardless (sumti connective)
 
* disregardless (sumti connective)
 
* disregardless (sumti connective)
 
 
* irrespective (sumti connective)
 
* irrespective (sumti connective)
 
* no matter (sumti connective)
 
* no matter (sumti connective)
 
 
* disregarding (sumti connective)
 
* disregarding (sumti connective)
  
==== Usage Examples ====
+
==== Usage Examples ====
 
+
;mi citka lo cirla .u lo nanba: ''I eat cheese whether or not I eat bread.''
;mi citka lo cirla .u lo nanba:I eat chese whether or not I eat bread.
+
;fanza mi u do: ''That annoys me whether or not it annoys you.''
 
+
;mi nelci la jbovlaste se .u nai la .noraluj.: ''I like jbovlaste, or I like neither jbovlaste nor noralujv.''
;fanza mi u do:That annoys me whether or not it annoys you.
+
;.i mi djica tu'a lo jipci .u lo finpe: ''I want chicken whether or not I want the fish.''
 
+
{{BPFK Section box close}}
;mi nelci la jbovlaste se .u nai la .noraluj.:I like jbovlaste, or I like neither jbovlaste nor noralujv.
 
 
 
;.i mi djica tu'a lo jipci .u lo finpe:I want chicken whether or not I want the fish.
 
 
 
===  cmavo: ji (A) ===
 
  
====  Proposed Definition ====
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 +
=== cmavo: ji (A) ===
  
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 
The sumti ALC question: asks the listener to supply a sumti ALC that makes the containing bridi true.
 
The sumti ALC question: asks the listener to supply a sumti ALC that makes the containing bridi true.
  
==== See Also ====
+
==== See Also ====
 
 
 
* {.a}
 
* {.a}
 
* {.e}
 
* {.e}
 
 
* {.o}
 
* {.o}
 
* {.u}
 
* {.u}
 
 
* {preti}
 
* {preti}
 
* {cuxna}
 
* {cuxna}
  
==== Proposed Keywords ====
+
==== Proposed Keywords ====
 
 
 
* or (sumti ALC, question)
 
* or (sumti ALC, question)
  
==== Usage Examples ====
+
==== Usage Examples ====
 +
Note that "or" doesn't really capture the Lojban here very well, because any sumti ALC is legal here, but it's about the best we can do.
  
Note that "or" doesn't really capture the Lojban here very well,
+
;.i do pinxe lo ckafi ji lo tcati .i na .e: ''Are you drinking coffee or tea? — The latter.''
 +
;.i doi .bancus. pau le cmene be do cu srana lo'u ban cus le'u ji zo bancu: ''Bancus, is your name related to “ban cus” or to “bancu”?''
 +
{{BPFK Section box close}}
  
because any sumti ALC is legal here, but it's about the best we can
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 
+
=== cmavo: ga (GA) ===
do.
 
 
 
;.i do pinxe lo ckafi ji lo tcati .i na .e:Are you drinking coffee or tea? — The latter.
 
 
 
;.i doi .bancus. pau le cmene be do cu srana lo'u ban cus le'u ji zo bancu:Bancus, is your name related to “ban cus” or to “bancu”?
 
 
 
=== cmavo: ga (GA) ===
 
 
 
====  Proposed Definition ====
 
  
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 
A general FLC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for at least one of the connected phrases.
 
A general FLC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for at least one of the connected phrases.
  
==== See Also ====
+
==== See Also ====
 
 
 
* {ge}
 
* {ge}
 
* {go}
 
* {go}
 
 
* {gu}
 
* {gu}
 
* {ge'i}
 
* {ge'i}
 
 
* {gi}
 
* {gi}
 
* {vlina}
 
* {vlina}
  
==== Proposed Keywords ====
+
==== Proposed Keywords ====
 
 
 
* or (general FLC, inclusive)
 
* or (general FLC, inclusive)
 
* inclusive or (general FLC)
 
* inclusive or (general FLC)
 
 
* and/or (general FLC)
 
* and/or (general FLC)
  
==== Usage Examples ====
+
==== Usage Examples ====
 
+
;ga le jintyke'a cu mutce le ka condi gi abu mutce le ka masno le nu farlu: ''Either the well was very deep or Alice was falling very slowly.''
;ga le jintyke'a cu mutce le ka condi gi abu mutce le ka masno le nu farlu:Either the well was very deep or Alice was falling very slowly.
+
;.ue sai ga mi xamgu se funca gi ti na mutce vlipa: ''Either I'm lucky, or that's not very powerful, or both.''
 +
;.i .u'u ga lo se cpedu cu na cumki gi do snada lo nu cfipu mi: ''I'm sorry, either that request is not possible, or you've succeeded at confusing me, or both.''
 +
{{BPFK Section box close}}
  
;.ue sai ga mi xamgu se funca gi ti na mutce vlipa:Either I'm lucky, or that's not very powerful, or both.
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 
+
=== cmavo: ge (GA) ===
;.i .u'u ga lo se cpedu cu na cumki gi do snada lo nu cfipu mi:I'm sorry, either that request is not possible, or you've succeeded at confusing me, or both.
 
 
 
=== cmavo: ge (GA) ===
 
 
 
====  Proposed Definition ====
 
  
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 
A general FLC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for both of the connected phrases.
 
A general FLC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for both of the connected phrases.
  
==== See Also ====
+
==== See Also ====
 
 
 
* {ga}
 
* {ga}
 
* {go}
 
* {go}
 
 
* {gu}
 
* {gu}
 
* {ge'i}
 
* {ge'i}
 
 
* {gi}
 
* {gi}
 
* {kanxe}
 
* {kanxe}
  
==== Proposed Keywords ====
+
==== Proposed Keywords ====
 
 
 
* and (general FLC)
 
* and (general FLC)
 
* but (general FLC)
 
* but (general FLC)
 
 
* both (general FLC)
 
* both (general FLC)
  
==== Usage Examples ====
+
==== Usage Examples ====
 
+
;abu tolmorji le nu ge abu ca kilto la ractu le ka barda giseki'ubo noda krinu le nu terpa ry: ''Alice forgot that she was a thousand times bigger than Rabbit and therefore had no reason to fear it.''
;abu tolmorji le nu ge abu ca kilto la ractu le ka barda giseki'ubo noda krinu le nu terpa ry:Alice forgot that she was a thousand times bigger than Rabbit and therefore had no reason to fear it.
+
;la .zim. la .gr. ge mulno se selfu gi minde lo za'i morsi: ''Zim is completely the master of Gr, and commands Gr to cause death.''
 
+
{{BPFK Section box close}}
;la .zim. la .gr. ge mulno se selfu gi minde lo za'i morsi:Zim is completely the master of Gr, and commands Gr to cause death.
 
 
 
===  cmavo: go (GA) ===
 
  
====  Proposed Definition ====
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 +
=== cmavo: go (GA) ===
  
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 
A general FLC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for both or neither of the connected phrases.
 
A general FLC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for both or neither of the connected phrases.
  
==== See Also ====
+
==== See Also ====
 
 
 
* {ga}
 
* {ga}
 
* {ge}
 
* {ge}
 
 
* {gu}
 
* {gu}
 
* {gi}
 
* {gi}
 
 
* {ge'i}
 
* {ge'i}
  
==== Proposed Keywords ====
+
==== Proposed Keywords ====
 
 
 
* if and only if (general FLC)
 
* if and only if (general FLC)
 
* iff (general FLC)
 
* iff (general FLC)
 
 
* both or neither (general FLC)
 
* both or neither (general FLC)
  
==== Usage Examples ====
+
==== Usage Examples ====
 
 
;go mi na ponse lo cidja gi mi nitcu lonu klama lo cidrjpitsa zarci:I need to go to the pizza store if and only if I don't have any food.
 
 
 
;ro da ro de zo'u go da de mamta gi da fetsi gi'e rirni de:For all X and Y, X is the mother of Y if and only if X is female and reared Y.
 
 
 
;.i'e go tolju'i gi ju'o ru'e cliva:Yeah, if [[you're|you're]] ignoring [[us?]], [[you|you]] should maybe leave.
 
  
===  cmavo cluster: go nai (GA*) ===
+
;go mi na ponse lo cidja gi mi nitcu lonu klama lo cidrjpitsa zarci: ''I need to go to the pizza store if and only if I don't have any food.''
 +
;ro da ro de zo'u go da de mamta gi da fetsi gi'e rirni de: ''For all X and Y, X is the mother of Y if and only if X is female and reared Y.''
 +
;.i'e go tolju'i gi ju'o ru'e cliva: ''Yeah, if [you're] ignoring [us?], [you] should maybe leave.''
 +
{{BPFK Section box close}}
  
====  Proposed Definition ====
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 +
=== cmavo cluster: go nai (GA*) ===
  
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 
A general FLC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for exactly one of the connected phrases.
 
A general FLC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for exactly one of the connected phrases.
  
==== See Also ====
+
==== See Also ====
 
 
 
* {ga}
 
* {ga}
 
* {ge}
 
* {ge}
 
 
* {go}
 
* {go}
 
* {gu}
 
* {gu}
 
 
* {gi}
 
* {gi}
 
* {ge'i}
 
* {ge'i}
 
 
* {nai}
 
* {nai}
  
==== Proposed Keywords ====
+
==== Proposed Keywords ====
 
 
 
* exclusive or (sumti ALC)
 
* exclusive or (sumti ALC)
 
* or (sumti ALC, exclusive)
 
* or (sumti ALC, exclusive)
  
==== Usage Examples ====
+
==== Usage Examples ====
 +
;gonai do sarji mi gi do sarji lo sonci: ''You're either with us or with the soldiers.''
 +
;gonai mi dunda le cidja gi le bifce ba nelci mi: ''Either I give food or the bees won't like me.''
 +
;gonai vi mi snime carvi gi mi fenki: ''Either it's snowing here or I'm crazy.''
 +
{{BPFK Section box close}}
  
;gonai do sarji mi gi do sarji lo sonci:You're either with us or with the soldiers.
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 
+
=== cmavo: gu (GA) ===
;gonai mi dunda le cidja gi le bifce ba nelci mi:Either I give food or the bees won't like me.
 
 
 
;gonai vi mi snime carvi gi mi fenki:Either it's snowing here or I'm crazy.
 
 
 
=== cmavo: gu (GA) ===
 
 
 
====  Proposed Definition ====
 
  
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 
A general FLC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for the first of the connected phrases.
 
A general FLC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for the first of the connected phrases.
  
==== See Also ====
+
==== See Also ====
 
 
 
* {ga}
 
* {ga}
 
* {ge}
 
* {ge}
 
 
* {go}
 
* {go}
 
* {gi}
 
* {gi}
 
 
* {ge'i}
 
* {ge'i}
  
==== Proposed Keywords ====
+
==== Proposed Keywords ====
 
 
 
* whether (sumti FLC)
 
* whether (sumti FLC)
 
* whether or not (sumti FLC)
 
* whether or not (sumti FLC)
 
 
* regardless (sumti FLC)
 
* regardless (sumti FLC)
 
* disregardless (sumti FLC)
 
* disregardless (sumti FLC)
 
 
* irrespective (sumti FLC)
 
* irrespective (sumti FLC)
 
* no matter (sumti FLC)
 
* no matter (sumti FLC)
 
 
* disregarding (sumti FLC)
 
* disregarding (sumti FLC)
  
==== Usage Examples ====
+
==== Usage Examples ====
 +
;.i .ia mi pu na'e sanji krici lo du'u se gu li'a mutce xamgu gi la'a na'e mutce zdile ja cinri: ''I think I was unconsciously believing that, whether or not it was clearly very good, it probably wasn’t very amusing or interesting.''
 +
;.i gu srana gi to'e melbi: ''It's relevant, whether or not it's ugly.''
 +
;lo nu do kakne lo nu ciksi bau la .lojban. cu se gu nandu gi se jgira ko: ''Being able to explain it in Lojban should, whether or not it is difficult, make you feel pride.''
 +
{{BPFK Section box close}}
  
;.i .ia mi pu na'e sanji krici lo du'u se gu li'a mutce xamgu gi la'a na'e mutce zdile ja cinri:I think I was unconsciously believing that, whether or not it was clearly very good, it probably wasn’t very amusing or interesting.
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 
+
=== cmavo: ge'i (GA) ===
;.i gu srana gi to'e melbi:It's relevant, whether or not it's ugly.
 
