me lu ju'i lobypli li'u 18 moi

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                      Number 18 - May-June 1993
           Copyright 1993, The Logical Language Group, Inc.
          2904 Beau Lane, Fairfax VA 22031 USA (703)385-0273
  Permission granted to copy, without charge to recipient, when for
                purpose of promotion of Loglan/Lojban.


                        Logfest 93 - July 9-12


                   rafsi List Revised and Baselined
                       DETAILS IN NEWS SECTION
                                   
     ju'i lobypli (JL) is the quarterly journal of The Logical
Language Group, Inc., known in these pages as la lojbangirz.  la
lojbangirz. is a non-profit organization formed for the purpose of
completing and spreading the logical human language "Lojban - A
Realization of Loglan" (commonly called "Lojban"), and informing the
community about logical languages in general.
     la lojbangirz. is a non-profit organization under Section
501(c)(3) of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code.  Your donations (not
contributions to your voluntary balance) are tax-deductible on U.S.
and most state income taxes.  Donors are notified at the end of each
year of their total deductible donations.
     For purposes of terminology, "Lojban" refers to a specific
version of a logical human language, the generic language and
associated research project having been called "Loglan" since its
invention by Dr. James Cooke Brown in 1954.  Statements referring to
"Loglan/Lojban" refer to both the generic language and to Lojban as a
specific instance of that language.  The Lojban version of Loglan was
created as an alternative because Dr. Brown and his organization
claims copyright on everything in his version, including each
individual word of the vocabulary.  The Lojban vocabulary and grammar
and all language definition materials, by contrast, are public domain.
Anyone may freely use Lojban for any purpose without permission or
royalty.  la lojbangirz. believes that such free usage is a necessary
condition for an engineered language like Loglan/Lojban to become a
true human language, and to succeed in the various goals that have
been proposed for its use.
     Press run for this issue of ju'i lobypli: 130.  We now have about
720 people receiving our publications, and 250 more awaiting textbook
publication.
                          Important Notices
                                   
     Important:  Your mailing label indicates the last issue of your
subscription.  If that issue is JL18, we need to hear from you,
preferably with money for another year's subscription (US$28 North
America, US$35 elsewhere).
                                  2
     Note the new network address on page 2 for the Planned Languages
Server if you wish to obtain electronic copies of our materials.  The
address published last issue turned out to be incorrect.

                          Your Mailing Label
Your mailing label reports your current mailing status, and your
current voluntary balance including this issue.  Please notify us of
changes in your activity/interest level.  Balances reflect contri-
butions received thru 15 June 1993.  Mailing codes (and approximate
balance needs) are:

Activity/Interest Level:                      Highest Package Received
(Price Each)     Other codes:
B - Observer     0 - Introductory Materials ($5) JL    JL Subscription
($28-$35/yr)
C - Active Supporter                          1 - Word Lists and
Language Description ($15)                       (followed by
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Information ($10)                             *  indicates
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(>$20 balance)

Please keep us informed of changes in your mailing address, and US
subscribers are asked to provide ZIP+4 codes whenever you know them.

                                  3
                        Contents of This Issue
     The biggest news this issue is the baselining of the rafsi list,
the last major piece of the language to be frozen before dictionary
publication.  Two articles this issue deal with the Lojban rafsi, and
the latest change, and the revised list is included with the issue.
     As soon as this issue goes to the printers, I will be starting to
work intensively on dictionary publication, with the intent to have
something to show off at LogFest, our annual gathering here in July.
See the news section for more on the dictionary work, and on LogFest
93.  Because JL issues are taking 1-2 months to prepare, I am not
going to be able to get JL on the hoped for quarterly schedule and
also get the dictionary and textbook published this year.  As such, I
will not start work on JL19 until September, to enable me to work all
summer on getting the dictionary out.  I also had to cut off work on
this issue rather abruptly, though hopefully without too much loss in
quality.  Details in the news section.
     This issue summarizes all grammar changes proposed for the
dictionary rebaselining, and the revised E-BNF form of the grammar.
Articles detail the rationale behind several of the changes, with a
focus on the most significant change relating to relative clauses.  A
selection of articles deal with usage issues that have come up on
Lojban List, and we have a couple of more philosophical discussions on
the goals of the language.  As is usual, material derived from the
Lojban List computer, as well as from the 'conlang' mailing list, is
edited, revised, and corrected from the original.
     There are 3 longer Lojban texts in this issue, one related to the
ckafybarja project discussed in JL17.  The discussions of grammar and
usage issues., though have a lot of Lojban text in them, perhaps as
much as in the longer pieces.  I made an effort to update all lujvo in
this issue to the new rafsi baseline, so that you can use the lists
accompanying this issue to interpret them.  However, since I did this
manually, don't be surprised if I missed one or two.

                          Table of Contents
Brief Glossary of Lojban Terms                                    ---3
News - JL Status, Subscriptions, Finances, LogFest 93             ---3
 Other News:  DC Weekly Group, Bradford Group, UK LogFest, Book
 Status                                                           ---4
Language Development Status:  gismu, rafsi, Grammar               ---5
Lojban Proto-Reference Book (Dictionary) - Preliminary Outline    ---6
Sample English-to Lojban dictionary (intermediate step)           ---8
On Lojban rafsi; Revised rafsi Assignments                        ---9
On lujvo, by Greg Higley; "General Purpose lujvo", by Greg Higley;
 Greg Proposes and Explains some lujvo                           ---20
le lojbo ce ciska                                    ---21, 47, 50, 66
Grammar Changes                                                  ---22
A Change to the Relative Clause Grammar: Quantification and noi, by
 Greg Higley; sumti and Relative Clauses, by Colin Fine; Lojbab's
 Solution; Excerpts from the Original Changes 20 and 21, with
 Discussion                                                      ---30
Articles Related to Usage/Grammar/Word Change Proposals: New JOI,
 by Greg Higley; kau, by Greg Higley                             ---43
Empathy in Attitudinals, by John Cowan; Summary of cmavo Changes in
 selma'o UI; Punctuation Proposals, by Nick Nicholas             ---48
More Usage Questions: Dean Gahlon asks a simple question; SVO Order
 in Lojban; And Rosta on "se", "te", & lujvo;  On the Grammar and
 Range of Free Modifiers; Comments on the Tense System, by Greg
 Higley; ko'a stizu; Questions on Logical Connection; Causality in
 Lojban; On le and lo and Existence; A Heated Exchange?          ---53

                                  4
Language Goals:  Lojban and Metaphydsical Bias; Sapir-Whorfian
 Thoughts; Metacognition-friendly Languages                      ---61
A Lojban-to-Prolog semantic analyzer, by Nick Nicholas           ---67
Enclosures - Lojban Machine Grammar: E-BNF Version, dated 12 June
 1993; 06/01/93 Lojban baseline rafsi list

                       Computer Net Information
     Via Usenet/UUCP/Internet, you can send messages and text files
(including things for JL publication) to la lojbangirz./Bob at:
                          lojbab@grebyn.com
(This supersedes the prior "snark" address.)
     You can also join the Lojban List mailing list (currently around
70 subscribers).  Send a single line message (automatically processed)
containing only:
"subscribe lojban yourfirstname yourlastname" to:
                    listserv@cuvmb.cc.columbia.edu
If you have problems needing human intervention, send to:
                lojban-list-request@snark.thyrsus.com
Send traffic for the mailing list to:
                     lojban@cuvmb.cc.columbia.edu
     Please keep us informed if your network mailing address changes.
     Compuserve subscribers can also participate.  Precede any of the
above addresses with INTERNET:  and use your normal Compuserve mail
facility.  If you want to participate on Lojban List, you should be
prepared to read your mail at least every couple of days; otherwise
your mailbox fills up and you are dropped from the mailing-list.
FIDOnet subscribers can also participate, although the connection is
not especially robust.  Write to us for details if you don't know how
to access the Internet network.
     A good portion of our materials are available on-line from the
Planned Languages Server (PLS).  See JL16, or send the messages "help"
and "send lojban readme" to the server address:
                        langserv@columbia.edu
This is a new address since JL17 was published.

                                  5

  The following explicitly iden-     le'avla - words borrowed from
tifies people who are referred to  other languages (there are people
by initials in JL.  'Athelstan' is who would like to see another
that person's real name, used in   term, with a better metaphor, for
his public life, and is not a      this concept, but "le'avla" will
pseudonym.                         remain a valid term for the
  'pc' - Dr. John Parks-Clifford,  indefinite future; suggestions are
Professor of Logic and Philosophy  welcome);
at the University of Missouri -      brivla - Lojban predicate words,
St. Louis and Vice-President of la consisting of gismu, lujvo, and
lojbangirz.; he is usually         le'avla; (a few cmavo have the
addressed as 'pc' by the commu-    grammar of a brivla);
nity.                                tanru - Lojban 'binary'
  'Bob', 'Lojbab' - Bob            metaphors, the most productive and
LeChevalier - President of la loj- creative expression form of the
bangirz., and editor of ju'i       language, unambiguous in
lobypli and le lojbo karni.        syntax/grammar, but ambiguous in
  'Nora' - Nora LeChevalier -      semantics/meaning;  tanru
Secretary/Treasurer of la lojban-  generally have a modifying portion
girz., Bob's wife, author of       (generally on the left) that
LogFlash.                          serves the function of an English
  'JCB', 'Dr. Brown' - Dr. James   adjective or adverb, and a
Cooke Brown, inventor of the       modified portion (on the right).
language, and founder of the         sumti - the arguments of a
Loglan project.                    logical predicate;
  'The Institute', 'TLI' - The       selbri - Lojban predicates which
Loglan Institute, Inc., JCB's      indicate a relation among one or
organization for spreading his     more sumti.  A selbri is most
version of Loglan, which we call   often a brivla or tanru; the
'Institute Loglan'.                concept was formerly called
  'Loglan' - refers to the generic "kunbri" in error in some of our
language or language project, of   early publications;
which 'Lojban' is the most           bridi - Lojban predications, the
successful version, and 'Institute basic grammatical structure of the
Loglan' another.  'Loglan/Lojban'  language; a bridi expresses a
is used in discussions about       complete relationship:  the selbri
Lojban to make it particularly     expresses the relation and the
clear that the statement applies   sumti express the various things
to the generic language as well.   being related;
  'PLS' - The Planned Languages      selma'o - grammatical categories
Server, a no-charge computer-      of Lojban words; the basis of the
network-accessed distribution      unambiguous formal grammar of the
center for materials on Lojban     language.  Traditionally and
(and other artificial languages).  erroneously called "lexeme" in the
See pg. 2 for email address.       Loglan community.  These
                                   categories typically have a name
  Brief Glossary of Lojban Terms   derived from one word in that
  Following are definitions of     grammatical category; the name is
frequently used Lojban terms.      all capitals, except that an
Longer explanations are in the     apostrophe is replaced by a small
Overview of Lojban.                letter 'h' (this is an artifact of
  cmavo - Lojban structure words   the computer language "C" in which
  gismu - Lojban root words;       the formal Lojban grammar is
currently 1342;                    defined for the YACC processor; C
  rafsi - short combining-forms    forbids apostrophes in 'tokens'
for the gismu;                     representing single words.
  lujvo - compound words built
from rafsi;

                                  6


               News                publication probably in October,
            JL Status              or perhaps even November).
                                   Hopefully the dictionary will be
  I remain short of my goal of     done by then, and maybe (but not
publishing every three months, at  likely) the textbook.  I'm sure
least partially because getting    that the decision to put book
all of the mailings out the door   publication higher priority than
last issue took more than a month  regular JL publication is one
in the first place.  But hopefully which the community will find
4 months is better than the delays acceptable, provided that we
we had been having.                maintain some minimum publication
  I delayed a little in hopes of   frequency; 3 issues this year,
seeing some more submissions for   while not the desired 4, is
the ckafybarja (coffeehouse)       considerably better than we did
writing project, especially from   the last two years.
those of you who first became        This delay will also serve to
aware of the project with the      give more time for people to
publication of last issue.  Nick   submit writings for the ckafybarja
Nicholas revised one piece that    project, per the above discussion,
was in progress when JL17 was pub- before the next decision point.
lished.  Then, at the last minute, Let's see some more participation
he submitted a character           this time.
description on behalf of a friend.   As partial recompense for the
But otherwise, alas, only silence. delay, this issue is larger than
As a result, the period for        intended.  Our prices were set on
submission of characters and/or    an assumed average of 60-70 pages
setting ideas has been extended    per issue, but both of the last
indefinitely, until the various    two issues have been longer than
people who have contributed feel   that.  I will wait till next issue
that enough has been submitted to  to decide, but if issues continue
either vote, or to at least turn   to run long, I may have to in-
fully to the Lojban writing        crease the subscription price by
endeavor that is intended.         about $1 per issue ($4 per 4
  Unfortunately, this issue of JL  issues) as of next issue.  Orders
has taken even longer to produce,  and renewals until then (up to a
almost 2 months from the day I     maximum 8 issues prepaid) will be
started.  And I had thought that   at the rate of US$28 for 4 issues
the issue was partially done when  (US) and US$35 overseas.
I started.  Family life,             Because the rafsi change
supporting the computer network    baseline took place at a date just
discussion, and administrative     before publication, and because
tasks have kept me from working    the issue was so long already,
efficiently, and the types of      I've put a minimum of Lojban text
materials we are publishing are    in this issue.  Next issue will
taking longer to edit than older   probably have quite a bit more
issues, because of the need to     text, since Nora is working on a
ensure clarity and accuracy of     program that will convert lujvo
technical content.                 based on pre-baseline rafsi to the
  The books have been too long     new baseline.
delayed while I tried to get JL on 
a more frequent schedule.  We've                    
improved the JL frequency, though
not to the quarterly level I want,
or need in order to get 2nd class
mailing from the Postal Service.
As such, I have decided to cut off
work on this JL and go directly to
work on the books for the whole
summer.  I will not be starting
JL19 until September (which means

                                  7


          Subscriptions            the Lojban books reasonable, since
                                   small print-runs alone will add
  We are now fully on the          several dollars to the price of
subscription system, and for the   each book, and we cannot afford a
most part, people who have not     larger print run.  (Expected
sent a request for JL are no       publication costs will run around
longer receiving it.  We have a    $10,000.  Donors welcome!)
slightly smaller subscriber list                    
than last issue, but we know that              LogFest 93
everyone getting the issue really  
wants it.                            The dates for LogFest 93, and
  I now have to get publication    the annual meeting of la
solidly onto the quarterly         lojbangirz. has been set.  The
schedule, in order to get 2nd      gathering will take place at
class status, which means it       Lojbab's house in Fairfax VA (per
probably won't happen this year    the la lojbangirz. address and
while book publication takes       phone number) the weekend of 9-12
precedence.  Until then, people    July 1993 (we traditionally open
will get JL a little quicker, via  up on Friday, but schedule few
first class mail, and of course we organized activities for that day;
are going to still be losing some  people can feel free to arrive on
money as a result.                 Saturday the 10th, to come for
  As of the publication date, we   only one day, etc.).  As in pre-
have around 120 JL subscribers.    vious years, families are welcome,
For about 25 of these, JL18 is     although we are requesting that
listed as their last issue, but I  attendees bring sleeping bags,
expect at least half of these to   etc. if possible.  One or more
renew their subscription based on  tents will be set up in the yard
the experience of the last 4       as applicable to ensure plenty of
months.  Thus, the number of (all  sleeping space.
paid) subscribers will drop to       The invitation to families is a
around 110 for JL19, and seems     bit more meaningful this year,
likely to stabilize at around that since we now have two kids.  Child
level until books are published    care duties will presumably be
(when it hopefully will increase). shared among the relevant adults
US recipients will continue to get to maximize people's abilities to
their issue by first class mail.   participate in activities.
                                     Interest in participating in
             Finances              LogFest seems a bit higher than in
                                   previous years, perhaps because
  We continue to expend money      more people believe that they can
faster than we are taking it in,   do something with the language,
but the rate of hemorrhage has     and that books to help learn and
slowed (at least until this issue  use the language will shortly be
goes out).  We already had a       coming out.  Preliminary positive
deficit for 1993 of a couple of    responses from around 20 people
thousand dollars by April, which   suggest that we will set a new
has been remedied by the delay in  turnout record this year.
publication, and significant         There is no required admission
donations from Jeff Prothero       fee for LogFest.  Our costs for
(totalling $1500 so far this year, putting on LogFest have averaged
or almost 1/2 of our income).  We  $20-$30 per attendee in previous
will still need a fund raising     years, and we ask attendees to
drive in order to make it through  donate at least enough to cover
the year.  I intend to ask for     their share if possible.  But we
donations in the letter that       don't want money to stand in the
announces publication of the first way of your attending if you are
book.  Substantial donations       interested in coming.
and/or massive orders will also be   As is typical for LogFests, we
necessary to keep the price for    expect that this year will consist

                                  8


of mostly English-language         (with a 5th planning to start
activities, with an emphasis on    regular particpation this month),
Lojban-teaching and learning       continues to meet, and do a little
activities for those new or less   conversation each week in Lojban.
experienced in the language.       We seem to have plateaued in skill
There will probably be significant level, since only a couple of us
discussion of the ckafybarja       are spending much time on Lojban
Project, which was significantly   on other days of the week, and my
developed at last year's           activities are not the type that
gathering.                         enhance my Lojban skills.
  Several Lojbanists have            Bradford Group - Colin Fine's
expressed serious interest in      group in Bradford, UK, continues
having a major emphasis on Lojban  to grow and to meet regularly, and
conversation at this gathering,    from postings on the net, is
and we believe that there are      probably achieving a
enough people skilled enough in    sophistication in Lojban use at
the language that we can do this,  least comparable to us in DC.
while providing mentoring/tutoring There are 3 participants at this
to those who are unable to un-     writing.
derstand what is being said          UK LogFest - Colin Fine and Iain
without help.                      Alexander have been actively
  We are also trying to arrange    recruiting Lojbanists in the
international Lojban conversation  United Kingdom, and the numbers
during LogFest, most likely by     are growing significantly, now
live 'interaction' on the computer approximately 40.  In addition, a
networks with Colin Fine and other higher percentage of British
British Lojbanists, and Nick       Lojbanists are active students of
Nicholas in Australia, using the   the language, whereas many
"IRC" function (see 'Other News'   American Lojbanists seem to be
below).  Those not able to attend  holding back on learning the lan-
LogFest, but who have Internet     guage.
access may want to contact us at     As a result of the increased
lojbab@grebyn.com prior to         numbers, Colin and Iain proposed
LogFest, and we will try to set    that a LogFest gathering be held
some definite times, so that you   in the UK this year, and this idea
can also participate in these      met with ready agreement from
sessions.                          other Lojbanists.  At publication,
  While the books will not be pub- it appears that the UK LogFest
lished before LogFest, I will be   will be held in September,
making a major effort to have      probably at Colin's house in
copies of some or all of the       Bradford.  Lojbanists throughout
books-in-progress available for    the UK, and indeed all of Europe,
people to look at, and possibly to are encouraged to attend.
use during Lojban sessions.        Independent of JL publication,
  The annual meeting will take     when a date for this LogFest is
place on 11 July 1993 at 10:30 AM. firmly set, we will try to send
At this point, there is much less  notice to all European Lojbanists
on the agenda than in previous     of the details for this gathering.
years, and we are hoping that this   Colin is also planning a
means that the meeting will be     gathering the weekend of the
shorter than usual.  (People plan- American LogFest, as a 'dry run'
ning to attend who would like to   for the bigger event, and
see a policy topic discussed at    Lojbanists are welcome to visit
the meeting are welcome to suggest that weekend as well.
agenda items.)                       For further details, please
                                   contact Colin Fine at (44) 274
            Other News             733680 (home) or 274 733466 x3915
                                   (work), or by mail at 33 Pemberton
  DC Weekly Group - The DC weekly  Drive, Bradford, West Yorkshire
group, consisting of 4 Lojbanists  BD7 1RA, UK

                                  9


  CIX - A possible bolster to      TLI has apparently set up a
Colin's efforts to build a UK      computer network mailing list, but
Lojban group was the formation     people who have subscribed to it
within the last couple of months   report no activity.
of a Lojban discussion group on      TLI may be nearing completion of
the UK computer network 'CIX'.     their own dictionary revision,
This group has grown rapidly, and  which will be issued in electronic
is reported to have some 25        form (a price of $50 has been
participants.  Lojban List traffic mentioned).  They are also
is echoed to this group, and Colin reporting work on a substantial
plans to obtain CIX access later   revision on the rules of their
this year to assist those          language version, in order to make
interested in studying Lojban in   it, like Lojban, truly 'self-
furthering their progress.         segregating' at the word level
  IRC - Colin Fine, Nick Nicholas, (i.e., unambiguity demands that
and Mark Shoulson started a        you always be able to break a
pattern of using the computer      stream of Loglan/Lojban sounds
network system called "Internet    down into individual words
Relay Chat" or IRC, in order to    uniquely; the TLI language version
enable 'live' Lojban conversation  has been seriously defective in
between Lojbanists otherwise       this area).
isolated.  A group of Lojbanists     This will be the last issue
is thus now meeting irregularly on containing a regular report on
the computer networks to converse  TLI; we will, of course, continue
in Lojban, recently including      to report any real news about the
David Young and Sylvia Rutiser     organization that I receive either
from the DC Lojban group.  If you  through official or unofficial
are on the Internet with access to channels.  But with the end of the
the IRC function, and want to      legal battle, there seems to be
participate, contact us by e-mail  little interest among the Lojban
per page 2.                        community in hearing about TLI, so
  As described above, we are       long as they seem to be avoiding
hoping to use the IRC facility in  resolution of our differences.
conjunction with LogFest, to bring                  
more people into the activities               Book Status
here.                              
  Legal - The trademark on           Work continues on the books, but
'Loglan' has now been officially   we cannot report any completion
cancelled, in accordance with the  dates yet.  Highest priority
court order following our legal    remains the dictionary/reference,
victory on this issue.  TLI did    and that occupies most of Lojbab's
not include the trademark claim in time in between JL issues, along
the first publication after the    with the administrative tasks in-
cancellation.                      volved in keeping the organization
  We have now paid off the legal   running (including responding to
debt, with money contributed by    orders and questions from the
Lojbab and Jeff Prothero.          community by mail).
  The Loglan Institute - There is  Unfortunately, these latter tasks
little to report about the Loglan  continue to take too much time,
Institute these days; not much     with the inevitable continued
seems to be going on.  The         delays.  There is some significant
organization continues to exist,   progress though.  In this issue,
and may be gaining supporters,     however, are two reports on the
although at considerable expense.  dictionary/reference:  an outline,
TLI had an advertisement in the    and a sample discussing our
April 1993 Scientific American,    approach to doing the English-
although they reported in Lognet   order portion of the dictionary.
that they spent an amount for the    As the outline shows, the
ad that would take an enormous     contents of the reference book
response in order to break even.   have swollen to the point that we

                                  10


are strongly considering issuing   dictionary reference.  As soon as
the reference as two books - one   these issues are decided, the
more of a reference per se, while  gismu list will be split into two
the other is a pure dictionary of  forms, the current form that is
English-Lojban and Lojban-English, intended for use with LogFlash,
emphasizing content words.  A      and a version oriented towards
major reason for this has been     dictionary formatting.  Once we
Nick Nicholas's excellent and      have two lists, keeping them
extensive work on lujvo, which     matching with each other will be a
promises to give us several thou-  substantial requirement.  In case
sand entries in each direction in  of conflict, the dictionary format
the dictionary if it is completed. listing will be presumed to have
Nick is also writing a paper       precedence.
describing his treatment of place  
structures in lujvo-making, which                rafsi
will also be included in the       
reference book.                      We are baselining the rafsi
  John Cowan has completed a       list, as changed and published in
revision of the entire content of  this issue, effective June 1,
the draft textbook lessons,        1993.  We had intended to have the
reorganizing the materials and     baseline effective with the book
updating them to the current       publication, but the books aren't
language.  The results will be     out, and the pending change has
merged with the new work that      had a noticeable effect on
Lojbab has done towards a          people's willingness to make and
textbook, and will then result in  use lujvo, as well as to write in
the draft textbook.                Lojban in general.  Since we
  John also has continued writing  expect no changes in the few
his survey papers covering the     months before the book comes out,
entirety of the language from the  it seems logical to make the
standpoint of the grammar, which   change effective now.  We are is-
will be assembled into the Lojban  suing a new list of rafsi as an
Reference Grammar.  This still     attachment to this issue, in all
will be the last of the scheduled  of the various orders typically
books to be completed, since John  used by Lojbanists, and including
has several papers left to write,  the lujvo-making algorithm now ex-
and all of the papers must yet be  cluding le'avla lujvo, which are
reviewed by several people before  handled by inserting "zei" between
they are finalized.                components, with no rafsi used.
                                   The place structures are not in-
                                   cluded in the rafsi list (a full
   Language Development Status     gismu list in both Lojban and
                                   keyword order, would be larger
              gismu                than this issue).
                                     Included in this issue is a
  Last issue we noted adding of 4  discussion of why the Lojban rafsi
new gismu to support the new       system works the way it does, and
international metric prefixes, but a report indicating why the
did not list the words.  They are  changes were made and how we went
(with the international prefix in  about making the changes.  Greg
parentheses):                      Higley also discusses his ideas on
gocti  10-24   (yocto-)            lujvo-making, and gives some
gotro  1024 (yotta-)               samples of the words he has in-
zepti  10-21   (zepto-)            vented.  (Other Lojbanists are
zetro  1021 (zetta-)               invited to submit lujvo that you
  The major work on the gismu list have coined, along with
continues to be the resolution of  commentary/explanations of how you
a few open issues on place         came to choose those words).
structures.  These issues will be    Nora is integrating ad hoc
decided as we prepare the          software programs into a software

                                  11


capability to correct and revise     The summary of proposed changes,
older texts written with the       which may be written rather
earlier rafsi list.  The current   technically for some readers,
procedure is sufficiently          shows that there continue to be
complicated, and the baseline so   minor changes proposed in the
close to publication, that I had   Lojban grammar, nearly all of
to conevrt all lujvo manually this which are extensions to the
time.  Luckily, this issue has     expressive power of the language.
less text than last issue.         As John Cowan continues writing
                                   the papers that will eventually
             Grammar               comprise the Lojban 'reference
                                   grammar', minor problems may be
  This issue contains a complete   discovered that require further
summary of the changes to the      changes.  We are hoping that all
Lojban grammar that are pending,   of these will be found before the
and an attachment includes the     first book is published, when the
revised E-BNF notation form of the official rebaselining will take
Lojban grammar incorporating those effect.
changes.  The grammar is ef-         On the other hand, these changes
fectively being rebaselined with   are so minor that almost none of
this publication, as we are using  them affect any text written thus
a parser incorporating the changes far.  Some changes enable new
to evaluate Lojban text, and do    usages where it was found that
not otherwise intend to continue   existing forms were leading to
using the previous grammar         unacceptable semantic situations
baseline in any way.  On the other (see the discussions below of
hand, there is still the           relative clauses - change 20, and
possibility of minor corrections   JOI - changes 30 and 31 for
before the official rebaselining   examples of such changes).  As a
in conjunction with book           result of these changes, the
publication.  If you have any      changed semantics of some of the
disagreements with any of the      older forms may render some older
proposed changes, we need to hear  texts as inaccurate, even while
from you as soon as possible, but  still being grammatical.
we will consider any comments.       This issue also contains edited
  The previous version of the E-   discussions that led to some of
BNF had typographical errors,      the more significant proposals
making it difficult for some to    being adopted.  These proposals
use.  Enough Lojbanists are        often started as discussions of
actively using the E-BNF as a tool Lojban stylistics, and
of studying the language that we   understanding these discussions
felt that this should not wait any will help you gain a better
longer for published revision.     understanding of how you must
Special thanks to John Cowan for   think about what you are trying to
devising and maintaining the E-    say in order to properly phrase
BNF.                               the Lojban.  Note that many of the
  We are not yet publishing a new  participants in these discussions
version of the formal grammar      are not especially advanced, or
definition (the 'YACC' grammar),   skilled, Lojbanists.  It is worth-
which will appear in the published while to plow through the
reference book.  Note that the E-  occasional jargon-ridden passages
BNF, while computer-ish in style,  (there is a limit to how much this
is not the formal definition that  editor feels he can change what
has been verified as unambiguous.  people write, even for the sake of
It was prepared manually from the  clarity) to follow the thought
formal definition, and has been    processes of these new and more
checked many times, but the YACC   advanced Lojban students.  You'll
grammar takes precedence in case   learn a lot about the language and
of disagreement between the two    how it works, and maybe a little
versions.                          bit about how people at different

                                  12


levels of skill approach problems    However, the nature of the
of expression in the language.     language is such that people will
                                   want and need those separate lists
                                   fully as much as any combined
  Lojban Proto-Reference Book -    dictionary list.  When you are
Preliminary Outline with estimated making new words, you need a handy
      page counts by section       list of the gismu and their rafsi,
                                   and other data, especially
  The following is the outline for existing lujvo, would be a dis-
the proto-reference book which     traction.  Similarly, people tend
Lojbab is using as of publication  to use lists of cmavo in selma'o
time.  It includes a description   order as often, if not more often,
of each section contemplated for   than they use alphabetical lists.
inclusion, and an estimated page     The reference will include three
count.  Major tables, forming the  attempts that have been made to
bulk of the book, are the most     devise a thesaurus-style semantic
unpredictable portions in length;  index for Lojban.  None of the
these are marked with asterisks    efforts really can be considered
(*).  The estimated page counts in authoritative, and indeed, Lojbab
the following are in most cases    believes that there is a
just that - estimates (a bar       significant problem with the
indicates a page count for several standard thesaurus technique,
related sections).  The text is    which tends to be more
not in general written in any      noun/adjective-oriented than verb-
final form, although almost all of oriented.  In dealing with a
the materials exist in some        predicate language, which is
preliminary form that mostly       probably more like a verb-
requires editing, rather than new  orientation - most of the words
writing.                           have been categorized on the basis
  Due to space and publication     of the meaning of their x1 place,
cost, some of the materials listed which is often not the only place
in the outline may be left out.    that is important to classify.
For example, many people would not   However, semantic indexing of
be that interested in the gismu    the gismu list seems to be
list etymologies, especially since something that most people have
they are in a rather preliminary   some use for, given the number of
form that may make them less easy  people who have reported doing
to use than they eventually will   something of that type on their
be.  On the other hand, the        own.  Since we cannot produce a
features documented in the outline definitive and verified thesaurus
are those that define Lojban       solution, it seems better to pre-
officially, and all may be helpful sent all three efforts, and let
to both language learners and to   the user of the book decide which
people looking over our shoulder   best suits his purpose and his
to examine the quality of the Loj- understanding of the Lojban vocab-
ban design.                        ulary system.  Of course, this
  A study of the outline shows     takes more pages, but we cannot
that, with the exception of the    honestly say, without a lot more
dictionary proper, no section of   research than we are likely to
the book is particularly long,     have time for in the next year,
such that omitting it would        which effort is most accurate
substantially reduce the size of   and/or useful, and what entries in
the books.  The only real tradeoff each list are correct.  Take all
that might make a major difference groupings therefore, with a large
would be to avoid the practice of  grain of salt, recognizing that at
listing most data twice - once in  least one person, the compiler of
the full dictionary, and once in a the particular list, saw a
list specific to the type of       semantic similarity between the
information being presented.       various gismu that are grouped
                                   together.

                                  13


  Comments on the outline, are of   1      Parser algorithm
course welcomed.                    20     *YACC Grammar
                                    8      *selma'o/YACC grammar
Pages Section Description              terminal index
 4    Table of Contents

    Intro
 4     About Lojban
 3     About this book

    Lojban Orthography
 1     Letters and symbols
 3  |  optional conventions
 |     Cyrillic Lojban
 |     Dates
 1  |  compounds
 |    text layout

    Lojban Phonology
 2     consonants
 1     permissible initials
 1     permissible medials
 2     vowels, diphthongs,
    divowels
 2  |  syllables
 |    hyphen
 |    buffering
 1     stress
 1  |  rhythm, phrasing
 |    intonation

    Lojban Morphology
 1     Summary of types and how to
    tell them apart
 1  |   cmene (names)
 |     cmavo
 |      V
 |      VV
 |      CV
 |      CVV
 1  |   brivla
 |      gismu
 1  |     lujvo
 |        rafsi
 4         lujvo-making
                         algorithm
                         /tosmabru
 2         scoring/choice of form
 1  |     le'avla
 |      le'avla lujvo
 3     Resolver algorithm

    Syntax
      E-BNF
 2      About the E-BNF
 3      *E-BNF
 1      *selma'o/E-BNF terminal
    index
      YACC Grammar
 8      About the YACC Grammar

                                  14


      selma'o                       45    *lujvo actually in use -
 1      *selma'o list                  estimated ~1800
 20     *short alphabetical         45    *proposed lujvo (possibly
          definition,                      intermingled with pre-
          subcategories with cmavo         ceding) systematically
          in each subcategory              created (using "se", "te",
      terminals                            "ve", "xe", "nu", "ka",
 20    *YACC terminal list,                "ni", "ri'a", "gau", etc.
        definition, examples of            estimated ~3000
        each type?                  22    *pre Eaton/TLI lists
                                           (heavily weeded and
    Lexicon                                edited) - estimated ~1500
      The formation of gismu        15    *collected old proposals
 3      Lojbanizing rules used         ~1000
 45    *composite gismu             1     Lojbanizing of names
        etymologies (may be omit-   4      *some personal names
        ted for space)              4      *some country/language
 1      *cultural gismu                names
 1  |   *metric gismu                    le'avla
 |     *internal gismu              3      types of le'avla
      Place structures of gismu     1      the culture word issue
 30    *Lojban gismu (rafsi,        3      *cultural le'avla
               definition) Lojban   3      *some food items
               order                3      *some plants/animals
 35    *gismu keywords;             3      *element words
        keywords/phrases for each   198  *Lojban order dictionary ???
        place by gismu                   (composed of all preceding
 35    *Lojban and English order         lists) [gismu (25), cmavo
               (no place                 (20), rafsi (8), cmene
               structures)               (names) (6), le'avla (12),
      cmavo                              lujvo(127)]
 10    * cmavo in Lojban order      310  *English-order dictionary
 10    * cmavo in                        [page counts dependent on
               selma'o/subtype/alp       Lojban order counts:  gismu
               habetical order           (est. pg. x 5), cmavo (x 2),
 2      * cmavo compounds                names(x 1), le'avla(x 1),
        typically written as one         lujvo(x 1)]
        word                       
 8      * non-Lojban alphabet and      Thesaurus
        symbol set conventions           systems of categorization
 1      * unassigned cmavo          4      *Roget's/Athelstan/Lojbab
 2      * experimental cmavo        4      *Carter
 1      Categories within pro-      4      *Cowan
    sumti (KOhA)                    40   *gismu to category for each
 3      Categories within UI           type
 2  |  Use of BAI to add            30   *category to gismu for each
    places/cases                       type
 |     *list of BAIs typically      10   *English-order cross-index
    used to add cases                  of categories
 |     *list of BAIs typically     
               used as sumti        30 Appendix - *Glossary of
               modifiers                 Lojban/Linguistic Terminol-
      rafsi                              ogy
 1      Assignment of rafsi        
 8      *rafsi, by type,
    alphabetically
 8      *rafsi, pure alphabetical
 20   How to determine place
               structures of lujvo
      lujvo lists

                                  15


    Appendix - Correspondences     drives"?  Each proverb is listed,
      with historical TLI Loglan   therefore, under all its content
 2     Alternate Orthography for   words.  The word is rotated to the
    Lojban                         front, followed by a comma; the
      Lojban gismu correspondence  place from which it was removed is
       to historical TLI Loglan    marked by a "|" character (omitted
       gismu and lujvo             at the beginning or end).
 12    *Lojban gismu order           John took a similar approach
 8      *historical Loglan gismu   here.  The entire place structure
    order                          definition is processed, and the
      Lojban selma'o               corresponding gismu is attached to
       correspondence to           the end, set off by a "Ї" sign.
       historical TLI Loglan       The rafsi, if any, are appended in
       selma'o                     parentheses.  This version of the
 3      *Lojban selma'o order      program omits all words appearing
 3      *historical Loglan selma'o more than 20 times in the input;
    order                          there is no point in listing words
      Lojban cmavo correspondence  under "x4" or "event" or "the".
       to historical TLI Loglan    An exception is made when the word
       cmavo                       is also the LogFlash keyword:
 10    *Lojban cmavo order         thus "zvati" appears under "at",
 6      *historical Loglan cmavo   but no other word does because
    order                          "at" is too frequent.  Two
                                   different fonts and three sizes
 8  Index                          are shown.  We will probably use
____                               trhe smallest that we think can be
 502 pages reference +             clearly read in reproduction.
 508 pages dictionary +            Comments welcome, especially from
  92 pages thesaurus +             those with vision problems.
  82 pages appendices =            
____                               abdomen:  x1 is a / the | / belly
1184pg                               / lower trunk of x2; Їbetfu (bef
                                     be'u)
                                   able:  x1 is | to do / be /
     Sample English-to-Lojban        capable of doing / being x2
  dictionary (intermediate step)     under conditions x3; Їkakne (kak
                                     ka'e)
  The following is a sample of the above:  x1 is directly | /
output from a KWIC (Key Word In      upwards-from x2 in gravity /
Context) tool that John Cowan        frame of reference x4; Їgapru
wrote specifically to help           (gar)
automate creating the English-to-  abrupt:  x1 is sudden / | /
Lojban dictionary.  This is a        sharply changes at stage / point
trial effort, which will almost      x2 in process / property /
certainly play a part in the         function x3; Їsuksa (suk)
creation of the English portion of absolute:  x1 is a fact / reality
the dictionary.  There may be some   / truth, in the | ; Їfatci (fac)
differences in style or format.    absorbs:  x1 soaks up / | / sucks
Comments are welcome as to how       up x2 from x3 into x4; Їcokcu
usable you find this style of        (cok cko co'u)
presentation of the vocabulary.    abstracted:  x1 is | / generalized
  This format is that used by the    / idealized from x2 by rules x3;
Oxford Dictionary of English         Їsucta (suc)
Proverbs, which has the problem of academy:  x1 is a school /
deciding how to alphabetize a list   institute / | at x2 teaching
of proverbs.  Just using the first   subject x3 to audience /
word (or even the first content      community x4 operated by x5;
word) is not enough; what if you     Їckule (cu'e)
remember only the word "devil"     accessing:  x1 is a street /
from "Needs must when the devil      avenue / lane / drive / cul-de-

                                  16


  sac / way / alley / at x2 | x3;  accruing:  x1 is a profit / gain /
  Їklaji (laj)                       benefit / advantage to x2 | /
accident:  x1 is an | /              resulting from activity /
  unintentional on the part of x2;   process x3; Їprali (pal)
  x1 is an accident; Їsnuti (nut   accuracy:  x1 measures / evaluates
  nu'i)                              x2 as x3 units on scale x4, with
accommodates:  x1 contains / holds   | x5; Їmerli (mel mei)
  / encloses / | / includes con-   achieve:  x1 helps / assists /
  tents x2 within; x1 is a vessel    aids object / person x2 do / | /
  containing x2; Їvasru (vas vau)    maintain event / activity x3;
accompanies:  x1 is with / | / is    Їsidju (sid dju)
  a companion of x2, in state /    achieves:  x1 succeeds in / | /
  condition / enterprise x3;         completes / accomplishes x2;
  Їkansa (kas)                       Їsnada
accompaniment:  x1 dances to | x2; acid:  x1 is a quantity of /
  Їdansu                             contains / is made of | of
accomplishes:  x1 succeeds in /      composition x2; x1 is acidic;
  achieves / completes / | x2;       Їslami
  Їsnada                           acidic:  x1 is a quantity of /
according: x1 is a dimension of      contains / is made of acid of
  space / object x2 | to rules /     composition x2; x1 is; Їslami
  model x3; Їcimde                 acids:  x1 is a quantity of
according: x1 is a family / clan /   protein / albumin of type x2
  tribe with members x2 bonded /     composed of amino; Їlanbi
  tied / joined | to standard x3;  acquires:  x1 gets / | / obtains
  Їlanzu (laz)                       x2 from source x3; Їcpacu (cpa)
according:  x1 is a history of x2  acrid:  x1 is bitter / | / sharply
  | to x3 / from point-of-view x3;   disagreeable to x2; Їkurki
  Їcitri (cir)                     across:  x1 is a bridge over / |
according:  x1 is an heir to / is    x2 between x3 and x4; Їcripu
  to inherit x2 from x3 | to rule    (rip)
  x4; Їcerda (ced)                 across:  x1 is located | x2 from
according:  x1 is polite /           x3; x1 is opposite x3; Їragve
  courteous in matter x2 | to        (rav)
  standard / custom x3; Їclite     across:  x1 ranges / extends /
  (lit)                              spans / reaches | / over inter-
according:  x1 is to the east /      val / gap / area x2; Їkuspe (kup
  eastern side of x2 | to frame of   ku'e)
  reference x3; Їstuna             act:  x1 is an event / state / |
according: x1 is to the north /      of violence; Їvlile (vil)
  northern side of x2 | to frame-  actions:  x1 is kind to x2 in | /
  of-reference x3; Їberti (ber)      behavior x3; Їxendo (xed xe'o)
according:  x1 is to the south /   actions:  x1 tries / attempts to
  southern side of x2 | to frame     do / attain x2 by | / method x3;
  of reference x3; Їsnanu            Їtroci (roc ro'i)
according: x1 is to the west /     
  western side of x2 | to frame of   An alternative being considered,
  reference x3; Їstici             and shown as a second example, is
according:  x1 is / reflects a     to repeat the English words in
  pattern of forms / events x2 ar- their context, marked by format to
  ranged | to structure x3; Їmorna make them easy to spot.  Creating
  (mor mo'a)                       such an alternative format is
account:  x1 is an | / bill /      significantly more cumbersome, and
  invoice for goods / services x2, obviously takes a bit more space
  billed to x3, billed by x4;      since the words are spelled out,
  Їjanta (jat ja'a)                but many would find it easier to
accountable:  x1 is responsible /  read.  In a dictionary, even small
  | for x2 to judge / authority    percentage changes in definition
  x3; Їfuzme (fuz fu'e)            length can make a difference of
                                   several pages in the result.

                                  17


Since the Lojban dictionary is     accomplishes:  x1 succeeds in /
going to be expensive to produce,    achieves / completes / ac-
brevity could make a difference it   complishes x2; Їsnada
what we have to charge for the     according: x1 is a dimension of
result.                              space / object x2 according to
  If you have a strong preference    rules / model x3; Їcimde
in this utility vs. cost tradeoff, according: x1 is a family / clan /
make it known to us as soon as       tribe with members x2 bonded /
possible.                            tied / joined according to
                                     standard x3; Їlanzu (laz)
abdomen:  x1 is a / the abdomen /  according:  x1 is a history of x2
  belly / lower trunk of x2;         according to x3 / from point-of-
  Їbetfu (bef be'u)                  view x3; Їcitri (cir)
able:  x1 is able to do / be /     according:  x1 is an heir to / is
  capable of doing / being x2 un-    to inherit x2 from x3 according
  der conditions x3; Їkakne (kak     to rule x4; Їcerda (ced)
  ka'e)                            according:  x1 is polite /
above:  x1 is directly above /       courteous in matter x2 according
  upwards-from x2 in gravity /       to standard / custom x3; Їclite
  frame of reference x4; Їgapru      (lit)
  (gar)                            according:  x1 is to the east /
abrupt:  x1 is sudden / abrupt /     eastern side of x2 according to
  sharply changes at stage / point   frame of reference x3; Їstuna
  x2 in process / property /       according: x1 is to the north /
  function x3; Їsuksa (suk)          northern side of x2 according to
absolute:  x1 is a fact / reality    frame-of-reference x3; Їberti
  / truth, in the absolute; Їfatci   (ber)
  (fac)                            according:  x1 is to the south /
absorbs:  x1 soaks up / absorbs /    southern side of x2 according to
  sucks up x2 from x3 into x4;       frame of reference x3; Їsnanu
  Їcokcu (cok cko co'u)            according: x1 is to the west /
abstracted:  x1 is abstracted /      western side of x2 according to
  generalized / idealized from x2    frame of reference x3; Їstici
  by rules x3; Їsucta (suc)        according:  x1 is / reflects a
academy:  x1 is a school /           pattern of forms / events x2 ar-
  institute / academy at x2          ranged according to structure
  teaching subject x3 to audience    x3; Їmorna (mor mo'a)
  / community x4 operated by x5;   account:  x1 is an account / bill
  Їckule (cu'e)                      / invoice for goods / services
accessing:  x1 is a street /         x2, billed to x3, billed by x4;
  avenue / lane / drive / cul-de-    Їjanta (jat ja'a)
  sac / way / alley / at x2        accountable:  x1 is responsible /
  accessing x3; Їklaji (laj)         accountable for x2 to judge /
accident:  x1 is an accident /       authority x3; Їfuzme (fuz fu'e)
  unintentional on the part of x2; accruing:  x1 is a profit / gain /
  x1 is an accident; Їsnuti (nut     benefit / advantage to x2 ac-
  nu'i)                              cruing / resulting from activity
accommodates:  x1 contains / holds   / process x3; Їprali (pal)
  / encloses / accommodates /      accuracy:  x1 measures / evaluates
  includes contents x2 within; x1    x2 as x3 units on scale x4, with
  is a vessel containing x2;         accuracy x5; Їmerli (mel mei)
  Їvasru (vas vau)                 achieve:  x1 helps / assists /
accompanies:  x1 is with /           aids object / person x2 do /
  accompanies / is a companion of    achieve / maintain event /
  x2, in state / condition /         activity x3; Їsidju (sid dju)
  enterprise x3; Їkansa (kas)      achieves:  x1 succeeds in /
accompaniment:  x1 dances to         achieves / completes / accom-
  accompaniment x2; Їdansu           plishes x2; Їsnada
                                   acid:  x1 is a quantity of /
                                     contains / is made of acid of

                                  18


  composition x2; x1 is acidic;      agree that a planned language
  Їslami                             should have no allomorphs, i.e.
acidic:  x1 is a quantity of /       each root-word should have only
  contains / is made of acid of      one form which should not change
  composition x2; x1 is; Їslami      due to conjugation, declension,
acids:  x1 is a quantity of          compounding, or other gram-
  protein / albumin of type x2       matical processes.  Allomorphs
  composed of amino; Їlanbi          increase the difficulty of memo-
acquires:  x1 gets / acidic /        rizing a vocabulary and give no
  obtains x2 from source x3;         benefit in return.  It appears
  Їcpacu (cpa)                       that Loglan and Lojban suffer
acrid:  x1 is bitter / acrid /       from rampant allomorphy.  Any
  sharply disagreeable to x2;        given 5-letter predicate might
  Їkurki                             have 0, 1, 2, or 3 triliteral
across:  x1 is a bridge over /       allomorphs to be used in
  across x2 between x3 and x4;       compound words.  Unless I am
  Їcripu (rip)                       mistaken, there's no way to
across:  x1 is located across x2     predict whether a given predi-
  from x3; x1 is opposite x3;        cate has allomorphs, and if so,
  Їragve (rav)                       what those allomorphs might be;
across:  x1 ranges / extends /       each predicate's allomorphs must
  spans / reaches across / over      be memorized.
  interval / gap / area x2; Їkuspe 
  (kup ku'e)                         Lojban rafsi are the word-forms
act:  x1 is an event / state / act used to make compound words, and
  of violence; Їvlile (vil)        are the 'allomorphs' that Rick is
actions:  x1 is kind to x2 in      talking about.  I, of course
  actions / behavior x3; Їxendo    disagree with Rick's statements
  (xed xe'o)                       and his conclusions.  In
actions:  x1 tries / attempts to   particular, I believe that:
  do / attain x2 by actions /        - 'allomorphy', like many other
  method x3; Їtroci (roc ro'i)     aspects of the design of a
                                   constructed language is a design
                                   feature that may be used as a
         On Lojban rafsi           trade-off to prevent other
            by Lojbab              problems or to provide other ad-
                                   vantages.  In the discussion that
  Occasionally people new to the   follows, I will present our
project have criticized Lojban's   rational, showing that Lojban's
rafsi system, generally claiming   system does both;
that the system is overly complex    - the need to clearly
or hard to learn.  I contend       distinguish between a multi-word
otherwise, based on personal       metaphor and a single word
experience and on observation of   compound derived from that
those who have already learned the metaphor means that some sort of
system.  What may appear extremely allomorphy is necessary.  The only
complex and rule-bound, in         other alternative is to add an
practice turns out to be quite     extraneous particle as glue
easy.  The system also has the     between the components of one of
advantage that you need not learn  these two types of concept
everything at once - you can use   combination (which we do in the
the system while knowing only a    case of le'avla lujvo, but only
fraction of the rules and the      because there is no other general
rafsi.                             solution for an arbitrary word-
     As a sample of the criticism, form that maintains unambiguity).
here is Rick Harrison, commenting  In general such particle addition
on the "conlang" computer mailing  violates Zipf's Law when the
list:                              compound is to be used frequently.
    The vast majority of           Zipf's Law predicts that words
  constructed language enthusiasts which are frequently used will be

