BPFK Section: Logical Connectives

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This page is imported from version 83 of the page BPFK Section: Logical Connectives from the lojban Tiki.

Contents

Proposed Tags

These are words that might be used pedagogically to mark these word types per [1].

  • (sumti/bridi-tail/general) afterthought logical connective, which we're just calling ALC
    • We might want to come up with something better than "bridi-tail" there.
    • needs a Lojban equivalent?
    • some piece of documentation needs to specify what "general ALC" actually can connect
  • (tanru/general) forethought logical connective (FLC)
    • some piece of documentation needs to specify what "general FLC" actually can connect
    • needs a Lojban equivalent?

Notes

  • Should we do ijeks as well as jeks? That would simplify the jek definitions, but should we bother?
  • Unlimited forethought connection would be really nice. This would need a new cmavo something like {bei}, for all but the last connection. So {ge ko'a gi ko'e} is unchanged, but {ge ko'a gi'oi ko'e gi ko'i} means the same as {ko'a .e ko'e .e ko'i}. {gi} marks "this is the last branch of the next-outer-most FLC".
    • < ksion> Plus probably a terminator in case you forgot saying {gi} before the last argument. < ksion> (That's mostly for speech convienience though).
  • Since all LC are theoretically syntactic sugar for {.i JA}, how to GOhA interact with them?
    • Example: {ko'a brode gi'e broda} -- what's {go'i} after that? {ko'a broda}? Or {ko'a brode gi'e broda} whatever that means as single bridi.
  • Also {vo'A}. What does {ko'a broda ko'e gi'e brode ko'i vo'e} mean? Does {vo'e} refer to {ko'e} or {ko'i}?
    • In most cases it probably should be "refers to the bridi it itself is embedded in".
  • What is the meaning of SE + logical connective, when the SE is something other than {se}?
  • There are gismu equivalents of A and E, but not O and U. This seems unfortunate. Does {nibli} count as an equiv of O?
    • We've apparently known this for a while; see [2]
  • Speaking of which, what do {kanxe} and {vlina} actually mean? Is {le kanxe be ko'a bei ko'e cu broda} semantically equivalent to {ko'a .e ko'e cu broda}? If not, what *is* it semantically equivalent to?
    • Yet another use/mention problem in the gismu. How many does that make?
    • ksion in #lojban suggests: {la'e lu ko'a broda .ije ko'a brode li'u cu kanxe lo du'u ko'a broda kei lo du'u ko'a brode}, which is horrible; I (camgusmis) would rather redefine than be stuck with shit like that.
    • {i lo du'u ge broda gi brode cu kanxe lo du'u broda kei lo du'u brode} from dbrock; same thing
  • xorxes had a proposal that replaces all the logical connectives with JA, which is rather impressive. See [3]
    • selpa'i has a similar proposal which doesn't overload {gi}: [4]
  • All of the definitions need Lindar's touch - I mean, they need expanding into something more, um, conversational English. - .aionys., at prompting from arj.
  • Order of operations for multiple sumti connectives in a bridi needs to be resolved. Is {ko'a .a ko'e broda fo'a .e fo'e} the same as {ko'a broda fo'a .e fo'e .i ja ko'e broda fo'a .e fo'e} (LtR) or is it {ko'a .a ko'e broda fo'a .i je ko'a .a ko'e broda fo'e} (RtL, which would be unusual, or if "and" takes precedence over "or", as in many formal systems)?
    • Here ([5]) is a page about logical connective expansions, which has a section about sumti connections. According to the jbocre to whom I asked, the LtR expansion is the correct one (see the linked page).

Impact

The current definitions are expected to have no particular impact; they should just clarify the current state.

Proposed Definitions and Examples

cmavo: .a (A)

Proposed Definition

A sumti ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for at least one of the connected sumti.

See Also

  • {.e}
  • {.o}
  • {.u}
  • {ji}
  • {vlina}

Proposed Keywords

  • or (sumti ALC, inclusive)
  • inclusive or (sumti ALC)
  • and/or (sumti ALC)

Usage Examples

.i ju'o la .alis. .a la .bab. djuno
I’m sure Alice or Bob knows.
.i mi na ponse lo jdini .a lo kacma
I have neither money nor a camera.


cmavo: .e (A)

Proposed Definition

A sumti ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for each of the connected sumti.