 
 
;lo nu do kakne lo nu ciksi bau la .lojban. cu se gu nandu gi se jgira ko:Being able to explain it in Lojban should, whether or not it is difficult, make you feel pride.
 
 
 
=== cmavo: ge'i (GA) ===
 
 
 
====  Proposed Definition ====
 
  
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 
The general FLC question: asks the listener to supply a FLC that makes the containing statement true.
 
The general FLC question: asks the listener to supply a FLC that makes the containing statement true.
  
==== See Also ====
+
==== See Also ====
 
 
 
* {ga}
 
* {ga}
 
* {ge}
 
* {ge}
 
 
* {go}
 
* {go}
 
* {gu}
 
* {gu}
 
 
* {gi}
 
* {gi}
 
* {preti}
 
* {preti}
 
 
* {cuxna}
 
* {cuxna}
  
==== Proposed Keywords ====
+
==== Proposed Keywords ====
 
 
 
* or (general FLC, question)
 
* or (general FLC, question)
  
==== Usage Examples ====
+
==== Usage Examples ====
 
 
 
Note that "or" doesn't really capture the Lojban very well, because any general FLC
 
Note that "or" doesn't really capture the Lojban very well, because any general FLC
 
 
is legal here, but it's about the best we can do.
 
is legal here, but it's about the best we can do.
  
;do zanru ge'i lo du'u na pinka gi lo mi gunka stuzi:Do you approve of me not commenting or of my workplace?
+
;do zanru ge'i lo du'u na pinka gi lo mi gunka stuzi: ''Do you approve of me not commenting or of my workplace?''
 +
;doi .timos. la .xongcun. cu ge'i du le de'u pendo be do gi jimpe fi dei : ''Tim, is xongcun the friend of yours you just mentioned or capable of understanding this?''
 +
;la cizra ge'i cizra gi ninmu: ''Is Cizra strange or a woman?''
 +
{{BPFK Section box close}}
  
;doi .timos. la .xongcun. cu ge'i du le de'u pendo be do gi jimpe fi dei :Tim, is xongcun the friend of yours you just mentioned or capable of understanding this?
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 
+
=== cmavo: gi'a (GIhA) ===
;la cizra ge'i cizra gi ninmu:Is Cizra strange or a woman?
 
 
 
=== cmavo: gi'a (SELMAHO) ===
 
 
 
====  Proposed Definition ====
 
  
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 
A bridi-tail ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for at least one of the connected bridi tails.
 
A bridi-tail ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for at least one of the connected bridi tails.
  
==== See Also ====
+
==== See Also ====
 
 
 
* {gi'e}
 
* {gi'e}
 
* {gi'o}
 
* {gi'o}
 
 
* {gi'u}
 
* {gi'u}
 
* {gi'i}
 
* {gi'i}
  
==== Proposed Keywords ====
+
==== Proposed Keywords ====
 
 
 
* or (bridi-tail ALC, inclusive)
 
* or (bridi-tail ALC, inclusive)
 
* inclusive or (bridi-tail ALC)
 
* inclusive or (bridi-tail ALC)
 
 
* and/or (bridi-tail ALC)
 
* and/or (bridi-tail ALC)
  
==== Usage Examples ====
+
==== Usage Examples ====
 
+
;ko zifre ba'e gi'a morsi: ''Be free or die! Or both!''
;ko zifre ba'e gi'a morsi:Be free or die! Or both!
+
;mu'a fi ko cfika gi'a pemci: ''For example, you should write fiction or poetry, or both.''
 
+
;ma nuzba gi'a se zukte do doi timonator: ''What's new or being done by you, Timonator?''
;mu'a fi ko cfika gi'a pemci:For example, you should write fiction or poetry, or both.
+
{{BPFK Section box close}}
  
;ma nuzba gi'a se zukte do doi timonator:What's new or being done by you, Timonator?
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 
+
=== cmavo: gi'e (GIhA) ===
=== cmavo: gi'e (GIhA) ===
 
 
 
====  Proposed Definition ====
 
  
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 
A bridi-tail ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for both of the connected bridi tails.
 
A bridi-tail ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for both of the connected bridi tails.
  
==== See Also ====
+
==== See Also ====
 
 
 
* {gi'a}
 
* {gi'a}
 
* {gi'o}
 
* {gi'o}
 
 
* {gi'u}
 
* {gi'u}
 
* {gi'i}
 
* {gi'i}
  
==== Proposed Keywords ====
+
==== Proposed Keywords ====
 
 
 
* and (sumti ALC)
 
* and (sumti ALC)
 
* but (sumti ALC)
 
* but (sumti ALC)
 
 
* both (sumti ALC)
 
* both (sumti ALC)
  
==== Usage Examples ====
+
==== Usage Examples ====
 
+
;baziku la alis mo'ine'i jersi ry gi'e noroi pensi le du'u ta'iba'e makau abu ba za'ure'u bartu: ''Shortly, Alice chased R inside, and never thought about how she would get out again.''
;baziku la alis mo'ine'i jersi ry gi'e noroi pensi le du'u ta'iba'e makau abu ba za'ure'u bartu:Shortly, Alice chased R inside, and never thought about how she would get out again.
+
;mi sanli gi'e cortu lo xadni trixe: ''I stand and feel pain in the back of my body.''
 
+
;le i'u dargu cu clani gi'e jai nandu: ''The familiar road is long and difficult.''
;mi sanli gi'e cortu lo xadni trixe:I stand and feel pain in the back of my body.
+
{{BPFK Section box close}}
 
 
;le i'u dargu cu clani gi'e jai nandu:The familiar road is long and difficult.
 
 
 
===  cmavo: gi'o (GIhA) ===
 
  
====  Proposed Definition ====
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 +
=== cmavo: gi'o (GIhA) ===
  
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 
A bridi-tail ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for both or neither of the connected bridi tails.
 
A bridi-tail ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for both or neither of the connected bridi tails.
  
==== See Also ====
+
==== See Also ====
 
 
 
* {gi'a}
 
* {gi'a}
 
* {gi'e}
 
* {gi'e}
 
 
* {gi'u}
 
* {gi'u}
 
* {gi'i}
 
* {gi'i}
  
==== Proposed Keywords ====
+
==== Proposed Keywords ====
 
 
 
* if and only if (bridi-tail ALC)
 
* if and only if (bridi-tail ALC)
 
* iff (bridi-tail ALC)
 
* iff (bridi-tail ALC)
 
 
* both or neither (bridi-tail ALC)
 
* both or neither (bridi-tail ALC)
  
==== Usage Examples ====
+
==== Usage Examples ====
 
+
;fasnu gi'o pixra: ''Pics or it didn't happen.''
;fasnu gi'o pixra;Pics or it didn't happen.
+
;ro da danlu gi'o se cidja: ''Everything is an animal and everything is edible, or neither.''
 
+
;mi rivbi tu'a le glibau gi'o tavla lo jbopre: ''I avoid English and I talk to Lojbanists, or neither.''
;ro da danlu gi'o se cidja:Everything is an animal and everything is edible, or neither.
+
{{BPFK Section box close}}
 
 
;mi rivbi tu'a le glibau gi'o tavla lo jbopre:I avoid English and I talk to Lojbanists, or neither.
 
 
 
===  cmavo cluster: gi'o nai (GIhA*) ===
 
  
====  Proposed Definition ====
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 +
=== cmavo cluster: gi'o nai (GIhA*) ===
  
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 
A bridi-tail ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for exactly one of the connected bridi tails.
 
A bridi-tail ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for exactly one of the connected bridi tails.
  
==== See Also ====
+
==== See Also ====
 
 
 
* {gi'a}
 
* {gi'a}
 
* {gi'e}
 
* {gi'e}
 
 
* {gi'o}
 
* {gi'o}
 
* {gi'u}
 
* {gi'u}
 
 
* {gi'i}
 
* {gi'i}
 
* {nai}
 
* {nai}
  
==== Proposed Keywords ====
+
==== Proposed Keywords ====
 
 
 
* exclusive or (sumti ALC)
 
* exclusive or (sumti ALC)
 
* or (sumti ALC, exclusive)
 
* or (sumti ALC, exclusive)
  
==== Usage Examples ====
+
==== Usage Examples ====
 +
;pe'a le merko ca blanu gi'o nai xunre: ''Speaking figuratively, an American is now either Red or Blue.''
 +
;.e'u nai sai zgana gi'o nai gunka: ''Careful! Observation or work, not both.''
 +
;sipna gi'onai mrobi'o co'o: ''Sleep or death. Bye!''
 +
{{BPFK Section box close}}
  
;pe'a le merko ca blanu gi'o nai xunre:Speaking figuratively, an American is now either Red or Blue.
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 
+
=== cmavo: gi'u (GIhA) ===
;.e'u nai sai zgana gi'o nai gunka:Careful!  Observation or work, not both.
 
 
 
;sipna gi'onai mrobi'o co'o:Sleep or death.  Bye!
 
 
 
=== cmavo: gi'u (GIhA) ===
 
 
 
====  Proposed Definition ====
 
  
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 
A bridi-tail ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for the first of the connected bridi tails.
 
A bridi-tail ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for the first of the connected bridi tails.
  
==== See Also ====
+
==== See Also ====
 
 
 
* {gi'a}
 
* {gi'a}
 
* {gi'e}
 
* {gi'e}
 
 
* {gi'o}
 
* {gi'o}
 
* {gi'i}
 
* {gi'i}
  
==== Proposed Keywords ====
+
==== Proposed Keywords ====
 
 
 
* whether (sumti FLC)
 
* whether (sumti FLC)
 
* whether or not (sumti FLC)
 
* whether or not (sumti FLC)
 
 
* regardless (sumti FLC)
 
* regardless (sumti FLC)
 
* disregardless (sumti FLC)
 
* disregardless (sumti FLC)
 
 
* irrespective (sumti FLC)
 
* irrespective (sumti FLC)
 
* no matter (sumti FLC)
 
* no matter (sumti FLC)
 
 
* disregarding (sumti FLC)
 
* disregarding (sumti FLC)
  
==== Usage Examples ====
+
==== Usage Examples ====
 
 
;se jimpe gi'u drani:That's comprehensible, whether or not it's correct.
 
  
;zo je zmadu zo .e le ka xamgu gi'u gendra:"je" is better than ".e", whether or not "je" is grammatically correct.
+
;se jimpe gi'u drani: ''That's comprehensible, whether or not it's correct.''
 +
;zo je zmadu zo .e le ka xamgu gi'u gendra: ''"je" is better than ".e", whether or not "je" is grammatically correct.''
 +
;do skicu gi'u sanji vau la .samxarmuj.: ''You are describing samxarmuj, whether or not you're aware of samxarmuj's existence.''
 +
{{BPFK Section box close}}
  
;do skicu gi'u sanji vau la .samxarmuj.:You are describing samxarmuj, whether or not you're aware of samxarmuj's existence.
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 
+
=== cmavo: gi'i (GIhA) ===
=== cmavo: gi'i (GIhA) ===
 
 
 
====  Proposed Definition ====
 
  
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 
The bridi-tail ALC question: asks the listener to supply a bridi-tail ALC that makes the containing bridi true.
 