                                  19


shorter than less frequent ones.   one of them (which no one has), is
I have considerably more faith in  but a very small percentage of the
this principle as a basis for      total vocabulary needed for fluent
constructed language design than I adult conversation, but provides
do in the purported difficulties   immediate benefit for even small
arising from allomorphy, es-       amounts of learning.
pecially with a system like          The first time you see a
Lojban's that is carefully de-     compound, you will probably take
signed.                            it apart.  Perhaps even the first
  (One oft-recurring suggestion    few times.  But you cannot become
for change, generally by critics   even moderately fluent in any
of the language such as Rick, has  language if you need to analyze
been to let the short forms serve  the etymology of every word you
as the roots themselves.  Not only want to read, speak, or
are there far too few such         understand.  Words that occur at
possible roots, but such a usage   all frequently must be inter-
would detract from the words       nalized as a unit of meaning.  If
available for use as cmavo, the    there are 50,000 concepts that are
normal interpretation of a CVV     needed for adult conversation (a
form that is a separate word.  In  reasonable guess), then you will
addition, short rafsi are far more need to memorize 50,000 words, at
densely-packed among the set of    one word per concept.  This number
possible forms than the gismu -    cannot be reduced, except by
nearly all such short forms are    polysemy (one word representing
used.  This results in a           multiple concepts), and I cannot
significant loss of redundancy     see Rick or anyone arguing that
that would make the language       polysemy makes learning a language
harder to resolve with such con-   easier.
densed forms.  Indeed, Lojban        - there is indeed a way to
allows the long-form for any       predict whether a Lojban root has
compound built of 5-letter rafsi,  rafsi, and there are constraints
to alternate for any compound      that greatly limit what those
built with the shorter rafsi forms rafsi might be.  In addition,
to be used equivalently with       because the assignment of rafsi is
identical meaning, to reduce noisy maximized, almost every possible
environment redundancy problems.   rafsi has some meaning.  This has
Finally, of course, if the short   the result that every rafsi that
forms were the roots, there would  you learn to associate with its
be no capability for further       gismu reduces the possibilities
shortening in conformance with     for other words.  This makes
Zipf's Law, and indeed either      learning the others easier, and by
compounds or non-compound          the time you've learned even 1/2
metaphors would have to be longer  the rafsi (or maybe less if
than the separate words that com-  they're the right ones), you can
pose them.)                        generally guess the rest as you
  - all words in a language have   need them.
to memorized eventually, if you      Let me discuss the rationale,
are to achieve fluency.            first.  Lojban lujvo, or compound
'allomorphy', at least as used in  words, represent the myriad of
Lojban, makes learning that        predicate relations that are not
vocabulary easier in general, and  reflected in the gismu roots.  As
there are significant benefits in  predicate words in Lojban (as
addition to vocabulary learning,   opposed to tanru, the phrases from
in that you can create new words   which lujvo are often derived),
on an ad hoc basis, even when you  they each have a unique meaning
are still a language novice, and   (and associated place structure).
you can usefully analyze words you This meaning need not be memorized
don't know.  The added memo-       by the Lojban learner - the rafsi
rization implied by the rafsi,     system allows you to unambiguously
even if you memorize every single  take the word apart to see the

                                  20


tanru components that went into    specific solution embedded in
building the compound.  You may    Lojban took 5 years to develop
then assume that the compound      (1978-82), with experimentation at
represents the most common and/or  several steps along the way
most plausible interpretation of   (involving many people, though
that phrase, and you will rarely   unfortunately almost all native
be incorrect.                      English speakers).  The design you
  Thus, as you come to know more   see today was not adopted lightly.
and more of the rafsi through      Several other changes in the
using the language, you become     phonology and the morphology were
less and less dependent on a       also made at the same time, with
dictionary or word list to help    all designed to mutually con-
you understand new words as you    sistent with each other and with
come across them.  The ability to  the goals of the language.  Thus
dispense with a dictionary in      the system of rafsi was not a
everyday Lojban use is the major   patchwork ad-hoc solution that
goal and benefit of the rafsi      doesn't fit the rest of the
system - it is virtually           language - it is an integral part
impossible to achieve fluency in a of the system.
language until you are willing and   In the old system, when
able to try to use it              composing a new lujvo, there were
spontaneously without looking      a large number of possible forms
words up that you don't know.      for combining the gismu
  The ability to do without a      components, and you would have had
dictionary offers a major ad-      to look each of them up to make
vantage in the growth of the       sure that the word had not been
Lojban vocabulary, a critical      already created.  Even if it had
aspect of the language's first     not been already made (and since
years.   Lojbanists, whether new   dictionaries are inherent outdated
or experienced, can create new     in this respect by the time they
words on an ad hoc basis while     are published, you would not be
speaking and writing, using the    certain), you would then look up
rafsi system to do so quickly and  your proposed compound, to make
easily.  Doing so, you know that   sure that it had not been already
for a given concept represented by used to represent a different,
a tanru, there is only one lujvo   unrelated tanru.  As such,
structure that will represent that mastering these early versions of
concept.  You won't be inventing a the language effectively required
word only to find out later that   you to memorize words in order to
someone else expressed the same    learn and use them, with
tanru concept in a different form, relatively minor and undependable
and that their version is right    clues in the word-form to aid in
and your version is wrong.         your recognition.
  The system of rafsi replaced an    With the current Lojban system,
earlier Loglan system (changed in  the situation is reversed.  You
1982) wherein compounds were       only memorize those lujvo which
formed by mashing parts of each    you find yourself using often (in
component together without a       which case you memorize them
system, with the result that you   simply by using them often enough
could only guess what components   that they come to mind without
went into making a lujvo.  The     thinking about it).  You invent
only requirement was that the re-  new words on an ad hoc basis,
sulting compound had to be 2 mod 3 knowing that someone else
characters long.                   independently inventing a word for
  The learning problem proved      the same concept will likely end
severe when people actually tried  up with the same word, but that in
to both learn the existing         any case, the word you invent will
compounds and to make new          almost certainly be correct, in
compounds, after the first printed that it will not represent any
dictionary came out in 1975.  The

                                  21


concept other than the one you     a commonly expressed concept is
have in mind.                      represented by a long word or
  Briefly reviewing the Lojban     phrase, common usage turns it into
rafsi system, each Lojban gismu    a contraction (like "didn't", or
has between 2 and 5 combining      into an acronym or abbreviation.
forms.  Two of these are trivially Examples include "TV" for
and uniquely determined.  The      "television", "TB" for
gismu itself may be used as its    "tuberculosis", "ASAP" for "as
own combining form when it is in   soon as possible", and "CIA" for
the final position of the lujvo.   "Central Intelligence Agency",
In addition, there is a related 4- reducing 9 syllables to only 3).
letter form, obtained by dropping  It is believed by many linguists
the final vowel from the gismu,    that the multitude of declensions
which may be used in any non-final and conjugations found in lan-
position, by gluing it on to the   guages today are the remnants of
following component with a "y"     earlier contractions.
(pronounced as a schwa, the final    Note that such acronyms as "TV"
sound in the English word "sofa"). lose significant information about
Since no two gismu concepts differ word meaning available in longer
only in the final vowel, this      forms.  "Television", for those
means that each concept has two    who know the Latin roots that
combining forms, which can always  formed the word, reveals some
be used in forming compounds that  aspects of the word's meaning;
can be uniquely broken down to     "TV" does not.  "CIA" can stand
recognize the components.          for a variety of longer expres-
  Using only these two 'long'      sions, and there is no clue except
rafsi forms, the 4-letter and the  context to indicate that a
full 5-letter gismu form, the      government organization is the
beginning Lojbanist can use the    intended meaning.  A common
full expressive power of the       English word that is apparently a
language, while memorizing no      short form, "OK", has completely
rafsi.  There are no exceptions to lost its origin (leaving only un-
these rules, and no complications, confirmable speculations).  When
and the resulting word, (called    that happens, these compounds
the 'unreduced form') is always    become like roots in themselves
correct and acceptable.            that must be memorized separately.
  The complications arise only     This increases the difficulty of
when you become a more advanced    language learning, unacceptable in
student of the language.  When you a constructed language like
can speak and write in a language  Loglan/ Lojban.
quickly, you don't want really       To relieve this pressure for
long words for relatively simple   short forms for common words,
concepts.  It is fairly common to  those Lojban gismu which have been
devise lujvo made up of 4 (or      found most useful in compounds
more) components, sometime for     have been assigned additional 3-
concepts that are used every day.  letter short rafsi.  A Lojban word
Most people would be unsatisfied   may have up to one of each of the
with a language that required them following forms:  a CVC-form, a
to use a 20-letter word with 8     CVV-form, and/or a CCV-form, where
syllables for a very common        C and V stand for consonants and
concept.                           vowels that are found in the
  Indeed, an analysis of natural   source word.  These short-forms
languages called Zipf's Law        may be preferred because they
indicates that the length of words combine to form shorter words,
in actual use is inversely related sometimes with fewer syllables,
to their frequency of use - the    than the 4-letter and 5-letter
most frequently used words in a    rafsi.
language are the shortest ones,      As a result, therefore, more
and long words are rarely used.    than one rafsi may be used to
In languages such as English, when represent a gismu/concept in

                                  22


making a compound, since the 4-    where this is true is
and 5- letter forms still exist.   "television", which can be seen as
In addition, because these shorter a short form of the two components
forms are found in other words, or "tele" and "vision".  "TV", a
even standing alone as words       further shortening of the same
(cmavo) in themselves in the case  components is taken as identical
of CVV forms, you need to have     in meaning to "television".  This
rules that prevent the compounds   invariance is true for all Lojban
from breaking up incorrectly.      compounds, even when dozens of
Language design decisions force    possible shortened forms are
tradeoffs between the need to      possible.
maximize the number of words that    Dozens of forms can be possible
can be contracted and the          when more than one short rafsi is
requirement to retain the          assigned to a gismu.  We want to
integrity of the compounds that    assign multiple short forms,
are formed and the ability to      because the effects of sound
break them down into recognizable  interactions and the Lojban word-
meaning components.                formation rules may prevent one
  The nature of the sounds that    particular rafsi from being used
make up words, and the             in some situations.  Thus an
imperfections in human speech and  additional short rafsi increases
hearing give rise to further       the likelihood that some short
complication in a system of word   form is possible in a particular
compression.  Certain sounds, when difficult combination; it also may
adjacent to each other may provoke mean that in other combinations
mispronunciation or may be         where there are no sound re-
misheard by a listener.  Linguists strictions, you will have a
also know that certain sound       multitude of choices.
combinations tend to be unstable     Of course, the rule that all of
and to change with time.  In       these choices will have a single
designing Lojban, we had to plan   common meaning means most of them
ahead to avoid combinations that   will never be used.  Probably only
would likely lead to the Lojban of the longest form (which will be
2100 being significantly different used by language beginners) and
from the Lojban of the first       the shortest form will be used.
dictionary.                        If there is more than one
  All of these tradeoffs have been 'shortest form', different people
dealt with in the current Lojban   may choose different ones are
design; yet the rules for lujvo-   preferable for a while, but usage
making remain relatively simple.   will relatively quickly tend to
Some rafsi are forbidden in some   settle on one of the choices.  We
word positions.  Depending on      have defined a formal scoring
word-position and adjacent rafsi,  rules to help people pick the form
you may have to add a "hyphen"     that is most likely to be settled
letter to make a word pro-         on, but it is not necessary to use
nounceable, or to keep the sounds  it - choose the form that sounds
from breaking up into two words    best to you and others may agree.
when heard by a listener.          
  If the rules are too difficult     Let me now turn to a Lojban
for your level of proficiency, you example.  Following is a long
always can fall back to the long   compound that has appeared in
form rafsi mentioned above.  You   Lojban text:
can do so because a firm rule of   
the Lojban design is that, if
there is more than one possible
rafsi combining form, the choice
of form does not affect the
resulting meaning.  The shortest
form of a word means the same as
the long form.  An English example

                                  23


   nolraitruti'u  (5 syllables)    compound from a root from a
         nol-rai-tru-ti'u          structure word.
     nobli-traji-turni-tixnu         Loglan/Lojban has reached what I
noble+superlative+govern+daughter  believe is an optimal tradeoff
   (princess - specifically the    between redundancy and brevity,
 daughter of a king/queen, as op-  ease of learning and unambiguity
 posed to Princess Di of the UK)   of the morphology.  If other
  If there were no short forms,    solutions exist, they are unlikely
this word would have to be:        to meet all the goals for the
    noblytrajyturnytixnu    (8     language.
            syllables)             
  Given that it is desired that      Let me now turn to two hidden
you expect to memorize the Lojban  assumptions that Rick and others
word, learning it as a unitary     make when criticizing Lojban,
word rather than by puzzling it    assumptions I believe are
together every time from its com-  incorrect:
ponents, it should be obvious that 1) that there is a way of reducing
the shorter word "nolraitruti'u"   the amount of memorization needed
is better than the longer one.  If to gain fluency in a conlang below
you lived in a country with        some arbitrary minimum, and
royalty such as the UK that had    2) that memorizing allomorphs is
such a princess (as Elizabeth was  difficult.
before she became queen) and were    Assuming that the set of
prone to reading, writing, and     thoughts that might be expressed
talking about such a princess a    linguistically should be about the
lot, which word would you prefer   same, regardless of the language,
to say or write?                   there are only so many options
  I argue that "princess" is not   available for expressing those
that infrequent a concept,         thoughts.  If there is 'one word
certainly deserving of a single    per concept', then a speaker must
word.  The British, so I under-    have memorized a separate word for
stand, do make distinctions        each concept in order to achieve
between the various types of       fluency.  If polysemy exists, then
princess, at least in terms of how speaker has an added burden:  to
they are titled, so that the       memorize a somewhat smaller set of
distinction is socially and        words, but to also memorize the
linguistically important.  Lojban  multiple meanings of those words
must have separate words if there  (including meanings he may rarely
are clearly two separate concepts, use) and some means of
as there are in this case (the     pragmatically distinguishing which
'Di' variety of princess might be  meaning is intended.
5 terms:  noble-superlative-         There's no way around this.
governor-son-spouse).              Fluent speakers don't often invent
  The longer 8-syllable form is    words or even derive new
permitted as an alternative to the prefix/suffix formations when
short form, and might be used      conversing.  Productive language
either in noisy environments where formation (i.e. inventing new
the longer word has all those      words) takes time to think, and
extra sounds as redundancy checks, taking that time in the middle of
or by beginners who have not yet   a conversation breaks up fluency.
memorized the short rafsi or the   There is some minimum amount that
compound, and are creating the     must be learned, even in the most
compound on the fly (as this word  regular of conlangs; no design
has been created every time it has trick can reduce this.
been used thus far since we have     For a given language, for each
no dictionary nor people who have  concept you expect to talk or hear
memorized such words).  The long   about in fluent speech, you must
forms are of course needed when    learn 1) at least one word for the
the words are not compounded, or   concept, 2) the association of
you would not be able to tell a    that word with that specific

                                  24


concept, and not to other concepts can easily decompose - after
(including false friends from the  seeing these words over and over,
native language), 3) any other     they suddenly find that they know
meanings or usages associated with both the word-formation rules, the
that word, including both polysemy affixes, and the compounds.
and pragmatic considerations (what   Lojban in effect carries the
phrases may be appended to         Esperanto technique to the ul-
sentences using that word, etc.    timate extreme.  Rather than a
For example, if you stick an       couple dozen short affixes, we al-
object on an intransitive verb "*I low every root to have an affix,
sit the store", or attach certain  and then make those affixes re-
prepositional phrases to a word    semble the roots in very regular
that doesn't expect them "*I give  ways.  For all Loj-ban lujvo, you
from Mary across the store" you    automatically know that any resem-
get nonsense in any language,      blances to words of other
ungrammatical garbage in most of   languages are accidental, since
them.)  It takes memorization to   those lujvo are always composite
turn words into sense.             of simpler words in Lojban and are
  Thus, for people who are really  not derived from any other
going to use a language, the only  language.
thing you can do is ease the       
memorization process to make it      As for the second assumption, I
easier to do that required         assert that Rick is wrong, and
memorization, to get from novice   that
to fluency.                          A very regular conlang can have
  One way - the most frequent        allomorphs that are easy to
among conlang inventors - is to      memorize and Lojban has such a
build lots of memory hooks to some   system that actually makes
natural language(s).  In doing so,   compound words more learnable
you risk semantics transfer that     than they might otherwise be.
might make your conlang not truly  
an independent language.  An       There are three parts to my
example of this problem is the     argument on this point:
oft-heard debate about the Es-     - the nature of 'memorizing' of a
peranto prefix "mal-" which in     word is non-trivial in the first
that language means "opposite of", place;
but in many European languages     - Lojban's system is designed to
means "bad".  People native to     provide differing aids to the
those languages seem to often com- novice, the experienced learner,
plain about 'derogative'           and the expert Lojbanist, allowing
implications of words containing   the different levels of skill to
"mal-", when such implications are concentrate on those aspects of
not part of Esperanto in any way.  word 'memorizing' that are easiest
You can't avoid this kind of prob- for their skill level and most
lem - all languages will have      productive for them;
'false friends' that mislead you   - the Lojban allomorphs, being
in learning similar-appearing new  made in predictable ways from the
words in a new language.  You can  gismu are relatively easy to
minimize it through other methods  memorize.
of aiding the learning process.    
  One way, occurring in Esperanto,   There are two phases to
is the use of affixes (such as     memorizing a word.  In the Lojban
"mal-") that modify meanings of    literature, we call these phases
words in certain semi-regular      "recognition" and "recall".  In
ways.  Thus, by learning a few     recognition, the goal is to look
words and these few productive     at a word, and be able to
affixes, you multiply the          recognize its conceptual meaning.
vocabulary that results from       In recall, you must be able to go
memorization.  New people then     from a concept in-mind, and
learn from seeing words that they

                                  25


determine the word that represents it up a couple of times.  In
that concept.                      reality, of course, context clues
  Recognition is by far the easier may tell you what a word must
of the two skills to master, and   mean, allowing you to recognize
it is the most important for the   the components, which contribute
new Lojban learner.  Such a new    to that meaning, even more easily.
learner will probably be reading   Since the early Lojban student
far more Lojban text than he/she   must recognize far more words (and
will write (or if learning         hence rafsi) than he must recall
verbally, will hear far more than  or generate, this is the key skill
he/she speaks).  When learning to  at this early stage.
recognize words in a foreign         At this stage, a Lojbanist
language, you can rely on aspects  generally knows few gismu or
of the word that you are trying to rafsi, so he/she will tend to
learn that in some way remind you  learn them in tandem.  Since the
of a corresponding word in the     rafsi closely resemble their
other language.                    corresponding gismu (as I'll ex-
  As evidence for the difference   plain below), learning gismu helps
in difficulty, people using our    in learning the corresponding
software tool 'LogFlash' will      rafsi and vice versa.  Simpler
practice 'recognition' of a Lojban Lojban texts will probably have a
gismu, and must get it correct 3   higher percentage of gismu than
times correctly before they        more advanced texts, and thus more
attempt 'recall'.  Depending on    words can be simply looked up in
individual skill at learning, and  the word lists.  (When the
the amount of time spent studying  dictionary is available, I suspect
in advance of a first test, a      that simpler texts will tend to
Lojbanist will range from 20% to   rely more on words in the
perhaps 70% correct.  However,     published vocabulary than on
having gotten a word correct once, coining of new words.)
the minimum score for the 2nd        From the recognition standpoint,
attempt ranges from 60% to 90%     the lujvo-making algorithm is
correct, and the 3rd time after    incredibly simple.  Break a lujvo
two correct recognitions in a row, at every 'y', dropping the 'y's,
results in over 90% correct (most  then break all remaining chunks of
errors are typos).  However, the   more than 5 letters by removing 3
first recall attempt, which        letter chunks from the front.  You
follows the 3 successful           will be left with 3 letter pieces,
recognitions, tends to range from  which of course are short rafsi,
only 30% to 70% again, almost as   at most one 5 letter piece at the
if learning to recognize the word  end of the word, which is a well-
gave absolutely no advantage to    formed gismu, and 4-letter pieces
learning to recall it.  (Words     which are gismu missing their
successfully recalled once are     final vowel, which can be
recalled 90% correctly on the next trivially identified in a gismu
recall attempt.  However, recall   list.  (While le'avla borrowings
skill decays relatively quickly    are rare, especially in beginning
without practice, dropping to the  texts, they can be most readily
original 30-70% level within a     identified either by a 3-or-more
couple of weeks if there have been letter consonant cluster with a
only two test sessions.            syllabic 'r' or 'n' after the
Recognition skill drops off much   first 3 letters - the classifier
more slowly.                       rafsi - or more simply by the fact
  As applied to the rafsi          that they fail to break down into
components of lujvo, given no      3 and 5 letter chunks that are all
clues to meaning from context, the valid rafsi, as described above.
early Lojban student will still    le'avla never contain a 'y', so 4-
quickly gain the ability to        letter rafsi will not occur.)
recognize and identify the meaning   As you start to write in the
of the rafsi after having to look  language, you will already know a

                                  26


few gismu from reading, and maybe  gismu, there are only a few
a few rafsi.  You then have to     possible rafsi, and no more than
learn to make lujvo.  Initially,   one of each of the forms.  A CVCCV
this can be done using long-form   gismu (form C1V1C2C3V2) must have
rafsi, with no complications.      rafsi from among the 5 forms CVC
Learning long-form rafsi is        {C1V1C2 or C1V1C3}, CVV {C1V1V2,
equivalent to learning gismu, so   with or without the apostrophe
no memorization is being wasted on between the vowels}, and CCV
this stage.  Ideally you will      {C2C3V2 or rarely C1C2V1 and the
memorize all of the gismu, or at   consonant cluster must be a
least most of them.  Your          permissible initial}.  (By the
continued reading will teach you   time it becomes a factor, you will
some shorter rafsi, because you've have learned which letter
looked them up enough times that   combinations are not permissible
you no longer need to do so.       initials, since there no Lojban
These are probably going to be the words start with them).  A CCVCV
most common rafsi, the ones that   gismu (form C1C2V1C3V2) must
you will most likely need earliest choose rafsi from among CVC
in your own efforts to coin lujvo. {C1V1C3 or C2V2C3}, CVV {C1V1V2 or
You will also acquire a fairly in- C2V1V2, with or without the
stinctive feel for the conditions  apostrophe between the vowels},
under which 'y' is inserted to     and CCV {C1C2V1 and the consonant
break up impermissible consonant   cluster must be a permissible
clusters in lujvo, but the written initial}.  In other words, up to 3
rules are clearly and formally     from among 5 possibilities, and
stated for cases that aren't       you can eliminate any pos-
obvious.   As a learner, if you    sibilities that you know are
insert an extra 'y' in error, you  assigned to other words.  You
will be understood; the occasions  don't need to know all of the
where extra 'y's cause word break- rafsi for a given word at first,
up problems are extremely rare,    since you can always use the long
and only affect fluent speech      forms till you are sure of the
streams of spoken Lojban.          short forms.  Thus, you use what
  By the time you know most of the you know, and acquire new rafsi as
gismu, through LogFlash or by some you need them.  Of course, every
other learning technique, you will rafsi you can recall, you can
already have recognition control   almost certainly also recognize.
on many rafsi, and perhaps even         As an example, take the gismu
recall of a few of them.  Only     "bangu"  The possible rafsi are
then is it worthwhile to start     "ban", "bag", "bau", "ba'u" (the 2
memorizing rafsi directly, and at  CCV forms bna and ngu are ruled
that point it becomes quite easy   out because of impermissible
to do so.                          initials).  There can be only 1
  Look first at recognition.  When CVC and only one CVV rafsi, so
you know almost all of the gismu,  "bangu" has at most 2 rafsi.  It
then for any given rafsi, you      turns out that they are:
probably can identify all of the   
gismu it could represent (about    bangu ban   C1V1C2 (CVC) language
1/4 of the rafsi can only stand          bau   C1V1V2 (CVV)
for one possible gismu, and many   
of the rest have only 2 or 3       and readers of this article have
possibilities).  But since no      probably already learned the "ban"
gismu has more than one of each of rafsi, since it occurs in the name
the different forms of 3-letter    of the language, Lojban.
rafsi, you will be able to           It should be easily seen in this
eliminate some of the              example that the more rafsi you
possibilities because you know     actually do know, the easy it
another rafsi for that word.       becomes to learn the rest.  You
  Recall of rafsi is made easier   have a closed set of three-letter
by the fact that, for any given    forms, nearly all of which has a

                                  27


meaning.  By the time you know a   tradition in Lojban design has
third of the rafsi, a 1/4 guess    been to have a thorough review
becomes a 1/2 guess.  By the time  immediately prior to any baseline
you know 2/3 of the rafsi, you     decision.  This report describes
probably can deduce 90% of them    the results of such a review.
without a word list, because you     In July and August of 1992, the
can determine so many by           complete set of rafsi was
elimination of alternatives.       reanalyzed based on the 4 years of
  Of course, learning the rafsi    actual usage since the original
helps you cement in your knowledge analysis.  Because of new data,
of the gismu themselves.  If you   the report proposed many changes
know 'bau' is a rafsi for the word to the set of rafsi.  These
for "language" (bangu), you know   changes were reviewed by a
that C1 is b, V1 is a, and V2 is   committee from the community, and
u.  This rather reduces the burden almost half the changes were
of learning the other two letters. thrown out at least partially in
If you know the other rafsi is     the interest of language
"ban", then you know that either   conservatism.
C2 or C3 is 'n', and you can         With this rafsi retuning and
almost certainly guess the word at recent re-examinations of all
that point.  (In speech you can    Lojban gismu place structures, all
probably get away with slurring    aspects of the Lojban design will
over the other consonant and the   have had two or more separate
listener will guess what word you  thorough reviews, separated sig-
wanted from context.)              nificantly in time, to ensure that
                                   the design can stand the test of
                                   time.  While the proposed changes
    Revised rafsi Assignments      are a fairly high percentage of
                                   the total set of rafsi as-
  The Lojban rafsi list, the set   signments, the set of assignments
of affixes associated with the     seems to me (who knows the set of
various gismu and a few cmavo, has rafsi best, to be much the same as
explicitly not been baselined      it was before.
along with the gismu list during     For both efforts at assigning
the last few years.  This is       Lojban rafsi, they have been
because the initial assignment of  assigned using a method developed
rafsi was based on merely educated by JCB for old Loglan during the
guesses on what was needed, with   1979-82 timeframe, and described
some highly suspect data as the    in TLI publication "Notebook 2",
basis for those guesses.  The      believed to be out-of-print; the
intent has been to wait as long as document was not all that useful,
feasible to build a data base of   mainly being a 200-page catalog of
actual lujvo-making usage before   supporting data for what I de-
making the assignments permanent.  scribe much more briefly here
The rafsi assignment list has been without such complete data.  JCB
exceptionally stable over the      called his process 'tuning' the
intervening years partly to en-    rafsi list, or 'optimizing' it for
courage lujvo-making, and partly   'coverage'.
because there was no bona fide       'Coverage' refers to the extent
basis to make judgements about     to which words are used in lujvo
rafsi needs without usage data.    compounds, which is of course the
  Now, with the impending          major use of rafsi (they are also
dictionary publication, we want to used to a more limited extent in
have rafsi assignments with a      names and le'avla borrowings, the
greater confidence of adequacy and latter of which has been taken
stability.  Indeed, the            into account in my latest review,
publication of a dictionary that   as noted below).  The goal is to
we hope to be able to sell in book ensure that a maximal percentage
form for a few years requires that of Lojban lujvo compounds can be
we baseline the list.  The

                                  28


composed from 'short' (CVC, CCV,   silent 'd' as Zipf appears to con-
or CVV/CV'V form) rafsi.           tinue to shorten the word after
  This goal is based on the        its written form has been frozen
paradigm known as Zipf's Law,      in spelling).  Similar processes
which has been fully embraced by   include the use of acronyms, a
the Loglan design for at least the phenomenon which Lojban supports
last two decades.  The             but tries to discourage.
Loglan/Lojban paradigm actually      Now there are other reasons for
goes beyond the 'law' as inferred  making lujvo other than merely
by Zipf, which merely observed a   frequency of usage.  One obvious
tendency in language and other     reason is to get a more useful
phenomena to inversely relate      place structure, whereas a tanru
length of a phenomenon to          has the place structure of the
frequency.  As the original law is final term.  But the inherent
descriptive rather than            unpredictability of lujvo place
prescriptive, it has been ques-    structures (notwithstanding
tioned on occasion as a design     various proposals for regularizing
principle for Loglan.  I do not    them) means that most lujvo will
intend to defend this design       be made because someone sees that
principle, merely to state that it the word/concept in question will
is a central tenet of the Lojban   be used multiple times in multiple
design philosophy in accordance    contexts, and hence justifies
with our policy of following JCB's being thought of as a 'word',
central design tenets for Loglan.  rather than a phrase.
  Applying Zipf's Law to Loglan      At this stage there is not a lot
design, we have assumed that the   of a priori decision making going
law will, whether we allow for it  on regarding lujvo-making.  People
or not, govern the evolution of    usually make lujvo when the
the language as it becomes used    concept is expressed by a single
widely in less-controlled          word in the language they are
circumstances as we expect in the  translating from.  But this is a
future.  We want to try to see     valid practice, and indeed is most
where the language will end up     common when compounds are 'bor-
(presumably in a state consistent  rowed' from other languages, a
with Zipf's Law), and design feat- process called 'loan translation'.
ures into the language that will   Of course, not all Lojban lujvo
allow for that evolution to take   that have been proposed correspond
place smoothly, without actually   to single words in other
needing to change the language     languages, so even at this point,
design when it occurs.  To the     Lojban is evidencing its own
extent that we can foresee the     trends in concept/ word formation
future of the language, we want to independent of other languages.
make the changes now, and not        It is presumed that under Zipf's
later, when people have already    Law most people will make lujvo to
learned the vocabulary.            cover concepts of higher
  One result suggested by Zipf's   frequency, leaving as phrases
Law is that words of greater fre-  those concepts that occur once, or
quency in usage tend to be         in specific, isolated, context-
shorter.  If a word comes into     dependent situations.  Thus JCB
greater use, it is observed that   put a priority on making gismu and
it becomes shortened, either by    lujvo to represent concepts found
natural word compression.  Such    in the one generally recognized
compression might include the      cross-language study of the use of
compression of sounds as in        concepts in languages (as opposed
"cannot" to "can't", or the tying  to words), Helen Eaton's study
words together in compounds like   from the 1920s and 1930s.
lujvo rather than leaving them as  Unfortunately that study is
longer tanru (e.g. the English     outdated, and its association with
lujvo "grandfather" - interesting  4 European languages makes this
in that many pronounce it with a   data questionable as the sole

                                  29


basis for a modern language        final positions.  Thus the long
design.  Now that we have actual   form of a compound for "broda
Lojban usage to include in the     brode" will be "brodybrode".  (The
design evaluation, for the first   'example' gismu "brodV" are the
time we can downgrade the          only gismu in the language that
importance of Eaton's study.       share the same final vowel and
  History of the Loglan/Lojban     hence have ambiguous lujvo com-
rafsi system -  The use of rafsi   pounds - but then they are used
in languages, including conlangs,  most often for making examples.
is not particularly controversial. The current reanalysis has given a
Esperanto, for example, has a wide limited alternative to this
variety of prefixes and suffixes   ambiguity for those rare usages of
which operate roughly as Loglan's  these that are non-exemplary).
rafsi do.  The extent to which       It must be clearly understood
Loglan/Lojban uses and indeed de-  that there is no guarantee that a
pends on rafsi may be more         lujvo compound means exactly what
controversial.                     one would infer from the source
  Pre-1982 Loglan had haphazard    metaphor.  Language use is rather
compound formation, with the       too chaotic to assume that.
effect that compressed compounds   Indeed, Lojban policy is to assume
had a structure such that          that the source metaphor is
etymology and hence implied        ambiguous and context-dependent,
meaning could not be elicited from whereas upon adopting a shorter
the word.  As a result, the        compound form, that form becomes a
'correct form' of a compound had   single word in its own right with
to be memorized, and to a great    a unique meaning and place
extent, a given compound could be  structure like all other Lojban
looked at with relatively little   content words (brivla).
possibility of recognition of its    Zipf's Law, plus this
compound nature or of its implied  distinction between metaphor and
meaning.                           compound, require that the com-
  The GMR (Great Morphological     pounds be both shorter than and
Revolution) redesign in 1978-1982  distinguishable from the source
incorporated the concept of        metaphor.  All Lojban gismu can
'resolvable affixes' (rafsi) such  form long-form compounds of this
that the fact that a word is a     sort; the use of 'y' replacement
compound could be recognized on    in non-final rafsi assures that
sight, and the nature of its       there is unique resolution, while
etymology and hence significant    also ensuring that the words do
clues as to its meaning could be   not fall apart.  In accordance
recognized by identifying the      with Zipf's Law, all such com-
rafsi of which the word was com-   pounds are at least trivially
posed.  In the spirit of Loglan's  shorter than the uncompressed
design, resolvable affixes were to 'metaphor' (tanru) from which they
be unambiguously assigned to       are formed.  If short rafsi exist,
specific gismu roots, so that rec- the compound can be shorter still.
ognizing the rafsi identified a      Since all Loglan rafsi occur
unique etymology, and rules that   only in bound forms (inside
allowed a compound to be           compounds), it was recognized that
unambiguously recognized as being  some shorter forms than the five-
composed of these, and only these, letter rafsi could be used.
rafsi.                             Unambiguous word-resolution
  The Loglan/Lojban design now     limited this set of shorter rafsi
allows for both 'long' and 'short' to CVC, CCV, and CVV forms, where
rafsi.  Long rafsi are identical   in Lojban a VV pair might be one
to the basic gismu (all of CVCCV   of the four primary diphthongs or
or CCVCV form) for final position  a disyllable vowel pair (which is
in a compound only or have the     marked with an apostrophe ' to
final vowel replaced by a 'y'      indicate a devoiced, non-glottal-
(pronounced as a schwa) in non-    stop glide, which English speakers

                                  30


usually approximate with an 'h'      - as glue in two other special
sound.)  Older Loglan forms do not     circumstances where a compound
have the distinction between a         might break up into smaller
diphthong (such as "oi") and its       pieces;
corresponding divowel form ("o'i", - require a syllabic 'r' or 'n'
pronounced as in "toe heel"),        (rules determine which is used)
hence have fewer possible CVV        to glue on a CVV rafsi in first
rafsi.  (Note that the CVV rafsi     position where it might 'fall
are totally unrelated to the CVV-    off' in spoken contexts and be
form cmavo.  The rafsi occur only    mistaken for a separate unre-
in bound form, and the rules for     lated structure word (cmavo) of
lujvo-making mean that the rafsi     the same CVV form.  (CVV rafsi
can never be heard as separate       do not need to be glued on the
words.  In some cases, a rafsi may   front only in a two-part lujvo
have a meaning related to that of    where the final term is a CCV
the cmavo spelled the same way       rafsi, because the Lojban's
(and this is recognized as a good    penultimate stress rules hold
memory hook to aid in learning the   the pieces together).
words), but such matches occur       Including current new word
only because the cmavo assignments proposals, there are 1342 Lojban
were also chosen where possible to root words, and 93 cmavo that are
be associated with gismu which     useful in delineating meanings of
would suggest the cmavo's meaning. compounds that are also given
  Since all gismu in the language  short rafsi (where possible the
are considered one part of speech  rafsi is the same as the cmavo,
and syntactically identical, it is but this isn't always possible.)
a language requirement that all    Since there are only 733 rafsi
gismu be allowed to serve in all   that can be used in final position
positions within compounds; we     (CVV and CCV forms), it is not
cannot have a limited set that is  possible to assign such a short
more 'worthy' of use as prefixes   rafsi to each root, in spite of
or suffixes in compounds.  We can  the theory that permits any of
use Zipf's Law to assign short     them to appear in final position.
rafsi based on other factors, the  Because Loglan/Lojban words were
minimum requirement that all gismu created based on recognition
have combining forms for all       scores in source natural lan-
positions sets the dictum          guages, they are not uniformly
justifying the universal           spread around the alphabet.  We
availability of 4-letter + 'y'     wanted to make the rafsi set
and 5-letter, 'long-form rafsi'    easily learnable, so we limited
that can be used for any gismu.    the set of possible rafsi for a
  Given the current rules for      given gismu to specific
Lojban sounds and word-making      permutations built from certain
forms, There are 1445 possible     letters of the word.  Thus for
Lojban CVC rafsi, 493 CVV rafsi,   "broda", possible rafsi include
and 240 CCV rafsi.  The rules for  only -bod-, -rod-, -bro-, -bo'a-,
combining these compounds:         and ro'a-.
- forbid a CVC rafsi in final        In some cases, there's no
  position;                        trouble assigning a rafsi to a
- require a 'y' inserted between   gismu - there is only one gismu
  rafsi:                           with the letters permitting use of
  - when they are conjoined so as  the rafsi given the rules for
    to result in certain           deriving possible rafsi.  This
    'proscribed medial consonant   determines perhaps 550 rafsi in
    clusters';                     the first pass (1 in 3.5 of the
  - to prevent 'assimilation' that CVC rafsi, 1 in 5 of the CVV
    would make it hard to distin-  rafsi, and 1 in 6 of the CCV
    guish that combination from    rafsi).  But given that no gismu
    some other combination;        could have more than one of a
                                   given type of rafsi, and some

                                  31


simplifying assumptions (such as   been used in a set of predefined
noting that a gismu having a CCV   compounds JCB's 1974-5 dictionary
did not need a CVC or a CVV rafsi, chosen because they represented
especially if it would prevent     the most common concepts in 4
another from using that rafsi),    European languages (based on Helen
another 500 rafsi are trivially    Eaton's study).  This data is
decided, perhaps 1/2 of the total. suspect of being both European-
  On the other hand there were     biased and outdated, though no
some rafsi that are extremely      better study is known.
difficult to assign.  In the         The metaphors underlying the
recent retuning, for example,      1974-5 compounds were often
there were 33 competitor-words     culturally biased, and relied on
that could use -ci'a-, and 33 for  English-language based conventions
the two possibilities -sai- and -  unrelated to the Loglan words they
sa'i-, while as many as 500 rafsi  were built on.  Classic bad
(mostly CVC, but nearly 100 of the examples of underlying metaphors
more valuable final position       in that dictionary include "man-
rafsi) could not be used by any    do" for "to man a ship" (which can
gismu.  Only reinventing           easily be done by a woman, and has
significant numbers of gismu,      no functional association with
choosing lower recognition score   manhood), and the word for "kill"
word-forms could significantly     (now a Lojban root), based on
improve this maldistribution, and  "dead-make" where the word for
such a change would not be         "make" means "x constructs y from
considered under our baseline      components/materials z" (meanwhile
policy.  (Only one gismu has       ignoring the 4 completely
previously been reinvented to get  different Loglan words for
a usable final position rafsi,     indicating causality).  Indeed "-
mleca, meaning "less than".  As    make" was used in some 500 com-
part of this retuning, the gismu   pounds, and non-specific "-do" and
for "daytime" is being changed to  "-cause" (associated with only one
"donri" to allow it a good rafsi.  of the 4 causality words) in sev-
This second change was considered  eral hundred more each, making a
only because the word was added to substantial part of the old Loglan
the set of gismu so recently, that vocabulary rather restricted in
it is not on the published gismu   semantic variation.  The Lojban
list, and hence is little known.)  vocabulary is intended to be far
  Because of the limited set of    more analytical in terms of the
rafsi, we want to make the rafsi   Lojban meanings of the words, and
assignments optimal for our word   current actual usage ranges over a
set, so as to minimize the length  much wider variety of roots.  But
of compounds formed in accordance  the older Loglan data necessarily
with Zipf's Law (presumed to be    dominated our initial rafsi
most of them).  This means that we assignments.
have to 'tune' the set of            Our other source of data besides
assignments based on some type of  JCB's dictionary were words
usage statistics.                  invented by Loglanists, either in
  When we first assigned rafsi in  efforts to cover the rest of
1987-8 after constructing the      Eaton's word lists, or to cover
gismu roots, there were no usage   concepts not in the dictionary
statistics.  Older versions of     that were needed by people in the
Loglan had been used in only very  few texts in Loglan that were
scattered bits of text, and were   attempted.  These were generally
based on a set of only around 900  either patterned on the already
gismu roots, including a bunch     poor examples in the 1974-45 dic-
that were judged inappropriate as  tionary, or, even worse, were
'basic roots' like words for       built on haphazard ad-hoc
'billiards' and 'football', and    methodologies generally in
were hence not retained into       ignorance of the rules for com-
Lojban.  Most of these words had   pound-making that had been set

                                  32


down.  These included the much     words only achieved 94.6%
lambasted (for obvious reasons)    reduction.
"dog-woman" for the pejorative       It was recognized from the start
equivalent of English "bitch",     that these initial assignments
"one-future-one" for "in sequence" would have to be re-evaluated
('one' is a cmavo and had no final based on actual usage, of which
position rafsi, so the word-       there could not be any until we
inventor just used the CV-form     had a stable gismu list.  This
cmavo, resulting in an illegal     requirement leads to a 'Catch-22'
word), and "water-pass_ through-   situation where you have to have
skin" for "sweat" (the latter uses people learn the rafsi well enough
the worst possible term order;     to use them naturally, while
Loglan grouping would lead one to  preserving the flexibility to
expect the metaphor to refer to a  change them.  Change will
kind of skin, whereas the English  naturally be resisted by people
verb "to sweat" might be a kind of who have taken the trouble to
'passing-through', and the English learn something, and the Lojban
noun 'sweat' might be a kind of    project has been strongly
'water').  There was of course no  committed to recognizing and
frequency data for any of these    respecting the amount of effort
words, other than the frequency    that goes into learning a lan-
inferred from Eaton's list for     guage, and not demand unnecessary
that subset, which basically       relearning through constant
implied that all such 'Eaton       change.
words' would be among the most       Since I was the likely person to
frequent words in Loglan and hence do the eventual retuning, I
should wherever possible have      (Lojbab) made it a point to be the
short forms.                       first to learn the set of rafsi
  In 1979-82, JCB did a            (using the old version of LogFlash
statistical analysis of the words  2 developed especially for this
in his dictionary, choosing a set  purpose), and made it a point to
of resolvable affixes to minimize  try use them heavily when writing
the percentage of words that could in the language.  Thus the re-
not be written with short forms.   learning penalty if there are
In 1987, Lojbab repeated that      changes falls at least as hard on
analysis, using that data, along   me as on anyone.  We also
with a hundred pages of notes on   recognized that we could probably
words proposed for Loglan in the   only do this reanalysis once -
intervening years, most of the low uncontrolled change in the lan-
quality exemplified above.  Only   guage is debilitating to morale,
some of the additional Eaton data  so we've waited till the 'last
was incorporated; we didn't have   minute' before dictionary
the software tools to handle such  publication.
a large data volume, and didn't      Unfortunately, the minimal
want the language design           amount of change in the rafsi list
overwhelmed by the poor quality of over the last couple of years
most of the metaphors.  Because of misled some into thinking that the
a lack of software tools, we com-  rafsi were baselined with the
piled statistics manually          gismu list, so we often repeated
(probably making errors, and in-   the statement of its not being
cluding some entries multiple      baselined.  Still, we avoided
times when they were invented      changes, because people won't use
independently by different         something that is constantly
sources.  But the result was still shifting underfoot like sand.
a significantly broader semantic   Even when new gismu were added, we
field of words - approximately 97% shied away from changing any rafsi
of the lujvo in Loglan's compounds to accommodate them (though we as-
were reducible to short forms in   signed them rafsi from the
JCB's 1982 tuning; the 1987 tuning unassigned set when they were
based on a much larger set of      available).

                                  33


  Luckily, what has happened fit   extensive for us to lightly change
our needs quite well.  Few people  such words, and indeed my
actually learned the rafsi in any  threshold against change was to
systematic manner like I did (I    protect a few dozen rafsi
know of no one besides me who      absolutely against change, and
completed even one run-through of  only reluctantly consider changes
the rafsi list with LogFlash 2,    to another large group.  Thus
and only a few have reported even  "blari'o"/bluish-green had some
trying to use the program.         claim for 'sacredness' (but not
  Some people, like Nick Nicholas, absolute), even though it has only
have used lujvo heavily in         appeared to my knowledge in one
writing, though he clearly hasn't  set of examples - the recently
memorized most of the rafsi (one   published Diagrammed Summary.
of the few problems with Nick's      Still, if rafsi were to reflect
texts has been trying to figure    frequency of usage, that means
out what his words were supposed   that some of the most frequently
to be when he fails to look up a   used words had to change rafsi, so
rafsi and guesses wrong - that     as to get one more useful given
many people are able to do so      its typical position in a word.
shows that the language doesn't    Since the possible-rafsi-space is
require people to memorize every   densely packed with the existing
rafsi in order to communicate      assignments, though, retuning by
effectively).  Nick also makes     assigning a rafsi to word A gen-
good Lojban lujvo, since he        erally means freeing that rafsi
supports the idea of conventions   from word B, which then needs a
in lujvo-making to a great extent. rafsi currently used by word C,
Though I disagree with making con- hopefully moving down a list until
ventional standards for lujvo at   you get to a word used seldom
this point in the language         enough that people won't so much
development, conventions generally mind it not having a rafsi.
lead to choosing appropriate         In July, 1992 I used software
components and getting them into a tools to process some 3 Megabytes
plausibly acceptable order, a      of Lojban text and English
result clearly better than the     commentary on Lojban text,
strange efforts by some of the old identifying some 2700 lujvo
Loglanists.                        created and their frequency of
  Because of Nick's and others'    usage.  (Because the processor
heavy usage we considered certain  could not distinguish English from
rafsi assignments to be 'sacred'   Lojban, a few English words crept
as part of the reanalysis.  For    in because they looked like Lojban
example, we could not seriously    lujvo; e.g., the English word
consider changing -loj- for        "simple" might be a lujvo based on
logji/logic and -ban- for          the unlikely metaphor "mutual-
bangu/language, since that would   paper" - this mis-classification
change the name of the language.   happened relatively rarely.)  The
Likewise, other commonly used      frequency data was used loga-
words were considered inviolate,   rithmically to weight usage data -
like "selbri", "le'avla", "brivla" a word used twice got a score of
(though some of these assignments  2, used four times got a score of
did vary before the gismu list was 3, eight times getting 4, etc., up
baselined:  bridi used to have the to words like selbri and brivla
rafsi -rid-, and 'brivla' was at   used several hundred times and
one time 'ridvla' (but this lujvo  getting weights of at least 10.
would now indicate a source        This weighting supports both the
metaphor of 'fairy-word').  The    Zipf's Law basis of the language,
current word "selbri" in our early and pretty effectively made sure
documentation is "kunbri", -kun-   to protect rafsi assignments that
having been reassigned from        are 'sacred'.
kunti/empty to kunra/ mineral).      I also used different tools to
But our documentation is now too   process the Eaton proposals into

                                  34


the statistics.  As noted, these   ticularly bad metaphors in the
metaphors aren't too good, but the Eaton data.  But for the most
words in question cover a broader  part, statistics led the
semantic spectrum than actual      decisions.  The resulting proposal
Lojban usage.  Also many of the    improved coverage only a small
meta-phors are bad mostly in being amount, from 92.6% to 93.8%, but
phrased in a weird-for-Lojban      coverage of the actual Lojban
order, as in the above example     usage portion of the data improved
"skin-pass through-water".  Thus   more significantly, from 89.7% to
even these poorly-made words give  92.8%.  Given the constraints to
suggestions as to gismu that need  minimize changes to 'sacred
rafsi coverage, though should be   rafsi', this was about as good as
ignored in deciding whether a word could be hoped.
gets a final-position or initial     Review by the community led to
position oriented rafsi as-        elimination of many of these
signment.  Words in the Eaton file changes, since people considered a
were only given a weight of '1',   few more rafsi assignments to be
and multiple-occurring usages in   'sacred' than I did in my
Lojban text thus far outweighed    analysis.  But the disapproved
these terms.  Eaton proposals thus changes had only minor effect on
probably only served primarily to  coverage statistics (no percentage
break ties in the 'competition',   has actually been calculated based
and to ensure that the broadest    on the final assignments appearing
possible range of words was        in this issue).
represented.                         Methodology - This section deals
  The new statistics obviously     with details of the methodology I
tracked more closely with actual   used, and may be skipped by people
usage.  However, the 'coverage     not interested in such details.
percentage' of the current rafsi     As stated above, I gathered
assignments dropped to only 92.6.  statistics on usage of gismu in
This sounds pretty good, but is    various positions in lujvo.  These
almost 3 times as bad as JCB's     positions were 1st/3-or-more term
original tuning, and 50% worse     lujvo (allowing any rafsi, but CVV
than the rafsi assignments had     rafsi must always be hyphenated),
been under the original            1st of 2-term lujvo (any rafsi is
statistics.  The actual Lojban     permitted, but CVV are only
usage data was less than 1/2 of    sometimes hyphenated), middle of
the total weighted data, and was   3-or more terms (any rafsi is per-
even more poorly covered, around   mitted, but CVV/CCV never need a
89.7%.                             hyphen afterwards), and final term
  In addition, since 'coverage     (CVC rafsi forbidden, CVV/CCV
percentage' does not reflect hy-   about equally useful, but CCV is
phenation, the quality of the      one syllable shorter than a CVV
coverage was even more mediocre.   with an apostrophe, and is thus
For example, the cmavo, 'ka', much preferable for the highest usage
used in lujvo in recent times, was words).
originally assigned the rafsi        Given these rules, it is clear
'kaz'.  'kaz' is hyphenated before that CCV rafsi are the most
c/f/k/p/s/t/x/j because of the     flexible.  A word with a CCV rafsi
compounding rules.  These letters  never needs a hyphen afterwards,
form cover more than 60% of the    and needs a hyphen before it only
actual rafsi in non-initial        part of the time when preceded by
positions weighted for actual      a CVC (an unvoiced-initial CCV is
usage.  Nick Nicholas and 2 others hyphenated about 25% of the time,
thus asked that 'ka' be given a    a voiced-non-liquid CCV about 40%
less-hyphenated rafsi.             of the time, and mlV/mrV rafsi are
  In a couple of cases, I          hyphenated less than 10% of the
overruled a statistical quirk      time).
after verifying that, for example,   CVV rafsi can be used in any
that it was based on some par-     position but almost always require

                                  35


a hyphen in initial position.      out that both statistics and
Since there are more than enough   actual lujvo data show that drata
words that need CCV and CVV words  is almost never used in final
for final positions alone, I       position, while drani often is.
emphasized using CVV rafsi for       I made a few other assumptions
concepts concentrated in final     that explicitly deviated from the
positions in the data words but    original rafsi assignments, based
relatively little usage in initial on understanding the word-making
positions in metaphors, CCV rafsi  implications of the lujvo-making
for words with significant final   algorithm better.  Words with CCV
position concentration, but also   rafsi are hyphenated so seldom
having high usage in other         that it rarely improves coverage
positions - in other words with    to give the gismu another rafsi in
high overall position scores.      addition.  Thus, once I assigned a
CVCs are reserved primarily for    CCV rafsi to a word, I ruled out
words concentrated in the first    adding a CVC or CVV rafsi for that
positions.  (CVC assignments were  word as unneeded, unless no other
also favored for gismu often used  word could benefit from the rafsi.
as le'avla classifiers, because    Only 'sacredness' was allowed to
CVC rafsi are the easiest to use   interfere with this principle,
as classifiers.)                   hence zmadu, with no competition
  I presumed to 'tune' at first    for -zma, was assigned that rafsi,
assuming only that a few 'sacred'  and did not need -zad- or -mau-.
rafsi would remain untouched, but  'mau' was deemed moderately
otherwise assuming all assignments 'sacred', though, and was kept
were freely determinable without   with zmadu anyway.  Unusual for a
reference to the past.  With this  word with a CCV, this extra rafsi
assumption, 30-50% of the rafsi    may be occasional useful since it
could be assigned either as        starts with a different letter
'sacred', or as having little or   than the -zma-, hence is useful to
no competition for the rafsi best  avoid hyphenation in about 25% of
suited for them.                   lujvo where it is preceded by a
  For the most part, I proceeded   CVC.  However zad- was freed and
as if I were starting to assign    is no longer assigned to "zmadu"
words from scratch, using          or to any other Lojban word.
'sacredness' only to dictate         A much larger variety of gismu
choices when they came up.  The    have now been used in lujvo; in a
alternative would be to identify   couple areas of the alphabet,
specific words that needed new     something had to give.  For
rafsi as a change from the current example, to assign one of
set (such as 'ka'), and 'force     'kal/kam/kan/kar' to 'ka', 1 of
them' into a new assignment        the existing 4 words using those
cascading along a chain of rafsi   rafsi had to give up its CVC as-
assignments until a rafsi was      signment.  Each of these CVC rafsi
found that wasn't already assigned was the only assignment for its
to a word.  This paradigm is very  corresponding gismu, so this deci-
useful for understanding the       sion was going to deprive a word
actual effects of a series of      of having any rafsi at all (there
changes in retuning.  As a         was no possibility of a chain of
methodology, however, it is highly changes displacing a CVV or a CCV
suspect.  There is no obvious test rafsi).
for when a word 'needs' a rafsi      In actual lujvo usage data, CVV
other than direct comparison of    rafsi have been avoided in initial
the statistics.  People's          positions in favor of CVC rafsi,
instincts can be woefully          especially when they are di-
inaccurate on this score.  Thus,   syllable (with an apostrophe
while 'ka' indeed turned out to    between the vowels).  Indeed, even
justify a rafsi, Nick Nicholas     when a CVC also requires a hyphen
also proposed giving 'drata' -dra- afterwards, it has been preferred
, taking it from drani.  It turned to a CVVr in the same position.