See Also

  • {.a}
  • {.o}
  • {.u}
  • {ji}
  • {kanxe}

Proposed Keywords

  • and (sumti ALC)
  • but (sumti ALC)
  • both (sumti ALC)

Usage Examples

.i makfa do .e nai mi
Magic to you but not to me.


cmavo: .o (A)

Proposed Definition

A sumti ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for both or neither of the connected sumti.

See Also

  • {.a}
  • {.e}
  • {.u}
  • {ji}

Proposed Keywords:

  • if and only if (sumti ALC)
  • iff (sumti ALC)
  • both or neither (sumti ALC)

Usage Examples

.i mi djica tu'a lo jipci .o lo finpe
I want chicken if and only if I want fish. (This might be implied in English anyway using "if" instead of "if and only if")
.i mi .o la .alis. salci
Alice and I will both celebrate, or neither of us will.


cmavo cluster: .o nai (A*)

Proposed Definition

A sumti ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for exactly one of the connected sumti.

See Also

  • {.a}
  • {.e}
  • {.o}
  • {.u}
  • {ji}
  • {nai}

Proposed Keywords:

  • exclusive or (sumti ALC)
  • or (sumti ALC, exclusive)

Usage Examples

do onai lo drata ba pinxe
Either you or another, but not both, will drink.
do ca tadni lo samske .onai lo cmaci
You are either studying computer science or math.
do kakne lenu pilno le barda skami .onai le cmalu skami ku ma
Under what conditions are you able to use either a big computer or a small computer, but not both?


cmavo: .u (A)

Proposed Definition

A sumti ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for the first of connected sumti.

See Also

  • {.a}
  • {.e}
  • {.o}
  • {ji}

Proposed Keywords:

  • whether (sumti connective)
  • whether or not (sumti connective)
  • regardless (sumti connective)
  • disregardless (sumti connective)
  • irrespective (sumti connective)
  • no matter (sumti connective)
  • disregarding (sumti connective)

Usage Examples

mi citka lo cirla .u lo nanba
I eat cheese whether or not I eat bread.
fanza mi u do
That annoys me whether or not it annoys you.
mi nelci la jbovlaste se .u nai la .noraluj.
I like jbovlaste, or I like neither jbovlaste nor noralujv.
.i mi djica tu'a lo jipci .u lo finpe
I want chicken whether or not I want the fish.


cmavo: ji (A)

Proposed Definition

The sumti ALC question: asks the listener to supply a sumti ALC that makes the containing bridi true.

See Also

  • {.a}
  • {.e}
  • {.o}
  • {.u}
  • {preti}
  • {cuxna}

Proposed Keywords

  • or (sumti ALC, question)

Usage Examples

Note that "or" doesn't really capture the Lojban here very well, because any sumti ALC is legal here, but it's about the best we can do.

.i do pinxe lo ckafi ji lo tcati .i na .e
Are you drinking coffee or tea? — The latter.
.i doi .bancus. pau le cmene be do cu srana lo'u ban cus le'u ji zo bancu
Bancus, is your name related to “ban cus” or to “bancu”?


cmavo: ga (GA)

Proposed Definition

A general FLC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for at least one of the connected phrases.

See Also

  • {ge}
  • {go}
  • {gu}
  • {ge'i}
  • {gi}
  • {vlina}

Proposed Keywords

  • or (general FLC, inclusive)
  • inclusive or (general FLC)
  • and/or (general FLC)

Usage Examples

ga le jintyke'a cu mutce le ka condi gi abu mutce le ka masno le nu farlu
Either the well was very deep or Alice was falling very slowly.
.ue sai ga mi xamgu se funca gi ti na mutce vlipa
Either I'm lucky, or that's not very powerful, or both.
.i .u'u ga lo se cpedu cu na cumki gi do snada lo nu cfipu mi
I'm sorry, either that request is not possible, or you've succeeded at confusing me, or both.


cmavo: ge (GA)

Proposed Definition

A general FLC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for both of the connected phrases.