The bridi-tail ALC question: asks the listener to supply a bridi-tail ALC that makes the containing bridi true.
  
==== See Also ====
+
==== See Also ====
 
 
 
* {gi'a}
 
* {gi'a}
 
* {gi'e}
 
* {gi'e}
 
 
* {gi'o}
 
* {gi'o}
 
* {gi'u}
 
* {gi'u}
 
 
* {preti}
 
* {preti}
 
* {cuxna}
 
* {cuxna}
  
==== Proposed Keywords ====
+
==== Proposed Keywords ====
 
 
 
* or (bridi-tail ALC, question)
 
* or (bridi-tail ALC, question)
  
==== Usage Examples ====
+
==== Usage Examples ====
 
 
 
Note that "or" doesn't really capture the Lojban very well, because any
 
Note that "or" doesn't really capture the Lojban very well, because any
 
 
bridi-tail ALC is legal here, but it's about the best we can do.
 
bridi-tail ALC is legal here, but it's about the best we can do.
  
;pe'u doi ninmu ti nuzlo gi'i sralo:Please, miss, is this New Zealand or Australia?
+
;pe'u doi ninmu ti nuzlo gi'i sralo: ''Please, miss, is this New Zealand or Australia?''
 
+
;do djica lo nu ba tavla la .deivid. gi'i ca tavla lo drata: ''Do you want to talk to David later or someone else now?''
;do djica lo nu ba tavla la .deivid. gi'i ca tavla lo drata:Do you want to talk to David later or someone else now?
+
;do speni gi'i se panzi: ''Are you married or a parent?''
 
+
{{BPFK Section box close}}
;do speni gi'i se panzi:Are you married or a parent?
 
 
 
===  cmavo: gu'a (GUhA) ===
 
  
====  Proposed Definition ====
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 +
=== cmavo: gu'a (GUhA) ===
  
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 
A tanru FLC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for at least one of the connected phrases.
 
A tanru FLC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for at least one of the connected phrases.
  
==== See Also ====
+
==== See Also ====
 
 
 
* {gu'e}
 
* {gu'e}
 
* {gu'o}
 
* {gu'o}
 
 
* {gu'u}
 
* {gu'u}
 
* {gu'i}
 
* {gu'i}
  
==== Proposed Keywords ====
+
==== Proposed Keywords ====
 
 
 
* or (tanru FLC, inclusive)
 
* or (tanru FLC, inclusive)
 
* inclusive or (tanru FLC)
 
* inclusive or (tanru FLC)
 
 
* and/or (tanru FLC)
 
* and/or (tanru FLC)
  
==== Usage Examples ====
+
==== Usage Examples ====
  
 
The ''only'' usage in the wild we could find:
 
The ''only'' usage in the wild we could find:
  
;.a'o la .nukis. gu'a nai troci gi na'e snada lo nu fanva di'u:I hope that nukis either does not try or other-than-succeeds at translating that.
+
;.a'o la .nukis. gu'a nai troci gi na'e snada lo nu fanva di'u: ''I hope that nukis either does not try or other-than-succeeds at translating that.''
 
+
;mi gu'a jukpa gi citka lo sanmi: ''I either cook or eat the meal or both.''
Artifical example:
+
{{BPFK Section box close}}
 
 
;mi gu'a jukpa gi citka lo sanmi:I either cook or eat the meal or both.
 
 
 
===  cmavo: gu'e (GUhA) ===
 
  
====  Proposed Definition ====
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 +
=== cmavo: gu'e (GUhA) ===
  
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 
A tanru FLC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for both of the connected phrases.
 
A tanru FLC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for both of the connected phrases.
  
==== See Also ====
+
==== See Also ====
 
 
 
* {gu'a}
 
* {gu'a}
 
* {gu'o}
 
* {gu'o}
 
 
* {gu'u}
 
* {gu'u}
 
* {gu'i}
 
* {gu'i}
  
==== Proposed Keywords ====
+
==== Proposed Keywords ====
 
 
 
* and (tanru FLC)
 
* and (tanru FLC)
 
* but (tanru FLC)
 
* but (tanru FLC)
 
 
* both (tanru FLC)
 
* both (tanru FLC)
  
==== Usage Examples ====
+
==== Usage Examples ====
 +
;.ie gu'e smuni gi nai gerna dunli: ''I agree, meaningful but not grammatically equivalent.''
 +
;mi gu'e jmive gi xabju: ''I both live and dwell somewhere.''
 +
{{BPFK Section box close}}
  
;.ie gu'e smuni gi nai gerna dunli:I agree, meaningful but not grammatically equivalent.
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 
+
=== cmavo: gu'o (GUhA) ===
;mi gu'e jmive gi xabju:I both live and dwell somewhere.
 
 
 
=== cmavo: gu'o (GUhA) ===
 
 
 
====  Proposed Definition ====
 
  
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 
A tanru FLC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for both or neither of the connected phrases.
 
A tanru FLC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for both or neither of the connected phrases.
  
==== See Also ====
+
==== See Also ====
 
 
 
* {gu'a}
 
* {gu'a}
 
* {gu'e}
 
* {gu'e}
 
 
* {gu'u}
 
* {gu'u}
 
* {gu'i}
 
* {gu'i}
  
==== Proposed Keywords ====
+
==== Proposed Keywords ====
 
 
 
* if and only if (tanru-internal FLC)
 
* if and only if (tanru-internal FLC)
 
* iff (tanru-internal FLC)
 
* iff (tanru-internal FLC)
  
 
* both or neither (tanru-internal FLC)
 
* both or neither (tanru-internal FLC)
 +
==== Usage Examples ====
 +
;terpa gu'o lo za'i terpa : ( ! sole usage, incorrect ! )
 +
;.i mi nelci lo karce noi gu'o blanu gi xunre: ''I like cars which are any colour that isn't blue or red, unless it's blue and red simultaneously.''
 +
{{BPFK Section box close}}
  
====  Usage Examples ====
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 
+
=== cmavo cluster: gu'o nai (GUhA*) ===
''terpa gu'o lo za'i terpa''<br />
 
 
 
( ! sole usage, incorrect ! )<br />
 
 
 
Artificial:
 
 
 
''.i mi nelci lo karce noi gu'o blanu gi xunre''<br />
 
 
 
I like cars which are any colour that isn't blue or red, unless it's blue and red simultaneously.
 
 
 
=== cmavo cluster: gu'o nai (GUhA*) ===
 
 
 
====  Proposed Definition ====
 
  
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 
A tanru FLC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for exactly one of the connected phrases.
 
A tanru FLC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for exactly one of the connected phrases.
  
==== See Also ====
+
==== See Also ====
 
 
 
* {gu'a}
 
* {gu'a}
 
* {gu'e}
 
* {gu'e}
 
 
* {gu'o}
 
* {gu'o}
 
* {gu'u}
 
* {gu'u}
 
 
* {gu'i}
 
* {gu'i}
 
* {nai}
 
* {nai}
  
==== Proposed Keywords ====
+
==== Proposed Keywords ====
  
 
* exclusive or (tanru-internal FLC)
 
* exclusive or (tanru-internal FLC)
 
* or (tanru-internal FLC)
 
* or (tanru-internal FLC)
  
==== Usage Examples ====
+
==== Usage Examples ====
 
+
;.i ko gu'o nai gasnu gi na gasnu .i lo nu troci na zasti: ''Do or do not. There is no try.''
Artificial Example:
+
{{BPFK Section box close}}
 
 
;.i ko gu'o nai gasnu gi na gasnu .i lo nu troci na zasti:Do or do not. There is no try.
 
 
 
===  cmavo: gu'u (SELMAHO) ===
 
  
====  Proposed Definition ====
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 +
=== cmavo: gu'u (GUhA) ===
  
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 
A tanru FLC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for the first of the connected phrases.
 
A tanru FLC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for the first of the connected phrases.
  
==== See Also ====
+
==== See Also ====
 
 
 
* {gu'a}
 
* {gu'a}
 
* {gu'e}
 
* {gu'e}
 
 
* {gu'o}
 
* {gu'o}
 
* {gu'i}
 
* {gu'i}
  
==== Proposed Keywords ====
+
==== Proposed Keywords ====
 
 
 
* whether (sumti connective)
 
* whether (sumti connective)
 
* whether or not (sumti connective)
 
* whether or not (sumti connective)
 
 
* regardless (sumti connective)
 
* regardless (sumti connective)
 
* disregardless (sumti connective)
 
* disregardless (sumti connective)
 
 
* irrespective (sumti connective)
 
* irrespective (sumti connective)
 
* no matter (sumti connective)
 
* no matter (sumti connective)
 
 
* disregarding (sumti connective)
 
* disregarding (sumti connective)
  
==== Usage Examples ====
+
==== Usage Examples ====
 
+
( ! no natural usage ! )
( ! no natural usage ! )<br />
+
;.i mi gu'u dasni be lo kosta be'o gi lenku: ''I wear a coat whether or not I am cold.''
 
+
{{BPFK Section box close}}
Artificial Example:
 
 
 
;.i mi gu'u dasni be lo kosta be'o gi lenku:I wear a coat whether or not I am cold.
 
 
 
===  cmavo: gu'i (GUhA) ===
 
  
====  Proposed Definition ====
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 +
=== cmavo: gu'i (GUhA) ===
  
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 
The tanru FLC question: asks the listener to supply a tanru FLC that makes the containing bridi true.
 
The tanru FLC question: asks the listener to supply a tanru FLC that makes the containing bridi true.
  
==== See Also ====
+
==== See Also ====
 
 
 
* {gu'a}
 
* {gu'a}
 
* {gu'e}
 
* {gu'e}
 
 
* {gu'o}
 
* {gu'o}
 
* {gu'u}
 
* {gu'u}
 
 
* {preti}
 
* {preti}
 
* {cuxna}
 
* {cuxna}
  
==== Proposed Keywords ====
+
==== Proposed Keywords ====
 
 
 
* or (tanru FLC, question)
 
* or (tanru FLC, question)
  
==== Usage Examples ====
+
==== Usage Examples ====
 +
Note that "or" doesn't really capture the Lojban here very well, because any tanru FLC is legal here, but it's about the best we can do.
 +
;.i pau do te cukta gu'i te skina: ''Are you a book-author or a film creator?''
 +
{{BPFK Section box close}}
  
Note that "or" doesn't really capture the Lojban here very well, because any
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 
+
=== cmavo: gi (GI) ===
tanru FLC is legal here, but it's about the best we can do.
 
 
 
Artificial Example:
 
 
 
;.i pau do te cukta gu'i te skina:Are you a book-author or a film creator?
 
 
 
=== cmavo: gi (GI) ===
 
 
 
====  Proposed Definition ====
 
  
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 
Seperates the first from the second clause in a general FLC construct.
 
Seperates the first from the second clause in a general FLC construct.
 
 
Converts a non-logical connective into a coordinating conjunction.
 
Converts a non-logical connective into a coordinating conjunction.
  
==== See Also ====
+
==== See Also ====
 
 
 
* {ga}
 
* {ga}
 
* {ge}
 
* {ge}
 
 
* {go}
 
* {go}
 
* {gu}
 
* {gu}
 
 
* {ge'i}
 
* {ge'i}
  
==== Proposed Keywords ====
+
==== Proposed Keywords ====
 
 
 
None; there's nothing like this in English except maybe comma.
 
None; there's nothing like this in English except maybe comma.
 