                                  36


This actually contradicts the      as it did in this case.  Else we
experience of JCB when he did      would end up with a few words
'taste-tests' to determine the     having almost all the rafsi.  I
lujvo-making choices of the old    gave slightly better favor to
Loglan community - his conclusion  words to keep a CVC rafsi assign-
then was that people tended to     ment that they had had previously,
like vowel-rich compounds as more  as sanga had previously had -sag-,
melodious and easier to pronounce  and indeed that was the determin-
than words with many consonant     ing factor in this example,
clusters.  (A possible counter-    consistent with the goal to mini-
explanation is that consonants     mize unnecessary change.
provide better aids to word          Another assumption was more
recognition, and are thus          subjective.  For the original
preferred by people who want to    rafsi assignments, a requirement
easily recognize the components in was that all culture words be
a written lujvo; such a tendency   given a rafsi.  Since each such
was not measured in the 'Taste     culture word associated with a
Tests' conducted by JCB.)  Because country automatically had at least
of this tendency, I de-emphasized  8 identifiable lujvo (e.g.,
CVV scores in the initial          merkyjecta merkybangu merkyrupnu
positions, assigning them almost   merkyfepni merkykulnu merkyturni
solely on the basis of final po-   merkygugde merkynatmi, etc.) this
sition usage.  The following data  policy was justified, and indeed 8
shows one example.                 usages was generally enough
                                   statistically to warrant such a
gismule'avla1st/31st/2mid end      lujvo in the original tuning.  But
sanga 0      1    16   2   27      since then, the culture words have
stagi 3      0    0    0   4       come under a lot of attack, and
                                   some Lojbanists have said they
New assignment gismu old           will avoid using them.  At least
assignment                         one person specifically
sag   sa'a     sanga sag           recommended freeing their rafsi
-              stagi -             assignments for use by other words
                                   (though 'sacredness' would
  sanga gained the rafsi -sa'a-    preserve the heavily used
based on extensive new use in      'gic'/glico, 'lob'+'jbo'/lojbo and
final position, a score of '27' in 'mer'/ merko.  Similarly, a
that position guaranteed it such a variety of words associated with
selection.  Having the rafsi       chemical elements have been at-
"sa'a", it is arguable that the    tacked - most of their usages are
word no longer needs the rafsi     figurative ones dating from the
'sag', and it should have been     JCB era, and figurative tanru
used for 'stagi'/ vegetable, which metaphors are now dispreferred in
has 3 usages (all in le'avla);     Lojban usage.  Finally, all metric
though all other usages of "stagi" units were presumed to have a
thus far are in final position     defined lujvo for each metric
where a CVC rafsi would do no      prefix (about 16).
good.  I overruled this change,      I downgraded all statistics for
recognizing that with the          these words by at least a factor
substantial score for sanga in 1st of two, even when doing so meant
of 3+ terms (1) and 1st of 2 terms that the calculated coverage would
(16), there would be a lot of      decrease.  For example, because
instances of sa'ar- that lujvo-    Nick translated some texts from
makers have dispreferred given a   Ancient Greek, there were some us-
choice.                            ages of 'xelso' in final position.
  Generally I let a word with a    This warranted giving xelso the
CVV rafsi keep a CVC in addition   assignment of 'xle', currently
only if the score for initial      held by 'naxle' (canal) which has
position usages exceeded all       no actual usages indicating that
competitors by at least 5/1 ratio, 'xle' would be useful in addition

                                  37


to its noncompetitive CVC as-        Four metric gismu proposed by
signment of 'nax'.  Nick           John Cowan were included as
specifically recommended against   effectively equivalent to all
"xelso", and I took his            other metric words; the exact form
recommendation more broadly to ap- of these words was selected to
ply to all such cultural           minimize rafsi assignment
compounds.  Some gismu in this set problems, since we had to modify
lost all of their rafsi            the actual prefixes to fit Lojban
assignments because of the down-   gismu anyway.
weighting, many of these being       When I was done with this
culture words which were           exercise, I looked at unassigned
borderline to even have gotten a   rafsi and tried to find cmavo that
gismu in the first place.          could reasonably have a use for
  Measurement word scores were     them, in some cases proposing a
down-weighted by a similar         CCV for a CV cmavo by inserting a
argument.  "snidu" had its CVV -   consonant.  Since the cmavo as-
si'u- removed in favor of the      signments have proven to be most
slightly lower scoring simxu, a    unpredictable and unsatisfying
change that would not have been    based on statistics, this seemed
considered based on pure           like a wise course.  For cmavo, I
statistics.  Nora argued that,     felt that it is better to assign a
while all metric prefixes were     rafsi and drop it if it isn't used
theoretical compounds for snidu,   after the 5 year baseline than to
in natural languages of metric     not assign one and have the cmavo
countries which also permit such   be difficult or unable to be used
compounds only a few metric        in lujvo (in which case we might
prefixes are actually used with    never know they were needed).  The
each measurement.  Thus we may     community overruled me on this,
talk of milliseconds, but seldom   choosing to leave rafsi unassigned
deciseconds, dekaseconds, or exa-  in borderline situations, thus
seconds.  On the other hand, Nora  minimizing the memorization of
favored retaining -gra- for        possibly useless data, and noting
grake/gram because its most        that any cmavo can be incorporated
frequent use is in the compound    into a lujvo-equivalent  using
kilogram which in Lojban would     "zei", though this is not Zipfean.
require a CCV rafsi to avoid         Lest people worry, I expect that
hyphenation.  In this case, I did  after the 5-year baseline, while
not downgrade the scores, and      usage might provide data
grake kept 'gra'.  Thus, some      warranting significant retuning of
amount of subjective judgement was the rafsi list, the assumed
used in deciding assignments for   philosophy will be to oppose
culture/metric/element words.      revising rafsi assignments.  At
  I painstakingly assigned rafsi   this point we are concluding a
to each gismu, working ap-         design phase; after 5 years of us-
proximately 12 hours a day for 3   age, we can only justify fixing
weeks.  This was a largely manual  what has demonstrably been found
job involving cross-checking among unreasonable or void by actual us-
several dozen pages of statistics. age.
It is hopefully a one-time job and   I put the results into the
hence was not worth the effort to  computer, and made lists of chains
develop programs to do the anal-   of changes as described above, to
ysis automatically.  Perhaps a     make them easier to understand.  A
good spreadsheet might have saved  couple of chains proved to offer
some time, but I don't have a      questionable improvement and were
spreadsheet that could handle this backed out.  Where changes seemed
much data, and designing and       to affect 'sacred' rafsi
testing a standalone program would disproportionately, I created
have probably taken more time than alternate changes for the
I spent.                           community to select from.

                                  38


  The resulting set of change           421 assigned (85%)
proposals was posted to Lojban          149 assignments changed (35%)
List.  Several Lojbanists            Of the changes, 66 words lost a
commented on the draft version of  rafsi without replacement and 65
this report included with that     gained a rafsi they didn't have
proposal, and several people       before.  Some of the 18 remaining
indicated a desire to vote on      assignments involve switches
individual changes.  As a result,  between a CVV and its
a large number of the changes I    corresponding CV'V to give a word
proposed were rejected (some       with a lot of initial position
involving changing of rafsi that   usages the monosyllable rafsi.
others considered 'sacred', but    Monosyllable CVVs seem not to be
mostly involving assignments of    as rejected by Lojbanist lujvo-
rafsi to cmavo that were not       makers in that position as di-
certain to need them).  The        syllable ones, perhaps because the
community also asked for a couple  resulting word seems shorter.
of other guidelines to be factored   CCV rafsi
into the analysis, such as              240 possible rafsi
minimizing the number of gismu          209 assigned (87%)
with multiple rafsi assignments         51 assignments changed (25%)
(especially 3 rafsi assigned to a  Many CCV changes were switches
single gismu), unless there was    with CVV assignments, sometimes
really a good reason for them.     freeing up a CVC rafsi (since a
This led to some new changes.      CVV word may need a CVC rafsi
        Summary of results         while a CCV rarely does), thus
  In the baseline version approved cutting off a long chain of
after review, there are a total of changes that might have affected
457 changes in rafsi assignments,  several more words.  24 words lost
about 30% of the total, affecting  a CCV rafsi, while 27 gained one
372 total gismu and cmavo.  This   that they did not have before.  No
overstates the actual change rate, words changed CCV assignments, an
since in most cases, giving a      option that was rarely possible.
rafsi to one word means taking it    The numbers and percentages of
away from another, giving 2 actual changes may seem large, given the
changes.  The adopted total is     small benefit in coverage (that
significantly lower than the       benefit is actually even lower
original proposal, which would     than the benefit mentioned above;
have changed 590 rafsi.  The       The numbers above were calculated
community rejected about 1/3 of    based on the original proposal
the proposed changes, though it    fore changes, some of which did
requested a small number that I    not occur.   However, percentage
did not have in my original        coverage seems now to be a less
report.                            significant figure than the degree
  Following is a more detailed     of failure to cover words that
breakdown.                         have a great deal of usage in luj-
  CVC rafsi                        vo.
     1445 possible rafsi             While the overall coverage
     915 assigned.  (64%)          percentage changed by only a small
     257 assignments changed (28%) amount, most 'problem words' were
  Of the changes, 97 words lost    given useful rafsi.  In the 1987
CVC assignments where they once    rafsi assignments, a word was
had them (many of these also had a considered a 'problem word' if it
CCV or CVV and didn't need both).  had more than an uncovered score
100 words gained CVC rafsi where   of '4'; i.e.  more than 4 lujvo
they did not have one before.  60  where no reduced form could be
words actually changed from one    used.  No problem word in the
CVC to a different one, generally  original data had an uncovered
as part of a cascading chain.      score more than 8.
  CVV rafsi                          By comparison, no less than 111
     493 possible rafsi            words had 'uncovered' scores more

                                  39


than 10 when I started tuning and               On lujvo
52 had scores exceeding 15.  The             by Greg Higley
worst words had uncovered scores   
exceeding 30.  This means that       I'd like to make a few comments
there were an awful lot of lujvo   on nu jvozba.  As I've read, the
using these words in ways for      current policy of la lojbangirz.
which they did not have short      is "Let a thousand flowers bloom."
rafsi.  These numbers, though      While at first I was opposed to
large, do not affect the coverage  this, I now see the wisdom of it:
percentage much; the latter        How could it be otherwise?  I've
percentage includes some fully-    decided after much thought to
covered words with weights of      disband the lujvo pulji and let
several hundreds.                  the prisoners go.  (nu jvozba
  As a result of tuning, 37 words  "lujvo-making"; lujvo pulji
with scores over 15 were reduced   "lujvo-police")
to a score less than 15, while 7     But this doesn't mean that I
others were forced above that      don't have anything to say on the
level to make room for them.  Thus topic of nu jvozba!  Au contraire,
there are now only 15 such really  mon frЉre!  I have actually come
severe problem words, with the     180ш from my old viewpoint:  I'd
highest scores being two words     like to suggest - since 'suggest'
with uncovered scores of 19 and 3  is really all I can do - that a
words with 18 (one of the latter   different view of lujvo be
being "snidu", for which we        adopted.
decided to discount the numerous     As I understand it, a lujvo, as
metric lujvo).                     currently defined, is a tanru that
  There remain 51 words with       has been "compressed" into a
scores above 10, so the total      single word, and that has been
number of problem words was cut by assigned a fixed meaning.  (And I
more than 1/2.                     guess a new place structure, as
  The enclosures give complete     well.)  Thus the essential
lists, in several orders, of the   difference between the tanru
new rafsi assignments.             "remna sovda" and the lujvo
                                   "remso'a" is that the former does
__________________________________ not have a fixed meaning, it might
          ______________           mean "the human's egg", i.e., the
                                   one he had for breakfast, or it
[This issue contains several       could mean the same thing as (what
essays written by Greg Higley.     I'm suggesting for) remso'a,
Greg, who is not on the computer   namely "human ovum", i.e. the
networks, has only contributed     female human reproductive cell.
irregularly on Lojban topics, but    I see lujvo more as
has still been able to affect the  "abbreviations" than "fixed
language design with his           tanru":  I don't think a lujvo has
insightful comments.  (Note that   to be so exact that its meaning is
his examples and translations are  crystal clear.  Then we'd have
not necessarily sanctioned, but    huge lujvo.  I see the parts of a
are sometimes of the nature of     lujvo as forming a "memory hook"
discussion or proposal.  See the   which can be used to remember its
comments after each essay, which   meaning, and which, knowing the
sometimes indicate that a given    concept, can be used to remember
example was either ungrammatical   the lujvo.  I don't think that,
or means something other than what seeing a lujvo on a page, you
Greg intended.)                    should instantly be able to know
  The essays are generally located what it means.  Rather, finding
with other essays on similar       out what it means, you should then
topics, so that this issue forms a be able to more easily remember
cohesive flow.                     it.  Case in point is "le'avla".
                                   This is a word well-known to
                                   Lojbanists, but let us assume that

                                  40


we've never seen it before.  Would anything ground up and made into a
you know what it meant, just by    patty.  It doesn't have to be
looking at it?  You could rely on  meat, doesn't even have to be
the context in which it occurs,    food.  If you're eating a
but what if there were no context, hamburger, and you call it "le
or what if the context wasn't      zaltapla", you aren't likely to be
informative enough?  You could     misunderstood, and you can always
probably make some educated        get more specific if you want.  I
guesses, but let's face it,        find that this makes Lojban much
"le'avla" is not a very clear      more interesting, because it
lujvo as lujvo go.  Expanding it   divides the semantic space in a
into a tanru is just as unhelpful: different, perhaps "Lojbanic" way,
"lebna valsi" is just as nebulous. and it helps me to think
And yet I'd like to argue that     "Lojbanically".  If you wanted to
this is just exactly how lujvo     say "That hamburger looks good" in
should be made!  Once you discover Lojban, you're likely to try to
the meaning of "le'avla", you      make the word for "hamburger" very
aren't likely to forget it:  You   specific.  While there's nothing
can now see why it means what it   wrong with this - clarity is a
does.  This is similar to the      good thing.  I think doing this
process that goes on with an       makes Lojban no more than a code
abbreviation, although thankfully  into which we translate the pre-
lujvo have clearer parts than ab-  existing concepts of other lan-
breviations.  You can't            guages.  With GPL, or even lujvo
necessarily figure out the meaning that are unique, but with specific
from the abbreviation, but you can meanings (SPL "Specific Purpose
figure out the abbreviation from   Lujvo"?), we can build a language
the meaning.  With lujvo, it might that is not just a code, but a
be more accurate to say that,      living language of its own, that
given a list of lujvo, you could   divides the semantic space in its
pick out the one that corresponds  own way.
to the concept in question.        
                                   Mark Shoulson:
                                     Higley makes a good point, and
     "General Purpose Lujvo"       it touches a little on something
          by Greg Higley           that I've been thinking about a
                                   lot myself.  I feel that a lot of
  One of the reasons why I don't   the Lojban text written suffers
do much translating from English   from overuse of lujvo owing to a
to Lojban, or from Welsh to        tendency to try to reproduce the
Lojban, is that in order to do     specificity afforded by natural-
this with any reasonable degree of language terms.  I try to use more
accuracy, you have to make lujvo.  tanru than lujvo, and to be as
Well, I do make them, but I        non-specific as I can, while still
usually don't start out with an    saying what I want to say (with a
English or Welsh word or concept   few exceptions; e.g.  I don't use
that I'd like to translate into    prenu as "person" in the English
English.  I start out with the     meaning of "human being" - that's
gismu list and just start          a "remna".  "prenu" is more of
combining, trying to see which     "thinking being" or even "soul"
combinations suggest meaningful    (minus the religious and non-
concepts.  This is how I arrived   bodily connotations)).  So I
at the idea of "General Purpose    avoided Nick's "beipre" for
Lujvo".                            "waiter":  what did the "prenu"
  While making lujvo in this way,  rafsi add?  The waiter is just
I'd often come across a word which "that which carried the coffee":
had no exact equivalent in         "le bevri be lei ckafi".
English, but which seemed to be    Sometimes you may need to be more
useful nevertheless.  A good       specific, that's okay.  But I
example is "zaltapla".  This is    think you'll find that you don't

                                  41


need to be specific as often as     Greg proposes and explains some
you might think at first.  That                  lujvo
the "bevri" was also a "prenu"     
gets cleared up later, when        lujvo     velcki
conversation is initiated.         ----------------------------------
  Higley's view of lujvo as                  ------
"abbreviations" rather than "fixed bromalsi  "synagogue"
tanru" is very cogent and, I       musymalsi "mosque"
suspect, very close to the         xisymalsi "church" etc.
official view of what lujvo should [And so on.  It's no new discovery
be.  His example, le'avla is a     that the names of the major
good example.  After all,          religious edifice(s) can be made
"le'avla" expands to "lebna valsi" with "malsi".]
which is "take word" or better,    jelspo    "destroy by burning"
"taker word" - a word which is     [This is the basic meaning.  More
somehow associated with a taker,   colloquial translations might be
perhaps.  A more pedantic "jvozba" "put to the torch, burn down, burn
would have made it "selyle'avla",  up" and many others.  "-spo" can
for "se lebna valsi":  "taken-     be added to many words to create
thing word", much closer to the    interesting lujvo of this type:]
meaning:  a word which is taken.   po'aspo   "destroy by (causing to)
Note, though, that that's not what           explode"
we use, nor should it be:  you     [It is the x2 place of "po'aspo"
can't trust an expanded lujvo      that does the exploding.  "lenu ta
100%, you can only assume that     spoja cu po'aspo ti" covers any x1
it's close to what the lujvo       explosions nicely.]
means.  lujvo are intended to be   zdabartu  x1 is exterior
dictionary words, having their own           to/outside of the
definitions not precisely derived            nest/dwelling of x2
from their associated tanru (the   [As in "Mom, I'm going outside.":
"selpinxe"/"se pinxe" problem I    "doi mamta  .i mi zdabartu
had before is another good         klama".]
example.  "selpinxe" is a good     zdane'i   x1 is inside of/interior
lujvo for "na'o se pinxe", i.e. "a           to the nest/dwelling of
beverage", as opposed to just                x2
plain "se pinxe" which could mean  [As in "I'm staying in":  "mi
"ca'a se pinxe", "liquid-thing-    zdanei stali".  It could also
sliding-down-someone's-throat".)   roughly mean, "at home" - as long
                                   as x2 is the same as x1.]
Colin Fine:                        zdasta    x1 stays at home x2
  I agree somewhat with Greg, and  zaltapla  x1 is a tile/patty/etc.
wholeheartedly with Mark,                    made of ground-up
especially about inappropriate               material x2
specificity.  (I recall once       [This is one of the "General
inviting people to join me in a    Purpose lujvo" I talked about in
campaign against precision!)       my comments on lujvo.]
  I also like to play around with  rartapla  x1 is a naturally
possible lujvo - and go beyond the           occurring tile-shape of
obvious when trying to coin them.            composition x2
  One thing I do in text is that I taktapla  x1 is a ceramic tile of
will sometimes use a more precise            specific ceramic x2
lujvo the first time I introduce a drutapla  x1 is a ceiling/roof
concept, and then omit a term or             tile of composition x2
two from it thereafter.  Thus      [A GPL.  It isn't specific as to
having once said "samymrilu" I     whether ceiling or roof tiles are
will thereafter quite happily use  needed.  But if you're tiling your
"mrilu" later in the passage.      roof, and you say, "Joe, hand me
                                   that drutapla", you aren't likely
                                   to be misunderstood.  It's the
                                   same thing in English.  When

                                  42


tiling a roof, you don't keep      be 7 such common characters, we
repeating "roof tile" over and     don't have enough to make much of
over.  You eventually just say     a choice yet.
"tile".]                             Also included later this issue
zdabartu drutapla   "roof tile"    is Nick Nicholas's second ckafy-
[There may well be an easier way   barja piece, written last year,
to say this.  "bartu drutapla"     which he was revising at the time
might not clearly mean "roof       JL17 was being prepared.
tile".  I don't know anything      
about carpentry or the like, but            Character Sketch
"bartu drutapla" could be some               by Zoe Velonis
kind of "exterior ceiling tile" as 
opposed to an interior one.]         She had the kind of body that
po'ertutra     x1 is territory     clothes couldn't contain.  It
          (property) owned by x2   wasn't that she was so fat that
ni'ablo   x1 is a submarine        she burst out of whatever she
[I experimented with a number of   wore, that her flesh strained
different terms for "submarine",   against the warp and the weft, but
but I think this sums it up        that she had the kind of body that
nicely.  I had "sfeni'ablo", but   clothes just shouldn't confine.
"sfe-" turned out to be rather     Her bra straps were forever
redundant:  What else would it be  falling down:  she'd go about the
under but the surface?]            kitchen tugging at one absent-
zalre'u   x1 is ground meat from   mindedly as she stirred a
          source x2  [A good GPL.] concoction.  Buttons would fly off
remso'a   x1 is a human ovum from  at a moment's notice, turning up
          woman x2                 later in a bowl of soup.  The
remtsi    x1 is human sperm from   zipper of her jeans had to be
          human x2                 anchored with a safety pin else it
cticinza  ["cinza" used for        would slowly creep down, leaving
          eating]                  her blushing.
benmro    brain-dead                 Her naked body was voluptuous,
[Lojbab:  A little unclear what    resplendent, Rubenesque.  Never of
you mean by this - the most common the personality to subscribe to
colloquial usage of the English,   the feminine beauty myth, she
of course, is merely a form of     exuded both femininity and beauty,
"mabla".  If you are referring to  from her thighs to her belly to
the medical state, this seems      her gloriously round and pendulous
fine.]                             breasts.
jiksre    x1 errs socially in x2     He would come to her at night,
          ["social faux-pas".]     creep into her bed and bury
menmikce  [A general purpose       himself in her warm, soft flesh;
          lujvo:  "psychiatrist,   nestling his face between her
          psychologist, counselor" thighs and reaching up for huge
          etc.]                    handfuls of her breasts,
                                   marvelling at her bounty as she
                                   tossed her head and moaned with
        le lojbo se ciska          pleasure.  She surrounded him,
    New ckafybarja Submissions     took him in, made him feel
                                   complete.
  It appears that theres been        In the daytime she never gave
little work done on the ckafybarja any sign that she knew of his
project since JL17, and I am       nightly visits.  She was the cook,
beginning to think that the        he a busboy, and there was no hint
schedule for the planning phase    of affection or shared pleasure,
was much too ambitious.  The only  much less gratitude, in her voice
new material received was one      as she thrust dishes at him,
English-language personality       giving him instructions in a firm,
sketch, giving us 3 to choose      clipped voice that bore no con-
from.  Since there are planned to  tradictions.

                                  43


  He'd worshipped her beauty for   jeans.  Breath came in short
weeks, in the beginning, longing   gasps.
for her, his flesh aching for her,   "Have you ever been with a woman
his mind consumed by the demands   before?" she asked.
of his loins.  He'd sneak outside    Mute, he shook his head.  It was
the cafe' at night, stare up at    the truth:  his absentminded
the window he knew was her room as penetration of his sister's best
she turned on the light.  He'd     friend when they were all playing
watch, hypnotized, as she lan-     doctor behind the abandoned barn
guorously disrobed, brushed her    didn't count.  She took his hand
hair, leaned out of the window to  and led him into the room, whose
breathe deeply of the night air.   walls were covered with tapestry
Her breasts shone like twin moons  bedspreads that exuded odors of
as she drank in the night, erasing frankincense and patchouli.  She
the scents of garlic and rosemary, guided him to the bed and
butter and tomatoes from her nos-  undressed him carefully, opened
trils.  Once, as he watched, she   herself to him and then, when he
laughed, a low, quiet chuckle, and had spent his first desire in her,
opened her arms in an embrace.     taught him how to pleasure a woman
"Come up then, why don't you," she as well as himself.
said, her voice rich with a          He realized, at one point, that
melodiousness off nuance that it   he didn't know her name, that she
never had during the day.  His     didn't know his.  Somehow it
breath caught in his ribs, clung   seemed desperately urgent that she
there until he remembered and      whisper his name at her climax,
opened his lungs again.  "Me?" he  but when he told her, she only
asked, desperately grateful that   laughed.
his voice didn't display that        And now she was just another
annoying habit it had lately, of   part of the day to him, the thing
cracking when he particularly      that he escaped to when his shift
wanted it not to.  "No, the other  was over each night, threading his
people who are out there watching  way through the tables and up the
me every night," she said, the     stairs to her soft, endless flesh.
laughter still in her voice.       She was always the same, never
  So he went back into the cafe',  cried or wept or showed that
past the night janitor who         anything touched her emotion.
whistled as he wiped down tables     Her laughter, though rich, was
and mopped the floor, who gave him only amusement, never joy or
a knowing wink that made him all   happiness; and he wondered if the
the more nervous.  He went through walls would echo with her moans of
the kitchen and paused at the foot pleasure without him, if she even
of the stairs, put, finally, one   needed him.  So one night he
foot on the first protesting step. stayed away.
  Thirteen stairs, he counted, and   She looked the same the next
crossed himself.  He turned down   day, but the one after, her face
the hall, past the head waiter's   seemed drawn.  He watched her
room, the manager's to her room.   carefully, but she never said
As he stood outside, breathing     anything to him or to anyone, and
heavily, his pants distended with  although for a month she grew
his desire, she opened the door.   paler and thinner, stopped tugging
  Her nakedness was more than he'd at her bra straps, and although
dreamed of.  Not perfect:  he      her cooking grew bland and
could see the silvery stretch      tasteless, the decline finally
marks on her breasts and thighs,   ended.  Her color came back and
the moles and freckles, the pits   her voluptuousness was even more
and scars of age.  But her         irresistible.  He thought that she
imperfection only made her more    had found a new lover and, jealous
achingly real, more desirable, and more than he had thought himself
his genitals throbbed against his  capable of being, he mounted the
                                   stairs one night to see.

                                  44


  There were no sounds from her    indirectly to several other
room and he had almost turned away changes.
when he heard her low rumble of a    In most cases, proposals
laugh.  He opened the door quietly discussed in this section have
and peered into the darkness.      been adopted in some form,
  The window was open, making the  although not always in the form
tapestried bedspreads billow in    originally proposed in the
the air, sending out whiffs of     discussion.  Sometimes, for ex-
their scent like tendrilled ivy.   ample, we were able to resolve a
And she...her bed faced the window problem just by explaining things
and on the ceiling was a mirror.   a little better, or possibly by
She lay, legs spread wide to the   making a change to the cmavo list
night, looking up at herself, and  (adding or deleting a word, or
laughed a laugh of joy and happi-  changing the selma'o or detailed
ness.  As he watched, she moaned   definition).
and tossed her head in that way he 
knew so well, and then she cried    Proposed Changes 1-32 to the 2nd
out, syllables that formed what he      Baseline Lojban Grammar
knew must be her name, and wept,   
tears of release and happiness as  [Terminology note:  Ek, JEk,
well as pain and emotion.          GIhEk, ZIhEk, GUhEk, JOIk, etc.,
  He crept out, closing the door   have traditionally been used to
softly behind him, and tried to    refer to the sets of logical/non-
blank out the emptiness inside him logical connectives of the
with alcohol, tried to forget that appropriate type, and their
the night and the mirror and her   compounds that involve negation of
own hand had done what he never    either the preceding or following
could.                             term (or scalar negation of the
  It was then that the cafe' began connective in the case of JOI).
to become very popular, then that  This is a useful shorthand when
its cook began to acquire her      talking about these families of
reputation for food with the       compounds that are function
indefinable passion, mer'aki, for  identically in the grammar.]
being a chef unparalleled by any   
before.                            Executive Summary:
                                   1)                                   
                                     Change Ek+KE and GIhEk+KE to
         Grammar Changes             lowest precedence
                                   2)                                   
  The next section of this issue     Add JEk+BO construction
is the largest, and deals          3)                                   
primarily with changes to the        Add various new free modifier
grammar.  We first present the       locations
proposed changes to the Lojban     4)                                   
grammar baseline, which will         Add ZEI compounds
become official with book          5)                                   
publication.  Detailed discussions   Allow observative after GI in
of a few of these, recorded at the   forethought connected sentences
time they were proposed, will      6)                                   
reveal a bit about how the           Regularize BOI with free
decisions to change the grammar      modifiers
are made, and perhaps show that    7)                                   
such decisions are never made        Simplify relative-clause
lightly.                             connection to "zi'e" only
  The largest portion of this      8)                                   
discussion is devoted to the         Allow I+BO at the beginning of
change in Lojban relative clauses,   text
which is centered on Change        9)                                   
Proposal number 20, but also led     Allow bare NAI at the beginning
                                     of text

                                  45


10)                                                                     30)                                  
  Allow any kind of JOI in           Allow afterthought JOI in
  forethought                        termsets
11)                                                                     31)                                  
  Remove POhO                        Allow JOI+BO and JOI+KE parallel
12)                                  to E+BO, JE+BO, and JE+KE
  Allow full selbri after NIhE     32)                                  
13)                                  Allow JAI without following tag,
  Disallow NAhE in forethought       as unclefter
  termsets                         
14)                                                                     CHANGE 1
  Allow multiple I or I+BO at the  CURRENT LANGUAGE:
  beginning of text                  Currently, the logical
15)                                                                     connective constructs Ek+KE (and
  Allow conversion of abstract and GIhEk+KE) have higher precedence
  negated selbri                   (bind more tightly) than either
16)                                                                     Ek+BO (GIhEk+BO) or Ek(GIhEk)
  Allow ZAhO+NAI for contradictory constructs.
  negation of event contours       PROPOSED CHANGE:
17)                                                                       Give Ek+KE (GIhEk+KE) the lowest
  Merge LUhI into LAhE; make       precedence among Eks (GIhEks).
  NAhE+BO equivalent to LAhE       RATIONALE:
18)                                                                       In 1987 (NB3 = Notebook 3 TLI)
  Merge BRODA and LEhAVLA into     Loglan, the equivalent of Ek+KE
  BRIVLA                           and GIhEk+KE had low precedence.
19)                                                                     In the first Lojban baseline,
  Regularize rule names in YACC    Ek+KEs had been changed to high
  and E-BNF versions and update    precedence, and in the second
  comments                         baseline, GIhEk+KEs were changed
20)                                                                     to follow.  In writing the logical
  Revise grammar of relative       connective paper, considering
  clause incorporation in sumti    constructs like
21)                                        A .e B .ake C .e D
  ANNULLED                         suggested that the most reasonable
22)                                                                     interpretation is:
  Change description of Step 5 in        (A .e B) .ake (C .e D)
  preparsing to match reality      Therefore, this change restores
23)                                                                     the original Loglan situation,
  Allow CUhE to be logically       which supports that grouping.
  connected to other tenses;       
  forbid NAhE+KI                   CHANGE 2
24)                                                                     CURRENT LANGUAGE:
  Allow KI after CAhA (and           Currently, there is no way to
  including it) rather than before group tanru components logically
25)                                                                     in pure afterthought.  The only
  Disallow NA [tag] after CO in    alternatives are:
  inverted tanru                              X je Y ja Z
26)                                                                     which groups left to right
  Allow only selbri rather than              (X je Y) ja Z
  bridi-tail after NAhU            and
27)                                      X je ke Y ja Z [ke'e]
  Allow I, I+BO, NIhO after TUhE   which groups right to left
28)                                     X je (ke Y ja Z [ke'e])
  Create NAU+tag as a non-logical  but is a hybrid of forethought and
  connective (probably ANNULLED)   afterthought.
29)                                                                     PROPOSED CHANGE:
  Change MAhO from lerfu-to-         Allow
  operator conversion to mekso-to-          X je (Y ja bo Z)
  operator                         analogously to
                                            A .e (B .abo C)

                                  46


in sumti.                          CHANGE 4
RATIONALE:                         CURRENT LANGUAGE:
  Uniformity and flexibility.        There is no way to construct
                                   lujvo that involve le'avla or
CHANGE 3                           cmavo, unless the cmavo have been
PROPOSED CHANGE:                   assigned rafsi.
  Allow free modifiers (such as    PROPOSED CHANGE:
subscripts, vocatives, and           Add the metalinguistic cmavo
metalinguistic comments) in the    "zei" (selma'o ZEI) which will
following new places:              join the word before it and the
  after LOhO when not elided       word after it into a construct
  after LAhE for both sumti and    treated by the parser as of
MEX operands                       selma'o BRIVLA.  More than two
  after CO                         words can be joined by using
  after CEI                        multiple "zei"s.  The words "zo",
  after NU[NAI]                    "zoi", "la'o", "lo'u", "le'u", and
  after NA preceding a selbri or a "fa'o" cannot participate, since
GEk-bridi-tail                     they are delimiters of quoted
  after NAhE BO                    text, which will be resolved by
  after NAhE, except in tenses and the lexer before compounding with
within NAhE+BO (which are lexer    "zei".
compounds)                         RATIONALE:
  after TUhE                         Other methods of incorporating
  after TEhU when not elided       le'avla into lujvo are extremely
RATIONALE:                         error-prone and subject to a
  Increased flexibility.           multitude of special-case tests.
                                   No method of incorporating cmavo
                                   into lujvo has ever existed,
                                   encouraging speculative assignment
                                   of rafsi to cmavo that might be
                                   used in lujvo.  (TLI Loglan allows
                                   incorporating lerfu into compounds
                                   using a 'magic' compounding
                                   method.)
                                   
                                   CHANGE 5
                                   CURRENT LANGUAGE:
                                     It is not currently grammatical
                                   to say:
                                    ge mi klama le zarci gi klama fa
                                              mi le zdani
                                   PROPOSED CHANGE:
                                     Allow logically connected
                                   sentences wherein the first
                                   sentence has terms before the
                                   selbri but the second one does
                                   not.  (The reverse situation is
                                   still forbidden, because it looks
                                   like bridi-tail connection to a
                                   LALR(1) parser.)
                                   RATIONALE:
                                     The previous restriction was
                                   arbitrary and unnecessary.
                                   
                                   CHANGE 6
                                   CURRENT LANGUAGE:
                                     "boi" gets special treatment
                                   unlike that of all other elidable
                                   terminators.  In all other cases,
                                   free modifiers may optionally ap-

                                  47


pear after the elidable terminator types (restrictive and non-
(in which case it can't be         restrictive).
elided).  Free modifiers must be     Mark Shoulson comments:  This
placed before "boi", however,        one I have some trouble with.
because "boi" is used to terminate   I'll concede that in most cases,
subscripts, and subscripts are a     GIhEks and the like within the
species of free modifier.            relative clause will suffice for
PROPOSED CHANGE:                     logical connection, but there
  Regularize the rules for "boi"     are some things that we lose by
so that it takes free modifiers      dropping ZIhEks.  For one thing,
after it, except that no free        how could we do logical
modifiers at all are permitted on    connections (other than "AND",
a "boi" that terminates a            of course) between restrictive
subscript.  ("ve'o" already has      and non-restrictive clauses?
this split personality:  no free     Granted, I can't think of much
modifiers if it is terminating a     of an application for such an
subscript, but allowed otherwise.)   animal, but it may be a needed
RATIONALE:                           construct.
  Simplicity and regularity.  A        Also, we lose logical
new convention is needed for         connections between NOI phrases
subscripts on subscripts, however;   and GOI descriptions.  This one
so we simply declare that            actually has applications.  For
consecutive subscripts are taken     example, a system of locking
to be nested.                        things on many MUDs (Multi-User
                                     Dimensions:  text-based, multi-
CHANGE 7                             user, user-extensible thingies
CURRENT LANGUAGE:                    that are sort of adventure games
  Multiple relative clauses can      or chat programs, (or something
only be placed on a single sumti     in-between) depending on how
by connecting them with logical      people choose to use them) often
connectives, namely ZIhEks.          works with methods like "A
PROPOSED CHANGE:                     person who is carrying the key,
  Eliminate ZIhEks except for a      or who is Herman, can pass
single cmavo, "zi'e" of selma'o      through this door."  In the old
ZIhE, which places two relative      method, this is neatly done with
clauses on the same sumti but does   "lo prenu poi ponse le ckiku
not count as a logical connection.   zi'a po'u la xerman. cuka'e
RATIONALE:                           pagre levi vorme".  No muss, no
  There is some doubt whether any    fuss.  In the new method, we'd
of the ZIhEks make sense other       have to expand out the "po'u" to
than "zi'e", which puts both         get "lo prenu poi ponse le ckiku
relative clauses into effect.        gi'a du la xerman. li'u", which
Unlike other logical connectives,    granted is okay, but loses the
ZIhEks cannot be split up into       whole point of having "po'u" in
multiple sentences.  The existing    the first place (it can always
implementation of ZIhEks was         be expanded).  (actually, an
incomplete, and did not allow the    even more Lojbanic translation,
full functionality of other          in the old grammar, would be "lo
logical connectives, and there is    prenu pe le ckiku zi'a po'u la
no easy way to make them work.       xerman.", taking advantage of
Analysis shows that the most         the symmetrical nature of "pe").
likely combinations of relative        John Cowan responds:  Mark has
clauses can be easily expressed        presented the first useful
with other types of logical            rationale for "zi'a" that I
connectives within a single            have ever seen:  "poi broda
relative clause.  The only             zi'a po'u la xerman."
restriction this places on the         Nonetheless, I still think
language is the as-yet-unused          that the logical problems of
situation of a non-AND connection      "poi broda zi'V noi brode" are
between two relatives of different     overwhelming; if we were going

                                  48


    to split up NOI and POI (and   PROPOSED CHANGE:
    GOI and PO) into separate sel-   Remove POhO.
    ma'o, there might be a         RATIONALE:
    rationale, but we aren't.        Earlier versions of the grammar
                                   required POhO, possibly due to an
CHANGE 8                           implementation weakness in the
CURRENT LANGUAGE:                  YACC version used in developing
  Currently, a text can begin with that grammar.  It is never
a bare ".i" or an I+JEk, but not   necessary because it can always be
with an ".ibabo".                  elided, so it serves no purpose
PROPOSED CHANGE:                   except to clutter the grammar.
  Allow I+BO, I+JEk+BO,            
I+tense+BO, and I+JEk+tense+BO at  CHANGE 12
the beginning of text.             CURRENT LANGUAGE:
RATIONALE:                           Only a restricted form of selbri
  Allows people to complete each   (simple selbri plus optional
other's expressions by adding      linked sumti) are currently
causals, presuppositions, and the  allowed after NIhE.
like.                              PROPOSED CHANGE:
                                     Allow any kind of selbri.
CHANGE 9                           RATIONALE:
CURRENT LANGUAGE:                    The former restriction was meant
  Theoretically a text may begin   to remove ambiguity, but now that
with "nai", and this bare "nai" is the TEhU delimiter has been
taken as attitudinal.  However,    introduced, it does the necessary
the parser does not currently      job, and so a full selbri is
handle bare initial "nai" in       permissible.  This grammar is also
embedded texts within quotes or    parallel to that of MOhE, which
parentheses.                       allows a full sumti.
PROPOSED CHANGE:                   
  Allow bare initial "nai"         CHANGE 13
explicitly within the grammar      CURRENT LANGUAGE:
rather than as a preparser hack.     In forethought termsets, a NAhE
RATIONALE:                         is allowed just after the NUhI.
  Uniformity and consistency.      PROPOSED CHANGE:
                                     Disallow this NAhE.
CHANGE 10                          RATIONALE:
CURRENT LANGUAGE:                    Nobody can figure out what it
  Forethought JOIks (also known as might mean to have a scalar
JOIGIks) are restricted in their   negation of a termset, a construct
syntax.  In particular, GAhO       which currently exists solely to
brackets are not permitted in      implement a certain kind of
forethought.                       logical connective.  What does it
PROPOSED CHANGE:                   mean to scalar-negate not a term
  Permit any sort of JOIk, so that but the logical connection of two
JOIGIks are any JOIk + "gi".       or more terms?
RATIONALE:                         COUNTER-ARGUMENT:
  Simplicity and uniformity, plus    Change 30 makes explicit the use
the ability to specify GAhO        of non-logical connectives in
brackets on forethought intervals. termsets, and scalar negation of
                                   such non-logical termsets makes
CHANGE 11                          some sense, possibly enough to
CURRENT LANGUAGE:                  justify the status quo, even
  Three kinds of fragmentary       though no usage has yet been found
utterances (bare I with or without to support it.
JEk or modal, bare number, bare    STATUS:
NA) currently have a special         This change has been
terminator "po'o" (of selma'o      incorporated in the current draft
POhO).  This terminator is always  of the new baseline, but will be
elidable.                          reconsidered at least once before

                                  49


final baseline for book            CHANGE 14
publication.  If any Lojbanists    CURRENT LANGUAGE:
can propose an authentic use for     Only a single instance of I or
the construct, this will be        I+BO (and their related compounds)
considered in the final decision.  is allowed at the beginning of
                                   text (per change 8 above).
                                   PROPOSED CHANGE:
                                     Allow multiple Is or I+BOs
                                   consecutively.
                                   RATIONALE:
                                     Symmetry and simplicity.  With
                                   the elimination of POhO, multiple
                                   Is are now allowed at the end of
                                   texts and between sentences.
                                   
                                   CHANGE 15
                                   CURRENT LANGUAGE:
                                     It is not possible to convert an
                                   abstract selbri [NU + bridi] or
                                   one that has been (scalar) negated
                                   [NAhE + selbri].
                                   PROPOSED CHANGE:
                                     Allow these forms.  The place
                                   structure of [NAhE + selbri] is
                                   that of the original selbri.
                                   RATIONALE:
                                     Simplicity and uniformity.
                                   
                                   CHANGE 16
                                   CURRENT LANGUAGE:
                                     PU and FAhA allow -NAI for
                                   contradictory negation.  This is
                                   not very useful on tenses (punai =
                                   na pu), but very useful for sumti
                                   tcita to deny that the
                                   relationship holds.  ZAhO cannot
                                   take -NAI, although it is also
                                   useful as a sumti tcita.
                                   PROPOSED CHANGE:
                                     Allow ZAhO+NAI.
                                   RATIONALE:
                                     Consistency and general
                                   usefulness:
                                    mi morsi ca'onai le nu mi jmive
                                   I am dead, but it is not the case
                                    that this is so during my life.
                                   
                                   CHANGE 17
                                   CURRENT LANGUAGE:
                                     There are three kinds of
                                   qualifiers which can be prefixed
                                   to a sumti, giving another sumti:
                                   - LAhE provides indirect
                                   reference, indirect discourse, and
                                   sumti raising;
                                   - LUhI changes sumti between
                                   individuals, sets, and masses;
                                   - [NAhE+BO] provides sumti scalar
                                   negation.

                                  50


LUhI has terminator LUhU; the      CHANGE 18
others have no terminators.  LAhE  CURRENT LANGUAGE:
is also allowed on mekso operands.   Technically, brivla fall into
PROPOSED CHANGE:                   three selma'o:  LEhAVLA (for
  Merge LAhE and LUhI into a       le'avla), BRODA (for
single selma'o, with the current   broda/brode/brodi/brodo/ brodu),
grammar of LUhI but named LAhE     and BRIVLA (for everything else).
(for compatibility with the past). PROPOSED CHANGE:
Allow the same grammar for sumti     Merge LEhAVLA and BRODA into
and for MEX operands.  Change      BRIVLA.
NAhE+BO grammar to be the same as  RATIONALE:
LAhE, thus allowing it on operands   The grammar is identical and the
as well.                           machine parser has never bothered
RATIONALE:                         to make the distinction anyway.
  Proposed changes to the sumti    It is a relic of long-ago pre-
grammar (including Change 20       baseline versions.
below) make LAhE and NAhE+BO messy 
without terminators.  Merging them CHANGE 19
with LUhI allows greater           PROPOSED CHANGE:
generality (expanding the            Various rule names:
expressiveness of the language)    bri_string -> selbri
and simplicity, without needing to bri_unit -> tanru_unit
add a new terminator.  NAhE+BO is  header_terms -> prenex
a compound and cannot be merged    utt_string -> paragraph
directly, but can be made          cmene_A_404 -> cmene_404
grammatically equivalent.          ekroot -> ek_root
                                   no_FIhO_PU_mod -> simple_tag
                                   sentenceA -> sentence_A
                                   indicators_412 -> indicators_A_412
                                   bridi_valsi_408 ->
                                   bridi_valsi_A_408
                                   JOIk_JEk_957 ->
                                   simple_JOIk_JEk_957
                                   PA_812 -> number_812
                                   PA_root_961 -> number_root_961
                                   BY_string_817 -> lerfu_string_817
                                   BY_string_A_986 ->
                                   lerfu_string_root_986
                                   modal_972 ->
                                   simple_tense_aspect_972
                                   modal_A_973 ->
                                   simple_tense_aspect_A_973
                                   modal_B_974 -> modal_974
                                   modal_C_975 -> modal_A_975
                                   BY_987 -> lerfu_word_987
                                   space_time_* -> space_* (where "*"
                                   stands for each of several
                                   letters)
                                   interval_mod_1050 ->
                                   interval_modifier_1050
                                   interval_prop_1051 ->
                                   interval_property_1051.
                                   RATIONALE:
                                     Consistency between the YACC
                                   grammar and the E-BNF version and
                                   other documents.  Also, this
                                   results in no two rules differing
                                   only in number.  (Some rules have
                                   the same names as selma'o,
                                   though.)

                                  51


                                   RATIONALE:
CHANGE 20                            The current grammar appears to
CURRENT LANGUAGE:                  group relative clauses with the
  (See JL18 text article!)         "inside set" of a description
  Relative clauses on descriptions sumti, that portion of a sumti
are grouped by the parser so as to including from the LE to the KU
attach to sumti before outside     which includes the inside
quantifiers are put on.  The       quantifier and not the outside
actual semantics of what is being  quantifier.  In the case of non-
attached has been pragmatically    restrictive "lo" descriptions, and
determined, and analysis has now   possibly some others, this is not
shown that this can theoretically  what is normally intended.
be vague/ambiguous or even lim-      Example:  "pa lo sipna noi
iting to expression in the         melbi" groups as "pa <lo sipna noi
language, though work-arounds      melbi>" apparently adding the
probably exist for all problems    incidental claim that "all
raised.                            sleepers are beautiful".
PROPOSED CHANGE:                     The problem manifests itself in
  Allow the distinction between a  various forms more completely
relative clause attaching to the   documented in a long paper by
"inside set", excluding external   Colin Fine, but the bottom line is
quantifiers, of a description.  A  that the existing grammar is vague
relative clause outside the KU     as to what a relative clause
will refer to the entire sumti.  A attaches to, and there are
relative clause inside the KU will definable cases where this
generally be preposed so as to     vagueness can lead to unacceptable
parallel the historical pseudo-    ambiguity.
possessive which is recognized as    The proposed solution has the
a transformation of an inside-set  secondary virtues of:
relative clause.  However,         1) making pseudo-possessives
postposed relative clauses will be visibly match the parallel inside-
inside by default, matching the    set relative clauses, but without
way in which the parser inserts    overt relative clause marking;
elidable terminators (i.e. only if 2) making it obvious how to
needed).                           express a pseudo-possessive with a
  Comparable expansion of the      quantifier ("le ci mi broda" is a
relative clause possibilities      complete sentence and not a sumti,
inside vocatives is incorporated   since "le ci mi" is a complete
in this proposal.                  sumti.  With preposed inside-set
                                   relative clauses, "le pecimi
                                   broda" is unambiguously a sumti.);
                                   and
                                   3) the problematical "[quantifier]
                                   [quantifier] [description]" is
                                   eliminated from the language
                                   (analysis can give a meaning for
                                   this expression of "[quantifier]
                                   lo [quantifier] lo [description]",
                                   and it has even been used once or
                                   twice, but experience has shown
                                   that the analysis is counter-
                                   intuitive to many people, who see
                                   also "[quantifier1] lo
                                   [description] [quantifier2]-mei"
                                   as plausible).
                                     Postposed inside relatives are
                                   allowed in all descriptions, so
                                   the preposed/postposed distinction
                                   becomes a forethought/afterthought
                                   distinction, which can be

                                  52


valuable.  Existing texts retain   
their currently official inside-        le     yes     no     noi
relative interpretation (unless          ci le sipna noi melbi
the KU is explicitly present, a      [ci (le su'oci sipna noi melbi
rarity), which is arguably                        ku)]
desirable as the default (though       3 of the sleepers, who are
it must be recognized that there              beautiful...
are text examples where the        
speaker obviously wanted to apply       le     yes     yes    poi
the relative clause to the exter-       re le ci sipna poi melbi
nally quantified sumti.)  The        re (le ci sipna poi melbi ku)
negative tradeoff of this is that     re le ci sipna ku poi melbi
KU becomes always required when     [re (le ci sipna ku)] poi melbi
you want an external relative       [The] two of the 3 sleepers who
clause.  (Other options were                are beautiful...
considered and rejected by the     The Lojban in this case makes the
net-based Lojban community.)        distinction based on presence of
  Preposed relative clauses (but    the "ku", forcing the speaker to
not relative phrases) will almost   think about the distinction when
always require a terminator,                   important.
though monosyllabic "vau" is                        
usually as applicable as "ku'o".        le     yes     yes    noi
  The following analyzes all            re le ci sipna noi melbi
definite and indefinite relative     re (le ci sipna noi melbi ku)
clause cases.                         re le ci sipna ku noi melbi
                                    [re (le ci sipna ku)] noi melbi
     Descriptor     External  inte   Two of the 3 sleepers, who are
rnal noi/poi                                  beautiful...
            quantifier     quantif The Lojban in this case makes the
ier                                 distinction based on presence of
            present present         the "ku", forcing the speaker to
                                    think about the distinction when
     le     no      no     poi                 important.
        le sipna poi melbi         
[ro (le su'o sipna poi melbi ku)]       lo     no      no     poi
The sleepers who are beautiful...          lo sipna poi melbi
                                   [su'o (lo ro sipna poi melbi ku)]
     le     no      no     noi       Sleepers who are beautiful...
        le sipna noi melbi         
[ro (le su'o sipna noi melbi ku)]       lo     no      no     noi
The sleepers, who are beautiful...         lo sipna noi melbi
                                   [su'o (lo ro sipna noi melbi ku)]
     le     no      yes    poi       Sleepers, who are beautiful...
      le ci sipna poi melbi        
  ro (le ci sipna poi melbi ku)         lo     no      yes    poi
      The 3 sleepers who are             lo ci sipna poi melbi
           beautiful...             su'o (lo ci sipna poi melbi ku)
                                      At least one of the 3 in the
     le     no      yes    noi     universe that sleep who are beau-
      le ci sipna noi melbi                     tiful...
  ro (le ci sipna noi melbi ku)     (the following is a more likely
     The 3 sleepers, who are                   example:)
           beautiful...                 lomi ci cukta poi melbi
                                   su'o (lomi ci cukta poi melbi ku)
     le     yes     no     poi      At least one of my 3 books that
      ci le sipna poi melbi                 are beautiful...
  [ci (le su'oci sipna poi melbi      (Quantifying the inside set
               ku)]                emphasizes it so that the restric-
    3 of the sleepers who are      tion applying to it seems natural
           beautiful...              - natural enough that English

                                  53


  requires forcing an indefinite        lo     yes     no     poi
description if there is an inside        ci lo sipna poi melbi
           quantifier.)             [ci (lo rosu'oci sipna poi melbi
                                                  ku)]
     lo     no      yes    noi      3 sleepers who are beautiful...
      lo ci sipna noi melbi          With no inside quantifier, the
 su'o (lo ci sipna noi melbi ku)   English becomes an indefinite, and
   At least one of the 3 in the    there is no suggestion that there
   universe that sleep, who are     is an inside-set, much less that
           beautiful...            the relative clause relates to it.
                                     Likewise in the current Lojban
                                       which is equivalent to the
                                               indefinite
                                           ci sipna poi melbi
                                   (which under this change will have
                                   the ku after the melbi to separate
                                        from other sumti).  The
                                    restrictive clause unambiguously
                                    talks only about the 3 sleepers,
                                   since in an indefinite there is no
                                       internal quantifier to put
                                   secondary focus on the inside set
                                   - the set of all sleepers.  If the
                                       inside quantifier "ro" was
                                     present, under this change the
                                   restrictive clause would attach to
                                    the inside set unless explicitly
                                         closed off with "ku".
                                        ci lo ro sipna poi melbi
                                       ci (lo ro sipna poi melbi)
                                   Three out of all sleepers who are
                                               beautiful.
                                      ci lo ro sipna ku poi melbi
                                     ci (lo ro sipna ku) poi melbi
                                    [The only] three of all sleepers
                                           who are beautiful.
                                   