See Also

  • {ga}
  • {go}
  • {gu}
  • {ge'i}
  • {gi}
  • {kanxe}

Proposed Keywords

  • and (general FLC)
  • but (general FLC)
  • both (general FLC)

Usage Examples

abu tolmorji le nu ge abu ca kilto la ractu le ka barda giseki'ubo noda krinu le nu terpa ry
Alice forgot that she was a thousand times bigger than Rabbit and therefore had no reason to fear it.
la .zim. la .gr. ge mulno se selfu gi minde lo za'i morsi
Zim is completely the master of Gr, and commands Gr to cause death.


cmavo: go (GA)

Proposed Definition

A general FLC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for both or neither of the connected phrases.

See Also

  • {ga}
  • {ge}
  • {gu}
  • {gi}
  • {ge'i}

Proposed Keywords

  • if and only if (general FLC)
  • iff (general FLC)
  • both or neither (general FLC)

Usage Examples

go mi na ponse lo cidja gi mi nitcu lonu klama lo cidrjpitsa zarci
I need to go to the pizza store if and only if I don't have any food.
ro da ro de zo'u go da de mamta gi da fetsi gi'e rirni de
For all X and Y, X is the mother of Y if and only if X is female and reared Y.
.i'e go tolju'i gi ju'o ru'e cliva
Yeah, if [you're] ignoring [us?], [you] should maybe leave.


cmavo cluster: go nai (GA*)

Proposed Definition

A general FLC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for exactly one of the connected phrases.

See Also

  • {ga}
  • {ge}
  • {go}
  • {gu}
  • {gi}
  • {ge'i}
  • {nai}

Proposed Keywords

  • exclusive or (sumti ALC)
  • or (sumti ALC, exclusive)

Usage Examples

gonai do sarji mi gi do sarji lo sonci
You're either with us or with the soldiers.
gonai mi dunda le cidja gi le bifce ba nelci mi
Either I give food or the bees won't like me.
gonai vi mi snime carvi gi mi fenki
Either it's snowing here or I'm crazy.


cmavo: gu (GA)

Proposed Definition

A general FLC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for the first of the connected phrases.

See Also

  • {ga}
  • {ge}
  • {go}
  • {gi}
  • {ge'i}

Proposed Keywords

  • whether (sumti FLC)
  • whether or not (sumti FLC)
  • regardless (sumti FLC)
  • disregardless (sumti FLC)
  • irrespective (sumti FLC)
  • no matter (sumti FLC)
  • disregarding (sumti FLC)

Usage Examples

.i .ia mi pu na'e sanji krici lo du'u se gu li'a mutce xamgu gi la'a na'e mutce zdile ja cinri
I think I was unconsciously believing that, whether or not it was clearly very good, it probably wasn’t very amusing or interesting.
.i gu srana gi to'e melbi
It's relevant, whether or not it's ugly.
lo nu do kakne lo nu ciksi bau la .lojban. cu se gu nandu gi se jgira ko
Being able to explain it in Lojban should, whether or not it is difficult, make you feel pride.


cmavo: ge'i (GA)

Proposed Definition

The general FLC question: asks the listener to supply a FLC that makes the containing statement true.

See Also

  • {ga}
  • {ge}
  • {go}
  • {gu}
  • {gi}
  • {preti}
  • {cuxna}

Proposed Keywords

  • or (general FLC, question)

Usage Examples

Note that "or" doesn't really capture the Lojban very well, because any general FLC is legal here, but it's about the best we can do.

do zanru ge'i lo du'u na pinka gi lo mi gunka stuzi
Do you approve of me not commenting or of my workplace?
doi .timos. la .xongcun. cu ge'i du le de'u pendo be do gi jimpe fi dei 
Tim, is xongcun the friend of yours you just mentioned or capable of understanding this?
la cizra ge'i cizra gi ninmu
Is Cizra strange or a woman?


cmavo: gi'a (GIhA)

Proposed Definition

A bridi-tail ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for at least one of the connected bridi tails.

See Also

  • {gi'e}
  • {gi'o}
  • {gi'u}
  • {gi'i}

Proposed Keywords

  • or (bridi-tail ALC, inclusive)
  • inclusive or (bridi-tail ALC)
  • and/or (bridi-tail ALC)

Usage Examples

ko zifre ba'e gi'a morsi
Be free or die! Or both!
mu'a fi ko cfika gi'a pemci
For example, you should write fiction or poetry, or both.
ma nuzba gi'a se zukte do doi timonator
What's new or being done by you, Timonator?


cmavo: gi'e (GIhA)

Proposed Definition

A bridi-tail ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for both of the connected bridi tails.