 
Someone suggested:
 
Someone suggested:
 
 
* coordinating, connective, conjunction, medial
 
* coordinating, connective, conjunction, medial
 
 
but but those are mentions, not uses; that is: no-one is going to look up "medial" in a dictionary and be happy that they found "gi", since it doesn't ''mean'' "medial", or anything like it.
 
but but those are mentions, not uses; that is: no-one is going to look up "medial" in a dictionary and be happy that they found "gi", since it doesn't ''mean'' "medial", or anything like it.
  
==== Usage Examples ====
+
==== Usage Examples ====
 
+
;ge nai lo xanto gi nai lo smacu cu xunryblabi: ''Neither an elephant nor a mouse is pink.''
;ge nai lo xanto gi nai lo smacu cu xunryblabi:Neither an elephant nor a mouse is pink.
+
;ganai mi gunka lo valsi gi mi zmanei la rubis.: ''If I'm working on words, then I prefer Ruby.'' (Discussion on programming languages)
 
+
;mi ge cliva gi .ai xrukla: ''I'm leaving, and I intend to come back.''
;ganai mi gunka lo valsi gi mi zmanei la rubis.:If I'm working on words, then I prefer Ruby. (Discussion on programming languages)
+
;.i ku'i pu za tavla fi joi gi lo skina gi lo skami: ''But were talking about both movies and computers''
 
 
;mi ge cliva gi .ai xrukla: I'm leaving, and I intend to come back.
 
 
 
;.i ku'i pu za tavla fi joi gi lo skina gi lo skami:But were talking about both movies and computers
 
 
 
====  Notes ====
 
  
 +
==== Notes ====
 
* "coordinating conjunction"?  Is that correct?  What doet that mean?
 
* "coordinating conjunction"?  Is that correct?  What doet that mean?
 
 
* What about the keywords?
 
* What about the keywords?
 +
{{BPFK Section box close}}
  
=== cmavo: ja (JA) ===
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 
+
=== cmavo: ja (JA) ===
====  Proposed Definition ====
 
  
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 
A general ALC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for at least one of the connected phrases.
 
A general ALC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for at least one of the connected phrases.
  
==== See Also ====
+
==== See Also ====
 
 
 
* {je}
 
* {je}
 
* {jo}
 
* {jo}
 
 
* {ju}
 
* {ju}
 
* {je'i}
 
* {je'i}
 
 
* {vlina}
 
* {vlina}
  
==== Proposed Keywords ====
+
==== Proposed Keywords ====
 
 
 
* or (general ALC, inclusive)
 
* or (general ALC, inclusive)
 
* inclusive or (general ALC)
 
* inclusive or (general ALC)
 
 
* and/or (general ALC)
 
* and/or (general ALC)
  
==== Usage Examples ====
+
==== Usage Examples ====
 
+
;ji'a ma prali sei la alis pensi fi lo cukta poi vasru no pixra ja nuncasnu: ''And what is the use, thought Alice, of a book with no pictures or conversations (or both) in it?''
;ji'a ma prali sei la alis pensi fi lo cukta poi vasru no pixra ja nuncasnu:And what is the use, thought Alice, of a book with no pictures or conversations (or both) in it?
+
;la norsmu so'i roi prije ja pemci cusku: ''Norsmu many times expresses wise or poetic (or both) things.''
 
+
;.u'i nai lo crida na kakne lo nu jimpe ja cusku bau la lojban: ''*sigh* Monsters are not able to undertand or speak Lojban.''
;la norsmu so'i roi prije ja pemci cusku:Norsmu many times expresses wise or poetic (or both) things.
+
;do cizra .ija mi bebna: ''You're strange. Or I'm foolish. Or both.''
 
 
;.u'i nai lo crida na kakne lo nu jimpe ja cusku bau la lojban:*sigh* Monsters are not able to undertand or speak Lojban.
 
 
 
;do cizra .ija mi bebna:You're strange. Or I'm foolish. Or both.
 
 
 
====  Notes ====
 
  
 +
==== Notes ====
 
*  May be combined with PU to indicate multiple tenses.
 
*  May be combined with PU to indicate multiple tenses.
 +
{{BPFK Section box close}}
  
=== cmavo: je (JA) ===
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 
+
=== cmavo: je (JA) ===
====  Proposed Definition ====
 
  
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 
A general ALC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for both of the connected phrases.
 
A general ALC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for both of the connected phrases.
  
==== See Also ====
+
==== See Also ====
 
 
 
* {ja}
 
* {ja}
 
* {jo}
 
* {jo}
 
 
* {ju}
 
* {ju}
 
* {je'i}
 
* {je'i}
 
 
* {kanxe}
 
* {kanxe}
  
==== Proposed Keywords ====
+
==== Proposed Keywords ====
 
 
 
* and (general ALC)
 
* and (general ALC)
 
* but (general ALC)
 
* but (general ALC)
 
 
* both (general ALC)
 
* both (general ALC)
  
==== Usage Examples ====
+
==== Usage Examples ====
 
 
;ku'i co'a bajra ca le nu djica ije co'u bajra ca la nu djica:But start walking when you want.  And stop walking when you want.
 
 
 
;clani je cizra cmene:That's a long and strange name.
 
 
 
;pu troci je ku'i .o'unai fliba lo zmadu:We tried but, unfortunately, failed to do more.
 
 
 
;.i ro ko ca je ba gleki .a'o:"Everybody be happy and keep being happy!"
 
 
 
;ko pilno la mymbl pu je ba lonu litru:"Use Mumble before and after travelling."
 
 
 
;le pu je ba nolraitru:"The once and future king!"
 
 
 
;mi pu je ca ca'o citka lei grasu patlu:"I was an am now in the process of eating the greasy potatoes."
 
  
==== Notes ====
+
;ku'i co'a bajra ca le nu djica ije co'u bajra ca la nu djica: ''But start walking when you want. And stop walking when you want.''
 +
;clani je cizra cmene: ''That's a long and strange name.''
 +
;pu troci je ku'i .o'unai fliba lo zmadu: ''We tried but, unfortunately, failed to do more.''
 +
;.i ro ko ca je ba gleki .a'o: ''"Everybody be happy and keep being happy!"''
 +
;ko pilno la mymbl pu je ba lonu litru: ''"Use Mumble before and after travelling."''
 +
;le pu je ba nolraitru: ''"The once and future king!"''
 +
;mi pu je ca ca'o citka lei grasu patlu: ''"I was an am now in the process of eating the greasy potatoes."''
  
 +
==== Notes ====
 
*  May be combined with PU to indicate multiple tenses.
 
*  May be combined with PU to indicate multiple tenses.
 +
{{BPFK Section box close}}
  
=== cmavo: jo (JA) ===
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 
+
=== cmavo: jo (JA) ===
====  Proposed Definition ====
 
  
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 
A general ALC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for both or neither of the connected phrases.
 
A general ALC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for both or neither of the connected phrases.
  
==== See Also ====
+
==== See Also ====
 
 
 
* {ja}
 
* {ja}
 
* {je}
 
* {je}
 
 
* {ju}
 
* {ju}
 
* {je'i}
 
* {je'i}
  
==== Proposed Keywords ====
+
==== Proposed Keywords ====
 
 
 
* if and only if (general ALC)
 
* if and only if (general ALC)
 
* iff (general ALC)
 
* iff (general ALC)
 
 
* both or neither (general ALC)
 
* both or neither (general ALC)
  
==== Usage Examples ====
+
==== Usage Examples ====
 
+
FIXME:
FIXME:  
+
;.ei troci jubo snada jo cilre: ''Either I try (whether or not I succeed) and learn, or neither.''
 
+
;da prenu jo nelci be lo'e mlatu: ''Either something is a person and likes cats, or neither.''
;.ei troci jubo snada jo cilre:Either I try (whether or not I succeed) and learn, or neither.
+
;mi kakne lo nu viska .i jo mi na sipna: ''Either I am able to look and I am not asleep, or neither.''
 
 
;da prenu jo nelci be lo'e mlatu:Either something is a person and likes cats, or neither.
 
 
 
;mi kakne lo nu viska .i jo mi na sipna:Either I am able to look and I am not asleep, or neither.
 
 
 
====  Notes ====
 
  
 +
==== Notes ====
 
*  May be combined with PU to indicate multiple tenses.
 
*  May be combined with PU to indicate multiple tenses.
 +
{{BPFK Section box close}}
  
=== cmavo cluster: jo nai (JA*) ===
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 
+
=== cmavo cluster: jo nai (JA*) ===
====  Proposed Definition ====
 
  
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 
A general ALC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for exactly one of the connected phrases.
 
A general ALC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for exactly one of the connected phrases.
  
==== See Also ====
+
==== See Also ====
 
 
 
* {ja}
 
* {ja}
 
* {je}
 
* {je}
 
 
* {jo}
 
* {jo}
 
* {ju}
 
* {ju}
 
 
* {je'i}
 
* {je'i}
 
* {nai}
 
* {nai}
  
==== Proposed Keywords ====
+
==== Proposed Keywords ====
 
 
 
* exclusive or (general ALC)
 
* exclusive or (general ALC)
 
* or (general ALC, exclusive)
 
* or (general ALC, exclusive)
  
==== Usage Examples ====
+
==== Usage Examples ====
 
+
;ko stali le'o .i jo nai gau mi fagri le do zdani: ''Stop, or I'll set your house on fire!''
;ko stali le'o .i jo nai gau mi fagri le do zdani:Stop, or I'll set your house on fire!
+
;do vitke la jbonunsla .i jo nai mabla do: ''Come to jbonunsla or you suck.''
 
+
;ko sutra cadzu .i jo nai do ba farlu: ''Walk quickly, or you will fall!''
;do vitke la jbonunsla .i jo nai mabla do:Come to jbonunsla or you suck.
+
{{BPFK Section box close}}
 
 
;ko sutra cadzu .i jo nai do ba farlu:Walk quickly, or you will fall!
 
 
 
===  cmavo: ju (JA) ===
 
  
====  Proposed Definition ====
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 +
=== cmavo: ju (JA) ===
  
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 
A general ALC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for the first of the connected phrases.
 
A general ALC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for the first of the connected phrases.
  
==== See Also ====
+
==== See Also ====
 
 
 
* {ja}
 
* {ja}
 
* {je}
 
* {je}
 
 
* {jo}
 
* {jo}
 
* {je'i}
 
* {je'i}
  
==== Proposed Keywords ====
+
==== Proposed Keywords ====
 
 
 
* whether (general connective)
 
* whether (general connective)
 
* whether or not (general connective)
 
* whether or not (general connective)
 
 
* regardless (general connective)
 
* regardless (general connective)
 
* disregardless (general connective)
 
* disregardless (general connective)
 
 
* irrespective (general connective)
 
* irrespective (general connective)
 
* no matter (general connective)
 
* no matter (general connective)
 
 
* disregarding (general connective)
 
* disregarding (general connective)
  
==== Usage Examples ====
+
==== Usage Examples ====
  
;ge mi di'i nai bilma gi ji'a mi di'i nai jibri gunki .i ju mi gleki:I'm sometimes sick and also I somtimes work.  Whether or not I'm happy.  
+
;ge mi di'i nai bilma gi ji'a mi di'i nai jibri gunki .i ju mi gleki: ''I'm sometimes sick and also I somtimes work.  Whether or not I'm happy.''
 
+
;.i ke'u mi cakla .i se ju bo mi curmi lo nu do citka mi: ''Repeating: I'm chocolate, whether or not I allow you to eat me.''
;.i ke'u mi cakla .i se ju bo mi curmi lo nu do citka mi:Repeating: I'm chocolate, whether or not I allow you to eat me.
+
;drani ju vrude: ''True, whether or not virtuous.''
 
 
;drani ju vrude:True, whether or not virtuous.
 
 
 
====  Notes ====
 
  
 +
==== Notes ====
 
*  May be combined with PU to indicate multiple tenses.
 