                                        lo     yes     no     noi
                                         ci lo sipna noi melbi
                                   [ci (lo [rosu'oci] sipna noi melbi
                                                 [ku])]
                                    3 sleepers, who are beautiful...
                                     (The English again becomes an
                                     indefinite and the incidental
                                    clause goes outside.  Note that
                                     this time, the English remains
                                     ambiguous and odd-sounding no
                                       matter how you phrase it:
                                        ?3 of sleepers, who are
                                              beautiful...
                                     ?3 of those sleepers, who are
                                              beautiful...
                                            unless you go to
                                   3 who sleep, who are beautiful...
                                      which is better reflected in
                                               Lojban as
                                     ci da poi sipna zi'e noi melbi
                                   which accurately puts the relative
                                            clause outside.
                                   

                                  54


     lo     yes     yes    poi       The comments in question were
     re lo ci sipna poi melbi      written presuming that the parser
  re (lo ci sipna poi melbi ku)    would use method 5b, i.e.
   re lo ci sipna ku poi melbi     insertion of lexer tokens.  All
 [re (lo ci sipna ku)] poi melbi   actual practice has employed
    Two of 3 sleepers who are      method 5a, i.e. replacement of
           beautiful...            lexer compounds by single tokens.
(The English is totally ambiguous  It seemed to be more useful to
     as to which sleepers are      document actual practice:  5a and
beautiful, and the Lojban in this  5b have different ordering
 case makes the distinction based  implications.
 on presence of the "ku", forcing  
  the speaker to think about the   CHANGE 23
   distinction when important.)    PRESENT LANGUAGE:
                                     The current rules for connecting
     lo     yes     yes    noi     "cu'e", the tense/modal question,
     re lo ci sipna noi melbi      with other tenses using JEks or
  re (lo ci sipna noi melbi ku)    JOIks are erroneous and hopelessly
   re lo ci sipna ku noi melbi     irrational.  "cu'e je bai" is
 [re (lo ci sipna ku)] noi melbi   legal but "bai je cu'e" is not.
    Two of 3 sleepers, who are     Also, "na'e ki" is legal but
           beautiful...            meaningless.
 (The unlikely English is totally  PROPOSED CHANGE:
ambiguous as to which sleepers are   Put "cu'e" on a level with
beautiful, and the Lojban in this  space/time tenses and with modals.
 case makes the distinction based  No modifiers such as scalar
 on presence of the "ku", forcing  negation are allowed to affect it.
  the speaker to think about the   This is what Imaginary Journeys
   distinction when important.)    (John Cowan's paper on Lojban
                                   tenses published with JL16) says.
  IMPORTANT NOTE:  Change 20       Put bare "ki" on the same level;
affects nearly all of the sumti    this does not affect "ki"
grammar rules.  There may be       following modals or tenses.
unforeseen side effects, although  RATIONALE:
analysis so far has shown that the   The YACC grammar said one thing,
only reduction in expression is    the E-BNF another, and Imaginary
the confusing "[quantifier] [quan- Jourmeys a third.  The Imaginary
tifier] [description]" which has a Journeys version is clearly what
much clearer equivalent.           makes sense.  NAhE+KI was the
  However, the introduction of     unintended result of a previous
such a major change at this late   fix intended to get bare KI
stage of the project makes it      working.
highly controversial, as any       
problems may show up too late to   CHANGE 24
be easily fixed (i.e. after books  CURRENT LANGUAGE:
are published).                      In complex tenses, the optional
                                   CAhA (for potentiality) comes
CHANGE 21:  ANNULLED               after KI, and therefore cannot be
                                   made sticky.
CHANGE 22                          PROPOSED CHANGE:
PROPOSED CHANGE:                     Place the optional CAhA before
  Bring the description of lexer   the optional KI.
compounding (Step 5 of the         RATIONALE:
preparser) in the comments at the    Sticky CAhA is not unreasonable.
beginning of the grammar into      
conformance with the way the       CHANGE 25
current implementation (as well as CURRENT LANGUAGE:
all its predecessors) actually do    It is currently legal, though
things.                            pointless, to insert NA
RATIONALE:                         (contradictory bridi negation)

                                  55


after the CO of an inverted tanru, CHANGE 26
rather than in its usual place at  CURRENT LANGUAGE:
the beginning of the selbri.         NAhU is used to construct a
Furthermore, it is possible to     mekso operator out of a regular
follow such a NA with a tag or     Lojban predicate.  The current
another NA or various              grammar allows a bridi-tail to be
combinations.                      used after NAhU.
PROPOSED CHANGE:                   PROPOSED CHANGE:
  Disallow them by splitting up      Allow a selbri only, with no
current rule 131, which conflates  following sumti.
CO handling with NA handling.      RATIONALE:
RATIONALE:                           In a context like
  The disallowed constructs have       li by. na'u broda te'u cy.
never been used by anybody, have            the number B # C
no advantages over the normal use  where "#" represents the nonce
of tenses/negation at the          operator, the elidable terminator
beginning of the selbri, and may   "te'u" turns out to be always
tend to confuse people if used -   required.  If it is omitted, the
they look like a negation/tense    "cy." is interpreted as part of
that applies only to the second    the bridi-tail.  Reducing the
half of the selbri, a meaningless  generality of what is permitted
notion.                            makes elidability much more
                                   likely.
                                     The original reason for allowing
                                   the bridi-tail was that some of
                                   the places of the general
                                   predicate may be non-numerical,
                                   and allowing sumti permits those
                                   places to be "plugged up" and not
                                   used in the operator.  However,
                                   the same effect can be achieved by
                                   binding any such sumti into the
                                   selbri with "be...bei...be'o".
                                   
                                   CHANGE 27
                                   CURRENT LANGUAGE:
                                     Normally, I, I+BO, and NIhO are
                                   allowed only between sentences;
                                   for special effects, however, they
                                   may also be used at the beginning
                                   of text.  This initial use is not
                                   permitted, however, in portions of
                                   text grouped by "tu'e...tu'u".
                                   (See change 8, 9, and 14 for
                                   related beginning-of-text
                                   changes.)
                                   PROPOSED CHANGE:
                                     Allow I, I+BO, and NIhO after
                                   TUhE.
                                   RATIONALE:
                                     Increased flexibility.  In
                                   particular, leading
                                   "ni'oni'oni'o..." may be required
                                   to set the maximum level of "ni'o"
                                   nesting that will be used in the
                                   text enclosed by "tu'e...tu'u".
                                   
                                   CHANGE 28:  (Probably ANNULLED)
                                   CURRENT LANGUAGE:

                                  56


  The draft textbook had a cmavo   closely inter-related with this
"moi" used to attach a relative    change.]
phrase to a sumti 'modally'. i.e.  PROPOSED CHANGE:
neither restrictively or non-        Assign the cmavo "nau" to the
restrictively.  As part of an      latter use.  Since "sumti NAU tag
early cmavo change, "moi" was      sumti" is really a kind of non-
combine into the non-restrictive   logical connection between sumti,
"ne" because at the time there was it no longer makes sense to treat
not seen to be any logical dis-    it as a relative phrase; this
tinction between the two.  This    grammar change makes "NAU tag" a
was an error.                      kind of non-logical connective,
  The relative-phrase introducer   usable between sumti, tanru units,
"ne" is used before a tagged sumti operators, and operands only.
in two different ways:  to add     COUNTER-ARGUMENT:
incidental information (the non-     This mechanism only works
restrictive equivalent of "pe"),   correctly if a second place is
and to attach a new sumti to the   implicitly given the modal or
bridi, modally associating it with tense tag.  For tenses, the second
some already existing sumti.       place is the space/time origin;
Paradigm cases are:                for the comparatives, it is what
  mi nelci la .apasionatas ne fi'e is being compared; for the
la betoven.                        causals, it is the effect (and
  I like the Appassionata, created vice versa).  But for a tag such
by Beethoven.                      as "bau", using the x2 place of
and                                "bangu" simply isn't useful.
  la djan. nelci la betis. ne        For most uses of this
semau la meris.                    construction, the right thing to
  John likes Betty more than (he   do is to use the actual underlying
likes) Mary.                       gismu, which has all the necessary
respectively.  In the former       places:  recast pure comparisons
sentence, "ne fi'e la betoven."    using "zmadu", "mleca", or
means no more than "noi la         "dunli".  If you want to
betoven. finti"; in the latter     simultaneously make positive and
sentence, however, "ne semau la    comparative claims, use
meris." does not mean "noi la      ".esemaubo".  To apply tags
meris. se zmadu", since the        separately to the two parts of a
information is essential to the    non-logical connective ("I in
bridi, not merely incidental.      Lojban, with you in English,
That is, John may like Betty more  discuss"), use Change 30's non-
than Mary, but not really 'like'   logical termset connection.
Betty or Mary at all.  In fact,      It has been argued that the
the second example generally       standard use of "semau" in
means:                             relative phrases is logically
le ni la djan. nelci la betis. cu  misleading.  If we are saying that
  zmadu le ni la djan. nelci la    "John likes Betty more than (he
              meris.               likes) Mary", the essential claim
The amount-of John's liking Betty  is not "likes"/"nelci" but "zmadu"
          is-more-than the amount- as stated above, and the main
           of John's liking Mary.  bridi should therefore be "zmadu".
The confusion between the two      This essential logical structure
types of "ne" is unacceptably      is hidden by the status quo, and
ambiguous.  The second type is     to some extent by the proposed
especially valuable with "semau"   change.  The counter-argument to
and "seme'a", and has seen         this, that natural language usage
considerable use, but this use is  of comparison warrants an
contrary to the nominal definition abbreviated form, is logically
of `ne'.  [See Greg Higley's       unsound.
article on JOI, elsewhere in this    Change 28 will probably not be
issue, for a discussion that was   accepted, and is not incorporated
                                   into the published E-BNF, but is

                                  57


being retained here until all      RATIONALE:
interested parties have seen the     Some flavors of mathematics
arguments on all sides.            (lambda calculus, algebra of
PROPOSAL:                          functions) blur the distinction
  Clarify that "ne semau" is non-  between operators and operands.
restrictive, not simply            Currently, an operator can be
comparative.  This means that the  changed into an operand with
example Lojban sentence above      "ni'ena'u", which transforms the
requires that John like both Betty operator into a matching selbri
and Mary, in order for the non-    and then the selbri into an
restrictive "ne semau" phrase to   operand.  The reverse transaction
be true.  By comparison, the       is not readily possible.
English can be used if John likes    There is a potential semantic
Betty, but doesn't like Mary.      ambiguity in "ma'o fy. [te'u]" if
  This clarification requires no   "fy." is already in use as a
grammar change, but substantial    variable:  it comes to mean "the
reworking of draft textbook lesson function whose value is always
6.                                 'f'".  However, mathematicians do
                                   not normally use "f" as a normal
CHANGE 29                          variable, so this case should not
CURRENT LANGUAGE:                  arise in practice.
  The flag "ma'o" (of selma'o      
MAhO) is used to convert a         CHANGE 30
letteral string to a mekso         CURRENT LANGUAGE:
operator.  It serves to disam-       Termsets are defined with
biguate uses of "f" or "g" as      logical connectives only.
names of functions from the        Forethought non-logical
identical-looking uses of "x" or   connectives (JOIGIks) are allowed
"y" as names of variables.         also, but only as a by-product of
PROPOSED CHANGE:                   their grammatical equivalence with
  Allow any mekso to follow        GEks.
"ma'o".  This involves changing    PROPOSED CHANGE:
the terminator to "te'u", the        Explicitly allow afterthought
general mekso terminator.          non-logical connectives (JOIks) in
                                   termsets.
                                   RATIONALE:
                                     Sentences like:
                                   nu'i mi bau la lojban nu'u joi do
                                        bau la gliban. cu casnu
                                    I in-language Lojban joined-with
                                    you in-language English discuss.
                                   are not possible without termsets.
                                   The effect of a non-logically
                                   connected termset is to non-
                                   logically connect each of the
                                   corresponding terms in an
                                   inseparably cross-linked way.
                                   
                                   CHANGE 31
                                   CURRENT LANGUAGE:
                                     Logical connections can be
                                   grouped closely (with BO) or
                                   loosely (with KE), but non-logical
                                   connectives cannot, except in
                                   forethought.  This is a hangover
                                   from Loglan days, when there was
                                   only one non-logical connective
                                   and grouping was irrelevant.
                                   PROPOSED CHANGE:

                                  58


  Allow JOIk+BO between sumti,     case, "jai" is equivalent to "jai
tanru units, and operands; and     gau".
JOIk+KE between sumti and            Note that this type of sumti-
operands.  We already allow        raising is semantically ambiguous,
JOIk+KE in tanru and operators,    as is "tu'a" sumti-raising.  The
because no cmavo compounding is    natural raised sumti may not
required.                          always be the actor.  In the above
                                   example, the bracketed "mi" is
RATIONALE:                         implied to be the agent because it
  Completeness:  "the set of red-  is omitted from the abstraction in
joi-blue and green-joi-black       the "fai" place.  If Jim were also
things" can now be done with       omitted from the abstraction:
"cebo" as the middle "and".         mi jai jenca la djein. fai le nu
                                                 catra.
CHANGE 32                              I shock Jane by the event-of
CURRENT LANGUAGE:                               killing.
  Currently, "jai" (selma'o JAI)   it is not clear whether it is my
is used only with a following tag  doing the killing or being the one
(tense or modal), and causes a     killed is the event that shocks
modal conversion analogous to the  Jane (ignoring the pragmatics of
regular conversions expressed with whether someone who was killed
SE.  The sumti normally tagged by  could/would be making such a
the modal is shifted into the x1   statement; well-known American
place, and the regular x1 place is essays such as the hypothetical
moved to an auxiliary place tagged statements by people who have died
with "fai" (selma'o FA).           in traffic accidents after
PROPOSED CHANGE:                   drinking alcohol come to mind).
  Allow "jai" with no following    What is known is that the speaker
tag.  The semantics is to extract  wants to emphasize the role of
a place from the subordinate bridi "mi", whichever role he played in
within the abstract description    the killing.
normally appearing in the x1         If it is necessary to raise from
place, and raise it to the x1      an abstraction which is not in x1,
level.  The abstract description   a regular SE conversion following
goes to the "fai" place.  For      (and therefore inside) the "jai"
example:                           can be used to get the abstraction
  le nu mi catra la djim. cu jenca to x1:
            la djein.               lo nazbi jai te frica do mi fai
    the event-of my killing Jim           leka [lo nazbi ...]
           shocks Jane.             A nose is the difference between
becomes:                                      you and me.
  mi jai jenca la djein. fai le nu (exactly what about the nose that
       [mi] catra la djim.         is different is quite vague.
    I shock Jane by the event-of   
        [my] killing Jim.          
Exactly which place is extracted      A Change to Relative Clause
from the subordinate bridi is left              Grammar
vague.                                        (Change 20)
RATIONALE:                         
  This construction is a sort of     [The following is an extract of
sumti-raising; it differs from the the discussions that led to the
"tu'a" type because it marks the   most significant grammar change in
selbri rather than the sumti.  The the language since mid-1989, long
whole abstraction is preserved in  before we baselined the Lojban
the "fai" place if it is wanted,   grammar (that change was the one
and "le jai jenca" can be used to  that incorporated the structures
mean "the one who shocks" (where   in the Negation paper).  Although
"le jenca" would be "the event     the relative clause change
which is shocking").  In this      discussed below is fundamental to
                                   a major structure in the language,

                                  59


it is almost invisible to the      rebuttal.  This rebuttal was con-
average Lojbanists:  few texts     vincing to Lojbab, who hit upon a
that have been written require     satisfactory solution through a
changes.  It was also taught in    rather serendipitous consideration
passing in less than an hour to    of a lesser change proposed by
beginning students, with no real   John Cowan.  That proposal
difficulty.                        constituted Change Proposals 20
  The extensive discussion, and    and 21.  Change 20 as adopted is
the serious resistance to even     found earlier in this issue in the
what turned out to be a very low-  summary of grammar changes, while
impact change should stress for    Change 21 was rejected by the
Lojbanists the commitment that the community.  The optional portions
design team has to language        of Change 20 and the whole of
stability.  On the other hand, the Change 21 are included here, as
outstanding and detailed technical well as some the commentary that
analysis that Colin Fine and oth-  led to the final decision.
ers put into this change is both   
informative of the 'nitty gritty'  
of this change and its                   Quantification and noi
philosophical underpinnings, and             by Greg Higley
of several broader aspects of the  
Lojban design philosophy, which      A potential problem has come to
are mentioned in passing during    my attention regarding the
the discussion.  I believe that    quantification of sumti modified
the result, while technically      by relative bridi.  Since this
detailed, should be fairly under-  "problem" almost invariably pops
standable to relatively novice     up when "noi" is involved, I will
Lojban students using only the     discuss it as it relates to "noi"
Diagrammed Summary of Lojban       only, and its occurrence with
Grammar due to the detailed        other relative clause cmavo can be
translations that accompany the    inferred.  This problem does not
examples.  I also note that Iain   seem to occur with "poi".
and Veijo, when participating in     All sumti that are not
this discussion, had started       explicitly are implicitly quanti-
studying the language only a       fied.  In the following discussion
couple of months before, and hence I will deal only with those that
considered themselves to be be-    are made by the addition of a
ginners at the time they wrote     gadri (article) to a selbri.  With
(though their analyses were        all such sumti, whether the
generally quite correct).          quantification is implicit or
  The following is presented in    explicit, there are two "points"
several parts.  First comes Greg   of quantification, one (the
Higley's paper, actually submitted selected subset) before the gadri
after the decisions had been made  and one (the "inner" set - so
on this issue, but developed       called because of its position)
independently of Colin's work.     after it.  (I shall henceforth re-
Then follows excerpts from Colin's fer to the "inner" set as I and
original analytical paper, which   the selected subset as S.)
we have footnoted with some of the   Put simply, the question/problem
discussion that resulted on each   is this:  In a non-restrictive
point (edited to make the in-      relative clause, does the cmavo
teraction more evident), Then      "ke'a" refer to I or to S?1  If we
follow comments from Iain          take the analogy of "poi", it
Alexander, Veijo Vilva's (showing  ____________________
his perspective as a non-Indo-     1In referring to I, "ke'a" always
European language native speaker), refers to S as a subset of I.  But
and a few others, which did not    the question here is whether
fit well as annotation in the two  "ke'a" might ever refer directly
original papers.  After all this   to S, thus excluding some members
discussion, Colin responded with a of I.

                                  60


refers directly to I, and thus to   4.  mi viska ci ninmu noi melbi
S as a subset of I.  In the         I see three (of the set of all?)
sentence "mi pu viska ci le vo         women, who are beautiful.
prenu poi ca vave'a litru", "four    Look carefully at these examples
people were moving around in a     and their colloquial English
medium-sized area a medium dis-    translations.  If "ke'a" always
tance away, but I saw only three   refers to I, then we may run into
of them".  Thus "ke'a" refers to   occasional problems, particularly
I.  If we replace "poi" with "noi" if we definitely do not want it to
in this example, we get "mi pu     refer to I.  As for example 4, I
viska ci le vo prenu noi ca vave'a would venture to guess that most
litru".  For this a colloquial     Lojbanists would not take "ke'a"
English translation will be        as referring to all women!  But
helpful:  "I saw three of the four this is the interpretation we must
people, who were (at the same      accept if "ke'a" always refers to
time) traveling (i.e. moving       I.  If, on the other hand, "ke'a"
on/across/via some unspecified     always refers to S in noi clauses,
surface) a medium distance away in we run into the problem from the
a medium-sized area." Based on the other end.  For this, look at ex-
English translation, it is quite   ample 1. What if we want to say
impossible to tell, in the absence that "all of the women are,
of context, whether three or four  incidentally, beautiful, while I
people were "traveling", although  only see three of them"?
it is certainly clear that only      One solution to this is to
three were visible to me.  Since   divide "ke'a" into two cmavo.  One
of course we cannot take the       that refers to I, and another that
analogy of English ^ we would be   refers to S.  For the following
rightly guilty of malglico - we    examples, I have assigned the
must conclude that "noi" is        experimental cmavo "xai" the
analogous with "poi" in this       meaning of S-referring relative
respect2, and that "ke'a" always   sumti, and "ke'a" refers to I:
refers to I in a non-restrictive    1a.  mi viska ci le vo ninmu noi
relative clause.                               xai melbi
  But here's where we run into a   Three women are beautiful (out of
problem.  If "noi" and "poi" are    the set of four that I happen to
analogous in this respect, many     have in mind) and the same three
Lojbanists, myself included, are               are seen.
making the mistake of assuming      1b.  mi viska ci le vo ninmu noi
that "ke'a" can sometimes refer to             ke'a melbi
S, particularly if S is quantified    Three are seen and four are
explicitly and I is not.  The                  beautiful.
examples below will show what I    2a.  mi viska ci le ninmu noi xai
mean:                                            melbi
 1.  mi viska ci le vo ninmu noi    Three women are seen (as always)
              melbi                 and the same three are beautiful
I see three of the four women, who (out of the set of all that I have
          are beautiful.                       in mind).
2.  mi viska ci le ninmu noi melbi 2b.  mi viska ci le ninmu noi ke'a
I see three of the women, who are                melbi
            beautiful.              All of the women are beautiful,
 3.  mi viska le ninmu noi melbi    and three of the same are seen.
I see the woman, who is beautiful.           3.  (skipped)
     I see the women, who are        4a.  mi viska ci ninmu noi xai
            beautiful.                           melbi
____________________                 Three are seen, and three are
2Since we have no reason to think     beautiful, and we avoid the
otherwise.  I have never seen a      problem of having to call the
rule of the grammar that                  whole lot beautiful!
specifically states whether "ke'a"  4b.  mi viska ci ninmu noi ke'a
refers to I or to S.                             melbi

                                  61


Three are seen, and the members of relative clauses - as shown by the
     the set of all women are      fact that, so far as I know, no
            beautiful.             one has noticed this problem
  Another possibility has come to  before - so it will still often be
my mind, and the grammar may very  possible to omit the relative
well specify exactly this, but     pronoun.  One last possibility
I'll call it to your attention     would be that "noi" clauses always
anyway.  What it involves is the   refer to S and "poi" clauses
quantification of "ke'a" itself.   always to I, but that will run
If we allow "ke'a" to refer to all into some problems, as you may
of I, then we can echo the         already see.
quantification of I or S to show     What does the baselined grammar
the one to which we are referring, say about all this?  I'd love to
and thus we won't need two cmavo.  know.
If this seems rather hazy, the     
following examples should clear it 
up:                                    Sumti and Relative Clauses
1.  mi viska ci le vo ninmu noi ci           by Colin Fine
            ke'a melbi             
Here we know that "three of the      I believe there are some hidden
women are beautiful", because the  problems with the semantics and
S quantification is echoed with    syntax of relative clauses and
"ke'a".  (Remember that "ke'a" is  quantifiers.  In this paper I
always quantified as "all of I",   discuss the problems, and suggest
so "ci ke'a" means "three of the   some solutions.
four", and the rule would state    
that these three must be S.)       
2.  mi viska ci le vo ninmu noi ro 1.  Relative clauses
            ke'a melbi               The syntax of relative-clauses
Here "four women are beautiful".        is:
 3.  mi viska ci le vo ninmu noi   relative_clause_110
            ke'a melbi               :  relative_clause_A_111
Here we don't know whether three     |  relative_clause_110
or four are beautiful, and only         ZIhEK_820
context will help us.                   relative_clause_A_111
 4.  mi viska ci le vo ninmu noi   i.e., a constituent consisting of
       paboi ci ke'a melbi         a left-associative list of indi-
"I see three of the four women, of vidual relative clauses.
  which one of the three (of all     I believe this is a faulty
  four) is beautiful."  And this   analysis.  To see where the
     woman is a member of S.       problem lies, consider a relative
 5.  mi viska ci le vo ninmu noi   clause as a semantic operator:  it
       paboi ro ke'a melbi         takes as its argument (the
"I see three of the four women, of referent of) a sumti - some more
     which one of the four is      or less specified set of entities
 beautiful."  And not necessarily  - and delivers another set (or a
            any of S.              sumti which refers to this set -
 6.  mi viska ci le vo ninmu noi   it doesn't matter very much
      su'oboi ci ke'a melbi        whether we take the operator as
"I see three of the four women, of acting on sumti or their
whom at least one of the three is  referents).
        beautiful."  Etc.            In the case of an incidental
                                   relative (ne, noi, goi), the
  I frankly don't know which one   membership of the result set is
of these systems (two cmavo or one identical to that of the argument
with special quantification rules) set - all we have done is made a
will work best, but I am partial   subsidiary claim about its
to the latter method.  Our         members. e.g.
intuition will still be of great                lo sipna
help to us when deciphering              [some of] all sleepers

                                  62


        lo sipna noi melbi         __________________________________
  [Some of] all sleepers, by the   [some of] {all those sleepers who
     way, they are beautiful         both are beautiful and whom I
  The problem is in determining                  love}
which sleepers are beautiful, 'all   Thus multiple restrictions are
of them', or just the 'some' that  not 'successive' restrictions, but
we are talking about in this       in effect tantamount to a logical
sentence.                          AND on the restrictions.
  My argument is that if you         Whether there should be a
follow the parse, it means 'all of successive restriction capability,
them', because it parses as        is arguable.
  (su'o) [lo sipna [noi melbi]]      A key point about Lojban
with the (implied) quantifier      grammar, especially where
unequivocally outside the scope of 'grouping' is concerned, is that
the relative.]                     the groupings produced by the
  The set of all sleepers is       parser go beyond what is needed to
selected by "lo sipna", and un-    resolve the grammar, and impose a
changed by the incidental          structure that is not necessarily
relative.                          there.  Thus the 'left-grouping'-
  A restrictive relative clause,   ness of relative modifiers is an
on the other hand, in general      artifact of LALR1 grammar that
delivers a different set from its  exists because you cannot have
argument. e.g.                     multiple relative clauses without
             lo sipna              some grouping - the grouping is
      [some of] all sleepers       not intended to have implication
        lo sipna poi melbi         for semantics.
 [some of] all those sleepers who    Here is where reasoning from "da
          are beautiful.           poi ..." comes into play.
Clearly each successive            Restrictive clauses have a deep
restrictive will deliver a further effect on "da"; they do not simply
altered set:                       say that in addition to fitting
  lo sipna poi melbi zi'e poi mi   into its existing bridi "da" must
 prami ke'a [some of] {{all those  also fit into another bridi;
sleepers who are beautiful} whom I instead, the meaning of "da" is
              love}                changed from "some object" to
and logically we have a left-      "some object chosen from the
associative structure in which the universe specified by the 'poi'".
relative-clauses is not an         This is shown by the fact that
independent constituent.           "da" thereafter has a meaning
  Thus far, I have established     incorporating the restriction:  it
that the grouping in the Lojban    is not local to the current sumti,
syntax is logically erroneous; but but is pervasive until another "da
this might not be very important.  poi" appears.
The next sections show how it does   By similar reasoning, "lo mi ci
matter.1                           sipna", which means "lo ci sipna
____________________               [ku] pe mi" exactly, and is
1Lojbab and John Cowan note:       roughly equivalent to "lo ci sipna
"zi'e" is a degenerate logical     [ku] poi [ke'a] srana mi", asserts
connective (reduced from a large   that "the number of sleepers is
set of connectives in Change 7,    three" within the domain "things
decribed above), a sumti with two  associated with me", as opposed to
relative clauses, restrictive or   "lo ci sipna" by itself, which
non-restrictive, or both, is       claims that "there are three
applying both relatives            sleepers within the general
simultaneously.  By the principles (unrestricted) domain".  (In ei-
of Lojban logical connectives,     ther case, the quantification
Colin's example must be            claim is incidental.)
interpreted as                       Once this domain restriction has
 lo sipna poi ge ke'a melbi gi mi  been done, the meaning of the
            prami ke'a             sumti can be evaluated.  At this

                                  63


__________________________________ 2.  Mixed relatives
time, the incidental clause can be   First, note that incidental
understood as applying to the      relatives certainly associate (in
sumti in its entirety, and making  fact, commute):
a subordinate bridi (possibly      lo sipna noi melbi zi'e noi vasxu
compound) which is incidentally    "sleepers, who are beautiful, and
asserted.  Note that this analysis            who breathe"
implies that "ke'a" means          does not depend on any grouping,
different things within            and is even the same (except maybe
restrictive and incidental         for some pragmatics) as
clauses:  in a restrictive clause, lo sipna noi vasxu zi'e noi melbi
it refers to the meaning the sumti "sleepers who breathe and who are
would have if no restriction were              beautiful"
in effect; in an incidental        Probably, the same is true for
clause, it refers to the sumti as- restrictives:
is with any restriction in effect.   lo sipna poi melbi zi'e poi mi
Therefore,                                     vasxu ke'a
     ro da poi mlatu cu mabru       "sleepers who are beautiful and
  all things which-are cats are-              who breathe"
             mammals               probably always delivers the same
has an utterly different meaning   set as
from                                lo sipna poi mi vasxu ke'a zi'e
     ro da noi mlatu cu mabru                  poi melbi.
all things (which incidentally are  "sleepers, who breathe, and who
        cats) are mammals                    are beautiful"
which says that "everything is a   (I am not convinced this is always
mammal", and what's more,          true).
"everything is a cat, too".             The first problems appear
  Colin rebuts:  Your explanation  when we mix the two.  Does
of the effect of "da poi" is very   lo sipna poi mi vasxu ke'a zi'e
clear, and more succinct than my               noi melbi
own.  We are in complete           mean the same as
agreement.  Further, your            lo sipna noi melbi zi'e poi me
discussion of "ke'a" exactly                  vasxu ke'a?
demonstrates my point:  that       As far as I know, the answer is
logically restrictive and          not currently defined in Lojban.
incidental clauses belong at         I believe that the first is (or
different places in the parse.     should be) saying "(incidentally)
  Lojbab:  It appears that Colin   that all the sleepers that I love
is arguing that because a word has are beautiful", whereas the second
different semantics in the two     says that "all sleepers are
different constructs, the two con- beautiful", even though it is then
structs must have a different      going on to talk about only "those
syntax.  There are numerous cases  whom I love".2
to the contrary in the language,   __________________________________
as for example the fact that "da"  no special grammar needing to be
has completely different semantics defined.
than most any other member of      2Lojbab:  The two are defined to
KOhA, while all members of KOhA    mean the same, though I'll agree
are considered syntactically       that it isn't written in any of
equivalent (indeed, this           our published materials.
consideration has led to useful      Order in Lojban does not
and serendipitous realizations, as necessarily imply succession.  The
for the use of prenex non-         obvious example being NA negation,
definite-sumti for topic           which does not affect quantifiers
construction, and the use of       in this left-to-right succession
prenex bu'a-series, which is       fashion in the way that English
especially anomolous in semantics, negation does.  Similarly, stated
for 2nd order predicate logic with order of sumti does not imply any
                                   particular importance.

                                  64


  Though this is a problem, I          ci lo cukta "three books"
don't think it is a big one,       is roughly equivalent to something
mainly because the only common     like
occasion for mixing the two has    lo cukta poi lu'i roke'a cu cimei
been with "goi":                   "books such that the set of all of
  le prenu goi ko'a zi'e poi mi           them is a threesome"
            viska ke'a             (I am not claiming that this is a
               vs.                 precise paraphrase, or a
 le prenu poi mi viska ke'a zi'e   transformation; my point is that,
             goi ko'a              like a restrictive clause, the
     "The people whom I saw,       quantifier performs a substantive
        (henceforward x1)"         selection operation on the set of
and even there, the technical      referents).
difference (whether x1 refers to     In fact, external quantifiers do
all people or just the one(s) I    not bind as tightly as restrictive
see) is often vitiated by the in-  clauses, so a phrase like
tensionality of "le" as opposed to       ci lo sipna poi melbi
"lo".                              means
  If this were all, we could        three of (those sleepers who are
probably get by with the existing             beautiful),
syntax, and adding one of two      and the current parse
interpretative rules to the (pu'o)    ci [[lo sipna] [poi melbi]]
semantics.  Either:                corresponds with this
  "Take the relative clauses in    interpretation.3
  order; each restrictive clause   ____________________
  selects some subset from the     3Lojbab:  As I said above, the
  current set of designated        parse within the sumti may be im-
  entities and makes that the      plying more structure than is
  current set; each incidental     semantically significant.  In a
  clause makes that subsidiary     restrictive relative clause it
  remark about the current set"    does not matter whether "lo sipna"
or, more simply:                   or "ci lo sipna" is restricted by
  "Take all the restrictive        "poi melbi"; you still get the
  clauses together and apply them  same result.  Thus it remains
  to get the final set; then       arguable.
  interpret each incidental clause   I think that the problem almost
  as commenting on that final set" goes away, by stating that you can
which is certainly simpler, though interpret all relative clauses to
very grubby.                       be 'outer'; then, if you want them
                                   to apply to an 'inner set' you do
                                   so by sticking another descriptor
3.  External quantifiers           outside:  "le <ci lo sipna poi
  Where the problem starts to      melbi> ku".  But you cannot do
become bigger is with quantifiers. this when you leave the
There are actually two             quantifiers implicit:  "*le [su'o]
semantically different occurrences lo [ro] sipna poi melbi ku".  This
of these, which I shall call       has convinced me there is a prob-
"external" and "internal".         lem to fix.
Internal quantifiers are within      Note that the classic Loglan
descriptions, considered below in  descriptor is "le", and not "lo".
section 4.  External quantifiers   Colin tacitly agrees that this
occur in rule                      intensional descriptor doesn't
sumti_D_95                         really suffer from these problems
    :  sumti_E_96                  (a "le" description means
    |  quantifier_300  sumti_E_96  precisely what I want it to mean).
(and also in indefinite sumti,     The only reason this issue
which I will come to below), and I surfaces at all is for "lo" with
suggest that they are semantically its default outside quantifier
similar to a restrictive clause.   that is "su'opa" and not "ro".
  That is to say,                  This was a change from old Loglan,

                                  65


  But if we then introduce           This does not give any problem
incidental relatives, the current  with explicit incidental clauses:
syntax does not give the right       lo mo'a temci noi sutra simlu
answer.                             the too-few time intervals (that
  Thus:                                        seem fast)
      ci lo sipna noi melbi        but the interaction with explicit
currently parses as                restrictives is wrong:
     ci [lo sipna noi melbi]         lo ci sipna poi mi nelci ke'a
 three out of [all sleepers, who   is at present unequivocally
 incidentally are all beautiful]   [lo ci sipna] [poi mi nelci ke'a]
but I believe that almost all       those among [the three sleepers]
seljbo would interpret it as                  whom I like
   [ci [lo sipna]] [noi melbi]     whereas what it should mean is
 [three out of all sleepers], who   lo ci [sipna poi mi nelci ke'a]
          are beautiful.           i.e. the sleepers that I like, of
Similarly with quantifiers and       whom there are in fact three.5
both types of relative:              So as with external quantifiers,
 ci lo sipna goi ko'a zi'e poi mi  incidental relatives belong
            nelci ke'a             outside, but restrictive ones
The current syntax makes this      belong inside.
ci [lo sipna [goi ko'a zi'e poi mi 
           nelci ke'a]]            
i.e. ko'a is either "all           5.  Indefinite sumti
sleepers", or "all the sleepers I  (pe'i these are an annoying
like", but in no way just three of mistake, complicating the syntax
them.                              just so that we can omit a word
  In summary, incidental relatives here there and thereby muddy the
belong outside the external        logical structure.  However, we
quantifier, but restrictive ones   have them and we can cope.)6
belong inside.
                                   ____________________
                                   5Lojbab:  This grouping is bogus,
4.  Internal quantifiers           since a restriction cannot apply
  When we look inside a            until after there is a description
description we get a different     - a sumti - whereas you have
kind of quantifier, with different marked it to apply to a selbri.
properties:                        The "ke'a" can stand for nothing
           le ci sipna             until you have identified that a
        the three sleepers         single place of sipna is being
It seems to me that this is        used as the description, and this
semantically an incidental rather  takes the descriptor.
than a restrictive construction.4    I will accept
  As I understand it                  lo [<ci sipna> <poi mi nelci
           lo vo prenu                           ke'a>]
makes the subsidiary claim that    as being what you meant, in which
there are only four persons, which case the inner quantifier plus
is an incidental claim to the      description in effect makes an
description, and not a re-         indefinite that can be restricted.
striction.                         6Lojbab:  JCB spent 25 years
__________________________________ waxing wishy-washy on indefinite
which set the default of the       constructions, agreeing to
equivalent to "lo" (lea) at the    eliminate them because they caused
equivalent of "ro", making it only problems in the grammar, but
useful for universal claims.       finally deciding that they were
Nora's first reaction to this      too natural for him and other
whole problem was thus - if you    Loglanists who actually used the
have problems, just use "le".      language.  So he said "make the
4Lojbab:  Incidental in the case   grammar fit it", and they did, and
of "lo", identifying in the case   it remains so.  This is of course
of "le".                           what used to be called the "se

                                  66


  Transformationally, as I               lo mi cukta noi xunre
understand it                       = lo cukta pe mi zi'e noi xunre
      <quantifier> <selbri>        restricts the set to "books which
          e.g. ze prenu            are mine", and comments that they
is exactly equivalent to           (my books) "are-red".
     <quantifier> lo <selbri>        But it does not work at all with
           ze lo prenu             internal quantifiers.
and we have precisely the same               lomi ci cukta
difficulties as with any other     which is always used to mean
external quantifier, except that         'my three books', i.e.
the <quantifier> and the optional   'all books, restricted to those
<relative clauses> are introduced   belong to me, there are three of
at the same point in the syntax                  these'
(indefinite_sumti_94), so for           (= lo ci [cukta pe mi])
example                            is actually defined to be
        ze prenu poi gleki          lo mi [ci cukta] = [lo ci cukta]
parses as                                        pe mi
      [ze prenu [poi gleki]]         'my books, out of the three' ,
with three constituents, and not                  i.e.
explicitly as                        'all books (there are three),
     [ze [prenu [poi gleki]]]       restricted to those which belong
in the way                                      to me'7
      ze lo prenu poi gleki        while,
does. i.e. the syntax is equivocal          *lo ci mi cukta
here.                              which has some hope of meaning
                                   what we want, is not even valid!8
                                   ____________________
6.  Preposed possessives           7Lojbab:  Fallacious.  The "lo"
  The other anomaly in the current and the "mi" cannot be semanti-
grammar is the preposed possessive cally separated from the "ci" by
(the optional sumti_E_96 in        an artifactual bracket.
sumti_tail_113):                   Especially since you have
           le mi cukta             identified the "ci" as also being
This is precisely equivalent to    equivalent to a relative clause,
          le cukta pe mi           you should make all transforms of
  This does not interact           a type at once if you wish
problematically with relative      consistency:
clauses, of either type:           "lo mi ci cukta" = "lo cukta pe mi
      lo mi cukta poi xunre                  zi'e noi cimei
 = lo cukta pe mi zi'e poi xunre   8Lojbab:  If it were valid, the
restricts the set of books to      "ci" would quantify "mi", which is
those which are both mine and red. why it is forbidden.  There is no
                                   way to make the grammar work with
                                   quantifier before the pseudo-
                                   possessive, unless we choose to
                                   eliminate the established [LE +
                                   quantifier + sumti] construct
                                   which has existed historically in
                                   the language and is more impor-
                                   tant.
                                     "lo mi ci cukta" is defined to
__________________________________ transforms into "[lo ci cukta] pe
sorme" ("seven sisters" in older   mi".  It cannot transform as Colin
versions of Loglan) question.      wishes.  Since relativization is
  "lo" inherently muddies the      inherently a function of a sumti
logical waters, and logical        and not a bridi (or a selbri), "lo
purists would prefer either that   ci [cukta pe mi]" makes no sense,
you use "da poi" or "le", and skip since "cukta pe mi" makes no
"lo".  Indefinite sumti are no     sense, is not grammatical, and
muddier than the rest of "lo".     shouldn't be.  The structure of a

                                  67


__________________________________   (It is true that these forms
sumti does not group that way.  In with 'lo' are relatively unusual,
this sense, the E-BNF grammar      and it is more common to use 'le',
makes more sense than the YACC     which once again gets round the
grammar.  The essentials are the   logical problems by pragmatics;
"lo" and the "cukta" in the        but I think the problems are there
description - the quantifiers,     nonetheless.)
pseudo-posessives, and relative    
clauses are all optional.  But     
they are all at the same level,    7.  Summary of the problems
not grouped more tightly just        There are two basic problems,
because there are brackets         one of them in two parts.
present; the brackets are an       1a.  restrictive relatives belong
artifact of the way it is easiest  inside external quantifiers,
to write YACC grammars and should  incidental relatives belong
NOT be assumed to have semantic    outside.
import.                            1b.  restrictive relatives belong
  "pe mi" must be a restriction on inside internal quantifiers,
"lo cukta", and the only con-      incidental relatives belong
sideration is the relevance of the outside.9
inside quantifier "ci" (and any    __________________________________
outside quantifiers too perhaps).  which loses the semantics of
My initial guess is that the       selection implicit in the outer
inside quantifier might indeed     quantifier, but perhaps answers
transform to another relative      Colin's objection on other
clause, which is incidental:       grounds.  I think that this would
           lo ci cukta             reflect the semantic expansion of
       = lo cukta noi cimei        "lo" better than the current
        lo ci cukta pe mi          grammar, but lose the selection
 = lo cukta pe mi zi'e noi cimei   implication.  (I couldn't make a
 or lo cukta noi cimei zi'e pe mi  YACC grammar work with this
  In any case, I think it is       approach to sumti descriptions, so
historically clear that the        it is a non-solution).
outside quantifier on "lo" exists  9Lojbab:  I would instead label
as a selection from the well-      the problem as being that the
defined sumti that exists without  grammar is vague as to whether
the quantifier present:  "ci lo    relative clauses apply to inside
cukta pe mi" is "ci [lo cukta pe   sets or outside sets, and that
mi]; however the bracketed text is this is probably logically
parsed internally - it selects 3   unacceptable.
out of that inner-sumti.             Given that the grammar needs to
  Since this answer is different   be changed to permit inside and
for restrictive and non-           outside sets to have distinctive
restrictive clauses (which         relative clauses, I present the
traditionally have been            following example, using Colin's
interpreted to apply to the set    syntax, where both types
after the quantifier is attached)  (restrictive and incidental) are
convinces me that Colin is right.  used constructively both inside
  Where there is some grounds for  and outside.  A bit contrived but
argument is that the quantifiers   plausible.
on a descriptor should be bound      mi cuxna ci lo xa cukta poi mi
into the descriptor since the      nelrai zi'e goi ko'a ku poi cfika
descriptor expands to some default   zi'e ne semau leko'a ci drata
quantifier if they aren't present.  I choose (the) 3 of the 6 books
I'm not sure what I think of         that I most-like (the 6 being
    ci lo mi vo cukta pe broda       ko'a) which are fiction [over]
parsing as                           their (the 6's) three others.
 <([ci] lo [mi] [vo]) cukta [KU])    I'm sure it is clear that
         pe broda [GEhU]>          restrictive clauses can apply to
                                   either set; the point of the above

                                  68


                                      At the end of the relative
2.  preposed possessives belong      clauses, if there is an internal
inside internal quantifiers.10       quantifier stored, use it to
                                     select an appropriate number
                                     from the set.  Then carry the
8.  Suggestions for problem 1        set forward.
  There are a number of              Possible, but hideous, and not
possibilities I can think of.      worthy of something described as a
a) Nothing.                        logical language.  (And preposed
  Thus far, we have found this     possessives will give a further
  area to be workable.  However,   complication).
  wait until you try to teach the  b) The minimal change I can see is
  semantics to a computer.  This   to require all restrictives to
  will require rules something     precede all incidentals, and
  like the following:              modify the grammar as follows to
  Quantified sumti:  Store the     reinterpret almost what we have
  quantifier, then go ahead and    ...  [detailed proposal omitted,
  interpret the sumti including    since it was rejected]
  any relative clauses.  Then        I believe this will produce just
  select the specified number from   the same surface strings as we
  the set of denoted items.  If      have at present, except that all
  there are any incidental clauses   incidentals will have to follow
  stored, now apply them.            all restrictives.11
  Internal quantifier:  Store the     The parse will however be
  quantifier, and go ahead and       different:  the incidentals will
  interpret the selbri, and carry    lie outside the "sumti_D", while
  the set of denoted items           the restrictives will lie within
  forward.                           the scope of the external
  Relative clauses:  Interpret     ____________________
  each clause in turn.  If it is a 11Lojbab:  I do not see that you
  restrictive, select              have made any case for requiring
  appropriately from the current   any particular ordering of
  set of denoted items.  If it is  relative clauses, since ZIhEks
  an incidental, remember it.      imply no ordering that can be
                                   interpreted as erroneous.  I've
__________________________________ also devised examples wherein both
example is that, at least for      restrictive and non-restrictive
"goi" assignment, non-restrictive  clauses could be applied to either
clauses can be used on the inside  inner or outer sets.  Restricting
set.  That pragmatics can lead to  what can be said in order to the
either interpretation of either    more common usages seems too ex-
type of relative that makes me see treme a solution.
this as a true problem worthy of     The ordering is also not
the degree of change needed even   pragmatically acceptable because
at this late date.  Otherwise the  people want the incidental "goi
late date would cause me to        ko'a" (which might be intended to
consider this merely a semantic    apply to either inside or outside
interpretation problem, rather     quantified sets) to be as close as
than an ambiguity problem; logical possible to the description that
ambiguities must be fixed in a     it marks.  A restrictive relative
logical language, while semantic   clause can be quite lengthy, and
questions can be left for          if it also has complications and
pragmatic usage to decide.         relative clauses within it, the
10Lojbab:  I don't agree, since I  incidental information becomes
consider quantifiers and posses-   worthless.  Thus
sives to be at the same level -      le ci broda poi brode da de di
they both relate to the inside               ku'o goi ko'a
set, and there is only one such    is dispreferred, in favor of
inside set that has meaning for a  le ci broda goi ko'a poi brode da
simple description.                           de di [ku'o]