See Also

  • {gi'a}
  • {gi'o}
  • {gi'u}
  • {gi'i}

Proposed Keywords

  • and (sumti ALC)
  • but (sumti ALC)
  • both (sumti ALC)

Usage Examples

baziku la alis mo'ine'i jersi ry gi'e noroi pensi le du'u ta'iba'e makau abu ba za'ure'u bartu
Shortly, Alice chased R inside, and never thought about how she would get out again.
mi sanli gi'e cortu lo xadni trixe
I stand and feel pain in the back of my body.
le i'u dargu cu clani gi'e jai nandu
The familiar road is long and difficult.


cmavo: gi'o (GIhA)

Proposed Definition

A bridi-tail ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for both or neither of the connected bridi tails.

See Also

  • {gi'a}
  • {gi'e}
  • {gi'u}
  • {gi'i}

Proposed Keywords

  • if and only if (bridi-tail ALC)
  • iff (bridi-tail ALC)
  • both or neither (bridi-tail ALC)

Usage Examples

fasnu gi'o pixra
Pics or it didn't happen.
ro da danlu gi'o se cidja
Everything is an animal and everything is edible, or neither.
mi rivbi tu'a le glibau gi'o tavla lo jbopre
I avoid English and I talk to Lojbanists, or neither.


cmavo cluster: gi'o nai (GIhA*)

Proposed Definition

A bridi-tail ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for exactly one of the connected bridi tails.

See Also

  • {gi'a}
  • {gi'e}
  • {gi'o}
  • {gi'u}
  • {gi'i}
  • {nai}

Proposed Keywords

  • exclusive or (sumti ALC)
  • or (sumti ALC, exclusive)

Usage Examples

pe'a le merko ca blanu gi'o nai xunre
Speaking figuratively, an American is now either Red or Blue.
.e'u nai sai zgana gi'o nai gunka
Careful! Observation or work, not both.
sipna gi'onai mrobi'o co'o
Sleep or death. Bye!


cmavo: gi'u (GIhA)

Proposed Definition

A bridi-tail ALC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for the first of the connected bridi tails.

See Also

  • {gi'a}
  • {gi'e}
  • {gi'o}
  • {gi'i}

Proposed Keywords

  • whether (sumti FLC)
  • whether or not (sumti FLC)
  • regardless (sumti FLC)
  • disregardless (sumti FLC)
  • irrespective (sumti FLC)
  • no matter (sumti FLC)
  • disregarding (sumti FLC)

Usage Examples

se jimpe gi'u drani
That's comprehensible, whether or not it's correct.
zo je zmadu zo .e le ka xamgu gi'u gendra
"je" is better than ".e", whether or not "je" is grammatically correct.
do skicu gi'u sanji vau la .samxarmuj.
You are describing samxarmuj, whether or not you're aware of samxarmuj's existence.


cmavo: gi'i (GIhA)

Proposed Definition

The bridi-tail ALC question: asks the listener to supply a bridi-tail ALC that makes the containing bridi true.

See Also

  • {gi'a}
  • {gi'e}
  • {gi'o}
  • {gi'u}
  • {preti}
  • {cuxna}

Proposed Keywords

  • or (bridi-tail ALC, question)

Usage Examples

Note that "or" doesn't really capture the Lojban very well, because any bridi-tail ALC is legal here, but it's about the best we can do.

pe'u doi ninmu ti nuzlo gi'i sralo
Please, miss, is this New Zealand or Australia?
do djica lo nu ba tavla la .deivid. gi'i ca tavla lo drata
Do you want to talk to David later or someone else now?
do speni gi'i se panzi
Are you married or a parent?


cmavo: gu'a (GUhA)

Proposed Definition

A tanru FLC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for at least one of the connected phrases.

See Also

  • {gu'e}
  • {gu'o}
  • {gu'u}
  • {gu'i}

Proposed Keywords

  • or (tanru FLC, inclusive)
  • inclusive or (tanru FLC)
  • and/or (tanru FLC)

Usage Examples

The only usage in the wild we could find:

.a'o la .nukis. gu'a nai troci gi na'e snada lo nu fanva di'u
I hope that nukis either does not try or other-than-succeeds at translating that.
mi gu'a jukpa gi citka lo sanmi
I either cook or eat the meal or both.


cmavo: gu'e (GUhA)

Proposed Definition

A tanru FLC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for both of the connected phrases.