*  May be combined with PU to indicate multiple tenses.
 +
{{BPFK Section box close}}
  
=== cmavo: je'i (JA) ===
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 
+
=== cmavo: je'i (JA) ===
====  Proposed Definition ====
 
  
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 
The general ALC question: asks the listener to supply a general ALC that makes the containing statement true.
 
The general ALC question: asks the listener to supply a general ALC that makes the containing statement true.
  
==== See Also ====
+
==== See Also ====
 
 
 
* {ja}
 
* {ja}
 
* {je}
 
* {je}
 
 
* {jo}
 
* {jo}
 
* {ju}
 
* {ju}
 
 
* {preti}
 
* {preti}
 
* {cuxna}
 
* {cuxna}
  
==== Proposed Keywords ====
+
==== Proposed Keywords ====
 
 
 
* or (general ALC, question)
 
* or (general ALC, question)
  
==== Usage Examples ====
+
==== Usage Examples ====
 
+
;ro valsi poi pu'i je'i ka'e se pilno: ''All words can be or have been used?''
;ro valsi poi pu'i je'i ka'e se pilno:All words can be or have been used?
+
;skina je'i se tivni: ''Movie or television?''
 
+
;do bruna je'i mensi mi doi lindar: ''Are you my brother or sister, Lindar?''
;skina je'i se tivni:Movie or television?
 
 
 
;do bruna je'i mensi mi doi lindar:Are you my brother or sister, Lindar?
 
 
 
====  Notes ====
 
 
 
*  May be combined with PU to indicate multiple tenses.
 
 
 
~tc~
 
 
 
===  Proposed Definition of ''.ija'' ===
 
 
 
;'''.ija''' (JA*): sentence or -- logical connective: sentence afterthought or --
 
 
 
** Keywords:
 
 
 
===  Examples of ''.ija'' Usage ===
 
 
 
===  Proposed Definition of ''.ije'' ===
 
  
;'''.ije''' (JA*): sentence and -- logical connective: sentence afterthought and --
+
==== Notes ====
 +
* May be combined with PU to indicate multiple tenses.
 +
{{BPFK Section box close}}
  
** Keywords:
 
  
===  Examples of ''.ije'' Usage ===
 
  
=== Proposed Definition of ''.ije'i'' ===
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 +
=== cmavo: .ija (JA*) ===
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 +
sentence or -- logical connective: sentence afterthought or --
 +
{{BPFK Section box close}}
  
;'''.ije'i''' (JA*): sentence conn ? -- logical connective: sentence afterthought conn question --
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 +
=== cmavo: .ije (JA*) ===
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 +
sentence and -- logical connective: sentence afterthought and --
 +
{{BPFK Section box close}}
  
** Keywords:
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 +
cmavo: .ije'i (JA*)
 +
==== Proposed Definition ====
 +
sentence conn ? -- logical connective: sentence afterthought conn question --
 +
{{BPFK Section box close}}
  
=== Examples of ''.ije'i'' Usage ===
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 +
cmavo: .ijo (JA*)
 +
====Proposed Definition ====
 +
sentence iff -- logical connective: sentence afterthought biconditional/iff/if-and-only-if --
 +
{{BPFK Section box close}}
  
=== Proposed Definition of ''.ijo'' ===
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 +
cmavo: .iju (JA*)
 +
====Proposed Definition ====
 +
sentence whether -- logical connective: sentence afterthought whether-or-not --
 +
{{BPFK Section box close}}
  
;'''.ijo''' (JA*): sentence iff -- logical connective: sentence afterthought biconditional/iff/if-and-only-if --
 
  
** Keywords:
 
  
===  Examples of ''.ijo'' Usage ===
 
  
===  Proposed Definition of ''.iju'' ===
 
  
;'''.iju''' (JA*): sentence whether -- logical connective: sentence afterthought whether-or-not --
+
{{BPFK Section box open}}
 +
=== cmavo: xxx (SELMAHO) ===
  
** Keywords:
+
==== Proposed Definition ====
  
=== Examples of ''.iju'' Usage ===
+
==== See Also ====
  
~/tc~
+
==== Proposed Keywords ====
  
~tc~
+
==== Usage Examples ====
  
=== cmavo: xxx (SELMAHO) ===
+
==== Notes ====
  
==== Proposed Definition ====
+
==== Issues ====
 +
{{BPFK Section box close}}
  
====  See Also ====
 
  
====  Proposed Keywords ====
 
  
====  Usage Examples ====
+
==Relevant prior discussions ==
  
====  Notes ====
+
=== Syntax ===
 
 
====  Issues ====
 
 
 
~/tc~
 
 
 
== Relevant prior discussions ==
 
 
 
===  Syntax ===
 
 
 
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/575ef0d0130f5dfa/fbc21c895ea7e7db]<br />
 
  
 +
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/575ef0d0130f5dfa/fbc21c895ea7e7db]<br>
 
A parser bug that causes ''li revo .a li pare'' to not be recognized, because it needs LALR(2).
 
A parser bug that causes ''li revo .a li pare'' to not be recognized, because it needs LALR(2).
  
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/131b44ba66d8a108/bac4b378caafbdeb]<br />
+
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/131b44ba66d8a108/bac4b378caafbdeb]<br>
 
 
 
Unification of all logical connectives into selma'o JA.
 
Unification of all logical connectives into selma'o JA.
  
[http://www.lojban.org/tiki/tiki-index.php?page=Allow+forethought+sumti+tail+connection roposal] to allow FLC tanru conn inside of gadri. (this already seems to work by some parsers)
+
[[http://www.lojban.org/tiki/Allow+forethought+sumti+tail+connection|Proposal]] to allow FLC tanru conn inside of gadri. (this already seems to work by some parsers)
 
 
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/29ca7d8d4ac7b045/47216c973d48c8ae]<br />
 
  
 +
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/29ca7d8d4ac7b045/47216c973d48c8ae]<br>
 
A proposal for a new “narrative connective”.
 
A proposal for a new “narrative connective”.
  
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/654fd661714280ab/d86c7be1eaea0f6c]<br />
+
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/654fd661714280ab/d86c7be1eaea0f6c]<br>
 
 
 
A proposal for adding GI+JOI as a gihek.
 
A proposal for adding GI+JOI as a gihek.
  
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/4b186a2b0ee97300/6ff8942d86acdf3b]<br />
+
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/4b186a2b0ee97300/6ff8942d86acdf3b]<br>
 
 
 
NUhU_gap as a cheat to avoid having more logical connectives.
 
NUhU_gap as a cheat to avoid having more logical connectives.
  
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/c5c29b58f5b55844/b066953d785461c5]<br />
+
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/c5c29b58f5b55844/b066953d785461c5]<br>
 
 
 
Proposal: allow jeks wherever joiks are allowed
 
Proposal: allow jeks wherever joiks are allowed
  
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/417d12c084a1f1b1/58c543b6edd9c5bb]<br />
+
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/417d12c084a1f1b1/58c543b6edd9c5bb]<br>
 
 
 
A Zipfean argument against making ji the tanru afterthought connective question
 
A Zipfean argument against making ji the tanru afterthought connective question
  
[http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/jboske/message/3026]<br />
+
[http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/jboske/message/3026]<br>
 
 
 
Inconsistent order of logical connectives with different types of tags
 
Inconsistent order of logical connectives with different types of tags
  
[http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/jboske/message/2665]<br />
+
[http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/jboske/message/2665]<br>
 
 
 
Inconsistency in the syntax of tanru-internal forethought logical connectives
 
Inconsistency in the syntax of tanru-internal forethought logical connectives
  
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/93fb5ae01c9004d2/5c32c8805e30dadf]<br />
+
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/93fb5ae01c9004d2/5c32c8805e30dadf]<br>
 
 
 
A change proposal so that geks can be used in both bridi-tails and sentences.
 
A change proposal so that geks can be used in both bridi-tails and sentences.
  
=== Semantics ===
+
=== Semantics ===
 
 
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/9a6093d2f3b8fc1c/db7aeb8673367cc9]<br />
 
  
 +
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/9a6093d2f3b8fc1c/db7aeb8673367cc9]<br>
 
Whether or not jeks in tanru in description sumti can be expanded to eks between sumti.
 
Whether or not jeks in tanru in description sumti can be expanded to eks between sumti.
  
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/74ebb9b641d29581/da2e404d84be9713]<br />
+
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/74ebb9b641d29581/da2e404d84be9713]<br>
 
 
 
What is the meaning of SE + logical connective, when the SE is something other than se?
 
What is the meaning of SE + logical connective, when the SE is something other than se?
  
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/d16e34b4b7a6b86d/1218a918bc69ff13]<br />
+
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/d16e34b4b7a6b86d/1218a918bc69ff13]<br>
 
 
 
All logical connectives expand to bridi logical connection.
 
All logical connectives expand to bridi logical connection.
  
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/fb116c898bffaf40/bd23fe39e5ea494e]<br />
+
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/fb116c898bffaf40/bd23fe39e5ea494e]<br>
 
 
 
On the relationship between logical connectives and quantifiers.
 
On the relationship between logical connectives and quantifiers.
  
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/648a3ad2bf6d5a4c/69788377c36fc3a4]<br />
+
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/648a3ad2bf6d5a4c/69788377c36fc3a4]<br>
 
 
 
In tense constructs, what binds more tightly of connectives or modifiers?
 
In tense constructs, what binds more tightly of connectives or modifiers?
  
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/411b216008b6bc2e/cb1f5031b8b8c301]<br />
+
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/411b216008b6bc2e/cb1f5031b8b8c301]<br>
 
 
 
How do logical connectives interact with intensional descriptions?
 
How do logical connectives interact with intensional descriptions?
  
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/68ea52479af6de13/f181255b8a32e345]<br />
+
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/68ea52479af6de13/f181255b8a32e345]<br>
 
 
 
SE + logical connective, when the SE is something other than se, is nonsense
 
SE + logical connective, when the SE is something other than se, is nonsense
  
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/928ecca8e7cab2a0/d25e56fc00f677c6]<br />
+
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/928ecca8e7cab2a0/d25e56fc00f677c6]<br>
 
 
 
How do quantified tenses work when they tag a sumti with logical connectives?
 
How do quantified tenses work when they tag a sumti with logical connectives?
  
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/f118dc3d365bef06/a58f848ee6a9c0dd]<br />
+
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/f118dc3d365bef06/a58f848ee6a9c0dd]<br>
 
 
 
How do logical connectives interact with intensional descriptions?
 
How do logical connectives interact with intensional descriptions?
  
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/1d9caabd2b8abc3/0e21d7388838e537]<br />
+
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/1d9caabd2b8abc3/0e21d7388838e537]<br>
 
 
 
The use of da'i in hypothetical implications
 
The use of da'i in hypothetical implications
  
=== Scope ===
+
=== Scope ===
 
+
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/f93bfd5b099a3487/2797d3b6427230d3]<br>
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/f93bfd5b099a3487/2797d3b6427230d3]<br />
 
 
 
 
Do variables scope over logical connectives?
 
Do variables scope over logical connectives?
  
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/14b46750fb6f29a4/e39efe9efead6469]<br />
+
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/14b46750fb6f29a4/e39efe9efead6469]<br>
 
 
 
How far does the scope of a prenex extend?
 
How far does the scope of a prenex extend?
  
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/860de16cdfa5222e/963d9a1f874f313f]<br />
+
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/860de16cdfa5222e/963d9a1f874f313f]<br>
 
+
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/60ba8c5338249aee/99bd5da231aef65d]<br>
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/60ba8c5338249aee/99bd5da231aef65d]<br />
+
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/c246dc4fe8d77681/218f03984b1085ff]<br>
 
+
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/792da8bce6712834/6dfc1081a1b7d907]<br>
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/c246dc4fe8d77681/218f03984b1085ff]<br />
 
 
 
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/792da8bce6712834/6dfc1081a1b7d907]<br />
 
 
 
 
Imperative connectives. What is the Lojban translation of “Stop, or I'll shoot”? Do imperatives scope over ijeks?
 