                                  69


  quantifier, and (in the case of  d) I considered a solution with
  a description without KU) within arbitrarily nested scopes, each of
  the scope of the internal        which was limited by a quantifier
  quantifier.  (Note that selma'o  and/or restrictives, and each of
  NOI and GOI have to be split,    which could have an incidental
  and that ZIhE performs some very attached to it, thus:
  strange functions).                *[so'oboi
                                      { <  [so'i
  The only thing in favour of this          { <lo tarci
suggestion is that it does the              > poi se viska tu'a le
minimum damage to existing texts.    terdi ku'o
It complicates the syntax                  } noi melbi ku'o
remarkably and - in the name of          ]
compatibility - confusingly.            > poi mi di'i catlu ke'a ku'o
c) My preference is to introduce      } no'u la ze mensi
three specific locations for         ]
relatives, thus                    but this requires a much more
so'a lo panono cukta poi mi nelci  complicated grammar, and I think
ku poi dopa'a nelci ku'o noi cfika it can be managed by structures
would parse as                     already existing at a higher level
 {[so'a {<lo panono {cukta poi mi  (KE or LUhI).  At any rate, I did
   nelci} ku> poi dopa'a nelci     not investigate its syntax
       ku'o]}] [noi cfika]}        carefully.
   [almost all of those of <the      I think (c) is the best
 hundred {books I like}> that you  solution.  It does not do a lot of
also like] which incidentally are  injury to existing texts:  as long
            fiction...             as they don't mix restrictive and
                                   incidental clauses, they will
... [Colin's detailed proposal     still parse; if they do, the two
eliminated]12                      sets need to be sorted out, and
____________________               the first (restrictive) set ended
12Lojbab:  I do not see the        by a KUhO/GEhU (or by a KU if
essential difference between the   there is a description).  And the
1st and 2nd of the three relative  scoping will make sense.
clause positions in your example,    Note that something like
and believe that the image of           le ci cukta poi mi nelci
their difference is due to the     will parse as
fallacious "*cukta poi mi nelci"     le [ci [cukta [poi mi nelci]]]
which is ungrammatical and         but you can force the restriction
meaningless.  You want "[books     outside by
(that I like AND that you also     [le [ci cukta ku] [poi mi nelci]]
like)] of which there are 100",    which I claim is selecting "those
with the incidental clause         I like" from among "the three
applying to the outer set.         books".13
  However, even reducing this to 2 __________________________________
clause positions, one inside the   tally that "you also like them",
KU and one outside, would at first before noting that "most of them
glance mean that the KU is no      are fiction".  Or perhaps you want
longer elidable when you wish to   to restrict the set to "most of
put an outside relative clause.    them that are fiction",
This may be ameliorated by your    associating with the outside
distinction between incidentals    quantifier.
and restrictives, but I think that 13Lojbab:  Since restrictive
distinction is pragmatic - what is clauses are often outside, this
most often wanted - not what is    has the effect of requiring the KU
plausible in language use.  For    terminator much more often than it
example, in your just previous     has been.  We've worked quite hard
example, what if you wanted to     to make Lojban not be a "ku-ku"
merely restrict the "100 books" to language, as older versions of
"those I like", but note inciden-  Loglan tend to be when expressed

                                  70


                                   consistently with any changes to
                                   solve problem 1.15
9.  Suggestions for problem 2      
                                   
[Omitted - there was no consensus  Commentary from:  Iain Alexander
that Colin's #2 was a problem.]    
                                     First of all, let me point out
                                   that the latest Diagrammed Grammar
10.  Conclusion                    Summary appears to support one of
                                   your proposals.  At the bottom of
I have presented at length some    page 19, it describes a
logical problems in our current    "description sumti" as
sumti grammar, and made some          [number] le [number] [sumti]
suggestions:                              [modal] selbri [ku]
1.  Withdraw the                   which is your solution (c) to
"<quantifier><quantifier><selbri>" problem 2.16
form of indefinite sumti14           In general, however:  there is
2.  Distinguish restrictive from   no rule that says that the
incidental clauses, and define     deep(er) structure of a language
three distinct places where they   (natural, artificial, computer,
may occur:  incidental ones only   whatever) has to correspond to the
outside quantified arguments,      surface structure.  (This is
restrictive ones both inside       obvious, isn't it.)
external quantifiers, and inside     On the other hand, it is kind of
internal quantifiers in            nice if it does, particularly if
descriptions.                      it's easy.  This is particularly
3.  Reverse the order of the       true when you've got people like
internal quantifier and the pre-   myself who have access to the
posed possessive in descriptions.  grammar definition, which gives
The three suggestions are all      the syntax, but tells you
independent of one another.        essentially nothing about the
  I have not looked at vocatives:  semantics of any given
since they do not include          construction.17
quantifiers, they do not really    ____________________
have a problem, though for         15Lojbab:  Almost.  Vocatives can
consistency they should be changed have quantifiers, but only in the
                                   context of the sumti_90 internal
__________________________________ grammar, and hence are taken care
at the natural level of sentence   of by whatever we do for the
complexity that we have found      latter.  However, the solution
typical of Lojban usage.  [Note:   proposed requires some changes to
the proposal actually adopted does the vocative grammar, though
have this characteristic of        consistent with the other changes
requiring more KU terminators.     being made.
14Colin's argument on this was     16Lojbab:  This is a typo.
deleted from the article text,     Correct is
since it really is a separate         [number] le [sumti] [number]
issue.  This construct is an              [modal] selbri [ku]
artifact of the older versions of  This basic structure becomes
the grammar - something that was   incomplete because it doesn't in-
permitted, ended up being used     clude the preposed relative
rarely (mostly by people here in   clause.  However at the point in
DC), and therefore preserved.      the Grammar Summary in which it is
Since there was little             presented, relative clauses have
justification for its existence    not yet been covered.  At some
and it was difficult to preserve   point this will need to be cor-
under the changes proposed to      rected.
resolve the other problems Colin   17Lojbab:  JCB had a strong policy
identified, it is passing from the on the machine grammar matching
language without much fuss.        the 'human grammar' as closely as

                                  71


  Some of it we intuit from the    
corresponding English language     Commentary from:  Veijo Vilva
construction - we are after all    
still a predominantly English-       My initial reaction to Colin's
language group - but this is in    paper was to agree with him but
itself dangerous.  Many of the     Iain's cautionary note about
discussions I've seen or been      Anglocentrism sent me thinking (as
involved in recently (and some     the only non-Indo-European in this
I've never started, because I saw  group).
what was going on in time) have      I thought of Colin's example
been a result of confusing an      sentences and their close
English gloss for a Lojban         relatives in view of the current
definition - mainly of gismu       Finnish pragmatics and after a
rather than grammar rules, but     __________________________________
then there are more of the former. provided at this point than what
  There's a lot of stuff in the    will be in the final set of papers
language which needs careful       being written by John after the
definition, which is a lot of      spirit of Imaginary Journeys [the
work, and it's not even obvious    JL16 tense supplement.
how you can best present some of     Colin responds:  Iain and Bob
it.                                rightly point out that it is not
  In any case, I think I'm saying  essential that the deep
that although your concerns are    structure/semantic parse follow
theoretically unimportant, in      the surface structure; but it is
practical terms they are extremely highly desirable.  I also believe
reasonable, and I am in favour of  that getting this sort of
any such rationalisation which     disparity straightened out is a
makes it easier to get to grips    valuable step in the process of
with the grammar - I would need to understanding what we mean and
read it all through again before   what we are skating over in
committing myself to any of your   learning and talking Lojban - for
particular solutions.  But this is me probably the foremost attrac-
coupled with a warning that much   tion of the language.
of the grammar, possibly even        Lojbab:  Agreed, and most of the
including this part after your     little changes that have been
improvements, needs semantic       accepted by John Cowan and me
clarification, and we as a group   since the last baseline have been
need to find some way of handling  little cleanups that arose from
this.18                            the writing of his papers like
__________________________________ Imaginary Journeys, which exercise
possible, to the point of starting I see as essentially dealing with
fights about it and putting in     this step in defining the
kludges in the grammar to make it  language.  The main question,
work rather than accepting even    apparently now resolved in favor
small changes in what he saw as    of change, is whether the degree
the human grammar.  This is        of change necessary is warranted
similar, if not identical to 'deep by the level of confusion
structure' matching 'surface       possible.  This is by far the
structure', and our policy has     biggest change in the grammar
been to preserve this as much as   since the MEX change before the
possible.                          first baseline, which affected a
18Lojbab:  Such clarification is   then-unused part of the grammar,
desirable where possible - there   or the even earlier negation-paper
is little likelihood of            and abstraction clause lenu[ke]
overdefining the language, but it  changes while the first Lojban
shouldn't be necessary.  Lojban is class was being taught, which did
already by far the most thoroughly affect usage.  It thus takes
defined language there is.  I      enormous justification at this
don't expect that there will need  late stage for a change of such
to be that much more depth         magnitude.

                                  72


while I wasn't too happy anymore.  a relatively early stage in their
The original parses also seemed    development as Lojbanists and may
quite necessary and changing the   contain usages which necessarily
parsing would have necessitated    haven't been so thoroughly ana-
the introduction of new alternate  lyzed at the time of writing but
ways of similar simplicity to      may have been 'instinctive'
express the original 'grammatical' choices reflecting more the
meaning.                           linguistic background of the
... [much of Veijo's commentary is writer than the grammar of Lojban.
deleted as it supports options     When I spoke of translating above
that were rejected.  Among these   I didn't mean that to be taken
was further elaboration of the     quite literally.  What I mean is
concept that "zi'e"-joined         that when we are dealing with a
relative clauses were nested,      completely different language like
which was an erroneous assumption  Lojban we mustn't always expect to
on the part of both Colin and      see things expressed in an
Veijo.  The apparent demand for    'instinctive' way.  We have a
nested relative clauses led to     grammar which defines the
change proposal 21, but support    framework within which we are
for nested clauses did not         trying to express ideas and before
persist, and change 21 was         we modify it I think we must see
annulled.]                         whether it is possible to express
  In general I find that properly  the ideas we might want to express
combining le/lo, internal/external - even in an 'alien' way.  After
quantifiers and                    that we must make a choice:  do we
restrictive/incidental relatives   accept the 'alien' way or do we
gives about all the semantic       modify the grammar.  I think that
variants I might want.  It may     at this stage we still have the
take some juggling at the natural  option of specifying the way
language level to get just the     various things are expressed.
wording you are accustomed with -  
but often finding the proper       4.  Internal quantifiers
wording to express just the shade  On this issue, I would use the
of meaning you are after in a      following structure allowed by the
natural language expression in     present grammar:
general may be more difficult and  le ci [le sipna poi mi nelci ke'a]
even beyond the capabilities of    The three of [the sleepers that I
most people.                                     like].
  I think we ought to get away     i.e. the sleepers that I like, of
from translating and to start        whom there are in fact three.
taking Lojban as is.  It has it's       (Produced from:  "LE_562
own ways of expressing ideas and   [quantifier_300 sumti_90] gap_450)
it is very important to avoid              [sumti_tail_113]"
imposing an alien strait jacket    The meaning is quite obvious - in
upon it.                           fact it matches exactly the first
  My approach was based firstly on English gloss.
the fact that I am, as a newcomer,   This produces a kind of
still struggling to express ideas  intermediate quantification - it
and to understand ideas expressed  is internal in the total structure
and secondly, after all, this      but external to the restrictive
interplay of expression and        relative clause.  The only blemish
understanding is what a language   I can see is that it is occa-
is all about.                      sionally necessary to use a double
  Lojban is an emerging language   KU terminator.
which still is in a state of flux    Colin's example for solution
in many respects.  We have a       (c):
relatively limited corpus of       *so'a lo panono cukta poi mi nelci
existing text which is at least    ku poi dopa'a nelci ku'o noi cfika
partly outdated.  Some of this     would become:
text has been created by people at

                                  73


  so'a lo panono le cukta poi mi   6.  Preposed possessives
nelci ku poi dopa'a nelci ku'o noi 
              cfika                  By the way, the last production
Neither is a candidate for casual  in the present definition allows
conversation but I prefer the      constructs like:
latter one (conforming with the         le paboi ciboi ze cukta
present syntax).                   so the indefinite sumti cause
  And the ones in the discussion:  trouble also here.  Perhaps we
Colin's proposal      present      ought to prune them off totally as
                      grammar      the easiest solution?20
le ci cukta poi mi nelci =>   le   
                      ci le cukta  Response from John Cowan:
                      [ku] poi mi  
                      nelci          I believe that Colin's main
le ci cukta ku poi mi nelci   =>   error lies in ignoring the uses of
                      le ci cukta  relative clauses with non-
                      [ku] poi mi  description sumti.  If anything,
                      nelci        the use of relative clauses with
To me the present way is in this   da-series variables is even more
case more obvious.19               important.  Colin's proposal to
                                   separate incidental and
                                   restrictive clauses, and to place
                                   the latter within the scope of
                                   "le...ku", does nothing for "da
                                   poi" constructions.
                                   
                                       Colin rebuts:  It is true that
                                     I did not specifically discuss
                                     relative clauses with non-
                                     descriptive sumti; however I did
                                     not ignore them:
                                       My contention is that as a
                                     matter of current fact we inter-
                                     pret relative clauses with non-
                                     descriptions as (necessarily)
                                     outside the sumti (but inside
                                   ____________________
                                   20Lojbab:  It may be an easy
                                   solution but not an acceptable
                                   one, since it removes a
____________________               significant expressive form of the
19Lojbab:  Veijo's approach was    language, and indeed one of
also Nora's initially-proposed re- historical import with a clear JCB
sponse.  A limitation is that it   pronouncement.  In this time of
doesn't allow you to leave the     baselined grammars, that is three
outer quantifier unspecified, if   strikes against a deletion
it is default.  However, it does   supported primarily by the
seem clear that, if we left the    argument that the grammar
language unchanged, it is still    generates messy, probably useless,
possible using this construct, if  strings.  As long as the strings
not always convenient, to express  are not syntactically ambiguous,
anything you need to in the        we can tolerate them, though logi-
language.                          cal ambiguity also warrants
  However, it seems silly to       consideration, as indicated by our
require the extra "le" and the ex- current discussion.  But no one
plicit quantifier to force a       has clearly claimed indefinites
relative clause inside; also, the  are themselves logically
current grammar does suggest to    ambiguous, only that they make
some like Colin that the default   certain aspects of the grammar
clause is already inside.          messy.

                                  74


  the (external) quantifier),          All existing strings that do
  whereas we interpret relative      not involve incidentals will
  clauses with descriptions as in-   remain valid, but they will
  side the sumti and the internal    parse differently according as
  quantifier.  (I am ignoring in-    there is a description or not.
  cidentals here, which are cur-     As an extra, it will be possible
  rently a problem, as I ex-         to place the restrictive string
  plained).                          outside the description explic-
    Thus                             itly (and therefore outside the
         ci da poi sipna             internal quantifier) by using
  means                              "KU".23
        ci [da poi sipna]          
 three (out of) (those x who are     [Cowan continues:] I also
            sleepers)              believe that the notion of
  but                              "restrictive relative clause" is
      lo ci prenu poi sipna        far more semantically deep than
  means                            can be reasonably addressed by
    lo [ci [prenu poi sipna]]      mere syntactic manipulations,
 some ((persons who are sleepers)  requiring its own semantic
 (incidentally there are three))   processing module.
  but our existing parse matches     First, it seems clear (and Colin
  in the first case, but not the   implicitly recognizes) that all
  second.  My suggestion 1(c) is   talk of relative clauses and
  to change the syntax so that     phrases can be reduced to "noi"
  these two currently valid sumti  and "poi" only.  The alternatives
  will still both be valid, but    are "voi" clauses (which Colin
  will parse reflecting the        ignores) and relative phrases with
  semantics I have given.21        "ne", "pe", '"ne" + BAI', '"pe" +
    Thus my proposal is not 'to    BAI', "po", "po'e", "no'u", and
  separate incidental and re-      "po'u".  All of these may be
  strictive clauses, and to place  reduced as follows:
  the latter within the scope of     voi -> poi mi skicu fo da poi
  "le ... ku"'.  It is to separate   ne -> noi srana
  incidental and restrictive         pe -> poi srana
  clauses, and to define two         ne + BAI -> poi BRIVLA [where
  different places of attachment       BRIVLA is the source of BAI]
  for the latter:  one within        pe + BAI -> noi BRIVLA [ditto]
  descriptions and the other out-    po -> poi steci
  side the sumti-4.22                po'e -> poi se ponse [with
____________________                   additional connotation of in-
21Lojbab:  Current interpretation      alienability]
is [ci da] [poi sipna] - the sumti   no'u -> noi du
has an implicit claim that there     po'u -> poi du
are exactly ci who are sleepers.   These transformations are not
Except that in a second usage      necessarily claimed to be exact or
after such a definition but within to work in all cases, but they
its scope, say "re da poi prenu",  indicate the basic mechanism
the implication is [re le <ci da   involved.
(still poi sipna)>] [poi prenu].     I suspect, that the current
22Lojbab:  The second half of this attachment point of "relative-
and is what this restatement       clauses" is too far down in the
caused me to recognize was the     sumti hierarchy:  the fact that it
fundamental problem.  Hence this   appears twice is ipso facto
clarification was well-timed,      suspicious.  I will make an at-
Colin.  The latter, though         __________________________________
actually more problematical for    incidental and restrictive
the rare incidental that can go in clauses.
either scope, was convincing to    23Lojbab:  But since this is often
me.  I remain unconvinced of the   the desired expression, it makes
need to grammatically distinguish  KU less elidable.

                                  75


tempt to do the necessary YACCing      ... Further, while I would be
to determine if the connection       keen to have a transformational
point can be moved up closer to,     description of the language, I
or within, "sumti-3<93>".            would vastly prefer one limited
External quantifiers should be       to transformations within the
processed either before or on the    syntactic structure, not just of
same level as relative clauses.24    surface strings; i.e. that did
                                     not allow shifts into or out of
    [Colin rebuts]:  Obviously, I    constituents, as this would
  don't agree that "relative-        require.
  clauses" is too far down in the  
  hierarchy - it is both too far   
  down and not low enough.                 Lojbab's solution
  Incidentally, the fact that it   
  appears twice is purely a          The relative clause change I
  requirement of mabla indefinite  proposed in response to Colin's
  descriptions.25                  paper and ensuing discussion will
____________________               be found as Changes 20 and 21 in
24Lojbab:  Moving relative clauses the proposed baseline changes.
up to a higher level affects the   (Change 21 was annulled, and is
rules for interaction with "la'e". not included in the list above,
Both "la'e" and relative clauses   but may be found below, along with
are things we'd like to move up,   parts of Change 20 that were
but which can cause problems be-   deleted as a result of
cause of being open-ended.         discussion.)
  That is "la'e lo prenu poi         A change of this magnitude is
nanmu" is ambiguous without a      very controversial.  Cowan and I
terminator for the "la'e"          were originally opposed to any
construct, unless "la'e" grabs     change, primarily on the basis
constructs above the rule for      that the language design is too
relative clause attachment but is  firmly baselined to permit such a
itself also above that rule.  It   degree of fiddling as was neces-
is possible that grammar           sary, and the possible unforeseen
flexibility could be increased     side effects of this change are
with an elidable terminator for    enormous.  We were for the most
"la'e".  ... [such a terminator    part unconvinced until a late
was indeed added as part of the    __________________________________
solution].                         the indefinite rule, you will
25Lojbab:  The reason for repeated probably see that the relative
occurance of relative clauses in   clause rule appears just once in
the rules is indeed the perversity each fork, at about the same
of indefinites, which interact     level.  Only by moving the
badly with virtually everything.   indefinite fork further down
They are a blotch on the grammar,  (which restricts what you can
and this has been recognized for   indefinitize), can you eliminate
ages.  JCB even agreed to remove   the problem of which rule goes
them for years because of this,    highest.
but they kept creeping back into     In the adopted solution, we did
his and others' usages, and he     so, by putting an elidable ter-
finally said that they were obvi-  minator on LAhE and NAhE-BO
ously intuitively a part of the    constructs, the LUhU of grouped
grammar, hence the grammar must be sumti, and putting them all in the
made to fit them, regardless of    same grammar rule.  Thus, except
how ugly it was.  But in order to  its use in MEX (modified to be
put them at a proper place, they   consistent with the sumti grammar
in effect need a parallel set of   usage), in effect LAhE is the same
rule structures from the standard  selma'o as LUhI and the lexer-
sumti structures.  Thus, if you    constructed selma'o NAhE_BO,
look at the baseline grammar sumti though its actual usage is very
rules as a forked tree just above  distinctive.

                                  76


stage that the logical problem     serious consideration of this
Colin was talking about was indeed proposal stopped his work on the
serious enough to warrant the type sumti paper, and its adoption
of change we believed was needed   forced a totally redesign of that
to solve it, one that might render paper, not to mention changes to a
much existing Lojban texts         lot of documentation already com-
incorrect.                         pleted.  Similar changes in the
  An earlier major proposal like   future pose equally drastic
this had Colin and a few others    threats to already completed and
basically arguing that if the      in progress documentation efforts.
language has an irregularity, it   If the language isn't documented;
is still permissible to change it  no one can learn it.
because not all that many have       A proposal of this magnitude
learned the language to a point    serious affects on-going learning
where it would hurt them to        and teaching efforts.  At the time
relearn.  In that case, Nick sided of this proposal, it affected the
against the proposal.  Nora did    then ongoing DC class - I had to
also, seeing herself as guardian   decide which version of relative
of language stability, since she   clauses to teach within a week,
knows how many people were driven  since relative clauses was indeed
off by similar attempts to stick   the topic of the week.
one more necessary improvement       These comments are thus set
after another in old Loglan in the forth as a warning - that while we
1970s and early 1980s.  The cost   want to make the language right
of continued change is not only    and it is worthwhile finding such
relearning, but a reluctance of    problems, proposals alike this are
new people to try to learn a lan-  stressful to the project, the
guage that they might have to      design team that is trying to fin-
relearn.                           ish the project, the language and
  On the other side of the fence   the community, and thus are decid-
is someone like John Hodges, who,  edly unwelcome.  This doesn't mean
while opposed to unnecessarily     that questions should not be
fiddling with the language in      raised - I hope people will do so,
general, sees that Lojban's main   but the expectation must be that
hope as a language in the future   most such problems as are
depends on its logical integrity,  identified from here on out will
and flaws in that integrity must   be merely documented as problems,
be resolved even if it costs sig-  with no change to the language.
nificant relearning for those of     [Colin and others reassured me
us already studying the language.  immediately in response to the
(A limitation on this position is  above that there were no other
that, for most of the logical      pending major issues, and indeed,
issues that have faced Lojban in   none have been raised in the 10
the last few years, formal logic   months since this discussion].
gives no clear and single answer.    Colin's last rebuttal on the
Different schools of thought on    issue finally convinced both me
logic solve the problems           and Nora that the problem required
differently.  Thus, Lojban         fixing.  Cowan remained less than
research has had to forge its own  convinced that a change of this
school of logical thought based on magnitude at this late date was
what is necessary to make the lan- tolerable even if the problem is
guage self-consistent.)            real, but went along with the
  John Cowan, who has frequently   consensus.  Nora's priority in
proposed minor changes in the last this issue is to minimize the
three years, almost all of which   effect on existing text and
were adopted, has come to          documentation and this led to a
understand the third aspect of the complication in the proposal.  All
problem:  if the language is ever  three of us were fairly certain
to be documented, it must stop     that Colin's solution, which is to
changing.  The mere existence and  separate the grammars of

                                  77


restrictive and incidental         "le <quantifier> lo
clauses, is not the right          <description>", a plausible but
solution, and also results in too  arguable proposition.  Cowan
much complication to grammar,      talked me out of this to minimize
documentation, and teaching.       change - it would require a "ku"
  My solution instead attempted to after relative clauses for all
see the problem as a restriction   indefinites (in addition to the
in what can be said in the         relative clause terminator),
language, specifically in where a  though real speakers don't need it
relative clause may/must be        because indefinites have no
attached.  Indeed, my solution is  explicit 'inside' set to be modi-
mostly an unexpected side benefit  fied).  The grammatical rule
of trying to add preposed inside   stayed in without mentioning
relative clauses as a way around   indefinites, because by then the
the oft-occurring problem of the   change was evolving to the current
invalid sumti form "*<le [ci mi]   proposal.  The remnant of this
broda ku>" that mucked up my       side exercise became option 3
attempts to understand what Colin  under the change, and was the
was arguing during the above       assumed default in the discussion.
discussion (that text parses as a    Upon seeing Colin's writings, my
complete sentence: "<le ci mi>     first inclination was to say that
[cu] broda" and the "ku" is        inside clauses could be solved
therefore invalid).                under this plan in a way that
  My solution to that problem was  Veijo proposed:  "le ci le
to allow the preposed relative "le <description> ku poi broda ku",
pe ci mi broda ku".                and indeed it is a tribute to
  In proposing this to John Cowan, Veijo that this almost works.
I did not realize that the real    However, when there is no explicit
argument was centering on the      outside quantifier, a problem that
distinction between inside and     only manifests with "lo" and
outside quantified sets, since I   family, since "le" has a "ro"
had not yet read Colin's paper.    outside quantifier as default.
Cowan had put the issue to me in   For
terms of an attempt to attach             lo sipna noi melbi"
relative clauses to explicitly     I raised the following question
include the outside quantifier     with Nora:  "Since the default
without mentioning that there was  quantification expands to
a reason why someone might want to     su'o lo ro sipna noi melbi
also relatively modify the inside  is the unexpanded form claiming
set as well.  Thus I saw the solu- that the 'indefinite sleeper' is
tion as merely explicitly moving   beautiful, or are all of the
the relative clauses indisputably  sleepers?"
outside.  (A major side effect of    The answer appeared to depend on
this turned out to be the need to  whether you expanded the
put a terminator on LAhE clauses,  quantifiers or not - the
which in turn has resulted in the  unexpanded form appears to be
simplification of the language     outside because we haven't
indicated by Change 18.  That      explicitly quantified the inside;
change is numbered first because   the expanded form seems more
we agreed on it before the full    ambiguous.  The problem is even
proposal reached its full glory.   worse when repeated with "poi",
Changes 17 and 19 are also side    and Nora declared that something
effects related to Changes 20 and  was indeed 'broken'.  You cannot
21.)                               use Veijo's solution to fix this
  I also attempted to pretty up    since "*le [su'o] lo sipna poi
the grammar by combining           melbi ku" isn't grammatical with
indefinites with relative clauses  the "su'o" left implicit and
in one place.  The rule I proposed unstated.
basically saw the use of an inside   Thus we needed some kind of
quantifier as "le <indefinite>" or inside relative clause, and I

                                  78


looked at my working proposal and  free<32> = SEI # [term ... [CU #]]
said, voila - it is already there.   selbri /SEhU/ | SOI sumti
The preposed relative clause is      [sumti] /SEhU/ | vocative selbri
indisputably 'inside', and I even    [nested-relative-clauses] /DOhU/
had a postposed inside relative      | vocative relative-clauses
available when the inside set is     sumti-tail /DOhU/ | vocative
quantified, based on the internal-   CMENE ... # [nested-relative-
indefinite rule.                     clauses] /DOhU/ | vocative
  Indefinites were separated back    [sumti] /DOhU/ | (number |
out per Cowan's argument, as         letteral-string) MAI | TO text
mentioned above, but the result is   /TOI/ | XI number /BOI/ | XI
highlighted in the following         letteral-string /BOI/ | XI VEI
extracts from the E-BNF.  Note       mex /VEhO/
that I consider the question of    
nesting of relative clauses and a    The rule that proposed for 113
couple of other things that came   is the remnant of the attempt to
up, as side issues, but they also  merge indefinites and inside
appear in the rules quoted.        quantifiers.  It allows inside
                                   postposed relative quantifiers
[The following E-BNF is not the    before the "ku" if-and-only-if
proposal as finally adopted, which there is also an inside
deleted Change Proposal 21.        quantifier.  My argument for this
However, it is fairly hard to      was that it allows the most
understand the three original      natural meshing with the defaults
options of Change 20, along with   assumed in the past language,
Change 21, without this version of which perhaps have been
the E-BNF.]                        excessively English-based, but in
                                   any event are indeed historical
sumti-3<93> = sumti-4 | gek sumti  and at least plausible
gik sumti-3                        interpretations.
sumti-4<94> = sumti-5 | quantifier   John Cowan did not like this
  selbri /KU#/ | sumti4 relative-  idea, because it makes "lo sipna
  clauses                          poi melbi" and "su'o lo ro sipna
sumti-5<95> = sumti-6 | quantifier poi melbi" group differently even
sumti-5                            though one is the defined
sumti-6<96> = (LAhE # | NAhE BO #) transformation of the other.  I
  sumti /LUhU#/ | gek sumti gik    argued that the transformation
  sumti-4 | KOhA # | letteral-     must include the "ku" explicitly
  string /BOI#/ | LA CMENE ... # | before expanding, and thus there
  (LA | LE) sumti-tail /KU#/ | LI  is no inconsistency.  "lo sipna ku
  mex /LOhO#/ | ZO any-word # | LU poi melbi" expands to "su'o lo ro
  text /LIhU/ # | LOhU any-word    sipna ku poi melbi".  However, the
  ... LEhU # | ZOI any-word        inside restriction requires that
  anything any-word #              the relative clause be preposed in
sumti-tail<111> = relative-clauses order to contract it "su'o lo ro
  sumti-tail | [sumti-6 [nested-   sipna poi melbi ku" -> "lo poi
  relative-clauses]] sumti-tail-1  melbi vau/ku'o sipna ku"
sumti-tail-1<112> = selbri |         Note that you need a terminator
  sumti-tail-2 | quantifier sumti  on the preposed relative clauses
sumti-tail-2<113> = quantifier     most of the time.  I would use
  selbri | sumti-tail-2 relative-  "vau", though "ku'o" is more
  clauses                          exact, because "vau" is
nested-relative-clauses<120> =     monosyllabic and the idea of
  relative-clauses ...             preposing is to contract.
relative-clauses<121> = relative-  
  clause [ZIhE relative-clause]    
  ...                              Excerpts from Change 20 and 21 as
relative-clause<122> = GOI term    originally proposed but not in the
  /GEhU#/ | NOI sentence /KUhO#/             final proposal
                                   

                                  79


  Options relating to allowing     to do so.  Another negative aspect
postposed relative clauses inside  is that "lo broda noi/poi brode"
the KU (referring to inside-sets,  (external relative) would have a
and thus paralleling the preposed  different parse than "su'o lo ro
equivalent) lead to a complicated  broda noi/poi broda" (internal
tradeoff, which is left for the    relative), which is merely the
community to resolve.  Option 3)   same sumti with implicit
is believed closest to the current quantifiers made explicit.  This
grammar and semantics, and is the  could make it more difficult to
default selection described by the teach, though it might make natu-
E-BNF above.                       ral expression easier if relative
  1) If postposed inside relatives clauses end up grouping correctly
are allowed in all descriptions,   most often without the KU.
then the preposed/postposed          A note applicable to all options
distinction becomes a              is that preposed relative clauses
forethought/afterthought           (but not relative phrases) will
distinction, which can be          almost always require a
valuable.  It also makes existing  terminator, though monosyllabic
texts retain their currently       "vau" is usually as applicable as
official inside-relative           "ku'o".  Since preposed relative
interpretation (unless the KU is   clauses require a terminator, 1)
explicitly present, a rarity),     or 3) may be advantageous in that
which is arguably desirable as the they always allow the afterthought
default (though it must be         construction which does not
recognized that there are text ex- require a terminator (but may
amples where the speaker obviously require explicit KU too often,
wanted to apply the relative       especially in option 1).
clause to the externally           
quantified sumti.)  The negative   CHANGE 21
tradeoff of this is that KU        PROPOSED CHANGE
becomes always required when you     Allow nesting of relative
want an external relative clause.  clauses, distinct from ZIhEk
  2) If postposed inside relatives grouping which retains relative
are never allowed, then all        clauses at the same level
existing usages will become parsed (commutative and associative, with
as external relatives whether or   all restrictions taking place
not a KU is present.  This is      before non-restrictive uses).
probably equally valid as 1) as a  RATIONALE
default, and makes a simpler,        This change is mostly made moot
easier-to-teach grammar, since one by the addition of both inside and
learns the rule:  prepose inside,  outside relative clauses, which
postpose outside.  The negative    probably renders the need for
tradeoffs are that this eliminates nesting to be negligible.
the forethought/afterthought         It is argued that natural
distinction, forcing the speaker   language speakers will process
to form all inside restrictions    relative clauses as they come to
before starting the description.   them, making "zi'e" grouping
Somewhat more of older texts will  unnatural if in keeping with the
be misinterpreted under the new    logical aspects of the language.
parse, since they use postposed    (Actual Lojban usage suggests that
relative clauses, but are often    people will prefer to put "goi"
intended to refer to the inside    assignments, which are non-
set.                               restrictive, closer to the sumti
  3) A third option is to allow    than restrictive ones, even when
postposed inside relatives only    the wish the assignment to include
when there is an inside            the restriction.)
quantifier.  Though it seems         The advantages are that nesting
counter-intuitive that this would  allows variable assignment to
handle almost all problems with    intermediate restrictions:
existing texts, in fact it appears

                                  80


 lo sipna goi ko'a poi melbi goi   Commentary on the Proposed Change
ko'e poi mi nelci [ke'a] goi ko'i   that led to the version that was
("ke'a" in this case would seem to              adopted
 be the same as "ko'e", requiring  
 "ke'axire" to get the equivalent  Iain Alexander:
  of "ko'a" if it was useful for     sumti-6<96>:  How do we attach
           some reason.            relative clauses unambiguously to
  Another argument is that "voi"   a whole "<GEk ... GIk>" or "sumti
restrictive clauses, which are     ek sumti"... I think the only way
intensional, would be implicitly   to do that is some kind of
nested.  As yet there has been no  terminator or grouping mechanism.
example of a multiple "voi"        Similarly we do need to say things
relative clause to support this    like "Three of the people who
since "voi" is new in the language voted", or "Three of the men who
and remains seldom-used.           voted".  But you can either use
  Thus the bottom line is that     some sort of inside quantifier or
some would like this option, and   use "ci lu'a ... lu'u", so we're
it is an expansion of the language covered.
that dovetails well with Change      If LUhI is the answer [yes, it
20.                                is], then I'll accept that.
                                     sumti-5<95>:  I notice that in
                                   getting rid of multiple
                                   quantifiers on an indefinite
                                   description, you've ended up with
                                   multiple quantifiers on a sumti-6
                                   :-)
                                   Change 20.  I've tossed this
                                   around various ways, and I've more
                                   or less convinced myself that, if
                                   it comes down to it, I can
                                   probably live with all the
                                   options, including no change.  The
                                   argument revolves round the
                                   ability to force the required
                                   grouping, either by using one of
                                   the (LAhE that used to be LUhI),
                                   to force an inside quantifier, or
                                   an explicit "ku" to force an
                                   outside one.
                                     The existing grammar has some
                                   potential ambiguities, such as
                                   <quantifier selbri /KU/ relatives>
                                   and
                                    <quantifier (LA | LE) sumti-tail
                                            /KU/ relatives>
                                   (which latter is an expanded
                                   instance of sumti-3) - with the
                                   "ku" elided and no explicit
                                   grouping, it could be interpreted
                                   either way.  You can regard this
                                   as a bug or a feature, depending
                                   on your point of view.  The way
                                   the grammar is actually laid out
                                   suggests an outside relative for
                                   the former, and an inside one for
                                   the latter (but that's with or
                                   without the "ku").
                                     In fact all versions seem to
                                   imply an outside relative for the
                                   former implicit indefinite, which

                                  81


is reasonable enough.  However on  This is obviously cumbersome, but
balance, I suspect the ambiguities then the whole idea of three
are too confusing.                 nested relatives with intermediate
  On balance, I prefer an          variable assignments is
occasional extra "ku" to an occa-  cumbersome.  We already appear to
sional extra LAhE.  The "ku" is    have relatives coming out our ears
shorter, and the LAhE carries an   in descriptions (preposed, nested,
extra unwanted semantic            inside postposed and outside
implication.  In the "poi" case,   postposed).  I'm generally in
the distinction between some cases favour of flexibility, but perhaps
with and without the "ku" is       enough is enough.  Put me down as
vanishingly small, e.g. "lo        a NO, although not a very loud
sipna", "le ci sipna".  In the     one.
"noi" case, I think if anything    
the "ku" helps to make the point,  Veijo Vilva
echoing the pause resulting from     Lojbab's analysis of the
the comma in the English - but     (de)merits of the various options
that may be excessively parochial. seems reasonable.  My ranking of
  I like the preposed relatives    the options is, however, 2 3 1.
for variety, but I'm too fond of     At this stage option 2 seems to
postposed relatives not to use     be clearly the best choice and the
them even at the expense of a      difference between the other two
little awkwardness.                is minimal.  All the options are,
  I'm not so keen on option 2,     however, acceptable to me.
since it means you will always       1.  option 2 seems to be the
need a LUhA to force an inside     basic option, the other two are
postposed relative.                just elaborations of it :  2 < 3 <
  The decision between options 1   1
and 3 is closer.  If I were to       2.  Basically 3 and 1 just add
work out all the cases, it might   ways to express the same things.
turn out that extra LAhE in option I am not very concerned about the
3 were sufficiently fewer than     lack of the fore-
extra "ku" in option 1 to tip the  thought/afterthought distinction
scales to option 3, but at the     in option 2.  Most afterthoughts
moment, I lean towards option 1.   are, after all, incidental in
  21.  The only problem with this  nature and can be considered
appears to be cases like           external.
 "le prenu goi ko'a poi mi nelci     3.  Option 2 will cause perhaps
 ko'a goi le prenu poi mi nelci".  the greatest amount of changes in
"le prenu <goi [ko'a poi mi nelci  the existing texts but the corpus
    {ko'a goi <le prenu poi mi     is not too large at the moment.
           nelci>}]>".             In five years time the situation
... [Some complicated analysis by  will be different, I hope.  It is
Iain showed that use of multiply   always easier to expand the
nested and variable-assigned       language later on, if the need
relative clauses, one of the few   arises, because it doesn't
benefits of Change 21, are very    necessarily mean changes to the
non-intuitive.  They often group   existing texts.  I think it is
differently than you would expect  wiser to adopt option 2 now and
unless you put a lot of terminator check the need for and syntactical
in.]                               consequences of options 3 and 1
  In the current grammar, we could very carefully during the five-
have said                          year waiting period.
lu'a lu'a lo sipna [vau] [ku] goi    4.  Not much goes to waste if
ko'a [ge'u] lu'u                   the use of relative clauses is
   poi [ke'a] melbi [vau] [ku'o]   taught according to option 2 as it
zi'e goi ko'e [ge'u] lu'u          is the core option (besides being
   poi mi nelci [ke'a] [vau]       the easiest to teach).
[ku'o] zi'e goi ko'i [ge'u]          5.  I have tried to estimate the
                                   consequences of using only the

                                  82


preposed form of internal relative   It is also noteworthy that a
clauses based on the knowledge I   sumti with preposed relatives is a
have about different languages.  I very clearly demarcated entity and
do read reasonably well Finnish,   in x1 position there won't be the
English, German and Swedish.  In   separation caused by a postposed
addition I know the basic grammar  relative between the main sumti
of Japanese quite well (my reading and the selbri.
isn't too good).  There are great    6.  One of the weaknesses of
differences between these          option 3 is that the legality of
languages in the use of preposed   the postposed internals - which
clauses.  English is quite limited many feel are more natural - is
in this respect, Finnish coming as dependent on the existence of the
a good second.  Swedish and German internal quantifier.  In the heat
are reasonable and in Japanese it  of a conversation it's all too
seems to be the only possibility   easy to forget the rule and use
and is quite well developed.       the postposed form even when not
  I have often been quite          appropriate.
frustrated writing Finnish because   In option 1 the need to juggle
of the inherent limitations of the the KU's is a real drawback and a
so-called pro-sentences which can  possible source of confusion.  The
be preposed.  It takes extreme     flexibility of opt1 may be more
care in the formulation of the     illusory than real.  It might well
postposed relative clauses to make turn out that in practice this
exactly the point I am after as it extra flexibility would be more of
is all too easy to write am-       a burden.  It is also more
bivalent sentences.  The           difficult to check the
possibility to use the preposed    consequences of the adoption of
restrictives would usually solve   option 1 to the whole sumti
the problems but the limitations   grammar.
in the Finnish system are too        Option 2 has no apparent
severe.  In Japanese the problem   weaknesses and is in a way a quite
is reversed.  You can prepose      balanced choice between two worlds
complete sentences but differen-   as the restrictives will mostly be
tiating between restrictive and    preposed and the incidentals
incidental clauses may be dif-     postposed - so everybody ought to
ficult.  I have never had,         be happy :-).
however, difficulties in under-      I think we ought to use the
standing and using the preposed    design of the language as a tool
clauses of Japanese in general.    to enforce clearer ways of
  My general feeling is that the   expression - as long as the
use of preposed relatives          adopted design doesn't hinder
shouldn't cause unsurmountable     expression.  How many of us do
difficulties.                      really customarily strive for
  The beauty of the preposed       exact expression?  Most of the
restrictive clauses is in that you scientific articles I have read
define beforehand what you will be during the last 25 years have been
talking about - it's kind of       full of ambiguous sentences -
having a local prenex.  The        irrespective of the language they
incidental information is clearly  have been written in.  Quite few
separated and there is less chance authors seem to have the ambition,
for confusion.  I feel this is so  the talent and/or the time to hone
important that I'd be willing to   their expressions to clarity.  It
give up in exchange the nested     would be a real bonus if a lan-
relative clauses I have been       guage were designed so as to
advocating.  (NB.  Even though the gently push the users in the right
nested relatives do offer some     direction.  Maximum flexibility in
theoretical advantages, we may be  a language sets also the greatest
asking for trouble in the form of  demands on the user to avoid
lots of incomprehensible exercises ambiguous ways of expression.  We
of cleverness if we adopt them.)   are in a unique position and we

                                  83


ought to do our best to find the   ditto (sumti-4) and sometimes a
correct balance between regulation constituent in their own right
and flexibility.  I feel that the  (nested-relative-clauses).  I
expressive power of Lojban at its  accept that this is an artifact of
present stage of development is    writing grammar for YACC, but I
such that even if we adopt the     think it is unfortunate for a
most restrictive one of the        "nu'o" syntactic-semantic
options, it is quite impossible to description of the language, not
prevent a really determined        to mention any transformational
individual from presenting his     account.
thoughts in a muddled way - so I     The three options:  I favour
think we needn't worry.            option 1) because it is the most
                                   orthogonal - I don't like the way
Colin Fine:                        that forethought/afterthought
  What particularly delights me is either have different meanings (2)
that your proposal in effect       or depend on other structures,
matches both much of my recent     whose relevance may not be im-
suggestion, and also the call I    mediately obvious (3).  Note that
made the other month for pre-posed the part of my argument which you
relatives.  I did not expect this  have rejected is my claim that the
bounty.                            unmarked position for incidentals
  I understand le do'o reluctance  should be external, while that for
to make a change of this size this restrictives is internal; option 1
late, but I believe it is a        reflects that belief in the (more
noticeable improvement to the      important pe'i) case of
grammar, so I certainly support    restrictives.
it.  I definitely favour option 1)   Preposed relatives:  I didn't
(which is the closest to my        say that "postposed relatives are
suggestion), but would accept 3).  abnormal to all but English
I am least happy with 2).          speakers in an AN (adjective-
  A few more specific comments:    noun)-ordered language"! That's a
"le pe ci mi broda" was exactly    much stronger claim than I ever
what I argued for the other month. intended to make.  I said that
  I have one or two queries about  some languages have only pre-posed
the grammar you exhibited:  1) the relatives, and I don't see why
E-BNF has "gek" in both sumti-3    Lojban should not extend its
and sumti-6, which surprised me,   flexibility to allow those.
and indeed it seems to be only in    I note that we will have the
sumti-3 in the YACC.  This         option of teaching pseudo-
prevents you from saying           possessives as a special case of
 *ci ge le broda gi ko'a and       preposed-relatives, thus
 *[ge le broda gi ko'a ] poi melbi            le mi zdani
which seem fine to me - they're     as elliptic for
not very intuitive, and if you               le pe mi zdani
really want them you can nest       just as
explicitly though sumti-6 with                  ze mensi
LAhE or else LE <quantifier>        is elliptic for
<sumti>.  I take it that this is              ze lo mensi.
actually just a bug in the         I don't say we have to do this,
proposed E-BNF. [Yes]              but it is an option.
  2) I found it a bit odd that     
both sumti-4 and sumti-5 can start Mark Shoulson:
with quantifier, but I take it       I prefer options (1) and (3)
LALR-1 can handle this.            greatly over option (2), perhaps
  3) I also found it odd that      with slight preference to (1).  I
multiple "zi'e zei claxu"          don't like the restrictiveness of
[without-zi'e] relative clauses    (2); I want to be able to put my
are sometimes left-branching       relatives as afterthought even if
sisters of a constituent (sumti-   they're inside, thank you.  (3)
tail), sometimes right-branching   seems kludgy, and I don't much

                                  84


mind the odd "ku" thrown in here     [Mark:  Well, allowing one
and there to make (1) work.  For   entails allowing the other, so it
one thing, it's usually close to   amounts to the same thing.  And I
right even without the "ku", and   did consider using a non-logical
for another, "ku" is a short,      (perhaps "ce"), though I figured
quick syllable, and we've already  that the observation could be
gotten used to using it with the   independent, simply "seeing one"
very common conjunction "joi" ("lo and "seeing the other", as if in
nanmu ku joi lo ninmu", etc.)  And two sentences, and thus using the
don't screw around with reversing  logical ".e".  Stylistic point of
"ku'o" and "vau"; much work for    contention, of course, and I'm
little gain.                       open to correction.]
                                     [Colin continues:  Nonetheless,
John Cowan                         I agree with you [Mark] - a
  Infinite quantifiers on a sumti: logical ".e" is possible there,
I agree that this is a useless     though I don't think it is a good
wart and that it should go.  One   translation; and in any case,
quantifier is enough; if you want  there are plenty of examples with
more, use "lo I lo J lo K broda".  ".a" or ".onai"
[It went.]                              mu'ulu<< mi darno viska le
  Relative clauses vs. logical               xirma .onai le xasli .i
connectives:  I don't agree that             le sego'i cu lacpu le
it makes sense to attach a                   karce >>li'u
relative clause to logically            e.g. " I see far off a horse
connected sumti.  Remember that              or donkey(.  It's)
logical connection expands to                pulling a cart"
separate sentences.  If this       This is one way to say it, and
really needs to be done, use LAhE. there is another with a connection
  [Mark Shoulson responds:  Oh,    inside the description, "le xirma
no.  It is very sensible.  I ran   jonai xasli noi lacpu le karce",
into it when I started playing     but I don't know how to get it
with the Tower of Babel story.  If with connected sumti and a "noi",
you check your text, God descended which is what I want to use.  (The
to see "the city and the tower     Lojban above does not express
which the sons of Man had built."  whether the second sentence is
I think we'd all agree that that's restrictive or incidental).
a very natural construction, and     [Lojbab:  Non-connected
that "which the sons of Man had    sentences are inherently inci-
built" obviously applies to both   dental.]
the city and the tower.  Logically   [Mark replies:  The only way,
(and non-logically, for that       currently, to do it is using
matter) conjoined sumti are as     LUhI/LUhU.  Pick the one that
natural to language as simple      makes the most sense.  I'd go with
ones, and are as likely to be      "lu'a".  Thus:
relativized as a unit.  I used a        mi darno viska lu'a le xirma
LUhI/LUhU set to handle this case,           .onai le xasli lu'u
as "lu'a le tcadu .e le kamju lu'u           poi/noi ke'a lacpu le
poi loi remna cu zbasu" (I thought           karce
the logical ".e" worked here, but  Simple enough, but I suspect
maybe not...).  It could be that   common enough to warrant finding a
termsets are the best answer to    way to do it without the "lu'a"
this type of problem, but it is    and unelidable "lu'u".  Can our
not true that this type of         tired, overworked "bo" help?  No,
construction is nonsensical or un- I think it's already in use in
common.                            that place...]
  [Colin Fine replies:  But John   
specifically referred to "logical  [As a result of the above
connectives" and your example is   discussion, option 1 was selected,
better translated with a non-      and the proposal was modified to
logical.                           account for the comments.

                                  85


                                   - regarding these as JOI.
                                     In this way they could even be
 Usage Questions and Grammar/Word  used in tanru, just as the members
    Proposals Related to Usage     of JOI are.  We could say:
                                   (5) le karce cu xunre semau narju
             New JOI                   "The car was more red than
          by Greg Higley                        orange."
                                   With the current definition of the
  Has it ever been considered that grammar, I can't even imagine how
some of the members of selma'o BAI to say something like this.  You
might be better construed as       can see how much easier it is to
members of a conjunctive selma'o   do if we change the grammar of mau
such as JOI?  In particular we     and me'a.
have "mau" and "me'a".  To borrow    Sentences too could be linked
a natural language analogy, aren't much more easily this way.  We
these much more like conjunctions  could say:
than like prepositions, much more  (6) le karce cu xunre  .isemau ri
like non-logical connectives than                narju.
like sumti tcita?                   The car is red.  More than it is
  Take a look at a sentence with a              orange.
JOI connective:                    
  (1) mi djica lo vanju ku ce lo     I think the main reason why
              djacu                "mau" and "me'a" were included in
 "I want the wine and the water."  BAI in the first place is that
Here both wine and water are se    when the list of gismu were sorted
djica.  This sentence can be       to look for candidates for
expanded to:                       inclusion in the BAI set, "zmadu"
  (2) mi djica lo vanju  .ice mi   and "mleca" seemed obvious
         djica lo djacu.           choices.  But I think it's fairly
 "I want the wine and also I want  clear that they are conjunctive
           the water."             and not modificatory in nature, as
The "force" of the x2 place of     evidenced by the current awk-
djica is distributed to both sumti wardness of their usage.  Please
linked by ce.  Now look at a       consider changing their status.
sentence containing semau "more    (I am currently looking through
than":                             BAI to see if any others of its
(3) mi djica lo vanju ne semau lo  members need to be put into a new
              djacu                conjunctive selma'o.)  Actually,
  "I want the wine more than (I    zo me'a du lu semau li'u  .ije zo
        want) the water."          mau du lu seme'a li'u.  This is a
Here the sumti "lo vanju" is the   little redundant.  I suggest me'a
x2 place of djica, and "semau lo   for "less than" and mau for "more
djacu" is simply linked to it as a than".  This is opposite to the
modifier.  Awkward!                current definition, but seems more
  It is clear semantically, though intuitively correct.  Their
it is not true grammatically in    conversions, seme'a and semau
this case, that lo djacu is a kind would be unnecessary.  Keeping
of "spiritual" x2 place of djica.  their place structure integrity
Why not make it one explicitly?    would be irrelevant, since they
Think how much clearer and easier  would no longer be BAI.
it would be to say:                  Try "playing around" with these
 (4a) mi djica lo djacu ku mau lo  as conjunctive cmavo, and see if
              vanju                they aren't much easier to use.
I want the water, exceeded by the    Below are a few sentences
              wine.                designed to show the potential
or                                 range of use of my suggested
(4b) mi djica lo vanju ku semau lo definition of me'a and mau:
              djacu                  (7) mi mau la djan djica lenu
 I want the water, more than the                klama ta
              wine.                I more than John want to go there.