See Also

  • {gu'a}
  • {gu'o}
  • {gu'u}
  • {gu'i}

Proposed Keywords

  • and (tanru FLC)
  • but (tanru FLC)
  • both (tanru FLC)

Usage Examples

.ie gu'e smuni gi nai gerna dunli
I agree, meaningful but not grammatically equivalent.
mi gu'e jmive gi xabju
I both live and dwell somewhere.


cmavo: gu'o (GUhA)

Proposed Definition

A tanru FLC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for both or neither of the connected phrases.

See Also

  • {gu'a}
  • {gu'e}
  • {gu'u}
  • {gu'i}

Proposed Keywords

  • if and only if (tanru-internal FLC)
  • iff (tanru-internal FLC)
  • both or neither (tanru-internal FLC)

Usage Examples

terpa gu'o lo za'i terpa 
( ! sole usage, incorrect ! )
.i mi nelci lo karce noi gu'o blanu gi xunre
I like cars which are any colour that isn't blue or red, unless it's blue and red simultaneously.


cmavo cluster: gu'o nai (GUhA*)

Proposed Definition

A tanru FLC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for exactly one of the connected phrases.

See Also

  • {gu'a}
  • {gu'e}
  • {gu'o}
  • {gu'u}
  • {gu'i}
  • {nai}

Proposed Keywords

  • exclusive or (tanru-internal FLC)
  • or (tanru-internal FLC)

Usage Examples

.i ko gu'o nai gasnu gi na gasnu .i lo nu troci na zasti
Do or do not. There is no try.


cmavo: gu'u (GUhA)

Proposed Definition

A tanru FLC such that the containing bridi is true if and only if it is true for the first of the connected phrases.

See Also

  • {gu'a}
  • {gu'e}
  • {gu'o}
  • {gu'i}

Proposed Keywords

  • whether (sumti connective)
  • whether or not (sumti connective)
  • regardless (sumti connective)
  • disregardless (sumti connective)
  • irrespective (sumti connective)
  • no matter (sumti connective)
  • disregarding (sumti connective)

Usage Examples

( ! no natural usage ! )

.i mi gu'u dasni be lo kosta be'o gi lenku
I wear a coat whether or not I am cold.


cmavo: gu'i (GUhA)

Proposed Definition

The tanru FLC question: asks the listener to supply a tanru FLC that makes the containing bridi true.

See Also

  • {gu'a}
  • {gu'e}
  • {gu'o}
  • {gu'u}
  • {preti}
  • {cuxna}

Proposed Keywords

  • or (tanru FLC, question)

Usage Examples

Note that "or" doesn't really capture the Lojban here very well, because any tanru FLC is legal here, but it's about the best we can do.

.i pau do te cukta gu'i te skina
Are you a book-author or a film creator?


cmavo: gi (GI)

Proposed Definition

Seperates the first from the second clause in a general FLC construct. Converts a non-logical connective into a coordinating conjunction.

See Also

  • {ga}
  • {ge}
  • {go}
  • {gu}
  • {ge'i}

Proposed Keywords

None; there's nothing like this in English except maybe comma. Someone suggested:

  • coordinating, connective, conjunction, medial

but but those are mentions, not uses; that is: no-one is going to look up "medial" in a dictionary and be happy that they found "gi", since it doesn't mean "medial", or anything like it.

Usage Examples

ge nai lo xanto gi nai lo smacu cu xunryblabi
Neither an elephant nor a mouse is pink.
ganai mi gunka lo valsi gi mi zmanei la rubis.
If I'm working on words, then I prefer Ruby. (Discussion on programming languages)
mi ge cliva gi .ai xrukla
I'm leaving, and I intend to come back.
.i ku'i pu za tavla fi joi gi lo skina gi lo skami
But were talking about both movies and computers

Notes

  • "coordinating conjunction"? Is that correct? What doet that mean?
  • What about the keywords?


cmavo: ja (JA)

Proposed Definition

A general ALC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for at least one of the connected phrases.