Imperative connectives. What is the Lojban translation of “Stop, or I'll shoot”? Do imperatives scope over ijeks?
  
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/6d04858f0ee8153b/e08e347f0d2b66a9]<br />
+
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/6d04858f0ee8153b/e08e347f0d2b66a9]<br>
 
 
 
zo'e doesn't preserve identity across logical connectives.
 
zo'e doesn't preserve identity across logical connectives.
  
=== Distribution/expansion ===
+
=== Distribution/expansion ===
 
+
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/9a6093d2f3b8fc1c/db7aeb8673367cc9]<br>
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/9a6093d2f3b8fc1c/db7aeb8673367cc9]<br />
 
 
 
 
Distribution of connectives in tanru
 
Distribution of connectives in tanru
  
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/490556aeccff6444/296d026d3ccc0710]<br />
+
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/490556aeccff6444/296d026d3ccc0710]<br>
 
 
 
Distribution of sumti logical connectives
 
Distribution of sumti logical connectives
  
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/84f40bcff10a6955/51747f4034c8110e]<br />
+
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/84f40bcff10a6955/51747f4034c8110e]<br>
 
 
 
Distribution of tanru modification over logical connectives
 
Distribution of tanru modification over logical connectives
  
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/cb26a0e38c54dab8/d38cd375b2298397]<br />
+
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/cb26a0e38c54dab8/d38cd375b2298397]<br>
 
 
 
Distribution of sumti logical connectives
 
Distribution of sumti logical connectives
  
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/9a6093d2f3b8fc1c/21750dfb5f267039]<br />
+
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/9a6093d2f3b8fc1c/21750dfb5f267039]<br>
 
 
 
Distributive or non-distributive grouping of tanru-internal logical connectives
 
Distributive or non-distributive grouping of tanru-internal logical connectives
  
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/1f589af7e00ce19a/7f7cac5a3d73981c]<br />
+
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/1f589af7e00ce19a/7f7cac5a3d73981c]<br>
 
 
 
Logical connectives can't expand out of abstractions, which are referentially opaque
 
Logical connectives can't expand out of abstractions, which are referentially opaque
  
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/5eca5ed131b1a814/e026184d79ff8fb8]<br />
+
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/5eca5ed131b1a814/e026184d79ff8fb8]<br>
 
 
 
Tense logical connection is expandable
 
Tense logical connection is expandable
  
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/490556aeccff6444/d3c617d936314822]<br />
+
[http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/490556aeccff6444/d3c617d936314822]<br>
 
 
 
What is the correct expansion of a bridi where multiple of the arguments have logical connectives?
 
What is the correct expansion of a bridi where multiple of the arguments have logical connectives?
  
== Other Crap ==
+
== Other Crap ==
 +
* [http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/63e514db05e398d8 Interaction with SE].
 +
* [http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/ca5384a8f40d4780 counterfactuals]
  
* [http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/63e514db05e398d8 nteraction with SE].
+
== General Notes ==
* [http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/ca5384a8f40d4780 ounterfactuals]
 
 
 
== General Notes ==
 
  
 
* We need a way to easily say "would you like cream or sugar or a donut?" using ji or similar.  I *think* this is straightforward, but this is a note to think about it.
 
* We need a way to easily say "would you like cream or sugar or a donut?" using ji or similar.  I *think* this is straightforward, but this is a note to think about it.
 
+
There was a [http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/e7c1e5c684aa92c3/f1f9ac53ed6910eb recent discussion] of this that had people present their different solutions. There are two types: the one with {ji} and the ones with choice from a set.<br>
There was a [http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_thread/thread/e7c1e5c684aa92c3/f1f9ac53ed6910eb ecent discussion] of this that had people present their different solutions. There are two types: the one with {ji} and the ones with choice from a set.<br />
+
do djica A ji B ji C ...
 
+
The helpful answers can all be covered with "(na).e(nai) .e(nai) ..."<br>
do djica A ji B ji C ...  
+
<br>
 
+
''A B zo'u do djica ma''<br>
The helpful answers can all be covered with "(na).e(nai) .e(nai) ..."<br />
+
''do djica ma poi cmima A ce B ce C ce ...''<br>
 
+
''do djica ma poi me A .a B .a C .a ... ''<br>
<br />
+
The answers "A", "B", "C", ..., "A joi B", ... "noda", "roda". And if you want to be less than helpful: "pada", "su'oda", "me'ida", and so on.<br>
 
 
''A B zo'u do djica ma''<br />
 
 
 
''do djica ma poi cmima A ce B ce C ce ...''<br />
 
 
 
''do djica ma poi me A .a B .a C .a ... ''<br />
 
 
 
The answers "A", "B", "C", ..., "A joi B", ... "noda", "roda". And if you want to be less than helpful: "pada", "su'oda", "me'ida", and so on.<br />
 
  
 
* How do you reply to {do djica lo ladru ji nai lo sakta} if you want both?  Again, might be obvious/well understood, but could use checking.
 
* How do you reply to {do djica lo ladru ji nai lo sakta} if you want both?  Again, might be obvious/well understood, but could use checking.
 
 
According to xorxes and mark shoulson (in the thread linked above) the answer is .eja'ai, using {ja'ai} aka the cmavo affirmer.
 
According to xorxes and mark shoulson (in the thread linked above) the answer is .eja'ai, using {ja'ai} aka the cmavo affirmer.
  
 
* what does {mi djica lo ladru .e nai lo sakta na .e lo titnanba}  mean (double negative)?
 
* what does {mi djica lo ladru .e nai lo sakta na .e lo titnanba}  mean (double negative)?

Latest revision as of 22:54, 9 February 2015

This page is imported from version 83 of the page BPFK Section: Logical Connectives from the lojban Tiki.

Contents

Proposed Tags

These are words that might be used pedagogically to mark these word types per [1].

  • (sumti/bridi-tail/general) afterthought logical connective, which we're just calling ALC
    • We might want to come up with something better than "bridi-tail" there.
    • needs a Lojban equivalent?
    • some piece of documentation needs to specify what "general ALC" actually can connect
  • (tanru/general) forethought logical connective (FLC)
    • some piece of documentation needs to specify what "general FLC" actually can connect
    • needs a Lojban equivalent?

Notes

  • Should we do ijeks as well as jeks? That would simplify the jek definitions, but should we bother?
  • Unlimited forethought connection would be really nice. This would need a new cmavo something like {bei}, for all but the last connection. So {ge ko'a gi ko'e} is unchanged, but {ge ko'a gi'oi ko'e gi ko'i} means the same as {ko'a .e ko'e .e ko'i}. {gi} marks "this is the last branch of the next-outer-most FLC".
    • < ksion> Plus probably a terminator in case you forgot saying {gi} before the last argument. < ksion> (That's mostly for speech convienience though).
  • Since all LC are theoretically syntactic sugar for {.i JA}, how to GOhA interact with them?
    • Example: {ko'a brode gi'e broda} -- what's {go'i} after that? {ko'a broda}? Or {ko'a brode gi'e broda} whatever that means as single bridi.
  • Also {vo'A}. What does {ko'a broda ko'e gi'e brode ko'i vo'e} mean? Does {vo'e} refer to {ko'e} or {ko'i}?
    • In most cases it probably should be "refers to the bridi it itself is embedded in".
  • What is the meaning of SE + logical connective, when the SE is something other than {se}?
  • There are gismu equivalents of A and E, but not O and U. This seems unfortunate. Does {nibli} count as an equiv of O?
    • We've apparently known this for a while; see [2]
  • Speaking of which, what do {kanxe} and {vlina} actually mean? Is {le kanxe be ko'a bei ko'e cu broda} semantically equivalent to {ko'a .e ko'e cu broda}? If not, what *is* it semantically equivalent to?
    • Yet another use/mention problem in the gismu. How many does that make?
    • ksion in #lojban suggests: {la'e lu ko'a broda .ije ko'a brode li'u cu kanxe lo du'u ko'a broda kei lo du'u ko'a brode}, which is horrible; I (camgusmis) would rather redefine than be stuck with shit like that.
    • {i lo du'u ge broda gi brode cu kanxe lo du'u broda kei lo du'u brode} from dbrock; same thing
  • xorxes had a proposal that replaces all the logical connectives with JA, which is rather impressive. See [3]
    • selpa'i has a similar proposal which doesn't overload {gi}: [4]
  • All of the definitions need Lindar's touch - I mean, they need expanding into something more, um, conversational English. - .aionys., at prompting from arj.
  • Order of operations for multiple sumti connectives in a bridi needs to be resolved. Is {ko'a .a ko'e broda fo'a .e fo'e} the same as {ko'a broda fo'a .e fo'e .i ja ko'e broda fo'a .e fo'e} (LtR) or is it {ko'a .a ko'e broda fo'a .i je ko'a .a ko'e broda fo'e} (RtL, which would be unusual, or if "and" takes precedence over "or", as in many formal systems)?
    • Here ([5]) is a page about logical connective expansions, which has a section about sumti connections. According to the jbocre to whom I asked, the LtR expansion is the correct one (see the linked page).

Impact

The current definitions are expected to have no particular impact; they should just clarify the current state.

Proposed Definitions and Examples

cmavo: .a (A)

Proposed Definition

A sumti ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for at least one of the connected sumti.

See Also

  • {.e}
  • {.o}
  • {.u}
  • {ji}
  • {vlina}

Proposed Keywords

  • or (sumti ALC, inclusive)
  • inclusive or (sumti ALC)
  • and/or (sumti ALC)

Usage Examples

.i ju'o la .alis. .a la .bab. djuno
I’m sure Alice or Bob knows.
.i mi na ponse lo jdini .a lo kacma
I have neither money nor a camera.


cmavo: .e (A)

Proposed Definition

A sumti ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for each of the connected sumti.

See Also

  • {.a}
  • {.o}
  • {.u}
  • {ji}
  • {kanxe}

Proposed Keywords

  • and (sumti ALC)
  • but (sumti ALC)
  • both (sumti ALC)

Usage Examples

.i makfa do .e nai mi
Magic to you but not to me.


cmavo: .o (A)

Proposed Definition

A sumti ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for both or neither of the connected sumti.

See Also

  • {.a}
  • {.e}
  • {.u}
  • {ji}

Proposed Keywords:

  • if and only if (sumti ALC)
  • iff (sumti ALC)
  • both or neither (sumti ALC)

Usage Examples

.i mi djica tu'a lo jipci .o lo finpe
I want chicken if and only if I want fish. (This might be implied in English anyway using "if" instead of "if and only if")
.i mi .o la .alis. salci
Alice and I will both celebrate, or neither of us will.


cmavo cluster: .o nai (A*)

Proposed Definition

A sumti ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for exactly one of the connected sumti.

See Also

  • {.a}
  • {.e}
  • {.o}
  • {.u}
  • {ji}
  • {nai}

Proposed Keywords:

  • exclusive or (sumti ALC)
  • or (sumti ALC, exclusive)

Usage Examples

do onai lo drata ba pinxe
Either you or another, but not both, will drink.
do ca tadni lo samske .onai lo cmaci
You are either studying computer science or math.
do kakne lenu pilno le barda skami .onai le cmalu skami ku ma
Under what conditions are you able to use either a big computer or a small computer, but not both?


cmavo: .u (A)

Proposed Definition

A sumti ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for the first of connected sumti.