                                  86


(8) mi djica lenu klama ta  .imau  connectives [into multiple
          la djan. go'i            sentences] in this way.
I want to go there more than John    All of which does not affect
              does.                your point ...
(9) mi djica lenu klama ta me'a la   The effect you want in 4a/4b can
               rom.                be achieved with the current
 I want to go there less than to   grammar, admittedly less
              Rome.                elegantly:
  (10) mi pumauca nelci lo vanju     mi djica lo vanju .esemaubo lo
I was more than I am fond of wine.               djacu
    (11) mi dzukla mau bajykla     asserts that both are wanted and
I am more a walker than a runner.  that there is a "semau" between
  Perhaps you can think of some    them.
more structures in which mau and     (Note that this gives a
me'a might be useful.              possibility of variation lacking
                                   in your method:
Mark Shoulson:                     mi djica lo vanju .anaisemaubo lo
  Oh, my.  "mau" and "me'a" as                   djacu
JOIs.  The scary part is that it     I want wine only if, but more
makes a lot of sense.  I don't               than, water.)
feel strongly enough to join       
Higley in calling for their re-    Your version of (6) is the form
classification, mostly because     most closely approached by the
it's a major change in concept and current grammar:
in syntax, and it would invalidate   le karce cu xunre .isemaubo ri
a lot of text.  But if by some                   narju
bizarre set of circumstances         What your suggestion does ignore
reclassifying them gains support,  is the possibility that there are
I wouldn't be opposed, much.       uses of "mau" which are genuinely
Gotta think about this more.       sumti tcita (attached to a
                                   selbri).  I agree these are not
Colin Fine:                        frequent, but there are some:
  I accept the point you are        mi gleki semau tu'a le prujeftu
making in [Example 1], but the       "I am happier than last week"
example is flawed.                   Probably you can always find a
  "jo'u", "joi", "ce" are non-     paraphrase (often using "zmadu"),
logical connectives delivering the but the fact is that there are
three basic types of sumti:        current uses of "mau" which your
individuals, masses, sets.  (This  proposal does not meet (note that
is one of Lojban's few obligatory  you can almost always paraphrase a
grammatical categories, and,       sumti tcita with the corresponding
interestingly, it is not shared by gismu, but this does not make them
any other language that I know     useless).
of).                                 If they were changed to JOI,
  Thus                             [using "mau" and "me'a" instead of
 mi djica lo vanju ku ce lo djacu  "semau" and "seme'a"] would make
I want the set containing wine and some sense:  place structures for
              water                most BAI are counter-intuitive
does not say anything about        until you understand the
wanting wine or water.  Use 'jo'u' principle.  However, note that
or else use 'lu'i'.                JOIk in the grammar has an
  The same applies to the '.ice'   optional 'SE' anyway - at present
construction - except that it is   the only asymmetric JOI is 'ce'o',
very unclear what on earth it      but conversion is permitted for
means.  I think it is constructing all of them.
a set of sentences, but I'm not      [On Greg's (7), (8), (9):]
sure.  In any case, it has been    These are all good, but can be
well established that you cannot   expressed with "[j]esemaubo".
in general expand non-logical        [On Greg's (10):]  This is
                                   exciting.  I can't see an easy way

                                  87


of doing it at present.  The best  mi djuno le du'u pakau le prenu pu
I can think of is:                          dzuli'u le loldi
 mipepu .esemaubo mipeca cu nelci    I know that one of the people
             lo vanju               walked on the floor, and I know
I of the past, more than I of the              which one.
    present, am fond of wine.        I know which one of the people
  [On Greg's (11):]  Poor example         walked on the floor.
- I took that as "I walk more than I am indicating that the referent
I run", which is different in      of "pakau le prenu" is known (to
English, but the principle stands. me).  Thus "kau" means something
  mi dzukla gi'esemaubo bajykla    like "referent known".  And if I
- but that has a different         just say "pakau le prenu pu
structure, because yours is one    dzuli'u le loldi" apparently the
tanru, mine is not.                meaning is the same as when
  This example also shows the      "djuno" was the main selbri.  And
general problem with "mau" - the   here's where we run into a prob-
scale is not expressed.  This is a lem.  How do we know to whom the
problem with the existing "mau"    referent is known?  Is "kau"
too, but it is possible to add a   somehow connected to the x1 sumti
"ci'u" or "ji'u" phrase.  I'm not  of "djuno" and any other related
sure that would work with "mau" in gismu?  For if I say
JOI.                                la djos. djuno le du'u pakau le
  I agree [with Mark] that it          prenu pu dzuli'u le loldi
makes a lot of sense, and is quite apparently it is to Joe (and not
attractive.  I don't agree that    to me?) that the referent of
"it's a major change in concept    "pakau le prenu" is known.  If
and in syntax" - on the contrary,  "kau" does not always indicate
it is shifting two words from one  that it is the speaker who knows
selma'o to another (existing) one. the referent, what is the standard
It would invalidate a lot of text. for determining this?  For
  However, I think that unless       la djos djuno le du'u pakau le
Greg can convince me that he can       prenu pu dzuli'u le loldi
cope with existing structures, I   could mean
will not support the change.        Joe knows that one of the people
                                    walked on the floor, and I know
Result:  Change 28 was proposed in             which one.
response to this issue, but        But this seems contrary to
currently there is no support to   intuition.  What is the standard?
implement it.  Changes 30 and 31   Is there one?
indirectly derive from this          In the examples that came with
change.  The ensuing discussions   the article on "kau", it was used
on the topic have led to           with words which might be classed
significant rewriting of material  as "indefinites" and
in the draft textbook, and a       "interrogatives", and apparently
couple of the minor grammar        these were used interchangeably.
changes above, which enhance the   For our purposes, an indefinite is
expression of joined sumti in the  a word like "zo'e", while an
'termset' construct.               interrogative is a word such as
                                   "ma" (which, as I'll show, is a
                                   close relative of "zo'e").  I
               kau                 think it would be useful and
          by Greg Higley           advantageous to split the use of
                                   "kau" as it is used with
  As I understand it, the cmavo    indefinites and interrogatives.
"kau" indicates that the value of  With interrogatives, "kau" could
that which it "modifies" is known, be used to ask a question, while
presumably to the speaker, but     indicating that the speaker
there are instances where this is  already knows the answer.  Thus a
apparently not the case.  Thus if  teacher could ask her students
I say                                     mi makau zukte makau

                                  88


 What am I doing and to what end?  moment.  But no consensus on
and her students would realize     default interpretation was
that she wasn't just asking this   reached.
for her (mental) health.             I hope this distinction [between
  With indefinites on the other    interrogatives and indefinites],
hand (and I class such things as   which is pretty elegant and clear,
"pa le prenu" among them), "kau"   wasn't passed over in the
would perform its simple duty of   specification of "kau" (although I
letting us know that the referent  remember at the time that I felt I
is known.                          understood "kau" better than
     mi zo'ekau zukte zo'ekau      Lojban Central :).  But yes,
means something like               that's correct.
 I'm doing something-known-to-me     By the way, as John Cowan will
  for some purpose-known-to-me.    no doubt point out, "kau" is not
And thus                           restricted to knowing/"djuno", but
  mi djuno le du'u do du zo'ekau   can extend to all sorts of
I know that you are someone-known- analogous concepts like believing,
              to-me.               opining etc.
       I know who you are.         
becomes easy.                      Colin Fine:
  Has anyone yet noted the strong    I don't believe that "se'i"
relationship between "kau" and     works like that at all.  As things
"ki'a"?  The former indicates that stand at present, all discursives,
the referent is known, and the     like all attitudinals (other than
latter asks for clarification.     "pei") strictly refer to the
Both can be used to express "which speaker's intentions/quality of
one of the people" but in semanti- knowledge/attitude.  I have on
cally different situations.        occasion wanted a way to indicate
Still, the relationship between    somebody else's attitude etc., but
them is clear, and perhaps worth   I'm not convinced that it is
exploring further.                 desirable.  ("se'i" is about
  Also note that "zo'eki'a" is     whether the speaker's attitude
virtually identical - if not       relates to "vo'a", not about whose
completely identical - to "ma" in  attitude it is).1
meaning.  In fact, it is probably  ____________________
possible to form the whole range   1Iain comments:  Regarding Colin's
of interrogatives by affixing      comment on "se'i",] as I un-
"ki'a" to their corresponding      derstand it, the way to indicate
indefinites.  (Japanese, I         someone else's attitude etc. is to
believe, does something similar.)  use something like "sei [vo'a]
I am not suggesting that this be   jinvi".
done.  It would be unnecessarily     Colin responds:  or "fi'o jinvi
verbose.  But it is worth noting   ko'a"...
the relationship.                    You can do this with most UI,
                                   but it sometimes needs some
Nick Nicholas:                     thought to find a suitable brivla.
  [Who does "kau" refer to?]  An   Anybody got any ideas about the
outstanding question.  I have held selbri corresponding to ".ai"?
that the knower of "kau" is the      Iain replies:  The closest I've
knower of the bridi it is in,      come up with is "terzu'e".  As
implicit or not.  "John knows      mentioned in my comments on Nick's
which one." I also wished that     mekso translation, "ca'e" isn't
extended to observative            very easy either.
attitudinals such as "za'a", which   Lojbab:  When we first created
gave rise to reaction from Lojbab. the attitudinal list, we had a
This issue is unresolved, but I    gismu or brivla equivalent for
agree with you on the above        each attitudinal - this was part
solution being counter-intuitive.  of the criteria in choosing the
"se'i"/"se'inai" exist as (kludgy) original gismu list:  a primitive
patchwork disambiguators at the    emotion word should have a

                                  89


  On reflection, I think [Greg's]    "kau" was the subject of the
is a good distinction.  However,   first comment I posted on the
if this is the case, then "kau"    list.  My interpretation of John
does not, as I thought, remove the Cowan's response is that "kau"
'performative' quality of          isn't about "knowledge", it's
question-words ("ma" etc) - then   about abstraction, in particular,
various texts of mine, and I think the identity of the concept it's
others, are wrong.                 attached to.  So "lekau prenu" is
mi djuno le du'u le cukta cu zvati "the identity of the person".
              makau                  Since it's a UI, it can be
is still asking a question of the  attached to almost anything, to
hearer, which was not my previous  denote the identity of, e.g. a
understanding of it.               logical connective.  The current
  By the way, "kau" is not         official position is that exactly
restricted to "knowing/djuno, but  which member of the selma'o (or
can extend to all sorts of         presumably, which gismu) is used
analogous concepts like believing, is not important, although it
opining etc."  Asking, too!        might indicate something about the
                                   type of value expected.
Iain Alexander:                      With this interpretation, "le
__________________________________ pakau prenu" means "the number of
primitive root.  The redesign of   people", i.e. essentially the same
the attitudinal space, and the     as "leni prenu".
major expansion that result          In practice, it frequently
therefrom kinda messed this up.    occurs inside a "du'u" abstrac-
The distinctions that are          tion, with the side-effect of
permitted now using attitudinals   'inverting' the whole construct to
are more diverse than there are    refer to the identity of whatever
yet defined gismu and brivla in    is tagged, within the given
that semantic space.               context.  To my mind, this means
  By recollection, the old meaning it changes the meaning of "du'u".
of ".ai" could simply be handled   Further complications arise if the
by "balvi".  The sense that JCB    "du'u" is nested, in which case
had for ".ai" was like unto the    subscripts need to be used to
American sailor's response "Aye,   indicate that the "kau" is
Aye!  Sir!", hence the cognate.    relative to an outer "du'u".
But we certainly now have the      Things might be simpler if a
capacity to distinguish between    separate cmavo, say "xau", in
"intent", "prediction", and        selma'o NU, was allocated for this
"expectation" using the attitudi-  usage, meaning "x1 is the identity
nals, and "balvi" no longer        of whatever is tagged with "kau"
satisfies me for ".ai".  My choice in [bridi]".
of the top of my head would be     
"platu" using the new place struc- Nora LeChevalier:  My
ture that puts a planner in x1,    understanding of "kau" is that it
instead of a plan.                 flags the 'key item' for any
  As for "ca'e", I can see a lot   bridi.  Thus,
of these questions coming.          mi djica lenu pakau le prenu pu
Someone want to tackle a list of            dzuli'u le loldi
gismu/brivla for the entire        doesn't say that I know the one
attitudinal list?  Editted and     who walked on the floor, but
enhanced, it will probably be      rather that I desire that
added to the dictionary-in-        particular one.  It can be used to
progress.  "ca'e" doesn't seem     say "John is the one I want to
that hard:  "smuni xusra" or       walk on the floor":
"smuni cuxna" or "smuni jdice"      mi djica lenu pakau le prenu ku
seem like tanru on which to base a po'u la djan. pu dzuli'u le loldi
lujvo for "define".  Hmm.  Add in    "zo'eki'a" can appear after
"sruma" in combination with the    usage of "zo'e" as more of a
above to add to the possibilities. metalinguistic comment  (What do

                                  90


you mean "zo'e" - "zo'e" can't be  ri mulno be loka nolraixli be'o
the right word here!) and is thus  gi'o se zanru ko'a   =.isemu'ibo
similar to "na'i".  "ma" has no    ko'a fe'eroroi litru gi'e sisku pa
such function.  Using "zo'eki'a"   go'i   =.iku'i roroi nabmi   =.i
for "ma" would deny the important  sa'e ge lo nolraixli cu raumei
usage that prompted invention of   ju'o gi lo ni ri nolraixli ku ko'a
"ki'a".  "ki'a" is a request - for na se birti .!uu   =.i roroiku le
clarification - and would be       no'e drani vau30   =.i ko'a ki'u
inappropriate except in response   se'irzdakla gi'e badri lenu
to someone else using the words    na'epu'i cpacu lo nolraixli mulno
that you are questioning.              ni'o pa vanci cu ki jaica ke
                                   selte'a vilti'a   =.i lindi joi
                                   savru joi carvi joi camcilce   =.i
     le lojbo se ciska (cont)      zo'e darxi le tcavro   =.i le
                                   sorna'a nolraitru ki'u minde lenu
  Speaking of "kau", the following le vorme cu karbi'o   =.i le bartu
Lojban text makes use of the word. cu nolraixli   =.i ri selkecmlu
See Nick's footnoted comment for   .!uuse'inai ri'a tu'a lo carvi
his further views on "kau".        .ebo lo xlali vilti'a   =.i
  Following is Colin Fine's        mo'ini'a flecu lo djacu vi le
translation into Lojban of a       kerfa .e le taxfu   =.i flecu ji'a
familiar children's fairy tale.    pa'o le cutci file cucti'e le
It is the first text to be vetted  cucyzbi [tosa'a pamoi pinka toi]
under the 'editor de jour' concept =.i cusku fa ra ledu'u ra
described in JL17.  Nick Nicholas  nolraixli mulno
served as the reviewing editor.        ni'o ®lu .!ue   =.i cipra
In this case Nick recommended      =.ai li'uЇ se seisku le sorna'a
publication, making some comments. truspe goi fo'e   =.ije ri bacru
Colin declined to make Nick's      noda ku'i gi'e klama le sipku'a
suggested changes, which therefore gi'e vimcu ro le ckabu'u gi'e
appear as footnoted comments.  All __________________________________
lujvo have been updated to the new and "ninmu", which explicitly do
rafsi list enclosed with this      not imply maturity.  "nakni" and
issue (manually by Lojbab, so      "fetsi" might also do, though they
please forgive any errors).        do not necessarily imply 'human';
  The translation immediately      however, "person-ness" is implied
follows, unlike our normal         by the "royal-" status - the story
practice, due to the length of     could easily be told about a non-
this issue.                        human but vaguely humanoid
                                   intelligent species.
 ®lu le nolraixline ga'u le dembi  30Nick: Hm.  Because I equate the
              li'uЇ                referent of "lo nolraixli" with
      cmene di'e noi se finti      the earlier one in the tale (He
    la xans. krIstian. Andrsn.     seeks a princess), this sounds
                                   like "the princess is enough".
    =.itu'e tu'e                   But of course, the Lojban doesn't
  lisri le nolrainanla29  goi ko'a say that at all; "nolraixli" is
=.i ko'a djica lo nolraixli   =.i  quantified afresh here.  Still,
____________________               might it not make more sense to
29Lojbab: Colin chose to base his  say "raumei lo nolraixli" or "loi
words for "princess" and "prince"  nolraixli cu raumei"?  I don't
on "nanla" and "nixli", which      recall the place structure of
explicitly denote immaturity, even "mei" right now.  And I'd have
though it seems from the story     said "roroiku da no'e drani" (note
context that the prince, at least, that, for quantification, the
is an adult (he is taking the      "roroiku" has to go before the
princess as a wife, and it appears "da", else we assert that there is
to be his volition rather than an  one thing always awry, rather than
arranged marriage in the royal     one thing each time.  (We do need
youth.  Better choices are "nanmu" a quantification paper badly).

                                  91


punji le pa dembi le ckazbe        lenu fo'a34 fi le reno sraki'e ku
=.ijebabo fo'e cpacu reno          jo'u le reno gairki'e cu ganse fe
vresraki'e gi'e cpana punji ri le  le dembi   =.i lo ckaji be loka
dembi   =.i pa'aku reno datkypi'u  ganse du'i la'edi'u cu nolraixli
gairki'e co'a cpana le sraki'e     mulno ju'o
=.i ro go'i cu se vreta le             ni'o le nolrainanla goi ko'a
nolraixli goi fo'a ca'o le nicte   co'a speni fo'a   =.i ko'a seki'u
    ni'o co'i le cerni cu preti fo djuno ledu'u vo'a kansa le mulno
fo'a fe leli'i fo'a capu31 sipna   be loka nolraixli   =.i le dembi
ge'ekau32                          ba se punji fi la larku'a [tosa'a
  =.i ®lu .!oicairo'o [seisa'a     remoi pinka toi]   =.i caji'a
selsku be fo'a]   =.i mi           go'i35   =.ijo noda capu vimcu
su'eso'uroi .!uu ga'orga'i le      .!iacu'i tu'u ni'o di'u jetnu
kanla ca'o piro le nicte   =.i ?ma lisri .!uo.ui
za'anai ?pausai nenri le ckana33   tu'u
=.i mi puca'o vreta le raktu jdari     ni'oni'o di'e pinka
=.i piro lemi xadni ri'a bunre joi   =.i pamai le lujvo po'u zo
blanu   =.i to'e zdile .!oisai     cucyzbi cu satci te fanva fe
li'uЇ                              ®zoi.dy. Naesen paa Skoen .dy.Ї
  =.i seni'ibo co'i djuno ledu'u   =.i mi nelci le di'u bangrdanska
fo'a nolraixli je'a mulno ki'u     tanru
                                     =.i remai [tu'e la larku'a po'u
____________________               ®la'o .dy. Kunstkammeret .dy.Ї  cu
31Lojbab: John Cowan has expressed ga'orbi'o ca le nanca be li
the opinion that, under the rules  pabirepa gi'eseri'abo ca'a teke
as interpreted by his tense paper, carmi morji caze'u le lisri   =.i
cmavo compounds based on "ca" no   le'i ca'a jmaji noi selzda le
longer have perfective intent.     tolci'o ke nolraitru ckusro dinju
32Nick: This remains a clever use  cu selcmi so'i vrici ne mu'u lo
of "kau", and should get mentioned prucedra lisri ku ce lo naiske
in any write-up about it.  By the  lisri ku ce lo rarske cizra  tu'u]
way, from my reading, it does seem =.i di'u se krasi le pinka ne bau
that lambda calculus is the best   la dansk. fo la xans. briks. jo'u
way to explain "kau".  For those   la .anker. iensn.
unfamiliar with it:  lambda        
calculus explains math at a deep   Colin's translation:
level.  'LAMBDA(x.x+x)' is the     
function taking x as an argument        The Princess on the Pea
and returning x+x.  Lambda(x.x+x)    There was once a prince, who
1 is a function application to 1,  wanted a princess for himself, but
and evaluates to 2.  The lambda    she had to be a real princess.  So
expression itself is a function    he went all round the world trying
waiting for an argument.  Lojban   to find one, but there was always
selbri aren't lambda function;     some hindrance:  there were plenty
their arguments are filled with    of princesses, but whether they
"zo'e", or explicit values.  In "I were real princesses, he could
know who did it", though, the      never be sure - there was always
predicate "did it" is crying out   something that wasn't quite right.
for an argument to fill in x1:     So he went home and was sad,
(LAMBDA "zo'ekau"."zo'ekau gasnu
ri").  For that matter, a lot of   ____________________
the elliptical places, as John     34Nick: I think you need a "kei"
Cowan has mentioned, get explained before "ki'u":  her feeling the
by it:  Being a parent is diffi-   pea does not cause her to be a
cult - not being a parent of John, princess, but causes them to know
or of Mary, but (LAMBDA            it.
"zo'ekau"."mi rirni zo'ekau").     35Nick: I don't know about "go'i"
33Nick: I don't like "ga'orga'i",  - what is true now is that the pea
but that's a matter of taste.  I   remains there, not that it is
rather like the "za'anai ?pausai". still being placed there.

                                  92


because he so much wanted a gen-   Sylvia Rutiser, of the DC-area
uine princess.                     Lojban group, attempted her own
  One evening there was a          independent translation, though
frightful storm.  There was        she did not complete it.  Since
lightning and thunder, the rain    Sylvia is a moderately skilled
poured down, it was dreadful!      Lojbanist, her effort is a
There was a knocking on the town   reasonable standard for a learning
gate, and the old king ordered it  Lojbanist to strive for.
opened.                            Significant differences between
  It was a princess standing       the following and Colin's version
outside.  But God how she looked   of what he intended, are areas
in the rain and the storm!  The    where either Colin wasn't clear,
water ran down her hair and her    or used a construct that even
clothes, and went in at the toes   Sylvia could not figure out
of her shoes and out at the heels. (Sylvia admitted having some unan-
And she said she was a real        swered questions when she
princess.                          completed the translation; in some
  "We'll see about that!" thought  cases, the wording may be strange
the old queen, but she said        due to these questions).
nothing.  She went to the bedroom, 
took off all the bedclothes, and     "The princess and the bean"
put a pea on the base of the bed.  names this that was invented by
Then she took twenty mattresses    Hans Christian Anderson.
and put them on top of the pea,      This is a story of the prince.
and then twenty eiderdowns on top  He desires a princess.  She is
of the mattresses.                 complete in the quality of
  And that's where the princess    "princessness" if and only if she
was to lie that night.             is approved by him (I question
  In the morning, they asked her   this).  Therefore, he travels
how she had slept.                 everywhere and seeks such a
  "Oh, terribly!", said the        princess.  However, there are
princess.  "I hardly closed my     always problems.  To be precise,
eyes the whole night!  God knows   there were enough princesses, and
what there was in the bed!  I was  he was not certain if they were
lying on something hard, and I'm   all princesses.  Always something
black and blue everywhere!  It's   was not correct.  Therefore, he
quite horrible!"                   went home and was sad about not
  So they could see that she was a being able to get a complete
real princess, since she had felt  princess.
the pea through twenty mattresses    (Set time) One evening it was
and twenty quilts.  Nobody but a   stormy.  Lightning and rain and
real princess could be that        intense wildness.  Something hits
sensitive.                         the city gate.  The old king
  The prince took her for his      therefore commands that the door
wife, for now he knew that he had  be opened.  The outside thing is a
a real princess, and the pea was   princess.  She was pitiful seeming
put into the Kunstkammer, where it because of the rain and storm.
is still to be seen, if nobody has Water flowed off her hair and
taken it away.                     clothing.
  You see, it's a true story!        "Surprise!  Test.  Intent" is
  Note (from Blix & Jensen):  The  said to herself by the old queen.
Kunstkammer ("art chamber") closed And she said nothing and goes to
in 1821 and was therefore fresh in the sleeproom and removes all the
memory at the time of the tale.    bed-cloth and puts one bean on the
The collection was housed in the   bed-frame.  She then takes twenty
old Royal Library, and contained   mattresses and sets them on the
many different things:  old sagas, bean.  Each respectively twenty
ethnographic tales, curiosities of duck-feather cover cushions upon
natural history, and so on.        the mattresses.  All of this is

                                  93


reclined on by the princess        whereas ".ause'inai" means "I want
through the night                  you to have it".  This function
  In the morning she is questioned obviously conflicts with using
about the experience of her        ".ause'inai" to mean "You want
sleeping (emotion unspecified)     it".
  "Ouch! she said I my eyes all      There exists a general mechanism
night.  Why?  I observe ( question for expressing complex attitudes:
follows) in the bed.  I            "sei" followed by a bridi with
continuously reclined on the       limited syntax.  With this
troubling hard thing.  All of my   machinery, "You want it" becomes
body (therefore) is brown mixed    "sei do djica".  However, it is
with blue.  Not funny.             often hard to decide exactly which
Complaint!"                        selbri should be used to express a
  Therefore it is known that she   particular attitude, and for the
is a princess truly complete,      case of attributing feelings to
because (reason) the event that    another, some additional support
she (through 20 mattresses and 20  may be useful.
coverlets) felt the bean.            Some natural languages support
  ...                              this feature to a limited degree.
                                   I am told that in Swedish the word
                                   "uffda" signifies ".oiro'o in
   Empathy in Attitudinals - A     empathy" - you say it not when you
      Proposal by John Cowan       stub your toe but when you observe
                                   someone else do so.
[This proposal deals with an issue 
discussed in footnotes from the      [The proposal was formulated as:
last technical article on "kau",   we propose "dai" as an attitudinal
though the proposal arose          indicating "speaker empathy",
separately.]                       secondarily allowing someone to
  As part of reviewing the cmavo   attribute attitudinals to others
list for inclusion in the          in speech or text.  The former
dictionary, I have been thinking   meaning of that cmavo (in selma'o
about the current uses of at-      KOhA), which has seen no actual
titudinals.  As originally         use, has been assigned to "do'i".]
specified, the attitudinal indica- 
tors of selma'o UI were solely to  Nick Nicholas:
specify the speaker's attitudes.     The empathy attitudinal is
Thus ".ui" expresses the speaker's something whose time has come:  do
happiness.                         it, John, do it!
  However, there has been an       
increasing pull toward allowing    Jim Carter:
attitudinals, suitably marked, to    I have found it useful for
express other people's feelings as attitudinals to describe the atti-
well.  In particular, "se'inai"    tude of the subject of the bridi
has been employed as an            which the attitudinal is in.  In
attitudinal modifier for this      the most common usages this will
purpose.                           be the speaker, and a fair number
  I find this use objectionable    of other-person usages are also
for two reasons:  1) It conflicts  subsumed automatically.
with the original purpose of         Of course this was all worked
"se'i"/"se'inai" as described in   out for Old Loglan.  Some of the
the attitudinal paper; 2) support  new UI's in Lojban may be more
for emotional empathy should not   speaker-tropic than the old ones -
be done with a negated cmavo.      and in fact I was very tempted to
  The original purpose of "se'i"   make a blanket exception that .ua-
was to indicate that the object    .ue-.ui-.uo-.uu always referred to
(not the subject) of the feeling   the speaker, not the subject.
was oneself rather than another.   Also there was a strong
Thus, where ".au" means "desire",  distinction between "discursives"
".ause'i" means "I want it"        and "attitudinals", and the item

                                  94


related by the discursives was     paper, for those who track such
usually or always "the previous    things:
discourse" rather than "the          "lu'a" (loosely speaking) was
speaker".  (Example:  le bi'u      based on "kluza", a malglico
cribe = the bear which is absent   metaphor; it has been replaced by
from the previous discourse, not   "sa'e" (based on "satci") with
the bear which the speaker is not  meanings reversed.
familiar with.)  The point of        "jo'a" was introduced as the
these weaselwords is that we       opposite of "na'i":  it specifies
should specify with each UI a      that the text is correct as
default argument selected from     written, like English "[sic]".
speaker, subject or previous       "na'inai" would mean the same
discourse.                         thing, but seemed too confusing as
                                   an affirmation.
Lojbab:                              "pau" is an optional signal at
  I accept the idea, most          the beginning of a question, and
especially for narration, such as  was omitted from the attitudinal
Ivan's translation (in JL17),      paper in error.  "paunai" signals
where the attitudinals expressed   a rhetorical question.
are those of the characters, and     "kau" is attached to the focus
not of the author.  I suggest that of an indirect question:  it does
a combination of "sei"             not connote knowledge
metalinguistics and the proposed   particularly.
"dai" could be used to indicate      "e'e" was changed to "competence
whose point of view is indicated   - incompetence".
in freely inserted attitudinals.     "re'e" was added as a new
Or a long scope attitudinal        category modifier, parallel to the
attached to "dai" at the beginning "ro'V" series; it means
of a story like Ivan's, merely     "spiritual" and takes the place of
leads to the obvious               old "e'e".
interpretation that all attitudes    "vu'i" (virtue - sin) was
expressed in a story are those     changed to "vu'e" to match the new
attributed empathically by the     gismu "vrude".
speaker to the characters.           "se'a" is a new attitudinal
  On the other hand, I will        modifier meaning "self-sufficiency
strongly encourage the emphasis on - dependency", based on
empathy, and not that you are in   demonstrated need in Japanese and
any way claiming an attitude on    other cultures.
the part of another person.  We      "be'u" is a new attitudinal
never really know what another     modifier meaning "lack - sat-
person is thinking, or feeling; we isfaction - satiation".
can only empathically identify       "ta'u" and "ta'unai" were
with them.  hence an empathic      switched in meaning.
attitude is still the speaker's      The former term "observational"
attitude, and the Lojban attitu-   has been replaced with
dinal system remains consistent.   "evidential", to agree with
Note that there are cultures where linguistics norms, and to avoid
it is taboo, or even impossible in confusion with "observative".
the language, to express the         "se'o" is a new evidential
thoughts/feelings of another       meaning "I know by internal
person, on the grounds that this   experience (dream, vision, or
is either impossible or an         personal revelation)".
invasion of personal space.          "ka'u" is a new evidential
                                   meaning "I know by cultural
                                   means".
   Summary of cmavo Changes in       "su'a" is now both an evidential
            selma'o UI             and a discursive, displacing the
                                   old discursive for "in general -
  Here is a list of changes to     in particular".
"selma'o" UI since the attitudinal

                                  95


  "ju'a" is a new vague            the official interpretations
evidential:  "I state";            [should there be contradiction].
particularly useful in "ju'apei" = 
"How do you know?"                 Chris Handley:
  "bi'u" signals new information:    I tend to agree with John, but
"lebi'u cribe" is a newly          more strongly.  In any situation
mentioned bear, as distinct from   where there are two ways of
"lebi'unai cribe" which is a bear  specifying something (structure,
we've heard about before.          relationships, dates, whatever)
  "dai" newly assigned to indicate one of them will be wrong
empathic identification of         sometime.  How many times have you
another's feelings.                seen a notice of a meeting that
  "po'o" has been proposed as a    said something like "Tuesday, 1
discursive for the sense of "only" March 1993" and then missed the
meaning exclusively, or uniquely,  meeting because it was on the
within a context.  There is some   Monday?
debate about this addition, since  
there is no way to specify the     Nora LeChevalier:
context using the UI grammar.        I am opposed to structure
                                   markings, because these break
                                   audio-visual isomorphism.  All
 Punctuation proposals from Nick   other optional punctuation marks
             Nicholas              in the language appear with a
                                   specific words that correspond,
  To the current list of optional  and hence are 'read off' by
punctuation symbols, used to       reading the associated bracket
highlight sentence structure, I    word.
consider worthy of attention:        If brackets are needed in
  "!" for UI words.  Given the     writing these cases, what corre-
presence of "." before VV UI-      spondingly distinguishes the
words, maybe limit his to CVV UI-  grouping in speech?
words.  "!ca'e", ".ui" or ".!ui"   
  "{","}","[","]" to highlight     
structure of tanru and of various          le lojbo se ciska
grammar constructs like POI-                        
clauses.  "le cmima {bele [{vofli    Nick's Second ckafybarja Text
bo minji} jeva'i vinji] jenmi      
be'o} {poi vitke loi xendo} cu       I have to admit that Nick
bebna"                             Nicholas's proposals to use
  John Cowan has reemphasized the  bracketing to make it easier for a
need for a symbol to indicate the  reader to figure out a complex
start of a sentence, given that    text structure might be useful, or
".i" is not distinctive enough.    even necessary, for Nick's
The most appropriate such mark     writings.  The following is Nick's
would be a section-symbol or a     submission for the ckafybarja
paragraph-symbol (respectively,    project, an elaborate and
the two interlocking S's on top of stylistically complex character
each other, and the reversed       study.
filled-in P ).  Neither of these     I said that I would print all
is ASCII.  I don't see why we      ckafybarja submissions so they can
don't revive John Hodges's         be evaluated by the community.
proposal, in JL10, that we revive  Unfortunately, I have to admit
the "=" for that purpose.  If we   that I could not read the Lojban,
need something chunkier, perhaps a even with the bracketing that Nick
"@" or a "#".                      inserted 'to make it easier'.
                                     Unfortunately for Nick, I agree
John Cowan comments:               with Nora that Lojban's
  These [use of "{","}","[","]"]   audiovisual isomorphism requires
are OK, but anyone using them must that the grammar be understandable
be warned that they never affect   based on what is supplied in the

                                  96


words themselves.  Lojban's design Lojbanists do not know what to do
presumes that all 'punctuation' is with it.]
spoken.  As such, punctuation that   This issue, I had to check to
is inserted to make a text easier  make sure any lujvo were properly
to read must be algorithmically    formed, and update them to the new
derivable from the text structure  rafsi list.  Irregular cmavo
itself.  The bracketing that Nick  compounding made this work more
included in the following text     difficult.  When I see a compound
occasionally violated the          like "na'igo'i" that counters
grammatical structures of the      grammatical sense, I have to rule
language.  For many of his         out the possibility that it might
markings, I saw no obvious         be a mismade lujvo or a typo,
explanation that allowing me to    omitting the hyphen 'r' that would
predict what bracketing he felt to make it valid.  Since many rafsi
be useful, and what he felt it was represent gismu that are related
unimportant to include.            in meaning to the cmavo of the
  In addition to bracketing        same form, it is plausible that an
explicitly, Nick tends to write    irregular compound will be seem
many cmavo as compounds when there semantically plausible as a
is neither a grammatical link      erroneous form for a lujvo.   I am
between the words, nor a common    thus coming to believe that Lojban
English word as translation.  He   does not have the redundancy to
and I clearly have different ideas support significant cmavo
as to what should constitute a     compounding.  Even fluent speakers
Lojban 'word'.  In one case he     of a language make typos when
wrote "na'igo'i", which in a side  writing, and learning Lojbanists
comment he says is patterned after (which all of us are) make even
"nago'i".  But "na'igo'i" is in    more typos, but also grammatical
error if he wishes the "na'i" to   and lujvo-making errors, that
apply to go'i, so this kind of     irregular word forms can hide.
compounding must not be allowed to   Thus, I removed all of Nick's
creep into the language.           markings, and expanded most of his
  [My own policy, rather           compounds, prior to inserting my
utilitarian, is that a compound is own efforts to structure the text.
a single word if it forms a        I then inserted those markers that
gestalt image in the mind that is  I could come up with simple
more than the components.  To the  algorithmic rules for (I did this
extent that the gestalt differs    manually, so there may be some
from the components, the word      inconsistencies).  New sentences
needs to be put into a dictionary. are marked with an equals sign
If the compound is not made of     (=), per Nick's suggestion, and I
words linked grammatically, a      also left 3 spaces before the
dictionary cannot define the word  mark.  I added quotation marks,
as having a single meaning -       parentheses (and brackets for
violating the Lojban design - and  parentheses marked as editorial),
you may need to break the compound and question marks for question
down into components in order to   words and exclamation points for
figure out what the role of the    attitudinals.  I figured any more
individual words is.  A secondary  marks would make the text simply
factor is that automated           too punctuated, and indeed in
processing of Lojban text,         places it seems to have exceeded
including the spelling checker I   reason already.
use in preparing JL and the Lojban   Nick's text unfortunately gave
glosser Nora is writing has        few clues for paragraphing.  The
trouble dealing with irregular     unfortunate result was a block of
compounds.  It seems likely that   Lojban that was extremely hard to
learning Lojbanists will have the  read, even with (or especially
same problem - if a word is not    with) the forest of punctuation
found in standard word lists, many marks.

                                  97


  Nick's style of quotation made   words they follow, whereas Nick
it impossible to try to follow     generally writes them as
English-like practices of starting compounds.
new quotations in a new paragraph.   Until someone convinces me
He has quotations in the beginning differently, I am going to take a
of sentences, in the middle of     hard-nosed attitude towards text
sentences, at the end of           structure.  I need people to keep
sentences.  In one place he has a  their style simple enough that the
series of alternating quotes and   rules of the language convey what
names in a single sentence with no they are supposed to.  I hope Nick
clue for the Lojbanist as to how   and everyone else forgives what I
to link the two (we have           did to his text.  I hope this
metalinguistic structures specifi- effort, if nothing else, leads to
cally designed to communicate the  some agreements for the future on
'he said'/'she said' of            standards for text submission and
conversation, but Nick did not use for editing.
these.                               Nick's character sketches are
  Nick's parentheses are           certainly interesting, even if you
especially confusing - a paren-    need to read the English text.
thetical note attaches             Good luck and encouragement to
grammatically as a free modifier   those who try the Lojban!
to the previous word, and Nick's     All footnotes are by Lojbab,
placements often made no sense by  except where marked otherwise.
this rule.  If a parenthetical     
needs to be broken into a separate 
thought, as in Nick's long                    kafybarja #2
digression near the end of his     
story, it must be separated from     pamo'o
the previous word by an ".i"         ®lu go'e   =.ibaboke'u ko'u
(using Lojban metalinguistic       bacru ®lu ko seljde loi mabru
markers to refer to the outside    li'uЇ li'uЇ
text as needed).                     =.i lei puze'a tirna cu milxe ke
  I decided to double indent       se cfipu cmila   =.i la paul.
paragraphs, and to single indent   bacru ®lu mabru tcini .!u'iru'e
new sentences that were            li'uЇ gi'e cevni melbi co dasni lo
immediately followed by a start of xekri birtu'ucau .!i'ero'u
quotation mark or which            nercreka   =.i ge lerci tcika vi
immediately followed after a       le barja gi carmi melbi co xekri
quotation ended.  This seems       fa le tsani za'a loi selca'o nenri
something an automatic algorithm   prenu   =.i so'o ve barja mo'u
can do, and it helps a little in   cliva   =.i la lizbet. na'e go'i
making the text easier on the      cadykei be le xekri tedykre36 be
eyes, if not on the brain.         la paul. kalsa be'o se mlifanza
  Nick's compounds are expanded    cisma no'e zanru le xajmi
unless they are compounds that     =.ivu.!u'esaibo ti'e xekri kalsa
would be joined by the lexer       tu'a loi juntytri .!ii poi vlipa
component of the Lojban parser     joi vlile joi ke daspo joi finti
(and sometimes I expand those,     vau .!u'e   =.i ki vive'i kamjikca
since lexer compounds can be       simsa go'i .!i'unai
arbitrarily long), or unless they      no'i la liz. dasni lo grusi
are of patterns that have          notcreka (to le no'a cu se kanla
traditionally been written as      loi danmo blanu za'a toi) be ®lu
compounds in Loglan/Lojban         lenu prami cu ca'e nu nelci carmi
writings like "lenu" and "lemi",   se trina lo prenu ju nakni ju
and "leca" (which usually means    ____________________
that they have a simple English    36Nick translates this as "chaos",
word or phrase in translation that for which he used the gismu
makes it easy to think of the      "kalsa" elsewhere in the piece; I
compound as a unit).  I generally  get nothing from the metaphor
separated indicators from the      "earth-hair".

                                  98


fetsi vau !pa'ero'a li'uЇ ne loi     =.i ®lu   =.i mi du'eroi
lerfu co xekri   =.i mi (to lego'i .!u'anaizo'o se gletro   =.i mi
cu se kerfa loi na'e kalsa za'a    purlamcte39 seku'i go'i la liz.
toi) cairmau me leli'i grusi   =.i .!oinai .!u'i li'uЇ ®lu   =.i ?xu
grusi fa lemi plokarlycreka .e le  purpla40 go'i zo'o li'uЇ ®lu
palku .e le kosycreka noi jgena se =.ipe'i .!ianai snuti li'uЇ ®lu
dasni ru'u le xadmidju   =.i su'o  =.i la paul. jikfazgau ?.iepei doi
prenu cu ba'anaika'uta'o sanga     liz. .!u'iru'e li'uЇ ®lu   =.i
bacru ®lu  =.i RUSpre ce RUSta'u   carmi jikfazgau ju'o .!iu   =.i ko
ce rusxirXEMkla li'uЇ              co'u xlapre .!u'i li'uЇ ®lu
  =.i na'i go'i sa'e   =.i {lu'e   =.izo'o tu'a ko bapli .!e'inai
ry. ce'o .ubu ce'o sy.}37 cu ka'u  li'uЇ  (to bu'a .!o'e fi leka
drani se basti {lu'e xy. ce'o. ebu smaji ke lamji prami joi pendo noi
ce'o ky. ce'o ry. ce'o .ybu}       su'anai se mupli na'ebo lecaca'a
=.ita'ocu'i su'u xekri kei vi le   seltra .!i'o toi) ®lu   =.i mi
kafybarja                          le'o go'i li'uЇ
    ni'oremo'o su'o bevri cu         =.i la paul. ce la liz. co'a
.!a'acu'i masno kasydzu zo'i loi   cisma simtipyda'a ni'a le jubme
ve barja   =.i la paul. cu tavla   =.i la liz. (to gasta bo demxa'e
(to le no'a mebri cu jurja'o   =.i ce margu bo jamfu ce xamsi bo
le laurxampre pu'i vlipa           kanla vau .!io toi) certu lezu'o
.!i'e.i'onai cei bu'a38 toi) fi    ca'arcau damba   =.i mi se
leli'i gletro                      mliburna ctacarna co na'eke
                                   ca'arcau damba certu gi'e zgana le
____________________               barja ni'o le paltylu'i41 ku jo'u
37These strings could have been    le jukpa puza cliva   =.ija'ebo le
done more clearly using the Mex    barja cu tatpi smaji   =.iji'a le
grammar, which allows you to talk  trixe be le barja be'o noi di'i
about strings of letters and       krasi leka to'e cando gi'e kurfa
numbers as strings.  "me'o         kei ki'u lepu'u re ru vi ri
ry.ubusy." and "me'o               zdidabysnu (to ®lu   =.i do te
xy.ebukyry.ybu" would be the       sluji le birka lo mleca be la'e mi
corresponding string expressions.  .!o'a li'uЇ ®lu   =.i .!e'u mi'o
Since lerfu used as sumti (as is   cipra .!a'e birvrajvi   =.i .!ai
the case in this text) are         le pritu   =.i do djuno .!o'ocu'i
presumed to be anaphoric           ledu'u le zunle pe mi tsame'a le
abbreviations, rather than literal pritu birka doi paul. li'uЇ ®lu
text, this version really isn't    =.i ?xu purpla go'i zo'o li'uЇ
correct, though it can be figured  toi) tigni fi loi ve barja cu ca
out.                               malmliselgu'i ke dukri'a kunti
38This usage is wrong.  "bu'a" is  =.i la paul. jinga fi la liz. fe
one of the existential predicate   lenu birvrajvi   =.i la liz. go'i
variables, equivalent to "da" for  fi mi fu'i (to ba'e dukri'a kunti
sumti.  Acting like "goi" does for toi)   =.i lerci tcika vi le barja
sumti, "cei" is the selbri         =.i mi'a pu'o jbuboikei
assignment marker used to assign   
values to the unbound selbri       ____________________
variables of the brodV-series.     39The lujvo-scoring algorithm
The latter series corresponds to   given with the rafsi lists this
"ko'a" series for sumti, and not   issue would give a slight
for "da" series, and is clearly    preference to "prulamcte" over
what Nick intends in this usage,   "purlamcte".
since he anaphorically repeats the 40The lujvo-scoring algorithm
bridi of this sentence in the next given with the rafsi lists this
parenthesis by back reference to   issue would give a slight
"*bu'a".                           preference to "prupla" over
 On the other hand, the mechanisms "purpla".
available for defining or re-      41I would have used the more
stricting bu'a series variables    general "ctitcilu'i" for "dish-
are relatively undefined.          washer".

                                  99


    ni'ocimo'o le jatna ®lu   =.i  doi paul. do pu nupre lenu mi'o
.!a'o do joi le pendo be do cu     clira sipna   =.i mi cu'urzu'e co
xaufri ca leca vanci li'uЇ mi ®lu  bavlamdei li'uЇ  la paul. ®lu
=.i go'i .!io   =.i ca pamoi zu'o  =.i .!u'i ?xu purpla go'i li'uЇ mi
mi vitke le barja ca lo            ®lu   =.i .!ua mi se sitna li'uЇ
relmoicte42   =.iza'a .!u'eru'e      [tosa'a lemu'e sitna na dunli
lei ve barja cu clira cliva ca le  lemu'e xusra   =.i la paul. cu
cabdei li'uЇ                       nalri'i bacru do'i44 pe zo
  =.i le re jibni be mi depcni     ®simfraЇ gi'u xusra   =.i loi
catlu le jatna   =.i le jatna ®lu  cmavo be zo ®zo'oЇ na'o banzu lenu
=.i go'i ki'u leka lei cibdei na'o lo te sitna lo se xusra cu frica
cabdei lenu mutce gunka kei vi     =.i lemu'e mi se sitna cu te ciste
levi tcadu   =.ita'o do noi ta'e   lo pemci joi kelci jenai xusra
klama le barja ca lei xavycte cu   plitadji be la paul. bei le bangu
punai pe'i penmi la xiron. noi vi  bei lenu jikca pluja   =.i na
sidju li'uЇ                        nibli fa le nunsitna lenu morna
  =.i la paul. ce la liz. smaji    sinma   =.i na nibli na'ebo le
casnu lenu ri jo'u ra ba litru     sego'i .!u'i  =.i mi mutce
la'e le merko   =.i le jatna cu    mezo®toЇ tavla   =.i ?xu !se'izo'o
degji jarco le clani ke blabi      purpla go'i toi]
creka xadyti'e be le cnino be mi     la liz. ®lu malxlu zo'o li'uЇ
gi'e cisma bacru ®lu   =.i .!ai mi   =.i lerci tcika vi le barja
bazi benji ri do ge'e li'uЇ gi'e   =.i mi'a puba'o jbuboikei   =.i
cliva   =.i la liz. bacru ®lu      lei bevri cu .!a'acu'i masno bo
=.i do li'a selxagmau43 mi'a tu'a  kalsydzu fa'u sutra bo kalsydzu
le bangu .!o'o li'uЇ               fa'u cando   =.i casnu loi
  =.i le re se cimei na lojbo      sancrfrikative .e loi relcinpampre
=.i mi ®lu   =.i nu vlipa jivna    girvlici'e .e loi nalzva pendo
zo'o   =.i mi jitro joi seltro     ca'o le nicte noi sruri be lo ba'a
li'uЇ  la paul. ®lu   =.i ca ro nu vu trene co pelxu gusni nenri
za'u prenu cu simfra cu nu vlipa   pamei ke sirji darno xemkla zmitra
jivna ru'a   =.i go'i cu'u la      ke snura grusi nalkalsa kunti be'o
djen.  vecu'u le samsnuci'e        .!uo xekri
=.iseni'ibozo'o.  .!iecu'i         
go'eje'u li'uЇ  mi ®lu   =.i ?xu   Translation of Nick's Coffeehouse
purpla go'i zo'o li'uЇ  la paul.                  Text
®lu le xaupre za'ota'e bacru ®lu   
?xu purpla li'uЇ  li'uЇ  mi ®lu    I
=.i ?xu purpla go'i zo'o li'uЇ la    "That's right.  And then he
liz. ®lu   =.i co'a lerci   =.i    says, 'Beware of the mammals.'"
____________________                 Those who have been listening
42This one lost me for a little    smile with mild confusion.  Paul
bit, since the names of the days   says "So, it's a mammal kind of
of the week do not include the     situation!", and is godlike-
rafsi for "moi", and Nick did not  beautiful in his black tank-top
use "moi" elsewhere in the story   (mmm...).  It's late in the cafe,
for "Saturday night".  (Actually,  and the night is pitch-beautiful
the English translation doesn't    dark to those inside, on the other
mention it being night, but the    side of the window.  A few cafe
previous sentence mentions         patrons have already left.
evening.  Since we worked hard to  Lizbet, who hasn't, toys with the
give Lojban culturally neutral     chaos of Paul's hair, smiling
definitions for the parts of the   slightly annoyed in disapproval of
day, word choice here could be     the joke.  Far, far away, I hear,
significant to some.)              there are black chaoses of
43The lujvo-scoring algorithm      ____________________
given with the rafsi lists this    44This is "dai" on older cmavo
issue would give a slight          lists; see "dai" in the list of
preference to "selxaumau" over     new members of UI elsewhere in
"selxagmau".                       this issue.

                                 100


gravity, that strongly and           "Yeah? Let's test them!  Arm-
violently both destroy and create! wrestle.  The right! You know my
Right here and now, social-wise,   left is weaker than my right,
something similar is happening...  Paul!" "On purpose? :) " )
  Now, Liz is wearing a grey T-      - amusement, is now ill-lit, and
shirt (her eyes are smoky blue, I  anguishingly empty.  Paul beats
see), saying "Love is an intense   Liz at arm-wrestling.  Liz beats
fondness and attraction to a       me, surprise surprise.
person whether male or female!" in (Anguishingly empty.) It's late at
black letters.  I (her hair is not the cafe.  We're about to play
a chaos) am more into greyness.    pool.
Grey are my shirt and my pants and 
my sweater tied around my waist.   III
It has been sung, I recall, in my    The Manager: "I hope you and
culture: "For grey he was, and     your friends are enjoying the
grey he wore, and grey too was his evening?" Me: "Indeed, sir.  This
steed." Actually, not precisely    is the first time I've been at the
so.  The string "G.R.E.Y." should  cafe on a Tuesday.  I see the
be replaced with the string        patrons are leaving early today!"
"B.L.A.C.K.".                      My two neighbors patiently look at
  To sum up (or to expand!),       the manager.  The Manager: "That's
there's a blackness going on in    because Wednesdays get quite busy
the cafe.                          in this town.  By the way, since
                                   you usually come into the bar on
II                                 Saturday nights, you will not have
  Waiters, I suppose, are ambling  met Xiron45, who has been helping
slowly past the patrons.  Paul is  out here."
talking (his brow looks serious.     Paul and Liz are quietly talking
The loud joker has been known to   about their trip to the States.
show strength - how I envy!) on    The Manager points out to me the
topping.  "I get topped too often, long, white-shirted back of
I'm afraid.  But I did top Liz     someone new to me and smiling
last night! Hehehe!" "On purpose?  says: "I'll (hm...) send him to
:) " "Oh, I think it was an acci-  you later", and leaves.
dent!" "Paul is being a pest,        Liz says "You...  clearly have
don't you think so, Liz?" "Quite a the advantage of language over
pest! Stop being a bastard, love!" us."  Two of the threesome do not
"Oh yeah? Make me!" (...  he has   speak Lojban.
been known to show strength in a     Me: "It's power conflict!  I top
quiet, close love/friendship -     and am topped."
which is not exemplified by this     Paul: "At any time more than one
behavior in particular!) "I will!" persons interact, there is a power
  Paul and Liz start smilingly     conflict.  Jen says so on the
kicking each other under the       electronic news, so it must be
table.  Liz (fists of steel, legs  true!"
of mercury, eyes of the sea...) is   Me: "On purpose?"
an expert in self-defence.  I, not   Paul: "Our good man here has
being an expert in self-defence,   been saying 'On purpose' a bit too
turn around in slight              long."
embarrassment and observe the      ____________________
cafe.                              45The Lojban is obviously a
  The dish-washer and the cook     reference to the character
have left.  As a result the cafe   proposed by Veijo, and described
is tired-quiet.  Also, the back of in JL17.  Apparently Nick votes in
the cafe, normally the source of   favor of Xiron (though he
bustling and comfort because of    inexplicably spelled it 'Chiron'
the two of them debated there for  in his version of this English
our -                              translation).  Nick appears to add
  ("Your biceps are smaller than   the stipulation that Saturday is
mine! Ha!"                         Xiron's regular day off.