See Also

  • {je}
  • {jo}
  • {ju}
  • {je'i}
  • {vlina}

Proposed Keywords

  • or (general ALC, inclusive)
  • inclusive or (general ALC)
  • and/or (general ALC)

Usage Examples

ji'a ma prali sei la alis pensi fi lo cukta poi vasru no pixra ja nuncasnu
And what is the use, thought Alice, of a book with no pictures or conversations (or both) in it?
la norsmu so'i roi prije ja pemci cusku
Norsmu many times expresses wise or poetic (or both) things.
.u'i nai lo crida na kakne lo nu jimpe ja cusku bau la lojban
*sigh* Monsters are not able to undertand or speak Lojban.
do cizra .ija mi bebna
You're strange. Or I'm foolish. Or both.

Notes

  • May be combined with PU to indicate multiple tenses.


cmavo: je (JA)

Proposed Definition

A general ALC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for both of the connected phrases.

See Also

  • {ja}
  • {jo}
  • {ju}
  • {je'i}
  • {kanxe}

Proposed Keywords

  • and (general ALC)
  • but (general ALC)
  • both (general ALC)

Usage Examples

ku'i co'a bajra ca le nu djica ije co'u bajra ca la nu djica
But start walking when you want. And stop walking when you want.
clani je cizra cmene
That's a long and strange name.
pu troci je ku'i .o'unai fliba lo zmadu
We tried but, unfortunately, failed to do more.
.i ro ko ca je ba gleki .a'o
"Everybody be happy and keep being happy!"
ko pilno la mymbl pu je ba lonu litru
"Use Mumble before and after travelling."
le pu je ba nolraitru
"The once and future king!"
mi pu je ca ca'o citka lei grasu patlu
"I was an am now in the process of eating the greasy potatoes."

Notes

  • May be combined with PU to indicate multiple tenses.


cmavo: jo (JA)

Proposed Definition

A general ALC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for both or neither of the connected phrases.

See Also

  • {ja}
  • {je}
  • {ju}
  • {je'i}

Proposed Keywords

  • if and only if (general ALC)
  • iff (general ALC)
  • both or neither (general ALC)

Usage Examples

FIXME:

.ei troci jubo snada jo cilre
Either I try (whether or not I succeed) and learn, or neither.
da prenu jo nelci be lo'e mlatu
Either something is a person and likes cats, or neither.
mi kakne lo nu viska .i jo mi na sipna
Either I am able to look and I am not asleep, or neither.

Notes

  • May be combined with PU to indicate multiple tenses.


cmavo cluster: jo nai (JA*)

Proposed Definition

A general ALC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for exactly one of the connected phrases.

See Also

  • {ja}
  • {je}
  • {jo}
  • {ju}
  • {je'i}
  • {nai}

Proposed Keywords

  • exclusive or (general ALC)
  • or (general ALC, exclusive)

Usage Examples

ko stali le'o .i jo nai gau mi fagri le do zdani
Stop, or I'll set your house on fire!
do vitke la jbonunsla .i jo nai mabla do
Come to jbonunsla or you suck.
ko sutra cadzu .i jo nai do ba farlu
Walk quickly, or you will fall!


cmavo: ju (JA)

Proposed Definition

A general ALC such that the containing statement is true if and only if it is true for the first of the connected phrases.

See Also

  • {ja}
  • {je}
  • {jo}
  • {je'i}

Proposed Keywords

  • whether (general connective)
  • whether or not (general connective)
  • regardless (general connective)
  • disregardless (general connective)
  • irrespective (general connective)
  • no matter (general connective)
  • disregarding (general connective)

Usage Examples

ge mi di'i nai bilma gi ji'a mi di'i nai jibri gunki .i ju mi gleki
I'm sometimes sick and also I somtimes work. Whether or not I'm happy.
.i ke'u mi cakla .i se ju bo mi curmi lo nu do citka mi
Repeating: I'm chocolate, whether or not I allow you to eat me.
drani ju vrude
True, whether or not virtuous.

Notes

  • May be combined with PU to indicate multiple tenses.


cmavo: je'i (JA)

Proposed Definition

The general ALC question: asks the listener to supply a general ALC that makes the containing statement true.

See Also

  • {ja}
  • {je}
  • {jo}
  • {ju}
  • {preti}
  • {cuxna}

Proposed Keywords

  • or (general ALC, question)

Usage Examples

ro valsi poi pu'i je'i ka'e se pilno
All words can be or have been used?
skina je'i se tivni
Movie or television?
do bruna je'i mensi mi doi lindar
Are you my brother or sister, Lindar?