See Also

  • {.a}
  • {.e}
  • {.o}
  • {ji}

Proposed Keywords:

  • whether (sumti connective)
  • whether or not (sumti connective)
  • regardless (sumti connective)
  • disregardless (sumti connective)
  • irrespective (sumti connective)
  • no matter (sumti connective)
  • disregarding (sumti connective)

Usage Examples

mi citka lo cirla .u lo nanba
I eat cheese whether or not I eat bread.
fanza mi u do
That annoys me whether or not it annoys you.
mi nelci la jbovlaste se .u nai la .noraluj.
I like jbovlaste, or I like neither jbovlaste nor noralujv.
.i mi djica tu'a lo jipci .u lo finpe
I want chicken whether or not I want the fish.


cmavo: ji (A)

Proposed Definition

The sumti ALC question: asks the listener to supply a sumti ALC that makes the containing bridi true.

See Also

  • {.a}
  • {.e}
  • {.o}
  • {.u}
  • {preti}
  • {cuxna}

Proposed Keywords

  • or (sumti ALC, question)

Usage Examples

Note that "or" doesn't really capture the Lojban here very well, because any sumti ALC is legal here, but it's about the best we can do.

.i do pinxe lo ckafi ji lo tcati .i na .e
Are you drinking coffee or tea? — The latter.
.i doi .bancus. pau le cmene be do cu srana lo'u ban cus le'u ji zo bancu
Bancus, is your name related to “ban cus” or to “bancu”?


cmavo: ga (GA)

Proposed Definition

A general FLC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for at least one of the connected phrases.

See Also

  • {ge}
  • {go}
  • {gu}
  • {ge'i}
  • {gi}
  • {vlina}

Proposed Keywords

  • or (general FLC, inclusive)
  • inclusive or (general FLC)
  • and/or (general FLC)

Usage Examples

ga le jintyke'a cu mutce le ka condi gi abu mutce le ka masno le nu farlu
Either the well was very deep or Alice was falling very slowly.
.ue sai ga mi xamgu se funca gi ti na mutce vlipa
Either I'm lucky, or that's not very powerful, or both.
.i .u'u ga lo se cpedu cu na cumki gi do snada lo nu cfipu mi
I'm sorry, either that request is not possible, or you've succeeded at confusing me, or both.


cmavo: ge (GA)

Proposed Definition

A general FLC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for both of the connected phrases.

See Also

  • {ga}
  • {go}
  • {gu}
  • {ge'i}
  • {gi}
  • {kanxe}

Proposed Keywords

  • and (general FLC)
  • but (general FLC)
  • both (general FLC)

Usage Examples

abu tolmorji le nu ge abu ca kilto la ractu le ka barda giseki'ubo noda krinu le nu terpa ry
Alice forgot that she was a thousand times bigger than Rabbit and therefore had no reason to fear it.
la .zim. la .gr. ge mulno se selfu gi minde lo za'i morsi
Zim is completely the master of Gr, and commands Gr to cause death.


cmavo: go (GA)

Proposed Definition

A general FLC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for both or neither of the connected phrases.

See Also

  • {ga}
  • {ge}
  • {gu}
  • {gi}
  • {ge'i}

Proposed Keywords

  • if and only if (general FLC)
  • iff (general FLC)
  • both or neither (general FLC)

Usage Examples

go mi na ponse lo cidja gi mi nitcu lonu klama lo cidrjpitsa zarci
I need to go to the pizza store if and only if I don't have any food.
ro da ro de zo'u go da de mamta gi da fetsi gi'e rirni de
For all X and Y, X is the mother of Y if and only if X is female and reared Y.
.i'e go tolju'i gi ju'o ru'e cliva
Yeah, if [you're] ignoring [us?], [you] should maybe leave.


cmavo cluster: go nai (GA*)

Proposed Definition

A general FLC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for exactly one of the connected phrases.

See Also

  • {ga}
  • {ge}
  • {go}
  • {gu}
  • {gi}
  • {ge'i}
  • {nai}

Proposed Keywords

  • exclusive or (sumti ALC)
  • or (sumti ALC, exclusive)

Usage Examples

gonai do sarji mi gi do sarji lo sonci
You're either with us or with the soldiers.
gonai mi dunda le cidja gi le bifce ba nelci mi
Either I give food or the bees won't like me.
gonai vi mi snime carvi gi mi fenki
Either it's snowing here or I'm crazy.


cmavo: gu (GA)

Proposed Definition

A general FLC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for the first of the connected phrases.

See Also

  • {ga}
  • {ge}
  • {go}
  • {gi}
  • {ge'i}

Proposed Keywords

  • whether (sumti FLC)
  • whether or not (sumti FLC)
  • regardless (sumti FLC)
  • disregardless (sumti FLC)
  • irrespective (sumti FLC)
  • no matter (sumti FLC)
  • disregarding (sumti FLC)

Usage Examples

.i .ia mi pu na'e sanji krici lo du'u se gu li'a mutce xamgu gi la'a na'e mutce zdile ja cinri
I think I was unconsciously believing that, whether or not it was clearly very good, it probably wasn’t very amusing or interesting.
.i gu srana gi to'e melbi
It's relevant, whether or not it's ugly.
lo nu do kakne lo nu ciksi bau la .lojban. cu se gu nandu gi se jgira ko
Being able to explain it in Lojban should, whether or not it is difficult, make you feel pride.


cmavo: ge'i (GA)

Proposed Definition

The general FLC question: asks the listener to supply a FLC that makes the containing statement true.

See Also

  • {ga}
  • {ge}
  • {go}
  • {gu}
  • {gi}
  • {preti}
  • {cuxna}

Proposed Keywords

  • or (general FLC, question)

Usage Examples

Note that "or" doesn't really capture the Lojban very well, because any general FLC is legal here, but it's about the best we can do.

do zanru ge'i lo du'u na pinka gi lo mi gunka stuzi
Do you approve of me not commenting or of my workplace?
doi .timos. la .xongcun. cu ge'i du le de'u pendo be do gi jimpe fi dei 
Tim, is xongcun the friend of yours you just mentioned or capable of understanding this?
la cizra ge'i cizra gi ninmu
Is Cizra strange or a woman?


cmavo: gi'a (GIhA)

Proposed Definition

A bridi-tail ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for at least one of the connected bridi tails.

See Also

  • {gi'e}
  • {gi'o}
  • {gi'u}
  • {gi'i}

Proposed Keywords

  • or (bridi-tail ALC, inclusive)
  • inclusive or (bridi-tail ALC)
  • and/or (bridi-tail ALC)

Usage Examples

ko zifre ba'e gi'a morsi
Be free or die! Or both!
mu'a fi ko cfika gi'a pemci
For example, you should write fiction or poetry, or both.
ma nuzba gi'a se zukte do doi timonator
What's new or being done by you, Timonator?


cmavo: gi'e (GIhA)

Proposed Definition

A bridi-tail ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for both of the connected bridi tails.

See Also

  • {gi'a}
  • {gi'o}
  • {gi'u}
  • {gi'i}

Proposed Keywords

  • and (sumti ALC)
  • but (sumti ALC)
  • both (sumti ALC)

Usage Examples

baziku la alis mo'ine'i jersi ry gi'e noroi pensi le du'u ta'iba'e makau abu ba za'ure'u bartu
Shortly, Alice chased R inside, and never thought about how she would get out again.
mi sanli gi'e cortu lo xadni trixe
I stand and feel pain in the back of my body.
le i'u dargu cu clani gi'e jai nandu
The familiar road is long and difficult.


cmavo: gi'o (GIhA)

Proposed Definition

A bridi-tail ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for both or neither of the connected bridi tails.

See Also

  • {gi'a}
  • {gi'e}
  • {gi'u}
  • {gi'i}

Proposed Keywords

  • if and only if (bridi-tail ALC)
  • iff (bridi-tail ALC)
  • both or neither (bridi-tail ALC)

Usage Examples

fasnu gi'o pixra
Pics or it didn't happen.
ro da danlu gi'o se cidja
Everything is an animal and everything is edible, or neither.
mi rivbi tu'a le glibau gi'o tavla lo jbopre
I avoid English and I talk to Lojbanists, or neither.


cmavo cluster: gi'o nai (GIhA*)

Proposed Definition

A bridi-tail ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for exactly one of the connected bridi tails.

See Also

  • {gi'a}
  • {gi'e}
  • {gi'o}
  • {gi'u}
  • {gi'i}
  • {nai}

Proposed Keywords

  • exclusive or (sumti ALC)
  • or (sumti ALC, exclusive)

Usage Examples

pe'a le merko ca blanu gi'o nai xunre
Speaking figuratively, an American is now either Red or Blue.
.e'u nai sai zgana gi'o nai gunka
Careful! Observation or work, not both.
sipna gi'onai mrobi'o co'o
Sleep or death. Bye!


cmavo: gi'u (GIhA)

Proposed Definition

A bridi-tail ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for the first of the connected bridi tails.

See Also

  • {gi'a}
  • {gi'e}
  • {gi'o}
  • {gi'i}

Proposed Keywords

  • whether (sumti FLC)
  • whether or not (sumti FLC)
  • regardless (sumti FLC)
  • disregardless (sumti FLC)
  • irrespective (sumti FLC)
  • no matter (sumti FLC)
  • disregarding (sumti FLC)

Usage Examples

se jimpe gi'u drani
That's comprehensible, whether or not it's correct.
zo je zmadu zo .e le ka xamgu gi'u gendra
"je" is better than ".e", whether or not "je" is grammatically correct.
do skicu gi'u sanji vau la .samxarmuj.
You are describing samxarmuj, whether or not you're aware of samxarmuj's existence.


cmavo: gi'i (GIhA)

Proposed Definition

The bridi-tail ALC question: asks the listener to supply a bridi-tail ALC that makes the containing bridi true.

See Also

  • {gi'a}
  • {gi'e}
  • {gi'o}
  • {gi'u}
  • {preti}
  • {cuxna}

Proposed Keywords

  • or (bridi-tail ALC, question)

Usage Examples

Note that "or" doesn't really capture the Lojban very well, because any bridi-tail ALC is legal here, but it's about the best we can do.

pe'u doi ninmu ti nuzlo gi'i sralo
Please, miss, is this New Zealand or Australia?
do djica lo nu ba tavla la .deivid. gi'i ca tavla lo drata
Do you want to talk to David later or someone else now?
do speni gi'i se panzi
Are you married or a parent?


cmavo: gu'a (GUhA)

Proposed Definition

A tanru FLC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for at least one of the connected phrases.

See Also

  • {gu'e}
  • {gu'o}
  • {gu'u}
  • {gu'i}

Proposed Keywords

  • or (tanru FLC, inclusive)
  • inclusive or (tanru FLC)
  • and/or (tanru FLC)

Usage Examples

The only usage in the wild we could find:

.a'o la .nukis. gu'a nai troci gi na'e snada lo nu fanva di'u
I hope that nukis either does not try or other-than-succeeds at translating that.
mi gu'a jukpa gi citka lo sanmi
I either cook or eat the meal or both.


cmavo: gu'e (GUhA)

Proposed Definition

A tanru FLC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for both of the connected phrases.

See Also

  • {gu'a}
  • {gu'o}
  • {gu'u}
  • {gu'i}

Proposed Keywords

  • and (tanru FLC)
  • but (tanru FLC)
  • both (tanru FLC)

Usage Examples

.ie gu'e smuni gi nai gerna dunli
I agree, meaningful but not grammatically equivalent.
mi gu'e jmive gi xabju
I both live and dwell somewhere.


cmavo: gu'o (GUhA)

Proposed Definition

A tanru FLC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for both or neither of the connected phrases.