                                 101


  Me: "...  On purpose?"           structures), or have I missed
  Liz: "It's getting late.  Paul,  something?
you promised we'd get to bed            citka le nanmu le cripu
early.  I'm busy tomorrow."            le cripu se citka le nanmu
  Paul: "On purpose?"              Also, if these are correct, are
  Me: "Aha! I've been quoted!"     there any other variants on the
[Editorial digression.  Quotation  sentence that are grammatical?
is not equivalent to assertion.    (And yes, I am aware that the
Paul informally utters the         event described in these sentences
"Interacts" sentence, independent  is rather unlikely, but I wanted
of whether or not he is asserting  to keep this simple, and there
it.  My being quoted is part of    appears to be no gismu for
the poetic, or playful, rather     "bicycle".)
than assertional usage of language 
by Paul to make his social inter-  Lojbab responds:
actions complex.  The quotation      In each case:  almost, but not
does not imply emulation.  Nor     quite, equivalent.
does it imply non-emulation! I use   Starting with "le nanmu cu citka
parentheses a lot.  On purpose? :) le cripu".  This is identical to
]                                  "le nanmu le cripu cu citka", and
  Liz: "You're a bad influence.    both have the same x1 and same x2.
smile"                               To put both sumti after "citka",
  It's late at the cafe.  We have  you must mark the first, because
been playing pool.  The waiters, I Lojban assumes that if there is no
suppose, are ambling slow and      sumti before the selbri "citka"
ambling fast and idling.  We're    that you have omitted the x1.  You
talking fricatives and bisexual    must thus mark the x1 place with
politics and absent friends during "fa" which says that the following
a night that, surrounding a        is the x1 place:
distant putative train, lonesome       citka fa le nanmu le cripu
yellow lit interior / direct         Using "fe", the marker for the
distant vehicle automaton / secure x2 place, you can derive even more
grey unchaos empty, is (THE END)   forms basically mixing "fa le
black.                             nanmu" "fe le cripu" and "citka"
                                   in all combinatoric orders,
                                   inserting a "cu" if either of the
       More Usage Questions        sumti is before the "citka".
                                     All of these are equivalent in a
  Following are essays on usage    broad sense, the difference being
questions that are perhaps less    one of emphasis:  the thing at the
technical, and have not led to     front of the sentence is typical
significant proposals for change.  the thing of highest emphasis, and
In most cases, they are further    the thing at the end of secondary
explanations of usage issues       emphasis.  The rules for emphasis
discussed in earlier publications. are pragmatic mostly, and are
                                   based on our experiences rather
Dean Gahlon asks a simple question than a formal prescription.
                                     If you insert "se", the result
  This is a very basic question;   is a 'conversion' and 'equivalent'
hopefully, the answer will also be becomes a trickier proposition.
simpler.  The canonical form of a    le cripu cu se citka le nanmu
Lojban sentence seems to be        (note that "cu" is needed)
something like this:               expresses the same relationship as
    le nanmu cu citka le cripu     the above sentences, but there is
     The man eats the bridge.      a minor difference in that the
My question is:  are the following labels 'x1' and 'x2' are reversed,
two forms equivalent to this (as I and you have to use "fa" and "fe"
think they should be, given my     appropriate to the new numbering
understanding of place             to rearrange the terms, but all of
                                   the options listed above are still

                                 102


possible, with "se citka" as the   "the bridgish eaten-thing");
central selbri.                    that's another bit of hairy
  There is some question whether a semantics.  I like to consider it
conversion 'means the same thing', quite the same as "le nanmu cu
though, because the other things   citka le cripu", but even I, like
you can do to a converted          most others, often consider a SE-
predicate have different meanings: converted selbri somehow to have a
"le citka" (the eater) is          different semantic loading than an
different from "le se citka" (the  unconverted one.  So, when I hear
thing eaten) in a later back       "se citka" I think "is-eaten", and
reference to the above sentence    thus would get a different meaning
relationship.                      for "le cripu cu se citka [zo'e]"
  There is some question whether   as opposed to "[zo'e] citka le
"le nu citka" and "le nu se citka" cripu", even though both have the
have the same meaning, with or     same brivla (citka), and the same
without the x1 and x2 filled in.   sumti ("zo'e" [elliptical "it"] in
Again, they abstract the same      the eater position (so to speak),
relationship, and the resulting    and "le cripu" in the eaten
'event' being described is the     position).
same event.  But pragmatically, we   'Course, you may not have gotten
would often construe different     up to this yet, but there are
meaning to the use of one over the other ways to mangle the word-
other.                             order in a Lojban predication.
                                   There's selma'o FA, which allows
Mark Shoulson gives his answer:    totally free reorganization
  In Lojban, the order of sumti    (basically, the chief words in FA
with respect to selbri is fairly   are "fa", "fe", "fi", "fo", &
free.  The usual way of doing      "fu", which mark the next
things is, as here, in "SVO" form  following sumti as belonging in
(scare quotes because it's not     the x1, x2, x3, x4, & x5 places of
really applicable in Lojban):  x1  the current bridi, respectively.
place, then selbri, then remaining Following a FA-marked sumti,
sumti.  The other common form is   subsequent unmarked sumti are
"SOV" form: "le nanmu le cripu cu  considered to continue se-
citka".  This is also fine.        quentially from the point
Presumably, with many sumti,       specified by the FA.)  Needless to
there's nothing wrong with putting say, this allows you to construct
the selbri anywhere among them     truly confusing sentences, put
(but see below).  So, "mi le briju more than one sumti into the same
cu klama le zdani" ("I to the-     place with no conjunction, etc.
office go from the-nest") is OK,   
too.                                      SVO Order in Lojban
  Using "VSO" form, "citka le       JCB's Rationale, with commentary
nanmu le cripu", is quite          by John Cowan, Colin Fine, Lojbab
grammatical, but poses a different 
problem.  By current usage, since    During a computer network
VSO is not a common word-order in  discussion of word order in
many languages, the "selbri-first" constructed languages, the
word-order is reserved for         rationale for the predominant SVO
"observative" sentences - ones     (subject-verb-object) order used
with the x1 place ellipsized.      in Loglan/Lojban came to be
Thus, the above sentence would     discussed.  This article
probably be understood to mean     summarizes that discussion.  For
"(something) eats the man ??? the  those unfamiliar with the
bridge" - since "citka" only has 2 grammatical word-order termi-
places, it would be unclear how    nology, with regard to
the bridge related to it all.      Loglan/Lojban it is generally pre-
  As to using "le cripu cu se      sumed that the selbri is the
citka le nanmu" (the "cu" is       "verb", the first sumti is the
necessary here, otherwise we get   "subject", and all other sumti are

                                 103


the "object".  The reasons for       One form of the argument then
this will come out in the article.   hinges on the management of
Note that Colin's 'proposal' is      imperatives.2
one that is proposed quite often,    
and the commentary may thus help   John Cowan:  Both Loglan and
people better understand the       Lojban have to some extent
rationale for the current design.  withdrawn from the original
  Any such discussion must start   rejection of case marking, and
with the original rationale for    have created a set of optional
Loglan, which was that of James    case tags.  However, neither form
Cooke Brown (JCB).  The following  of the language uses them much.
text was originally written by JCB In Lojban, the argument about
in 1967-68, published as part of   "imperatives" which follows must
Chapter 6 of his book Loglan 2:    be replaced by an exactly parallel
Methods of Construction, and       argument about "observatives",
reprinted in The Loglanist 1:2, p. since Lojban interprets a V-first
54ff.  These publications are long sentence as an elliptical subject
out of print and hard to find.     without imperative coloring.  I
                                   have added bracketed comments to
John Cowan(JC):                    the next paragraph giving the
  It provides an interesting       Lojban, as distinct from the
insight into the mind of a lan-    Loglan, viewpoint.
guage designer at work.              
                                   JCB (cont.)
JCB:                                   Now imperatives [Lojban:
  [JCB begins by defending SVO as    observatives] are almost
  the order of choice because of     invariably short forms; there is
  its prevalence in Chinese,         apparently little scope for
  English, Russian, Spanish,         long-windedness in giving
  French, and German, 6 of his 8     warnings or commands [Lojban:
  source languages.]                 drawing the hearer's attention
    "There was a time, however,      to things in the environment].
  when [VSO] order was seriously,    Moreover, the first argument of
  if briefly, considered for         an imperatively [Lojban:
  Loglan.  This order has a          observatively] used predicate is
  certain traditional charm for      almost always the hearer
  logicians - witness the standard   [Lojban:  understood from con-
  schematic notation 'Fxy' for a     text], and as the omission of
  two-place predicate, for example   any constant feature of a
  - and for certain purposes of      message cannot reduce its
  manipulation it has undeniable     information content, first ar-
  advantages.  But for a spoken      guments are nearly always
  and, at the same time,             [Lojban:  always] omitted in the
  uninflected language the VSO or-   imperative [Lojban:
  der turns out to be quite          observative] mode (e.g. as in
  unsuitable.  The argument which    English 'Go!' - [Lojban:
  discloses that result may bear     'Delicious!']).  But if we omit
  repeating here.                    the first argument from the form
    We note first that, on the       PAA (Predicate-Argument-
  most fundamental grounds,          Argument) - for arguments, note,
  arguments are not to be            are to be taken as
  distinguished except by word or-   indistinguishable - we obtain a
  der in Loglan.  Thus we            result that does not differ from
  entertain no "case endings", or    the result of omitting a second
  other marking devices, by which    argument, or a third.  Therefore
  "Subjects" can be intrinsically    the adoption of the PAA schema
  distinguished from "Objects".1     as the standard order for the
____________________               ____________________
1I leave the argument behind this  2It could as well be based on
remark, however, to the reader.    specified descriptions; see below.

                                 104


  Loglan sentence deprives us of a   spoken language they are far
  good way of defining imperatives   more frequent than unabbreviated
  [Lojban:  observatives].  In       forms - the predicate can no
  fact, it deprives us of the only   longer be treated as a prefix or
  way of defining imperatives that   a suffix of its uninflected
  is consistent with the other       arguments ('Fxy' or 'xyF') but
  patterns of an uninflected         must be treated as an infix
  language.                          ('xFy').  It is only of such
                                     initially infixed arrangements
John Cowan:  Lojban resolved this    that the fragments left by the
by making use of a special           removal of uninflected arguments
"imperative 2nd person pronoun"      (e.g.  'xF' and 'Fy') remain
which may appear as any argument,    reconstructible and, hence,
thus permitting more complex         grammatically clear.3
imperative forms while remaining   
"uninflected".  This enabled us to Colin Fine then commented on JCB's
use a missing argument to indicate rationale:
an observative.                      It is remarkable how weak these
                                   arguments are, from the
JCB (cont.):                       perspective of 25 years later.
    Similar difficulties arise       Consider the following.
  with specified descriptions.       - 1.  The major justification
  Thus if 'He gave the horse to      was in terms of imperatives.
  John' is to become something       This was a strong argument as
  like 'Gave he the horse John',     long as "the only way of
  how do you say 'the giver of the   defining imperatives that is
  horse to John'?  A form like       consistent with the other pat-
  'the give the horse John' will     terns of an uninflected
  not do, since it is the            language" was to omit the
  designation of the giver, not      leading argument.  But as John
  the gift, which normally follows   points out, we have an elegant
  the predicate.  Only by            and flexible alternative method.
  introducing some sort of dummy     (JCB's original argument about
  argument into the 'Fxyz' form,     imperatives stressed the
  e.g. 'F-yz', can we keep the       importance of minimal
  meaning clear.  But this is        morphological material in them,
  awkward.  These seemed good        and gave examples from natural
  reasons not to use the VSO form,   languages; but in fact there are
  especially as the SVO form does    plenty of contrary examples with
  not suffer this disaster.  Thus,   more morphology in them, such as
  the schema APA yields an           polite imperatives in German
  unmistakable PA in the             "gehen sie!".)
  imperative [Lojban:
  observative] mood.               ____________________
    Incidentally, the SOV order    3In these analyses, by the way, we
  ('He the horse John gave')       may have isolated the ambiguity-
  collapses into the same kind of  avoidance mechanism behind one of
  ambiguity under the pressure of  Greenberg's most interesting
  abbreviation.  (Is 'The horse    universals, namely that all SOV
  John give' an imperative, or an  languages have case systems (his
  incomplete declaration?)  Thus,  Universal 41).  I am surprised
  curiously enough, and            that the principle does not hold
  independent of any facts about   for VSO languages as well.  If it
  the distribution of these        did, we should then have strong
  arrangements among languages, we evidence for the even more
  would have been forced to        interesting converse principle
  abandon the logicians' nota-     that only SVO languages can be
  tional convention anyway.  For   analytic:  a fact we suspect
  once incomplete or abbreviated   anyway, but we would then know
  forms are considered - and in a  why.

                                 105


  - 2.  Given that the omitted         rules as filling the Xn place,
  first place now signals an ob-       S fills the X(n+1) place.
  servative rather than an             b) if no sumti precedes, S
  imperative, the argument becomes     fills the x1 place except in
  feeble.  Even if observatives        the case of an observative
  had continued to be used as          when it fills the x2 place.
  apparently intended, statements    - iv) (a stylistic or discourse
  such as "there is apparently       observation) a syntactic ob-
  little scope for long-windedness   servative (with x1 unstated) is
  in ... drawing the hearer's        often appropriate for uses that
  attention to things in the         might be referred to
  environment" are highly dubious.   stylistically as observatives,
  It is true that there are short    such as "kukte" ("Delicious!").
  observatives ("Delicious!") but    But it is equally useful where
  equally there are long and         the x1 is omitted because
  tortuous ones ("A man on a         pragmatically reconstructible
  unicycle eating cream cakes!").    (for example in narrative:  "la
  Furthermore, I observe that        maik. mu'o klama  .i rinsa mi'a"
  'observatives' are not in          ("Mike arrived.  [He] greeted
  practice limited to this use in    us.") ) or for structural
  current Lojban writing and         reasons to do with clause weight
  speaking, but that lojbo feel      ("cumki falenu loi xarju cu
  free to omit the x1 in just the    vofli da'i" = [it is] possible
  same way as they do any other      that pigs might fly).
  argument.  Indeed, constructions   
  like                             Lojbab:  There are stylistic and
       "cumki falenu ..." (it is   pragmatic uses for the
          possible that ...)       "observative" word-order/x1-
  where the x1 is postposed by an  omission other than spontaneous,
  explicit x1 marker ('fa'), are   brief observation ("Delicious!").
  syntactically equivalent to      But the latter was the justifi-
  observatives, and not unusual    cation for providing the short
  with words like 'cumki'.         form.
I would analyze the current        
situation in Lojban thus:          Colin:
  - i) A bridi consists of a         Thus, while observatives
  string consisting of zero or     currently exist as a distinct
  more terms (optionally tagged    grammatical structure in Lojban,
  sumti) and one selbri.  The sel- they are distinguished only by a
  bri may occur first, last, or    special rule of default
  between any two terms.           interpretation.  The argument
  - ii) The case where the selbri  originally advanced in respect of
  comes first has some special     imperatives really does not seem
  properties of interpretation     to have any weight once
  (below), and is therefore        transposed.
  treated as a special               The second argument advanced was
  construction, called, for        in respect of selgadri (specified
  historical reasons,              descriptions) [ed. note:  sumti of
  'observative'.                   the form "le {selbri} be {x2
  - iii) An untagged sumti S is    sumti} bei {x3 sumti ...} be'o"].
  interpreted as follows (ignore   Remarkably, this argument is
  all terms tagged with BAI, tense actually stronger in respect of
  or FIhO in this):                Lojban than it was for Loglan (at
    a) if the preceding sumti is   least when I knew it, in the late
    tagged with an explicit        70's) because Loglan then had a
    positional marker (FA)         series of words that meant "befe,
    indicating the Xn place of the befi, befo, befu" i.e. the links
    selbri, or is interpreted by   indicated the place of the
    recursive application of these following argument.  (There was no
                                   'bei' equivalent).  Given this,

                                 106


his argument that "the give the      sumti - except that it would be
horse John" could not be inter-      simpler, because there are only
preted as "The giver of the horse    following sumti.
to John" because there was an        In short, a VSO version of
omitted argument, is simply false. Lojban could be created by making
                                   two changes to interpretation, and
  Lojbab:  Actually, Lojban "be"   no changes to syntax, viz.:
  is the exact equivalent of the     1) In a bridi, the first
  first of these, and "bei" the    untagged sumti is always the x1,
  second of these, provided that   whether it precedes or follows the
  there is no use of the fa/fe/fi- selbri;
  series of tags.  Loglan            2) In a selbri with linked
  eliminated the higher-numbered   sumti, the first untagged sumti is
  places in the early 1980s,       the x2, and the meaning of the
  combining them into "bei", as    selbri as a taurpau or selgadypau
  part of the development of the   (tanru or description component)
  unambiguous machine grammar, as  is the x1.  To specify the x1
  part of the recognition that     (meaningless in a selgadri), FA
  sumti numbering need not be a    must be used.
  function of the syntax (i.e.,      The first removes a complexity
  that the grammar should not be   from the current rule, the second
  counting the number of sumti in  inserts it back in elsewhere.
  a bridi - in other words, that     The effects on usage would be:
  you did not need separate        
  grammar structures for 2-place     Current         VSO
  bridi, 3 place bridi, etc.).        
  This was still in the 70s, I     1.  Normal bridi with leading
  think, but it might ave been 80- sumti would not be affected:
  81.  Older versions of Loglan      mi viska ta     viska mi ta
  rarely made use of omitted sumti    or  mi viska ta
  (at least partially because so   
  little text of any complexity or 2.  True observatives with no
  naturalness was written), so it  positional sumti would not be
  was never analyzed in the 70s    affected:
  version, how, for example, you     kukte           kukte
  would skip the x2 sumti in a       carvi vi lei bartu     carvi vi
  specified description.  You      lei bartu
  could not merely leave out the     or vi lei bartu ku carvi    or
  "befe" equivalent term and jump  vi lei bartu ku carvi
  to the "befi" term.  So older    
  Loglan is really the same as
  Lojban with regard to the argu-
  ment that follows.
  
Colin (cont.):
  In current Lojban, the argument
does have some weight, since
"be"/"bei" are merely syntactic
glue, and do not specify the role
of the following term.  However,
it is not convincing, for the
following reason:
  At present, as sketched above,
  there is a rule of inter-
  pretation which says that if the
  first unmarked sumti in a bridi
  follows the selbri, it is to be
  taken as the x2, not the x1.
  There is no a priori reason not
  to apply the same rule to linked

                                 107


3.  True observatives with         an observative, and interpreted
following arguments would require  according to the observative rule,
a FA:                              i.e.:
  batke le gerku  batke fe le      
gerku                              ne'i le purdi ga'a mi mu'i leza'i
   or  batke ta le gerku                birti kei cu preti ta mi
   or  ta batke le gerku                         means
                                    In the garden, watched by me, in
4.  bridi with omitted x1 would     order to be certain, (something
require a FA:                      was) a question about that to me.
  .i suksa bacru di'e    .i suksa             rather than
bacru fe di'e                      ... that was a question about me.
   or  .i suksa bacru ri di'e      Thus my account above is not
   or  .i ri suksa bacru di'e      complete.
                                     2.  Thus the observative rule
5.  selgadri with linked sumti     applies when there are no untagged
would not be affected:             or FA-tagged sumti preceding the
  le batke be le gerku   le batke  selbri.  This is a different rule
be le gerku                        from that for "cu":  "cu" is per-
                                   mitted if and only if there is at
  Of the two patterns which would  least one preceding term, of any
require change, I believe 3. is    kind.  I have more than once
very rare.  4. is undoubtedly      tripped over this rule - I don't
common in current writing; but it  see why you should not be
is also very common to omit the    permitted to use "cu" with an
x2, even when there is an x3 - we  initial selbri if you wish - but
are used to using FA a great deal. as it stands there is a rule, and
  I am not actually advocating     these two rules which you might
this change.  But I think it would have expected to coincide in their
be perfectly workable, as well as  application do not.  (On the other
slightly more elegant.  But the    hand, one is purely syntactic, and
arguments against it are very weak the other interpretive, so there
indeed.                            is no a priori reason why they
                                   should agree).
John Cowan on this proposal:       
  Not really enough.  Consider the   Lojbab:  The reason is that CU
  very common form:                is grammatically a separator - it
  le prenu poi klama le zarci cu   comes between leading terms and
              blanu                the selbri.  If there are no
the man who goes to-the store is-  leading terms, there is nothing to
               blue                'separate'.
  Under a VSO interpretation, "le    There really is no relation
  zarci" would be the x1 place of  between the two rules.  The
  "klama", not the x2 place.  By   interpretation of how sumti are to
  the way, this goes literally     be counted in complex sentences is
  into 4th-edition Loglan as:      a semantics convention - one which
   le pernu jao godzi le marte ga  probably could have gone either
               blanu               way.  It is not covered by the
  and so we see that JCB isn't     formal grammar, whereas the
  even consistent:  within a       locations where CU is permitted is
  relative clause, omitting x1 has specified by the grammar.  We
  no imperative sense.             chose to make the language totally
                                   transparent to tagged sumti in
Colin (cont.):                     counting regardless of where, or
Some further observations on       what, they are, as an aid to
current Lojban:                    teaching.  (Note that a sumti
  1.  I assume that a bridi which  marked with a case tag is
has tagged terms (but not FA)      automatically not a numbered
preceding the selbri, and untagged sumti, even if the case is merely
ones after, is still technically   marking a semantic role normal

                                 108


carried by a sumti in the bridi.   context, I can see why people
Thus, in:                          would not.  Therefore it is safe
   bau la lojban. mi [cu] tavla    to say that at this point it is
   In language Lojban, I talk.     not yet clear whether "seljerna"
untagged "mi" is still x1, even    is limited only to monetary wages,
though the language (which is x4   but that Colin probably does not
of "tavla" when unmarked) is       want the value to be as broadly
specified first, because the case  construed as "se jerna" might
tag is present.  By comparison, if allow.
the x4 sumti is tagged with the x4   In this case, I tend to rely on
marker "fo", you need to use "fa"  my English instincts:  if what I
(marking x1 on "mi", or the latter am translating is a single word in
would be understood as (the        English, I am more likely to use a
undefined-for-"tavla") x5:         "seljerna" lujvo, whereas if it
  fo la lojban. fa mi [cu] tavla   takes a phrase to say it in
   In language Lojban, I talk.     English, and the Lojban isn't
                                   exactly a paragon of trailblazing
                                   eloquence, I am more likely to
 And Rosta on "se", "te", & lujvo  leave the "se" separate.  The fact
                                   that not all concepts that might
jerna      x1 earns x2 for work x3 be thought of as "se jerna" will
  "le se jerna" can mean anything  also be "seljerna" is a natural
that is earned.  Suppose one       consequence of the fact that a new
wanted a lujvo specifically        word has been created.  "seljerna"
meaning "wages":  could "seljerna" of course exists because there are
be such a lujvo? (i.e. does it     times when you want to make a
have to be synonymous with "se     lujvo in which it is important to
jerna"?)                           make it clear what aspect of a
  If "seljerna" needn't be         selbri modifying another.  For
synonymous with "se jerna", then,  train travel,
I wonder, is there a way of          "selkla stana" (destination
forming a lujvo that yields the x1 station) is clearly different from
place of the source gismu, but     "terkla stana" (origin station).
isn't synonymous with the source   For such longer metaphors, you
gismu?  Put another way:  if "le   don't want to be stuck with the
se jerna" doesn't equal "le        length of a tanru expression for
seljerna" then "le jerna" doesn't  everyday usage, and you don't want
equal  ________? (what             to be stuck with the place
corresponding lujvo)               structure of the final lujvo term.
  If "le se jerna" = "le           So you need to be able to make
seljerna", then why is Colin al-   "se"-based lujvo.
ways using seljerna-type lujvo?      Any restriction from "se jerna"
                                   to "seljerna" is vague.  And's
Lojbab replies:                    question seems to be whether we
  "le se jerna" need not be        have a similar short lujvo form
identical semantically to "le sel- that makes a vague restriction on
jerna", but it will probably be    the gismu itself.  The answer is
close and nearly always inter-     that we do not, since no one has
changeable, probably an idealized  suggested why such would be
value.  A good example is Mark     useful.  Most often, when you make
Shoulson's "selpinxe" (beverage)   a lujvo, you have a specific
vs. "se pinxe" (something drunk).  concept in mind, and are going to
For "seljerna", I would presume    choose a word that conveys that
that if one wanted to be specific  concept clearly, but briefly.
that it was money that was earned, "seljerna" does convey some
you could add "jdini" (money) or   information, that it is making a
"pegji" (pay) to the compound, but relationship involving something
given the stylistic bent people    that is also the x2 of a similar
have these days for omitting such  relationship involving "jerna".
info where it is obvious from      If you want to make a word that in

                                 109


some way restricts the concept of  this essay discusses that
"jerna", you will naturally make a decision.]
lujvo that suggests something        Free modifiers (and
about what kind of restriction you attitudinals) were never
have in mind.                      considered the equivalent of sumti
  The only other reason for And's  for Lojban because they inherently
suggestion, which came up in       modify the previous structure
ensuing discussion of this topic,  (except at the beginning of the
seems to have been that a symmetry sentence).  They are thus more
is lacking without such a form.    like the attitudinals, which we
We really don't want to use up     keep distinct and grammar free -
cmavo and rafsi space for the sake more on this in a moment.  Free
of idealized symmetries.           modifiers include subscripts, and
                                   there are innumerable reasons in
                                   Lojban to use subscripts
 On the Grammar and Range of Free  metalinguistically in ways that a
            Modifiers              sumti attachment would simply not
                                   support.  The grammatical free
  ['Free modifiers' (the rule      modifiers are those with suffi-
labelled "free" in the E-BNF) are  ciently complex grammar to require
the grammar structure which        parsing, and hence cannot be
includes discursives, vocatives,   totally free, but we remove as
subscripts, metalinguistic         many constraints as possible
comments.  Put briefly, free       (Loglan IS about removing unneeded
modifiers work like attitudinals,  constraints).
and modify the previous word of      On the whole, though, Jim will
the sentence, or modify the whole  find these grammatical free
sentence if found at the beginning modifiers to be not all that
of the sentence.  Free modifiers   unlike sumti in their grammatical
would be as entirely free as       location - but they group
attitudinals as to where they lie  differently in the sentence than
in a sentence, except that they    sumti.
have internal grammar (sometimes     Attitudinals are intended to be
quite complex), and that grammar   grammar free expressions because
can interact in complicated ways   for the most part they are
with the grammar in the            intended to be at the subliminal
surrounding sentence.  Thus, in    level.  Like the hesitation noise,
the Lojban design, we had to limit .y. and the English "you know"
the places where free modifiers    (Lojban pei?), these are to be
could occur to specifically        stuck in where they fit, where you
enumerated places (The list gets   feel the intuitive need to express
occasionally extended because      them.  Unlike Carter, we do not
someone thinks of a new place they feel these are abbreviations for
want to use a free modifier, and   claims; they are expressions.
John Cowan is able to successfully They are the equivalent of tone of
get YACC to accept free modifiers  voice, which in English and most
in that situation.  This type of   other languages is controlled down
change has been a substantial      to the word level or even more
fraction of the grammar changes    refined.  (The Joy of Yiddish
approved in the last few years.)   starts off with a sentence with
At one point, free modifiers were  contrastive stress applied in
much simpler and more restrictive, something like a dozen different
and included the set of attitu-    places in the sentence to get
dinals, which now can be located   different semantic interpretations
anywhere in a sentence.  Jim       of the sentence.  Each Lojban
Carter proposed making free        attitudinal has that power.
modifiers the grammatical            Try an experiment.  Take any
equivalent of sumti.  We chose the short Lojban sentence that you can
attitudinal model instead, and     understand the grammar of.  Take
                                   say 3 or 4 different attitudinals

                                 110


expressing a variety of emotions.     I, today, give this to you.
For each attitudinal, and for each    (Another day, someone else?)
word position, insert the             mi dunda ca le cabdei ti do
attitudinal and try to figure out      I GIVE today this to you.
what it means.                       (Another day I might take it?)
  Here try:                           mi dunda ti ca le cabdei do
          mi dunda ti do               I give THIS today to you.
       I give this to-you.           (Another day something else?)
with attitudinals chosen from .iu     mi dunda ti do ca le cabdei
(love) .oi (complaint) .ui            I'm giving this to YOU today
(happiness) .uu (pity) .u'u           (Another day someone else?)
(regret) .ue (surprise) .auro'u    It's trivial to change the
(sexual desire)                    sentence to one where this isn't
  For each attitudinal, there are  so:
five positions.  Try interpreting      mi dunda le xunre cukta do
the effects in the sentence of one    I give the red book to you.
or two of these attitudinals.  A   where a free modifier/sumti
brave soul can try two             inserted after xunre would violate
attitudinals in different places   Carter's proposed constraint.
in the sentence, which is also     (But I want to say how much I love
permitted. e.g.                    books that are red when I tell you
        .ui mi dunda ti do         about my gift.  Who are you to
   Happily, I give this to you.    tell me I'm not allowed to do so?)
        mi .ui dunda ti do         
 I'm so happy it was ME who gave   
           this to you.               Comments on the Tense System
        mi dunda .ui ti do                   by Greg Higley
   I'm GIVING this to you, and     
  happily (Did you think I could     Below are a few short comments
       charge you for it?)         on the tense system.  But I would
        mi dunda ti .ui do         first like to congratulate John
I'm giving THIS (my dream gift for Cowan and any others who worked on
           you) to you.            it.  It is brilliantly designed,
        mi dunda ti do .ui         flexible, and fascinating!  It
I'm giving this to YOU (who makes  took me no time at all to
           me so happy)            understand it, with one exception
(This exercise is a good way to    which I have noted below.
practice and learn attitudinal       One thing that I think should be
words, if you limit yourself to a  pointed out more clearly is that
small number at a time.)           the new usage of selma'o VA is
  Now of course in this sentence,  going to alter the way it is used
all positions in the sentence      as sumti tcita.  (I am not
would allow you to grammatically   assuming you don't already realize
add a tagged sumti.  A tagged      this:  I just think it should be
sumti in an odd position can add   made more clear to those who might
emphasis to other adjacent words   not.) Remember that it is no
too, and by convention often seems longer the spatial analog of
to emphasize the previous word     selma'o PU.  FAhA is the proper
like an attitudinal does.  But     spatial analog of PU, while ZI is
this added emphasis is quite       the analog of VA.  As you well
minor, and open to a wider         know, "zu'avi" means "a short
variation of interpretation than   distance left":  "vi" means "a
the corresponding English, since   short distance [from the origin,
other reasons besides emphasis can in the direction specified, if
justify where a tagged sumti is    any]".  Therefore, "vi le tcadu"
inserted:                          doesn't mean "in the city" but "a
   ca le cabdei mi dunda ti do     short distance from the city".
    Today, I give this to you.     The spatial relation analogous to
  mi ca le cabdei cu dunda ti do   "ca" is "bu'u", which, along with

                                 111


"ne'i" is probably best for          How the hell do you use "zo'i",
"in/at":                           "ze'o", and "fa'a", by the way?
         "bu'u le tcadu"           They all appear to represent
          "in the city";           orientation.  Am I right in
  "bu'uvi le tcadu/vi le tcadu"    assuming that "zo'izu'a" means "to
"a short distance from the city";  the left of a place oriented
  "bu'uva le tcadu/va le tcadu"    towards me" and "zu'azo'i" means
"a medium distance from the city"; "on my left, oriented towards me"?
               etc.                Just wanted to be sure.
 just as "ca le djedi" means "in     Is it possible to bind a
             the day"              temporal and spatial tense more
 -  in all of these examples we    tightly together so that we can
could have used "ne'i" as well as  indicate position at a certain
"bu'u", although they aren't       time?  In the sentence
always interchangeable.             la ivan.  pu ti'a zutse le stizu
  One thing that you may consider   Ivan sat behind me in the chair
changing is "te'e" "bordering".  I does "ti'a" refer to where you
suggest putting this in selma'o    were at the time, or to where you
VA, where it might prove more      are now, or even where you will
useful.  (Although I could be      be?  Is "ti'a" tied to "pu"?
misinterpreting its meaning.)  Can Maybe a word order convention
"te'e" be used to mean             could be useful here.  A temporal
"touching/in contact with"?  There construct appended to the end of a
is currently no cmavo assigned to  spatial construct would link them
indicate when two things are       in time, and a temporal construct
actually in contact except for     placed before a space construct
this one.  The problem with it is  would be independent.  Thus "ba
that it only indicates that they   ti'a pu zutse" would mean "will
are bordering, and not where they  sit behind where I sat".  We can
are bordering.  As a member of VA, still have our vagueness if we
we could then have such constructs like:  "pu ti'a" with no following
as "ni'ate'e" "bordering below,    time marker makes "ti'a" vague as
i.e. on (/in contact with) the     to time.  "pu ti'a ca" would mean,
bottom of", or "ga'ute'e" - "on    of course, "behind me then".
top of".  (Leaving it "as is"        Is there another way to do this
really doesn't help.  "ni'ate'e",  that I've overlooked?  Logical
in the current definition means    connectives won't do it, perhaps
"[origin] [down] [bordering]":     "bo" will.  I think my suggestion
"bordering a place below ...",     is more flexible.  In the case of
which could mean "on the bottom    a logical connective, there is
of", but probably doesn't in most  exactly that:  logical connection,
cases.)  This, to my mind, would   which is usually independent of
complete VA very nicely.  We would time.  "pujeti'a" says nothing
have:  "te'e" "in contact          about the "time" of "ti'a", it
with/touching"; "vi" "a short      just says "both before in time and
distance from"; "va" "a medium     behind in space" - not necessarily
distance from"; "vu" "a long       simultaneously.
distance from".  Perhaps a new,    
shorter cmavo could be chosen for  [Lojbab tackles some of these
this function, if any are left.    questions:]
  I'm having a little difficulty     I believe that "vi" still works
using logical connectives with     as well as it has in the past.  It
tense constructs, especially long  is true that "bu'u" is the
ones.  To solve my problem:  Which counterpart of "ca", but most of-
binds more tightly, the            ten when we say "at" in reference
connectives or the modifiers of    to space locations, we do not
the words connected, e.g. in       strictly mean coincident in
"pujeba zi do" we have "®pu je baЇ location.  "vi" means a short,
zi" or "pu je ®ba ziЇ"?            possibly very short distance (i.e,
                                   approximating 0), and can

                                 112


therefore be translated as "at" as     la .ivan. pu zutse ti'a mi
easily as "near".  It doesn't             Ivan sat behind me.
necessarily mean that you are      where the fact that "ti'a" appears
adjacent, but context will usually after the "pu" means that you are
include this as a plausible        already set into the past.  For
interpretation.  In fact, "va" is  sitting behind where I am now, I
probably a better word for "near,  would want to be more explicit
but not at".  "zi" and "ze'i" and  about the tense contrast:
"ve'i" also work to indicate very    la ivan. ti'a mipeca pu zutse
small distances and/or             Ivan, behind the present me, sat.
areas/intervals.  "bazi" can       
therefore mean "immediately", when 
referring to an impending action.              ko'a stizu
  When you are dealing with        
something of significant size,     [A comment on a usage issue, from
like a city, there is always the   Lojbab:]
question of where you measure        John Cowan had labelled the use
from.  If from the city center,    of "ko'a" in such a sentence as
then places technically "in" the               ko'a stizu
city are merely "near".  Tense     as being 'incorrect' where "ko'a"
information is, of course, vague,  has not been assigned.  This is
and if you want greater accuracy,  misleading, since we teach such
you need a separate predicate.     usage in introductory lessons
  It is true that some of the      before relative phrases with "goi"
members of FAhA may be more exact  have been taught.
about location than "vi" or "va",    If "ko'a" has not been defined,
and some of your alternatives      then using "ko'a" risks confusion.
would work quite well in place of  The appropriate answer then is
"vi".  There are several members   "ko'a ki'a stizu", which for
of FAhA that are more specific     novices has to be answered with
analogs of "vi", including "ne'i", "ko'a du ti".  We would prefer
"pa'o", "ne'a", "te'e", "re'o"     people to use the vague usage
(which includes touching), as well "ko'a stizu" than to overuse "du"
as "bu'u".  But "vi" works fine,   as "ko'a du le stizu" which new
if a bit more vaguely.             Lojbanists will (and do) quickly
  Logical connectives have the     acquire the malglico and very
largest scope within tense         incorrect non-Lojbanic "du" =
constructs, so that "pujebazi"     English "is".
will group as "pu je bazi".          So I favor people using
  "ze'o" and "fa'a" and the like   undefined "ko'a" at the start.  It
are pure directions, and generally is a relatively unserious error
intended to be associated with     that is easily correctable and
motions as well.  As a sumti       usually communicative.  As opposed
tcita, of course, "fa'a" can       to the alternative, which if
indicate a direction without       theoretically more correct is
motion:  "fa'a le zdani" (over     risky of bad pedagogy.
towards the house), "mo'ifa'a le     Hmmm.  Perhaps "zo ko'a sinxa le
zdani" (while moving towards the   stizu" is within a lesson 1 or
house).                            lesson 2 student's grasp, in which
  As I just said above, the tense  case it should replace the sloppy
system is not intended to express  form.
extremely complex ideas.  If it is   But "ko'a stizu" is always
critical to you to distinguish     grammatical, and there's the
between where I am now and where I possibility that the speaker
was in the past, in deciding       defined it before the listener
whether something is "behind",     came in, in which case "ko'a ?ki'a
then you need at least two term    stizu" is still the appropriate
phrases, and shouldn't be trying   response.
to load all of it onto the selbri  
tense.  Try something like         

                                 113


 Questions On Logical Connection   [John Cowan replied:]
                                     Hitherto this point has been
Colin Fine:                        discussed but not settled.  I
  A simple question of semantics:  believe that pragmatics dictates
  In a logical connection with an  the 'independently unspecified'
unspecified sumti, are the         interpretation, and that to get
branches of the connection to be   the same value an explicit "da" is
construed with the same value for  needed.
the sumti or are they                I think this example shows
independently unspecified? i.e. If clearly why not.  "klama" actually
     mi klama la lidz. .e la       has five places, so
     bratfrd.                       mi klama la lidz. .e la bratfrd.
     I go to Leeds and Bradford.   means
is true, it follows that            mi klama la lidz. e. la bratfrd.
     mi klama la lidz. zo'e .ije             zo'e zo'e zo'e
          mi klama la bratfrd.     If this is construed as
          zo'e                     mi klama la lidz. da de di .ije mi
     I go to Leeds from somewhere.     klama la bratfrd. da de di
          And I go to Bradford     in order to be sure that the
          from somewhere.          origin (da) is the same in both
but does the stronger claim follow bridi, then we are put in the
that                               silly position of insisting that
     su'oda zo'u mi klama la lidz. the route ("de") must also be the
          da .ije mi klama la      same for both destinations!
          bratfrd. da?             Thanks for providing this example.
     For some (place) x, I go to   
          Leeds from x.  And I go  Mark Shoulson:
          to Bradford from (the      Lately I have taken to trying to
          same) x.                 think of how to translate English
                                   expressions that I hear on the
                                   radio into Lojban's structure (not
                                   necessarily the words; my
                                   vocabulary isn't that big and I
                                   can't flip through lists whilst
                                   driving.)  One struck me this
                                   morning and led to a little
                                   thought about some of Lojban's
                                   connectives.  This is a pretty
                                   basic question and I'm positive
                                   it's been dealt with before (I
                                   can't remember reading about it
                                   anywhere in Lojban's literature,
                                   but I think it's there somewhere).
                                   Anyway, it was a commercial for
                                   some clothing sale, and it was
                                   saying how they have "clothes for
                                   men and women".  Now.  Do they
                                   mean "clothes for men as well as
                                   clothes for women" or "clothes
                                   which may be worn both by men and
                                   women"?  I think these are
                                   plausible ways of handling these
                                   readings in Lojban:
                                     lo taxfu be lo'e nanmu .e lo'e
                                                 ninmu
                                    clothes for men and clothes for
                                    women; not necessarily that the
                                       same clothes be for both.
                                   lo taxfu be lo'e nanmu ku jo'u lo
                                                 ninmu

                                 114


 unisex clothes, for both sexes.   "lo ninmu joi nanmu" imply that
  Is this a legitimate distinction there are members of both sexes in
between ".e" and "jo'u"?  ".e" is  the group?
a logical connective, and I        
imagine it as asserting the          Lojbab:  Well, actually, I think
relevant bridi twice, as it were,  more that it implies a
once for each of its arguments,    hermaphrodite human mass; i.e. it
with no connection in between.     exhibits properties of both
"mi .e la djan. klama" means that  genders simultaneously, as per a
"I and John go/come, not           mass (with "lo" as the gadri, the
necessarily that we do so together thing itself need not be a mass).
or at the same time or having any- Compare the classic Loglan example
thing to do with one another",     (translated into Lojban
while "mi jo'u la djan. klama"     vocabulary) "lo xunre joi xekri
implies more of a connection,      bolci", "a red-and-black ball",
while "mi joi la djan. klama"      which is neither red, nor black,
implies that we worked on it as a  but a combination of the two.  It
team, so the action could really   would not be correct to call
only be said to have been accom-   something a "red-and-black ball"
plished by both of us in concert.  in English unless there was some
  I realize that this example is   element of both colors on the
open to other methods, including   ball.
relative clauses and the like.     
Also, note that you could argue                     
that unisex clothes are not for           Causality in Lojban
"men AND women" but rather for     
"men OR women", and require the    [A discussion between Lojbab, And
use of ".a", the inclusive-OR or   Rosta and Jim Carter led to the
some such.  What are the opinions  following formulation of a
of you folks out there?            significant and cohesive portion
                                   of Lojban semantics.]
  lo taxfu be lo'e nanmu .e lo'e     Lojban embeds several varieties
              ninmu                of expressions of causality.  JCB
seems to me be equivalent (modulo  originally analyzed Loglan
existence) to                      causality as being of four types.
 da poi taxfu lo'e nanmu .e lo'e   Further analysis during the
              ninmu                development of Lojban has identi-
which expands to                   fied other expressions of
  da poi ge taxfu lo'e nanmu gi    causality that are embedded in the
         taxfu lo'e ninmu          language design.
i.e. something which is clothing     1.  rinka (ri'a) is principally
for men and is clothing for women. physical causation, but has
This seems to me to mean strictly  pragmatically tended to be a catch
unisex clothing.  I think '.a'     all for causations that don't fit
will do quite happily for clothing other categories.  This is
that will do for a man, a woman or historical, because JCB used
both.                              rinka's equivalent for general
  I am not yet familiar with the   causation.  See below for our
non-logical connectives (I'm       solution.
suddenly assimilating two or three    (I push) rinka (Jack falls).
years' worth of language             2.  sarcu (sau) is 'necessary',
development in a very short time   'rinka' implies nothing about
.ue), but I would have thought     necessity.
that the "jo'u" example would mean   3.  mukti (mu'i) deals with
what more like what you said for   motives and their (potentially)
".e".                              resulting actions.
  I have a question:  are "joi"     mukti = x1 motivates activity x2
and "jo'u" permissible when there       on the part of agent x3
group/mixture in fact contains       We've decided that English has
only one of the connectands?  Does no good word for the x2 of mukti.

                                 115


It is the motivated action.  The   be curmi (permit/allow) or banzu
activity may or may not take place (sufficient).  Of course, the
but is at least achievable in the  entailment of nibli covers logical
mind of the agent x3.              sufficiency, a fairly limited va-
  (I want money) mukti (I work)    riety.
  4.  krinu (ri'u) is explanatory    Note that the Lojban logical
causation; the x1 is the reason    equivalent of "if...then", unlike
and the x2 is the thing explained. the phrase in English, does not
 (giraffes eat from trees) krinu   imply causality (Example:  "if you
 (therefore) (giraffes have long   water the plant, then it will
              necks)               grow").  In Lojban, it is unde-
  5.  nibli (ni'i) is logical      sirable to infer causation from
entailment.  S entails T when      such a statement.  In Lojban, such
there is a logic (a list of        an if-then is represented as "not
logical transformations or theorem a or b", from which causation is
steps or applications of           simply not inferable.  The Lojban
definitions of words) that starts  sentence ends up being equivalent
with S and ends with T.            to:
  6.  jalge (ja'e) indicates       Either you water the plant, or the
"result".  It is a reversed direc-        plant does not grow.
tion causal that serves as the       Since logical OR is reversible,
generic of causation, thus freeing this means the same as
rinka for its more limited         Either the plant does not grow, or
meanings.                                 you water the plant.
x1 is the result of x2  (x2 is the 
           cause of x1)            
  7.  zukte (zu'e) helps               On le and lo and Existence
distinguish motives from goals     
   x1 acts at x2 to achieve x3     [Another Lojban List discussion
  Note that the basic claim of     led to the following explanation
"zukte" is that an action is taken by Lojbab:]
in order to achieve the goal.        'le' relations or abstract
"mukti" operates in the world of   events are specific products of
mental reality, and implies a      the speaker's mind and hence must
relation between a motive and a    exist only in that mind.  The de-
motivational result.  There is a   scription is a label and need not
weaker inference that the moti-    be accurate.
vational result actually takes       'lo' and 'loi' claim only that
place; the person motivated might  the described thing/event is
be unable to do what he is moti-   something that actually fits the
vated to do.                       description, but doesn't claim
  8.  By contrast, for simple      that any such thing exists.
agentive causation, use gasnu              le ninmu cu nanmu
(gau)                               "The woman is a man." might be a
     x1 is agent in action x2            statement about a male
  "gasnu" is closely related to              transvestite.
"zukte" but does not imply any       "lo ninmu cu nanmu" would not
purpose or goal on the part of the    apply to a male transvestite
agent.                             unless you assert that a male can
  [Another contrast with mukti,           actually be a woman.
zukte and gasnu might be troci       You thus can make statements
("try"), which implies an agent    'le' and 'lo' about 'non-existent'
and an activity.  The activity may things like unicorns.  Want(x,y)
not take place, but is at least    in English makes no implication
attempted.  It is not clear with   about existence of either x or y;
troci that there is any motive or  e.g. The unicorn wants a maiden,
goal beyond the attempt itself.    where x is non-existent but y is
  9.  sarcu mentioned above, can   (potentially) existent.
express "necessary conditions".      In Lojban you assert or reject
"sufficient conditions" may either existence through the use of

                                 116


quantified variables (da, de, di)  expression.  The same with a
which implicitly or explicitly     Lojban expression:
invoke a prenex:                                mi klama
    da zo'u da djica lo broda                  I come/go.
   For some x, x wants a maiden    is incomplete.  In Lojban, you
"da" presumably excludes unicorns, yearn for a destination, de-
since they do not exist in our     parture, path, and means.
universe                           ...
                                   