Notes

  • May be combined with PU to indicate multiple tenses.



cmavo: .ija (JA*)

Proposed Definition

sentence or -- logical connective: sentence afterthought or --


cmavo: .ije (JA*)

Proposed Definition

sentence and -- logical connective: sentence afterthought and --


cmavo: .ije'i (JA*)

Proposed Definition

sentence conn ? -- logical connective: sentence afterthought conn question --


cmavo: .ijo (JA*)

Proposed Definition

sentence iff -- logical connective: sentence afterthought biconditional/iff/if-and-only-if --


cmavo: .iju (JA*)

Proposed Definition

sentence whether -- logical connective: sentence afterthought whether-or-not --




cmavo: xxx (SELMAHO)

Proposed Definition

See Also

Proposed Keywords

Usage Examples

Notes

Issues

Relevant prior discussions

Syntax

[6]
A parser bug that causes li revo .a li pare to not be recognized, because it needs LALR(2).

[7]
Unification of all logical connectives into selma'o JA.

[[8]] to allow FLC tanru conn inside of gadri. (this already seems to work by some parsers)

[9]
A proposal for a new “narrative connective”.

[10]
A proposal for adding GI+JOI as a gihek.

[11]
NUhU_gap as a cheat to avoid having more logical connectives.

[12]
Proposal: allow jeks wherever joiks are allowed

[13]
A Zipfean argument against making ji the tanru afterthought connective question

[14]
Inconsistent order of logical connectives with different types of tags

[15]
Inconsistency in the syntax of tanru-internal forethought logical connectives

[16]
A change proposal so that geks can be used in both bridi-tails and sentences.

Semantics

[17]
Whether or not jeks in tanru in description sumti can be expanded to eks between sumti.

[18]
What is the meaning of SE + logical connective, when the SE is something other than se?

[19]
All logical connectives expand to bridi logical connection.

[20]
On the relationship between logical connectives and quantifiers.

[21]
In tense constructs, what binds more tightly of connectives or modifiers?

[22]
How do logical connectives interact with intensional descriptions?

[23]
SE + logical connective, when the SE is something other than se, is nonsense

[24]
How do quantified tenses work when they tag a sumti with logical connectives?

[25]
How do logical connectives interact with intensional descriptions?

[26]
The use of da'i in hypothetical implications

Scope

[27]
Do variables scope over logical connectives?

[28]
How far does the scope of a prenex extend?

[29]
[30]
[31]
[32]
Imperative connectives. What is the Lojban translation of “Stop, or I'll shoot”? Do imperatives scope over ijeks?

[33]
zo'e doesn't preserve identity across logical connectives.

Distribution/expansion

[34]
Distribution of connectives in tanru

[35]
Distribution of sumti logical connectives

[36]
Distribution of tanru modification over logical connectives

[37]
Distribution of sumti logical connectives

[38]
Distributive or non-distributive grouping of tanru-internal logical connectives

[39]
Logical connectives can't expand out of abstractions, which are referentially opaque

[40]
Tense logical connection is expandable

[41]
What is the correct expansion of a bridi where multiple of the arguments have logical connectives?

Other Crap

General Notes

  • We need a way to easily say "would you like cream or sugar or a donut?" using ji or similar. I *think* this is straightforward, but this is a note to think about it.

There was a recent discussion of this that had people present their different solutions. There are two types: the one with {ji} and the ones with choice from a set.
do djica A ji B ji C ... The helpful answers can all be covered with "(na).e(nai) .e(nai) ..."

A B zo'u do djica ma
do djica ma poi cmima A ce B ce C ce ...
do djica ma poi me A .a B .a C .a ...
The answers "A", "B", "C", ..., "A joi B", ... "noda", "roda". And if you want to be less than helpful: "pada", "su'oda", "me'ida", and so on.

  • How do you reply to {do djica lo ladru ji nai lo sakta} if you want both? Again, might be obvious/well understood, but could use checking.

According to xorxes and mark shoulson (in the thread linked above) the answer is .eja'ai, using {ja'ai} aka the cmavo affirmer.

  • what does {mi djica lo ladru .e nai lo sakta na .e lo titnanba} mean (double negative)?