See Also

  • {gu'a}
  • {gu'e}
  • {gu'u}
  • {gu'i}

Proposed Keywords

  • if and only if (tanru-internal FLC)
  • iff (tanru-internal FLC)
  • both or neither (tanru-internal FLC)

Usage Examples

terpa gu'o lo za'i terpa 
( ! sole usage, incorrect ! )
.i mi nelci lo karce noi gu'o blanu gi xunre
I like cars which are any colour that isn't blue or red, unless it's blue and red simultaneously.


cmavo cluster: gu'o nai (GUhA*)

Proposed Definition

A tanru FLC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for exactly one of the connected phrases.

See Also

  • {gu'a}
  • {gu'e}
  • {gu'o}
  • {gu'u}
  • {gu'i}
  • {nai}

Proposed Keywords

  • exclusive or (tanru-internal FLC)
  • or (tanru-internal FLC)

Usage Examples

.i ko gu'o nai gasnu gi na gasnu .i lo nu troci na zasti
Do or do not. There is no try.


cmavo: gu'u (GUhA)

Proposed Definition

A tanru FLC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for the first of the connected phrases.

See Also

  • {gu'a}
  • {gu'e}
  • {gu'o}
  • {gu'i}

Proposed Keywords

  • whether (sumti connective)
  • whether or not (sumti connective)
  • regardless (sumti connective)
  • disregardless (sumti connective)
  • irrespective (sumti connective)
  • no matter (sumti connective)
  • disregarding (sumti connective)

Usage Examples

( ! no natural usage ! )

.i mi gu'u dasni be lo kosta be'o gi lenku
I wear a coat whether or not I am cold.


cmavo: gu'i (GUhA)

Proposed Definition

The tanru FLC question: asks the listener to supply a tanru FLC that makes the containing bridi true.

See Also

  • {gu'a}
  • {gu'e}
  • {gu'o}
  • {gu'u}
  • {preti}
  • {cuxna}

Proposed Keywords

  • or (tanru FLC, question)

Usage Examples

Note that "or" doesn't really capture the Lojban here very well, because any tanru FLC is legal here, but it's about the best we can do.

.i pau do te cukta gu'i te skina
Are you a book-author or a film creator?


cmavo: gi (GI)

Proposed Definition

Seperates the first from the second clause in a general FLC construct. Converts a non-logical connective into a coordinating conjunction.

See Also

  • {ga}
  • {ge}
  • {go}
  • {gu}
  • {ge'i}

Proposed Keywords

None; there's nothing like this in English except maybe comma. Someone suggested:

  • coordinating, connective, conjunction, medial

but but those are mentions, not uses; that is: no-one is going to look up "medial" in a dictionary and be happy that they found "gi", since it doesn't mean "medial", or anything like it.

Usage Examples

ge nai lo xanto gi nai lo smacu cu xunryblabi
Neither an elephant nor a mouse is pink.
ganai mi gunka lo valsi gi mi zmanei la rubis.
If I'm working on words, then I prefer Ruby. (Discussion on programming languages)
mi ge cliva gi .ai xrukla
I'm leaving, and I intend to come back.
.i ku'i pu za tavla fi joi gi lo skina gi lo skami
But were talking about both movies and computers

Notes

  • "coordinating conjunction"? Is that correct? What doet that mean?
  • What about the keywords?


cmavo: ja (JA)

Proposed Definition

A general ALC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for at least one of the connected phrases.

See Also

  • {je}
  • {jo}
  • {ju}
  • {je'i}
  • {vlina}

Proposed Keywords

  • or (general ALC, inclusive)
  • inclusive or (general ALC)
  • and/or (general ALC)

Usage Examples

ji'a ma prali sei la alis pensi fi lo cukta poi vasru no pixra ja nuncasnu
And what is the use, thought Alice, of a book with no pictures or conversations (or both) in it?
la norsmu so'i roi prije ja pemci cusku
Norsmu many times expresses wise or poetic (or both) things.
.u'i nai lo crida na kakne lo nu jimpe ja cusku bau la lojban
*sigh* Monsters are not able to undertand or speak Lojban.
do cizra .ija mi bebna
You're strange. Or I'm foolish. Or both.

Notes

  • May be combined with PU to indicate multiple tenses.


cmavo: je (JA)

Proposed Definition

A general ALC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for both of the connected phrases.

See Also

  • {ja}
  • {jo}
  • {ju}
  • {je'i}
  • {kanxe}

Proposed Keywords

  • and (general ALC)
  • but (general ALC)
  • both (general ALC)

Usage Examples

ku'i co'a bajra ca le nu djica ije co'u bajra ca la nu djica
But start walking when you want. And stop walking when you want.
clani je cizra cmene
That's a long and strange name.
pu troci je ku'i .o'unai fliba lo zmadu
We tried but, unfortunately, failed to do more.
.i ro ko ca je ba gleki .a'o
"Everybody be happy and keep being happy!"
ko pilno la mymbl pu je ba lonu litru
"Use Mumble before and after travelling."
le pu je ba nolraitru
"The once and future king!"
mi pu je ca ca'o citka lei grasu patlu
"I was an am now in the process of eating the greasy potatoes."

Notes

  • May be combined with PU to indicate multiple tenses.


cmavo: jo (JA)

Proposed Definition

A general ALC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for both or neither of the connected phrases.

See Also

  • {ja}
  • {je}
  • {ju}
  • {je'i}

Proposed Keywords

  • if and only if (general ALC)
  • iff (general ALC)
  • both or neither (general ALC)

Usage Examples

FIXME:

.ei troci jubo snada jo cilre
Either I try (whether or not I succeed) and learn, or neither.
da prenu jo nelci be lo'e mlatu
Either something is a person and likes cats, or neither.
mi kakne lo nu viska .i jo mi na sipna
Either I am able to look and I am not asleep, or neither.

Notes

  • May be combined with PU to indicate multiple tenses.


cmavo cluster: jo nai (JA*)

Proposed Definition

A general ALC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for exactly one of the connected phrases.

See Also

  • {ja}
  • {je}
  • {jo}
  • {ju}
  • {je'i}
  • {nai}

Proposed Keywords

  • exclusive or (general ALC)
  • or (general ALC, exclusive)

Usage Examples

ko stali le'o .i jo nai gau mi fagri le do zdani
Stop, or I'll set your house on fire!
do vitke la jbonunsla .i jo nai mabla do
Come to jbonunsla or you suck.
ko sutra cadzu .i jo nai do ba farlu
Walk quickly, or you will fall!


cmavo: ju (JA)

Proposed Definition

A general ALC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for the first of the connected phrases.

See Also

  • {ja}
  • {je}
  • {jo}
  • {je'i}

Proposed Keywords

  • whether (general connective)
  • whether or not (general connective)
  • regardless (general connective)
  • disregardless (general connective)
  • irrespective (general connective)
  • no matter (general connective)
  • disregarding (general connective)

Usage Examples

ge mi di'i nai bilma gi ji'a mi di'i nai jibri gunki .i ju mi gleki
I'm sometimes sick and also I somtimes work. Whether or not I'm happy.
.i ke'u mi cakla .i se ju bo mi curmi lo nu do citka mi
Repeating: I'm chocolate, whether or not I allow you to eat me.
drani ju vrude
True, whether or not virtuous.

Notes

  • May be combined with PU to indicate multiple tenses.


cmavo: je'i (JA)

Proposed Definition

The general ALC question: asks the listener to supply a general ALC that makes the containing statement true.

See Also

  • {ja}
  • {je}
  • {jo}
  • {ju}
  • {preti}
  • {cuxna}

Proposed Keywords

  • or (general ALC, question)

Usage Examples

ro valsi poi pu'i je'i ka'e se pilno
All words can be or have been used?
skina je'i se tivni
Movie or television?
do bruna je'i mensi mi doi lindar
Are you my brother or sister, Lindar?

Notes

  • May be combined with PU to indicate multiple tenses.



cmavo: .ija (JA*)

Proposed Definition

sentence or -- logical connective: sentence afterthought or --


cmavo: .ije (JA*)

Proposed Definition

sentence and -- logical connective: sentence afterthought and --


cmavo: .ije'i (JA*)

Proposed Definition

sentence conn ? -- logical connective: sentence afterthought conn question --


cmavo: .ijo (JA*)

Proposed Definition

sentence iff -- logical connective: sentence afterthought biconditional/iff/if-and-only-if --


cmavo: .iju (JA*)

Proposed Definition

sentence whether -- logical connective: sentence afterthought whether-or-not --




cmavo: xxx (SELMAHO)

Proposed Definition

See Also

Proposed Keywords

Usage Examples

Notes

Issues

Relevant prior discussions

Syntax

[6]
A parser bug that causes li revo .a li pare to not be recognized, because it needs LALR(2).

[7]
Unification of all logical connectives into selma'o JA.

[[8]] to allow FLC tanru conn inside of gadri. (this already seems to work by some parsers)

[9]
A proposal for a new “narrative connective”.

[10]
A proposal for adding GI+JOI as a gihek.

[11]
NUhU_gap as a cheat to avoid having more logical connectives.

[12]
Proposal: allow jeks wherever joiks are allowed

[13]
A Zipfean argument against making ji the tanru afterthought connective question

[14]
Inconsistent order of logical connectives with different types of tags

[15]
Inconsistency in the syntax of tanru-internal forethought logical connectives

[16]
A change proposal so that geks can be used in both bridi-tails and sentences.

Semantics

[17]
Whether or not jeks in tanru in description sumti can be expanded to eks between sumti.

[18]
What is the meaning of SE + logical connective, when the SE is something other than se?

[19]
All logical connectives expand to bridi logical connection.

[20]
On the relationship between logical connectives and quantifiers.

[21]
In tense constructs, what binds more tightly of connectives or modifiers?

[22]
How do logical connectives interact with intensional descriptions?

[23]
SE + logical connective, when the SE is something other than se, is nonsense

[24]
How do quantified tenses work when they tag a sumti with logical connectives?

[25]
How do logical connectives interact with intensional descriptions?

[26]
The use of da'i in hypothetical implications

Scope

[27]
Do variables scope over logical connectives?

[28]
How far does the scope of a prenex extend?

[29]
[30]
[31]
[32]
Imperative connectives. What is the Lojban translation of “Stop, or I'll shoot”? Do imperatives scope over ijeks?

[33]
zo'e doesn't preserve identity across logical connectives.

Distribution/expansion

[34]
Distribution of connectives in tanru

[35]
Distribution of sumti logical connectives

[36]
Distribution of tanru modification over logical connectives

[37]
Distribution of sumti logical connectives

[38]
Distributive or non-distributive grouping of tanru-internal logical connectives

[39]
Logical connectives can't expand out of abstractions, which are referentially opaque

[40]
Tense logical connection is expandable

[41]
What is the correct expansion of a bridi where multiple of the arguments have logical connectives?

Other Crap

General Notes

  • We need a way to easily say "would you like cream or sugar or a donut?" using ji or similar. I *think* this is straightforward, but this is a note to think about it.

There was a recent discussion of this that had people present their different solutions. There are two types: the one with {ji} and the ones with choice from a set.
do djica A ji B ji C ... The helpful answers can all be covered with "(na).e(nai) .e(nai) ..."

A B zo'u do djica ma
do djica ma poi cmima A ce B ce C ce ...
do djica ma poi me A .a B .a C .a ...
The answers "A", "B", "C", ..., "A joi B", ... "noda", "roda". And if you want to be less than helpful: "pada", "su'oda", "me'ida", and so on.

  • How do you reply to {do djica lo ladru ji nai lo sakta} if you want both? Again, might be obvious/well understood, but could use checking.

According to xorxes and mark shoulson (in the thread linked above) the answer is .eja'ai, using {ja'ai} aka the cmavo affirmer.

  • what does {mi djica lo ladru .e nai lo sakta na .e lo titnanba} mean (double negative)?