With or without a prenex, you can  Art Protin comments and Bob
use a restrictive relative clause: Slaughter responds in italics:
da poi danl,iunikorni cu djica lo    I hate to have to say this so
              ninmu                strongly, (and Bob please don't be
which is false, because the x1 is  offended,) but I find to be
the empty set.                     totally without merit, bogus, the
  "lo x" can thus be taken as      comments offered [above].
equivalent to "if x exists, then     While I can easily accept that
some x".                           we need a far different model to
  But this formulation has a       think about Lojban than the one we
problem.  By the rules of symbolic use for thinking about English, I
logic, any conditional statement   reject any suggestion that
with a false antecedent is true.                mi klama
And thus a statement using "lo"    is in any way incomplete.  The
where the referent is a            image that I construct in my mind
nonexistent x will be a true       is small corresponding to the
statement, including the con-      small amount of data provided, and
tradictory:                        it has "hooks" where I might
    lo danl,iunikorni cu zasti     attach additional data like the
         Unicorns exist.           destination.
  Alas, all attempts to analyze        Then obviously you haven't
"lo" run into some such problems,    learned to think in Lojban. :)
but the result is a useful           Perhaps the phrase "is not fully
shorthand regardless.  Thus, we      completed" instead of
retain "lo" as a useful part of      "incomplete" might make more
the human Lojban, while realizing    sense here.  You may not yearn
that good 'logical' usage would be   for them, but you know there are
to use "da poi ...".                 unanswered items, because the
  If there is a way out, it is to    "hooks" are far more explicit in
state that something exists          Lojban than English.
because we can conceive of it, and Other dialog/monolog is required
it has the properties we attribute to elevate that "slot" to any
to it in our conception.  This     greater prominence.  If that piece
approach works around the          of the whole picture becomes both
conditional aspect of "lo", but no important and unspecified, I will
doubt is unsettling                inquire as I would for any other
philosophically.  Of course in the data I need to satisfy my view of
world of logic, things often       that picture.
'exist' that don't apply in the      Bingo!!  The unladen "hooks" are
'real world', so this might be the   meant to be filled, or
best approach.                       questioned.  Lojban is a dialog-
                                     based language, rather than a
                                     monolog-based language like
        A Heated Exchange?           Standard Written English.  I can
                                     see where a speaker of English
Lojbab:                              "sees" "I come" as a fully
  If I write:                        completed sentence with no
               2 +                   unknown information, but all
you know there is something          speakers will know the speaker
missing ... you yearn for another    of "mi klama" could've said
number, to complete the              something but consciously

                                 117


  didn't.  Hmmm, imagine what that might wish to avoid distinguishing
  means for Lojbanistani           recipients from destinations and
  politicians.....                 treat them as the same thing; I
I see no reason to provide any     might want to treat possession as
members of any relation            a kind of location, say.
(predicate) that are not relevant  
to the discourse.  That the            In Lojban, we want to remove
provided members can/do have the     metaphysical bias when possible.
designated role in some instance     It isn't always.  The examples
of the relation is all that the      you have selected are examples
language can express.  We might,     that we will be trying to
with sufficient dialog and           eliminate (at least in
experience, be relatively certain    translation to Lojban), because
that we know exactly which           they are English biased figures
instance is being described, but     of speech, and it is not
there can be no guarantees.  (This   necessarily universal that all
is not a property of just Lojban     cultures consider "high" spirits
but of human communication in gen-   to be better than "low" ones, or
eral.)                               that the 'mind as queue'
  But I might see a need for me to   metaphor is superior to the
  know something you said, so I      'mind as stack' one.
  will ask.  But, it is the        
  assumption of accurate and         I follow the cognitivist
  inaccurate assumptions that      doctrines of George Lakoff and his
  Lojban brings to the front of    colleagues, of Jackendoff and of
  its conversation mode.  By       Langacker.  (These are very simply
  knowing there is unspecified     expounded in Jackendoff's review
  data, and emphasizing it, we     article of Lakoff's new book in
  change the form of               the June 1991 Language.)  This
  communication.  Rather than      doctrine maintains that certain
  pontification and counter-       things are conceptualized only
  pontification discourse, we      metaphorically.  Metaphors whose
  should have fully interactive    vehicles are space and the body
  dialog discourse.                predominate, and are used to
                                   conceptualize more abstract
                                   things.  Some of these metaphors
          Language Goals           are claimed to be grounded in
                                   universal human cognition, and
  Following are essays related to  others to be dependent on culture.
the goals of the language, most of   We therefore could, maybe, draw
them dealing with aspects of the   the following conclusions:
application of Loglan/Lojban to      (1a) Lojban's aim (of removing
the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis.  How-  metaphysical bias) is doomed to
ever, for the computer-inclined,   fail.
we include a report on a new       
project using Lojban for               The goal is to 'minimize' it,
artificial intelligence/natural      not remove it.  For situations
language processing.                 where one or more roughly
                                     equivalent methods exist to
   Lojban and Metaphysical Bias      express something, but each is
 (a discussion between And Rosta     biased in some way, we try to
    [not-indented] and Lojbab        allow all of them.  If we must
           [indented])               be arbitrary among several
                                     choices, we choose a single way,
  Does one necessarily wish to       but are prone to choosing a non-
avoid metaphysical bias?  I would    English way to counter the ten-
always wish to be able to say that   dency for English biases to
something is at the "back" or        creep in.
"front" of my mind, or that I am   
in "high" or "low" spirits.  I

                                 118


  (1b) Lojban's aim flies in the   possible more or less to define
face of the way we really think    what is taking place using English
and is therefore a hindrance to    words, I think it accurate to say
thought.                           that most of them have no English
                                   equivalent in any meaningful
    This we will find out.  The    sense.
  problem is that certain concepts   For example, "loika melbi"
  are always metaphorized because  translates as "Beauty" the
  we have no primitive non-        abstract concept and "leka lemi
  metaphor to express them in NLs. speni cu melbi" more roughly as
  Thus we have a chicken and egg   "my wife's beauty" but more
  problem.  Lojban will try for a  accurately as "the properties that
  different egg.                   make it true that my wife is
  Now even if metaphorless Lojban  beautiful [by some standard to
is possible, why is one supposed   some observer]".  But with most
to avoid metaphor?  My English-    predicate words, there is no
biased conceptual metaphors are    English equivalent for the
the way I think.                   property abstract.  For example,
                                   "loika klama" would translate as
    Not if you are trying to       "Going-ness" if that were an
  communicate to someone from      English word - already hard to
  Thailand who does not know your  grasp, while its counterpart:
  metaphors.  In an earlier book,        leka mi klama le zarci
  Lakoff noted that not all         the properties that make it true
  cultures shared the same               that I go to the store
  metaphors (e.g. "up" is "future" conveys no sense of exactly what
  or "up" is "past", I think was   sort of properties these might be
  one dichotomy).  I prefer a      - we would tend in English to
  language that says that future   start thinking in terms of causes,
  is future and makes no links     which is not what the Lojban
  with 'up' or 'down'.             means, because "Going-ness" is
    (Remember that the goal of     just not an English concept.  But
  Lojban involving Sapir-Whorf     constructs like this are rather
  means that as much as possible   easy to express in Lojban, and in
  we must reduce and/or identify   some cases are virtually
  all sources of bias that would   obligatory.  A particular "Going-
  affect 'world-view' - which to   ness" for example is the property
  me is a very similar concept to  that is being compared when we say
  'metaphysics'.)                  that I go to my local Safeway more
                                   than you do.
     Sapir-Whorfian Thoughts?        Whether use of statements like
                                   this in Lojban means that anything
  In response to a question from   new and different in human
James Meritt, Lojbab said the      thinking will arise as a result of
following:                         this implication, is what is still
  There is no evidence yet of      not clear.
Lojban providing thoughts that are   Going beyond this, I can say
unthinkable in English, but the    that there are a lot more perhaps
constraints of English syntax do   more obscure things that can be
tend to make thinking in certain   easily said in Lojban, but which
ways more difficult.  It would be  defy English translation.  Lojban
a long time before we truly came   does after all, allow and almost
up with an example that            encourage the expression of
unambivalently is uniquely         "grammatical nonsense", of the
Lojbanic.                          "green ideas sleep furiously"
  Hmm.  I'll have to amend this.   variety, but even weirder.  People
In our discussions of the last     can indeed wrap their minds around
week or two regarding Lojban       such nonsense (for this English
property abstracts, it has become  example, I have seen proposed
pretty clear that while it is      places where it might actually be

                                 119


meaningful), but it can reasonably of what natural language is
be said that the Lojban equiv-     capable of expressing in tense.
alents go far beyond what anyone     3) Lojban separates the
will ever understand in English    speaker's emotional attitudes from
translation.  Whether a Lojbanist  the statements being expressed,
thinking in Lojban will            and all "emotion-loaded" words are
'understand' such statements in    marked.
the sense that we can understand     4) Lojban has a grammar for
"green ideas sleep furiously" is   metalinguistic discussion which is
also presumable, but as yet        distinct from the regular grammar,
unverifiable.                      allow you to express
                                   metalinguistically relevant
                                   information, again separate from
 Metacognition-friendly Languages  the main statement.
                                     5) Lojban has a set of
On the conlang mailing list, Zack  evidentials, again distinct from
Smith asked:                       the main grammar, which allows you
     Has anyone heard of any       to succinctly indicate how you
  languages that specifically      come to make a statement
  support and facilitate           (deduction, hearsay, definition or
  metacognitive thought?           assumption, etc.)
     Or, put differently,            6) Most of these markers that
     Has anyone designed a         convey metalinguistic information
  language for critical, self-     can be attached/focused at the
  effacing thinkers, for the       sentence level, phrase level, or
  facilitation of processes which  individual word level, as
  lead to success in thought?      appropriate.
     For those who are unfamiliar    7) Lojban handles certain
  with this topic, metacognition   constructs commonly associated
  is essentially "thought about    with logic in the manner that
  thought".  It's what most        predicate logic does; thus we have
  successful thinkers do to remove no confusion between OR and XOR,
  biases, limitations of thought,  and distinguish clearly between
  mistakes due to the failings of  causal if-then and implicational
  human memory systems, etc.  With if-then (we also have embedded in
  metacognition comes many         the language several kinds of
  freedoms in thinking, living,    causality).  Quantification and
  feeling, creating, etc.          negation work as they do in predi-
                                   cate logic, hopefully reducing the
Lojbab:                            types of errors that can result
  I'd like to think that Lojban    from misapplying these features of
has many of the things Zack is     logic.
looking for in a language for        8) Lojban deals clearly with
metacognitive thought.  We         multiple levels of abstraction, as
certainly have a lot of the        are often involved in even simple
features he mentioned in his post- natural language expressions, with
ing.  So perhaps he might like to  each level being clearly
investigate Lojban.  Specifically: distinguished from the others, and
  1) Lojban has a predicate        specific constructs for "raising"
grammar, and rephrasing your       objects from one level of sentence
thoughts in a predicate formation  abstraction structure to another.
tends to require you to think a    
little more carefully about what   Ralph Dumain commented:
you are trying to say.               [#8] is the only feature you
  2) Lojban has an extremely       mention that particularly im-
powerful and flexible tense        presses me as significant for
system, stretching rather beyond   dealing with questions of "world-
what natural languages do in our   view".  Could you give a few
desire to encompass the full scope examples or refer me (us) to the
                                   proper locations in the Lojban

                                 120


literature that explain this       agree that some features will fail
feature?                           to get into -any- language because
  [Lojbab:  This is the entirety   they're too unusual, too expensive
of what we call "sumti-raising",   to use, or too difficult to learn
dealt with extensively in JL16.]   to use.
                                     For example, I wanted at one
  In further discussion, Jeff      point to expand the number of
Prothero commented [in italics]    auxiliary pronouns (this, that)
and Zack responded:                from three or so to about 8.  The
  My basic conclusions are more or idea was that eventually, using
  less:                            them would translate to the
  (1) One could do a measurably    speaker/thinker having one
  better job on a language for     conceptual chunk in short-term
  thinking type purposes, but the  memory, into which the speaker
  pay-back doesn't justify it for  would reference whichever items he
  an individual or small group...  needed.
                                     Without going into the details,
  I don't accept this assertion,   the problems were that (A) I
for several reasons.               couldn't get anyone to even try to
  1.  I believe that the human     learn my language, (B) the feature
mind can always use a little       itself was unusual, (C) the
exercise.                          feature required a considerable
  I subscribe to the idea that the shift in thinking, and (D) I
mind is like the muscular system:  estimated that the feature
The individual should exercise it  wouldn't be used often enough to
regularly, and not miss any major  justify its existence.
areas..                            
  My tools to this end are self-     (3) The syntactic stuff isn't
analysis and a language oriented     all that interesting, most of
toward clarity and self-             the important design decisions
(re)directing thought; though I do   are in the conceptual vo-
other things as well.                cabulary.  Working on this is
  2.  The mind makes mistakes,       way beyond the current ca-
either because of emotional          pabilities of any small group
factors, various and sundry          ... but if one thinks about it,
conditionings, sociological fac-     finding/fashioning an effective
tors, or because the human memory    set of concepts for un-
system just isn't very reliable.     derstanding
  Hence, a continual untangling of   self/thought/universe is more or
memories and thoughts is             less what the entire
necessary.  Freud suggested that     international scientific machine
dreams fulfill this purpose to an    is working on.
extent.  I'm no Zen master, but I  
prefer to not leave things up to     The first sentence is right on
dreams alone.  There is no free    the money, but the rest I think is
lunch when it comes to mental      incorrect.  Metacognition, the aim
health, clarity of mind, or        of my language, is the idea that
clarity of ideas.  The more one    one can improve on thought itself,
borrows, the more one accepts      not thought about any given topic.
blindly, the worse one is.         The reason is that there are
  My language exists to aid me in  considerable similarities in the
performing such clarification      reasoning that a stock-broker does
work.                              in his life and that reasoning
                                   that any other person does.  The
  (2) Most of the really high-     points I'm expressing are key to
  payoff ideas fail due to human   the topic of creating a
  limitations...                   metacognitive language.  They are:
                                     1.  Patterns of successful
  I've definitely encountered      thought are universal, regardless
trade-offs with my language, and I of who is thinking them, where,

                                 121


when, or what the topics of          of possible languages is much
reasoning are.  [Lojbab comments:    larger than the little volume
I'm not even sure that the           they cluster in, and one can
standard of what constitutes         have languages which make it
'successful thought' is universal.   possible to think thoughts one
Nora adds:  As a critical thinker,   wouldn't come up with in natural
Zack should take another look at     language, thoughts which can't
his assumptions.  For example, on    even be expressed in natural
the job I am very good at            language.
analyzing details, but I sometimes     At least one such language has
have problems with the 'big          been fashioned... we call it
picture'.  These two levels of       "mathematics"... an easy point
reasoning can give different         to giggle and dismiss, but
answers on the same topic, and yet   worthy of more serious attention
either can be successful given the   than that...
appropriate situation.]                On a more mundane level, I
  2.  The same holds for mistakes    think you might find Jim
of reasoning, be they biases,        Carter's 'Guaspi' the best laid
mental sets, etc.  No one is         out conlang aimed in the general
immune from ignorance, fear,         direction you're going.  Loglan
stupidity, etc.                      has (imho) an excess of hair.
  3.  And, because the mechanisms    Jim's language strips out most
of successful thought are            of the irrelevancies, not too
universal and identifiable, the      far in spirit from some of my
basic concepts on which they are     own efforts.
based can be coded and regularly       I suspect if you put some time
used.                                in studying, you'll come to
  The work is in finding the         share my conclusion that if one
concepts, like you suggested.        strips out the uninteresting
  For instance, imagine going        restrictions and syntax hacks
through a dictionary, word by        from a language, there's nothing
word, and working out the precise    interesting left at the syntac-
semantic structure of each word,     tic/superficial level... one is
then trying to identify core         left with more or less the
concepts are strategies for          spoken equivalent of Lisp, with
constructing words and phrases out   a simple universal parsing
of those core concepts, and still    mechanism that doesn't commit
have it be nice to hear and easy     one to anything, and all the
to use.  Yikes.                      interesting content relegated to
  However, a scan of an entire       the selection of
dictionary isn't necessary.  I       concepts/functions to use in the
think that the examination of a      vocabulary.
small group of words can provide   
considerable food for thought.       I took my first gander at a
  The question is, what is the     Loglan manual today, and I think
essence of natural phenomena?      that you're assertion that Loglan
What do the processes of creating  has much unnecessary fluff could
art, writing papers, brokering     be correct.  For instance, why
stocks, running a business, being  encode colors?  In my language, I
a responsible politician, being a  permit the speaker to import con-
corrupt politician, or making      text-relevant data such as names
toast for oneself all have in      of colors.  I want to give the
common?  The answer, I think, lies speaker/thinker the stuff of
in the studies of psychology,      thought, not the fluff.  I'm not
evolution, formal logic, problem   creating culture here.  [Nora
solving, etc.                      comments: This is OK for indi-
                                   vidual thought, but not if you
  (4) While natural languages tend want to be understood by others,
  to be uninterestingly different  especially those of a different
  clones of each other, the space  culture.]

                                 122


                                   but I see it as one part of a
  As far as the Lisp argument      larger process.
above goes, I'll have to study       Then again, I've considered
some more.  I don't understand how making my language only an
you envision language being used,  extension to other languages,
and how a non-fuzzy logic language perhaps it's more like Objective-C
e.g.  Lisp could usefully serve a  than C++.  ...
sentient organism or machine.  I
don't agree that all verbal
expressions (in any language)
break down into logic, unless
perhaps it's fuzzy logic.  Even if
they do, that's like proving 1+1=2
in logic - it takes several
hundred pages - so why bother...
[Nora rebuts: Because the very
fact of doing so shows the
questioning/examining of as-
sumptions - the very thing Zack
professes to want.]  It's like
talking about Hitler's taste in
clothing rather than his crimes
against humanity.  Different
subjects, different purposes, no?
  Also - I'm not interested in
taking out all of the hacks of a
language - shortcuts and
approximations are fine by me, so
long as the language forces the
speaker to note their existence in
some way.  A Lisp-like conlang is
an extreme, impractical solution,
especially for those of us who
dislike Lisp.
  The middle-road solution is to
allocate one's semantic in-
formation as usefully and well as
possible.
  I want to allocate it for the
metacognitive information - e.g.,
the estimations of utility or
arguability, the estimations of
linkage between expression and
goals, the assessments of a
speaker's emotional state, the
protocol for cooperation between
speakers, the statements of
problems and tentative solutions,
the acknowledgement and removal of
bias or limitations of thought,
the estimation of correlation,
etc.
  In terms of computer languages,
I'm going for C++ rather than
Lisp.  I want the core concepts to
be related to actions, events,
objects, abstractions, scripts;
not merely relations or
predicates.  Logic is essential,

                                 123


[On further questioning as to his  ignore some important data
goals, Zack replied:]              (repression), and certainly mis-
  My project is still in its       files other important data (hence
initial stages, compared to        dreams and sudden recollec-
Loglan.  The goals have evolved to tions/ideas as means of bringing
include...                         misfiled or repressed data to
  1.  Choices of basic concepts    consciousness).
which propitiate human thought.      Any serious metacognitive
  Here I ask, how do humans think, language must take these effects
i.e. what basic data types does    into account, because they are
the brain appear to process?  For  psychological phenomena which
instance, some AI'ers assert that  affect the arguments and ideas
all thought is, or should be,      presented by the speaker.
based on predicate knowledge.  I     By the same token, biases,
find this inaccurate and limiting. mental sets, and other phenomena
  By "basic concept" I refer to a  must be identified through the
notion which is semantically       language.  They affect any such
atomic, a sort of original or root system.
class of semantic notions.  These    C.  Means of forcing the speaker
concepts would be used to form     to think before he expresses
more complex words and sentence    himself, in particular, to
structures.                        translate his concepts into terms
  For example, if "market" and     of the workings of his own
"protection" are basic concepts,   psychology.
then the word "democracy" would be   This is a critical point; here
based on both of those words,      is an example argument for such a
since democracy is the protection  feature:  Suppose a boy hits his
of a market in which the           brother without provocation.
commodities are variations on        Ask yourself, what is the most
kinds of government.               useful means of teaching that boy
  Note that my objective is not to the error of his action?
rewrite Webster's, but to get        Besides using basic operant
critical words pinned down, then   conditioning (no TV for You!), I
import context-specific words      suggest the following:
verbatim by attaching a prefix and   You ask him to explain his own
suffix.                            experience in choosing to act as
  2.  Choices of basic concepts    he did.  Don't just ask for
which propitiate self-examining    justification; ask for self-
thought.  This essentially would   examination, then push him toward
include the ideas of :             self-modeling, to cause him to
  A.  The encoding of              realize that he himself is a
metacognitive information, e.g.    collection of feelings and people,
for the objective assessment of    that he is responsible for all of
arguments between speakers.        it.
  B.  The identification of          I'm not suggesting that one
information which describes the    force him to identify his "evil
functioning of information         side"; rather, the phenomenon that
processing systems such as humans  causes a behavior, e.g.
and mammals.                       insecurity, rivalry, etc.
  For instance, it's easy to         This language must force the
assert that Freud's "repression",  speaker to look within himself for
or "setting aside and ignoring"    the causes of his making
(that was the original German      expressions or the content of
meaning) is not only likely, but   those expressions.  The reason is
necessary.  Any information        simple:  This is the path toward
processing system (e.g. the human  clarification of one's own
mind) which must interact          thoughts and toward metacognition.
constantly with its environment      I'm not certain, but I think
whilst juggling multiple con-      that Loglan doesn't force this
flicting goals certainly must      analysis.  It permits prefixing of

                                 124


phrases to improve discourse         - background information to
between speakers (e.g. it has      indicate what area of knowledge
prefixes for "suppose that", "for  the speaker is dealing with, what
example", "is it that", etc.), but knowledge he expects his audience
causes aren't characterized.       to know, and to help those in the
  D.  Evolutionary processes, and  audience less acquainted with the
the phenomena which determine or   subject.
found them, must be tightly coded.   - new knowledge that he wishes
Considerably more real phenomena   to impart.
can be explained with evolutionary   - a summary of what he has just
logic (or simulated with genetic   explained in detail.
algorithms, probably) than meets     - a summary of what he is about
the eye.  Evolution is critical to to explain in detail.
who we are, why we are here, what    - an informal description
we will become...                  intended purely to convey informal
  E.  Basic logic, or fuzzy logic, insight, rather than a precise
should be supported (tightly       statement.
coded).                              - smalltalk (utterances whose
                                   literal meaning hardly matters at
...[Later, Zack expanded upon his  all, the starter motor of social
earlier statement:  "... a         intercourse, not to be confused
mechanism for expressing tense     with the main engine).
information"]                        - a question to which a definite
  This is neither critical, nor    answer is required, in contrast
did I intend it to seem so.  It is to...
important, though.                   - a question which is part of a
  I've found that of all places,   conversation, which the hearer
lack of clarity in tense in-       need not rigidly stick to in
formation is the most contagious,  formulating a response.
i.e. it affects to other types of    There's an interesting book by
information in one's expressions.  Deborah Tannen, called That's not
Once tense becomes unclear, it's   what I meant!, suggesting that a
all lost.  One can't speak about   lot of miscommunication is due to
events, actions, activities, what  people being unaware of the
have you, with any precision if    different modes of communication
tense info is imprecise.           that they and others are using.
                                   Perhaps mechanisms encouraging the
Richard Kennaway responded with    explicit marking of such modes
some ideas:                        would help.
  One of the main faults I find      I have only glanced through her
with woolly writing or speaking,   later book, called (I think) You
especially in technical talks at   just don't understand!, in which
conferences, is a lack of          she claims to correlate these
attention by the speaker to making different modes with gender.  I
clear the reason that he is saying suspect that it is just a
what he is saying.  It seems to me repackaging of old wine in a
that it is impossible to           trendy new gender-polarised
understand an utterance unless one bottle.
understands the reasons for making 
it.                                Lojbab comments:
  Thus I would like to see means     Per Richard's comments.  I think
provided in the language for       that a language used for solely
easily expressing such meta-       for introspection, whether
information throughout one's       metacognitive or otherwise, is
speech.  Off the top of my head,   going to be significantly
here are a few communication modes different from one used for inter-
that might be worth expressing ex- action.  So much of the problems
plicitly, rather than leaving them of communication between people
unspoken as is usually done:       stem from things such as what
                                   Richard mentions (all of which I

                                 125


believe are covered in the Lojban  =.i do vi le cange cu !ba'a zgana
design, but optionally).  But few  lenu ko'a me mi li'uЇ    
are really relevant to the             ni'o ca le bavlamdei ke clira
problems Zack seems to refer to in clira la xrist. joi la pacrux.
self-analysis of his own thought.  klama le cange po ko'a gi'e se
  The philosophers in the Lojban   mipstu loi stani   =.i le kakpa cu
community (most of whom are not on !ba'e sutra klama gi'enai kruce
the computer nets), may have       jdaxanmu'u gi'e lasna le bakni le
something useful to say about      te plixa gi'e co'a renro lei tsiju
Zack's ideas, and what (if           =.i ®lu .!e'o ko zgana .!u'a
anything) Lojban has to support    (to'i la pacrux. bacru toi)   =.i
his ideas.                         ko'a cu !sai me mi   =.i ko'a ni'i
                                   le !da'i nu ko'a me do cu
                                   jdaxanmu'u pu lenu co'a gunka
    le lojbo se ciska (cont.)      li'uЇ ®lu le kakpa cu !ja'o to'e
                                   depcni fi lemu'e mulgau lenu
  I (Lojbab) don't have many       tsise'a   =.i ko denpa lemu'e
complaints about Nick's work in    midydo'i   =.i ca ri ko'a co'a
the following two stories.  They   citka   =.i do ca zgana lenu ko'a
were not passed by an independent  jdaxanmu'u li'uЇ
editor, but Nick indicated that      =.i midydo'i    =.i ko'a co'a
they had been reviewed on the      citka gi'enai jdaxanmu'u
computer nets a couple of times,     =.i ®lu .!e'o ko zgana .!u'a
and that he had made changes       (to'i la pacrux. bacru toi)   =.i
appropriately.  Alas, he had not   ko'a ni'i le !da'i nu ko'a me do
checked the text with a parser     cu jdaxanmu'u pu lenu citka   =.i
(only some minor errors), and he   do caki na ji'u darlu   =.i ko'a
had two non-existent gismu in the  me !cai mi li'u Ї ®lu .!e'o ko
second tale, one of which rquired  denpa   =.i go ko'a mo'u citka
guesswork to figure his intent     gi'enaicabo jdaxanmu'u gi ko'a me
since it was not a simple typo.    do .!e'a li'uЇ  =.i ko'a mutce
But the texts are readable, and my citka gi'e mutce pinxe
formatting rules that failed to    gi'enaiba'obo jdaxanmu'u gi'eji'a
handle Nick's coffeehouse text are .!uero'a cladu gaxykafke   =.i la
probably satisfactory for this     xrist. bacru ®lu ko'a .!ainai ca
text.  All comments are from me.   .!e'a me do li'uЇ  =.i la pacrux.
                                   cu bacru ®lu .!ienai na go'i   =.i
                                   ko'a .!ainaicai me ko li'uЇ
       Two Greek Folk Tales        
   translated by Nick Nicholas     
                                   Neither Christ nor the Devil wants
I.  melu la xrist. na.enai la                     him.
pacrux. seljdadji da li'u          
                                     Once the Devil went to Christ
  =.ika'u la pacrux. klama la      and said "Pray tell, do you think
xrist. gi'e bacru ®lu ?pe'ipei ?xu that plougher is a Christian?"  "I
do jinvi ledu'u leti cange         do."  "You're wrong", the Devil
bakplixa goi ko'a xriso li'uЇ      answered, "the plougher is all
  =.i ®lu !pe'i go'i li'uЇ selba'u mine.  If you don't believe me,
la xrist.                          let's go to his farm next dawn
  =.i ®lu do srera (to'i la        when he's ploughing.  There you'll
pacrux. spuda toi)   =.i le kakpa  see he's mine."
cu me !cai !ba'e mi !sa'e   =.i      Very early the next day, Christ
mi'o fau lenu do na krici lenu     and the Devil went to the
go'i cu .!e'u klama ca le cermurse plougher's farm and hid in some
leko'a cange poi ko'a tsise'a49    branches.  The plougher hastened
____________________               __________________________________
49I would probably use "tsipe'a"   insert", though my knowledge of
(seed-spread) or "tsifai" (seed-   farming is not particularly
distribute) rather than "seed-     noteworthy.

                                 126


to the farm, didn't make the sign  Christ was told this and responded
of the cross, attached the bulls   "I'll go."  So, at noon Christ,
to the plough and started sowing.  accompanied by all his student,
"See?" said the Devil.  "He's      came there.  The man's wife, upon
mine.  If he was yours, he'd make  seeing them, said: "Oh, there
the sign of the cross before       won't be enough bread!"  Christ
working."                          said: "I think there will.  This
  "The plougher is impatient to    is the bread we've got, so this is
finish sowing.  Wait for midday.   what we'll eat."  The table was
Then he'll eat.  You'll see him    spread, and they sat to eat.
making the sign of the cross       Christ blessed the bread.  It was
then."  It became midday.  The     enough - more than enough for
plougher started eating and didn't those present!
make the sign of the cross.        
  "See?" said the Devil.  "If he
was yours, he'd make the sign of
the cross before eating.  You
can't argue anymore.  He's all
mine."  "Wait.  If he finishes
eating and doesn't make the sign
of the cross, he's yours."  The
plougher ate a lot, drank a lot,
didn't make the sign of the cross,
and to top it all off, let off a
huge fart!  Christ said "Now, you
can have him."  The Devil said
"No, you have him!"


II. (untitled)

  =.ika'u pukiku le prenu goi ko'a
cu mutce nelci lenu kelci loi
kelkarda   =.i ko'a ze'i cusku fi
leko'a speni fe ®lu .!e'u vi'ecpe
la xrist. mu'i lenu friti lo
midydo'i sanmi ra li'uЇ
  =.i la xrist. cu te cusku le
sego'i gi'e frasku ®lu mi .!ai
klama li'uЇ
  =.ike'unai ca le midydo'i la
xrist. noi se kansa ro leri tadni
cu klama   =.i leko'a speni bazi
lenu viska ri joi ra cusku ®lu le
nanba na banzu .!u'u .!oiro'a
li'uЇ
  =.i la xrist. cusku ®lu .!i'a
ja'a go'i   =.i ti cavi nanba
=.iseni'ibo ti .!o'o bazivi se
citka mi'o li'uЇ
  =.i nicygai le jubme   =.i zutse
mu'i lenu citka   =.i la xrist.
cestoldapma le nanba   =.i ri
banzu tu'a lei citka gi'e .!u'a
dukse

  Once there was a man who loved
playing cards.  One day, he said
to his wife, "Invite Christ here
so we can offer him lunch."

                                 127


    no'i la xrist. ba cpacu loi    said "The kingdom of heaven."
vanju mu'i lenu pinxe kei gi'e te  Christ said "As you wish, so it
preti fo ko'a fe lenu ko'a djica   will be done." Christ left, later
lenu la xrist. dunda dakau ko'a    on, and the man started playing
=.i lei tadni cu cusku ®lu dunda   cards.  He won over everyone he
tu'a .!e'usai le cevzda li'uЇ      played with.  Christ was
  =.i ku'i ko'a cusku fi la xrist. crucified, and the man kept on
fe ®lu mi ponse lo plisytricu noi  playing!
se klama zo'e ja'e lenu citka lei  
plise   =.iseki'ubo mi djica lenu      ni'o la xrist. klagau lo
ro klama .!i'anai be le tricu cu   notcrida noi cusku fi ko'a fe ®lu
se lasna fi ri li'uЇ               la xrist. klagau mi ti mu'i lenu
  =.i la xrist. cusku ®lu ledo     mi lebna do   =.i lenu do kelci cu
seldji ca'a !do'a mansa li'uЇ      banzu .!u'i   =.i lenu do jmive cu
  =.i la xrist. ba cpacu le remoi  sisti .!uo li'uЇ
kabri   =.i cusku ®lu do djica       =.i ko'a cusku ®lu .!i'a go'i
lenu mi dunda ?ma do li'uЇ         =.i .!!e'odo'a ko citka su'o plise
  =.i lei tadni cu cusku fi ko'a   =.ibabo mi klama li'uЇ
fe ®lu ko bacru .!e'ucai ®lu dunda   =.i le notcrida cu klama mu'i
tu'a le cevzda li'uЇ li'uЇ         lenu citka kei gi'e se lasna   =.i
  =.i ko'a cusku ®lu .!ai na'e     lego'i cu cpesku ®lu ko .!e'ocai
go'i   =.i mi djica lenu mi jinga  klama ja'e lenu to'e lasna mi
fo ro nu mi'a kelci loi kelkarda   li'uЇ
li'uЇ                                =.i ko'a cusku ®lu mi klama do
  =.i la xrist. cusku ®lu ledo     punaijeca .!ai.u'i .!ionairu'e
seldji ca'a !do'a mansa li'uЇ      lenu mi !ga'i djica li'uЇ gi'e
  =.i la xrist. ba cpacu le cimoi  di'i kelci   =.i ko'a ca lenu mo'u
kabri   =.i ®lu do djica lenu mi   se cinri lenu kelci cu klama le
dunda ?ma do li'uЇ                 notcrida gi'e cusku ®lu mi ca to'e
  =.i ko'a bazi cusku ®lu tu'a le  lasna do gi'e  .!i'a klakansa do
cevzda li'uЇ                       li'uЇ
  =.i la xrist. cusku ®lu ledo       =.i ko'a joi le notcrida cu
seldji ca'a !do'a mansa li'uЇ      klama fo le daptutra gi'e viska la
  =.i la xrist. baza cliva   =.i   xades. noi se kansa pare se
ko'a co'a kelkarda kelci   =.i     jdadapma   =.i ko'a cusku ®lu
ko'a jinga fi ro kelkansa   =.i la .!e'u mi'o velji'a kelci   =.i
xrist. kucyga'a se sfacatra        .!e'u ge mi te jinga gi'o roroi vi
=.ipujecajebabo ko'a kelci         stali gi mi jinga gi'o cpacu leti
.!ue.i'enairu'e                    se jdadapma li'uЇ
                                     =.i la xades. zanru  =.i ri joi
  Christ then took wine to drink,  ko'a co'a kelci   =.i ko'a ba
and asked the man what he wanted   cusku ®lu li ci pi'i mu du li pamu
Christ to give him.  The students  =.i li pamu su'i pa du li paxa
said "Ask for the kingdom of       .!u'a   =.iseni'ibo .!e'o ko dunda
heaven!"  But he said to Christ:   le se jdadapma mi li'uЇ
"I have an apple tree, which         =.i ko'a lebna le se jdadapma
people always come and eat apples  gi'e klama le cevzda
from.  So I want anyone who goes   
to the tree to get stuck onto it."   Christ sent an angel, who told
Christ said "As you wish, so it    him "Christ sent me to take you
will be done."  Christ took a      away.  You've played enough!  Your
second cup, and said "What do you  life is over."  He said "Fine.  Do
want me to give you?"  The         go and have some apples.  Then
students told him "Say 'Give me    I'll come with you."  The angel
the kingdom of heaven!'"  He said  went to eat, and got stuck.  He
"No; I want to win every time I    begged the man:  "Please come and
play cards."  Christ said "As you  get me off here!"  He said "I'll
wish, so it will be done."  Christ come to you, but not before I feel
took a third cup.  "What do you    like it!", and kept on playing.
want me to give you?"  He then     When he got bored of playing, he

                                 128


came to the angel and said, "I'll  
get you off the tree, and will     Nick:
come along with you now."  They      The problem I have now is:  how
went past Hell, and saw Hades with do I shoehorn this project, which
twelve damned people.  He said     could go on forever (especially
"I'll gamble with you!  If you     with tanru) into something I can
win, I stay here forever; if I     spend at most 80 hours on (and I'd
win, I get these damned people."   prefer 60)?  We will need to
Hades approved, and they started   decide what domains of the lan-
playing.  He then said "Three by   guage we'll have to leave out:
five makes fifteen, plus one makes this will need to work on a subset
sixteen!  So give me those         of the language.  Of course, I
damned."  He took the damned and   could continue work on the project
went to heaven.                    after this semester.
                                   
    no'i la xrist. ca lenu ko'a    John Cowan:
joi le drata cu klama ra cu cusku    I think that you should simply
®lu mi cpedu lenu do noi pamei cu  not worry about the internal
klama mi   =.i do mo'ifa'avi       semantics of tanru, or indeed
klagau .!ue lo du'emei li'u        anything about selbri internals
  =.i ko'a cusku ®lu mi !si'a ca   except possibly a place-structure-
lenu mi do vi'ecpe mu'i lenu mi    affecting SE [essentially, one
friti le midydo'i sanmi do cu      that converts the last component
cpedu lenu do noi pamei cu klama   of the tanru at whatever level of
mi   =.i do klagau ku'i lo pacimei nesting, the
.!oiro'a   =.i mi ne pa'a ca       ter(ter(ter...tertau].  Here's a
.!o'inai klagau lo pacimei li'uЇ   very sketchy draft of something I
  =.iseni'ibo!zo'o la xrist. zanru wrote once; it actually does stop
tu'a ropaci klama                  in the middle of a sentence - I
                                   got dragged away to do something
  When the man and the others      else and never went back - that
came, Christ said "I asked you,    should give some idea of what can
one person, to come to me.  You've be done.
brought too many people here!"  He 
said "And when I invited you to
offer you lunch, I asked you, one
person, to come to me.  But you
brought thirteen!  So I'm bringing
you thirteen too." ERGO, Christ
let all thirteen in.
                 
                 
   A Lojban-to-Prolog semantic
             analyzer
         by Nick Nicholas

  [For an extended class project
related to his Masters degree work
in Cognitive Science, Nick
Nicholas has undertaken a project
in natural language understanding
of Lojban.  This is a significant
undertaking with great potential
for Lojban's credibility given his
likely success.  Nick and John
Cowan contributed ideas to his
final project statement, included
here.  Also included are the
reports on preliminary results
that Nick has thus far presented.

                                 129


  Preliminary Notes for A Lojban   specifies which (numerical)
     Canonicalizer Draft 1.0       argument of the selbri is involved
          by John Cowan            or indicates a "modal" sumti
                                   outside the regular argument
1.  Introductory                   structure; bare tags with
  Lojban is a predicate language;  unspecified sumti; and negation
that is, Lojban utterances are for boundaries.  In addition, there
the most part predications.  Tools can be a "prenex" which specifies
exist in the computer world to     the quantification of bound
process rules and facts expressed  variable sumti.
in the form of predications, and     Argument order standardization
to answer queries based on those   will rearrange every bridi to get
rules and facts.  A well-known     the sumti into a fixed order,
example is Prolog.  Prolog is iso- either x1, x2, x3, ... selbri or
morphic to a small subset of       x1, selbri, x2, x3 ...  A look-up
Lojban, but relatively simple      will be done against the
processing techniques would        dictionary database to determine
suffice to render a much larger    how many sumti this selbri should
set of Lojban utterances Prolog-   have; any missing sumti will be
compatible.                        replaced with the Lojban place-
  A Lojban Canonicalizer (LC)      filler sumti, "zo'e".  Modal sumti
program would manipulate Lojban    will be moved to the end of the
utterances, previously parsed by   bridi and placed into a canonical
the standard Lojban parser, to     order (perhaps alphabetical by
produce other Lojban utterances    tag; the set of tags is
belonging to the Prolog-isomorphic potentially unbounded).  A prenex
subset.  The basic techniques      will be created with appropriate
employed include:                  default quantifications, and all
  stripping of metalinguistics     negations will be moved to it.
  argument order standardization   4.  Semantic Transformations
  semantic transformations           Like other natural languages,
  expansion of logical connectives Lojban possesses a "deep
and others to be defined (or       structure", in the sense (without
thought of) later.  The rest of    prejudice to any particular
this document details the          linguistic theories) that some
techniques above.                  utterances with very different
                                   grammar "mean the same thing",
2.  Stripping of Metalinguistics   with differences of emphasis and
  This is the easiest topic.       the like.  The argument-order
Lojban allows for a variety of     standardization discussed above
methods for adding metalinguistic  involves applying certain
comments to mainstream text.       transformations which affect
There are UI indicators, SEI       sumti.  The type discussed here,
comments, and TO/TOI parenthetical however, involves the "redundant
remarks.  All of these can simply  structures" of Lojban.
be removed from the parsed text.     In pursuit of linguistic
It is forbidden for text at a      neutrality, Lojban features cer-
lower metalinguistic level to      tain pervasive schemas of
refer to text at a higher level,   grammatical alternatives.  The
so removal cannot lead to loss of  most pervasive by far is the
information (although it may lead  afterthought vs. forethought
to loss of context).               opposition.  In such structures as
3.  Argument Order Standardization possessives, logical and non-logi-
  The Lojban predication, or       cal connectives,
bridi, is delivered by the parser  
as a predicate, or selbri,         Nick:
preceded and/or followed by          This is the final draft of my
"terms".  There are four kinds of  project proposal:
terms:  arguments, or sumti;                        
tagged sumti, where the tag either

                                 130


 Project Proposal for 433-603:  A    Most of the semantic issues
    Lojban-to-Prolog semantic      complicating logic-based knowledge
            analyzer.              representation of NL remain in
                                   Lojban:  higher-order predicates;
  In this project, we propose      metalinguistic comments and
developing a semantic analyzer     attitudinals; the ambiguous
such that, given a text in a       semantic relationship between head
subset of the artificial language  and modifier in word compounds;
Lojban, the analyzer will extract  the representation of numbers,
information from the text, store   prepositional phrases, relative
it as Prolog clauses, and be asked clauses, non-logical connectives,
simple questions on the text       negation, tense and modality; the
content (the questions and answers distinction between "the" and "a"
will both be in Lojban, rather     (echoed in the language's
than explicit Prolog               veridical and non-veridical
queries/clauses).  To make the     determiners); the distinction
analyzer useful for non-Lojban     between individual and collective
speakers, output will also be      plurals; subject-raising; and so
provided in a pidgin English, and  forth.
phrase markers to the text           In effect, a Lojban-to-Prolog
syntactic structure may also be    semantic analyzer would be
displayed, time allowing.          addressing many of the current
  Lojban is an artificial language issues in NLP knowledge
intended for human use, of the     representation, though biased
type exemplified by Esperanto and  towards predicate logic in the way
Interlingua.  It differs from most it does so.  The use of a
such languages, in that it has     simplified model of NL, and the
been explicitly based on predicate way the model falls short of
logic.  Predicates serve the role  capturing NL nuances, will help
of verbs, predicates with preposed the analyzer cover much ground
determiners serve the role of      quickly, and provide insights in
nouns, and predications serve as   similar analysis of NL proper.
sentences.                         (It is claimed that the subset of
  There is a number of reasons why Lojban implemented would fall
this project is of interest.       short; the author believes the
Lojban is a simplified model of a  language itself, if it acquires a
natural language (NL), using       speech community, will match NL
predicate logic as its modelling   adequately in most usages of lan-
mechanism.  Predicate logic also   guage).  Less attention would need
underlies the Prolog into which    to be paid to syntactic issues
Lojban text will be transformed by than would be the case with NL.
the analyzer.  Therefore the task  Given how Lojban grammar is
of transferring such information   structured, modular subsets of
across from Lojban to Prolog will  Lojban grammar can be implemented
be considerably simpler than doing in stages in the analyzer.  This
so for an NL.  Lojban has already  means that results for simple
been shoehorned into a context-    phrases will become available a
free grammar using YACC (this has  very short time into the project.
involved some imaginative use of     To keep the project manageable,
error recovery, but LALR(1) nature a subset of the language will have
was retained).  Thus the task of   to be considered; this is in line
parsing Lojban text into           with the Lojban Canonicaliser
identifiable grammatical           proposed by John Cowan (see Enclo-
constituencies has already been    sures.  The Canonicaliser will
dealt with:  problems in resolving need to be implemented as a
syntactic ambiguity need not       preprocessor to what text the
distract the analyzer programmer   analyzer actually sees).  Lexi-
from the more important semantic   cally, the subset of Lojban to be
issues.                            implemented will include roughly
                                   500 predicates.

                                 131


  Grammatically, the subset is       8.  Prepositional phrases (other
described as follows, to be        than tense and location); e.g. "mi
implemented in incremental,        naumau do nelci ko'a" --> "mi
independent stages:                zmadu do leni da nelci ko'a" -
  1.  Simple predications with a   EXCEEDS(i, you, quantity:
known predicate, and with          LIKES(X, x1)):  "I like him more
arguments without internal         than you do.", e.g. "lo catra ne
structure (Proper names, logical   sepi'o lo mrudakfu" --> "lo catra
variables).  No quantification     noi pilno lo mrudakfu" - EXISTS X
other than existential; e.g. "mi   EXISTS Y:  KILLS(X, _) & USES(X,
prami da" - EXISTS X: LOVES(i, X). Y, event:  KILLS(X, _)) &
  2.  Non-veridical arguments (cf. HAMMER_KNIFE(Y):  "an axe-mur-
English "the") based on            derer".1
predicates, with internal            9.  Attitudinals; e.g. "mi .ui
arguments; e.g. "mi catra le prami sidju do" --> "mi sidju do .ije mi
be le pulji" - KILLS(i, x) &       gleki mi va'o lenu mi sidju do":
LOVES(x, y) & POLICE(y):  "I kill  HELP(i, you) & HAPPY(i, i) &
the lover of the policeman."       CONTEXT((state: HAPPY(i, i),
Note:  strictly speaking, the non- event:  HELP(i, you)):  "I (smile)
veridical determiner indicates     will help you; I am happy to help
that the entity the speaker has    you."
'in mind' is described by the        10.  Tense (including location),
predicate it precedes, but not     and prepositions of tense
uniquely specified by it (cf.      (including location).  Also
veridical determiners).  Given the includes modality and event con-
absence of pragmatic content at    tours; e.g. "mi ba'o tavla" -->
this early stage of the analyzer,  "lenu mi tavla cu ba'o zei balvi
making this distinction will be    zo'e":  AFTERMATH(event:  talk(i,
problematic (it is, after all,     _, _, _), _):  "I have spoken."
inherently ambiguous); it will be    11.  Masses and sets as
dealt with here exactly as NLP     arguments; e.g. "loi remna cu
deals with the "the"/"an"          sipna":  "the mass of humans
distinction.                       sleep" (Though it is not true at
  3.  Veridical arguments (cf.     any given moment that:  FORALL X:
English "an") based on predicates, HUMAN(X) => SLEEPS(X))
with internal arguments. e.g. "mi    12.  Non-logical connectors.
catra lo prami be lo pulji" -      e.g. "la gilbrt. joi la salivn. cu
EXISTS X EXISTS Y:  KILLS(i, X) &  finti la mikadon." -  INVENT(X,
LOVES(X, Y) & POLICE(Y):  "I kill  mikado) & JOINT_MASS(X, gilbert,
a lover of a policeman."           sullivan):  "G & S (as a joint
  4.  Resolution of logical        unit) wrote The Mikado."
connectives; e.g. "mi nelci do .e    13.  Quantification (including
ko'a" --> "mi nelci do .ije mi     numerical, as well as subjective
nelci ko'a" - LIKES(i, you) &      quantifiers such as "enough" and
LIKES(i, x1):  "I like you and     "most"); e.g. "mu le ze mensi cu
him."                              cucycau":  "five of the seven
  5.  Anaphora and cross-indexing. sisters are barefoot".
e.g. "le prenu\i cu prami ri\i" -  ____________________
PERSON(x) & LOVES(x, x):  "The     1Iain Alexander:
person loves him/herself."           (Really picky:)  If you really
  6.  Restrictive and non-         want the "ka mrudakfu pilno" to be
restrictive relative clauses; e.g. part of the "nu catra", I think it
"mi nelci le prenu poi do xebni    ought to be bound into the selbri
ke'a" - (EXISTS x:  HATES(you, x)) with "be":
& LIKES(i, x) & PERSON(x):  "I       lo catra be sepi'o lo mrudakfu
like the person you hate."          Otherwise it could just as easily
  7.  Higher order predicates;     be
e.g. "lenu mi cadzu cu nandu" -      lo te zgike pesepi'o lo grana
DIFFICULT(event:  WALKS(i)):  "My  The musician who uses a stick (for
walking is difficult."                          walking)

                                 132


  14.  Negation.  Contradictory      Well, ladies and germs, this is
and scalar.  Use of prenexes; e.g. what I can get my Lojban-PROLOG
"mi naku ro prenu cu prami":       processor to do so far:
NOT(FORALL X:PERSON(X),            
LOVES(i,X)); "mi ro prenu na       Input text: }mi nelci le klama be
prami":  FORALL X:PERSON(X),       le zarci be le ckafi be'o bei le
NOT(LOVES(i,X))2                   pulji bei le berti
  15.  Vocatives, imperatives,     
interrogatives, and speech
protocol words; e.g. "doi skami la
sinderelan. mensi ma fe'o":  "O
Computer:  Cinderella is sister to
whom?  (End of transmission)."

  Sections of Lojban Grammar not
anticipated to be included in the
model:
  1.  The mathematical subgrammar
of Lojban.
  2.  Any analysis of word
compounds.
  3.  Metalinguistic comments.
  The detail of coverage of some
sections, particularly tense, will
probably have to be curtailed due
to time constraints.  It is
anticipated to have this project
take at most 80 hours of work.

John Cowan:
  One thing I would suggest is
supporting universal quan-
tification as well as existential,
since Prolog directly handles
universal quantification, whereas
existential quantification (except
when appearing only in the
antecedent of a rule) has to be
kludged by skolemization.
  On a different note, I think you
should consider supporting two
additional things:  universal
quantification a la simple Prolog
variables, and imperatives.  It
would be way cool if a "ko"
triggered a look-up so that "ko
ciska le broda" came out
"print(le_broda)." or the like.
That way actual Prolog programming
in Lojban would be possible!

        Progress Report 1

____________________
2Iain:  mi ro prenu na prami:
  I think this is
   naku zo'u mi ro prenu prami
i.e. the same as the previous
example.  You need
      mi ro prenu naku prami

                                 133


Parser output, after going through LEX:
brivla nelci
brivla klama
brivla zarci
brivla ckafi
brivla pulji
brivla berti
end_of_lex_list

mi nelci le klama be le zarci be le ckafi ku beho ku bei le pulji ku
bei le berti ku beho ku vau

PROLOG output

[q(suho(1), _FIPFN, q(suho(1), _FIREF, q(suho(1), _FISES,
ckafi(_FISES, _FISZG, _FISZH, _FISZI, _FISZJ), [], zarci(_FIREF,
_FISES, _FITIV, _FITIW, _FITIX)), [], q(suho(1), _FIUAD, pulji(_FIUAD,
_FIUUR, _FIUUS, _FIUUT, _FIUUU), [], q(suho(1), _FIVID, berti(_FIVID,
_FIWCR, _FIWCS, _FIWCT, _FIWCU), [], klama(_FIPFN, _FIREF, _FIUAD,
_FIVID, _FIWRT)))), [], nelci(mi, _FIPFN, _FIPFO, _FIPFP, _FIPFQ))]

Translation

Branched quantifiers:
E X : broda(X) ; brode(X) => su'o broda ku poi brode
There exists a broda, which brode's, such that...
(These are preferred in Linguistics to the normal plain "E X".
q(E,X,A(X),B(X),C(X)) = (E X: broda(X) ; brode(X)) (C(X))
There exists an A, which Bs, such that C.

E X:
   E Y:
      E Z: ckafi(Z); [] (zarci(Y,Z))
      ; [] (
            E W: pulji(W)
            ; [] (
                  E V: berti(V)
                  ; [] (klama(X,Y,W,V))
                  )
            )
   ; [] (nelci(mi,X))


    Progress Report 2:  Further Lojban->Prolog:  relative clauses

  At the moment, if "ke'a" isn't there, it isn't assumed; it's pretty
certain that, if I don't find "ke'a" there, I'll shove it into the
first free place in the relative clause predication.
  I've gotten numbers working too, but that's not that spectacular.
I'm about to implement the "lo"/"le" distinction.

mi prami le prenu ku poi ke'a citka le cakla
brivla prami
brivla prenu
brivla citka
brivla cakla
end_of_lex_list

mi prami le prenu ku poi keha citka le cakla ku vau kuho
vau

                                 134



[q(suho(1), _FIODG, prenu(_FIODG, _FIPZL, _FIPZM, _FIPZN, _FIPZO),
q(suho(1), _FIRXG, cakla(_FIRXG, _FITTL, _FITTM, _FITTN, _FITTO), [],
citka(_FIODG, _FIRXG, _FIRXH, _FIRXI, _FIRXJ)), prami(mi, _FIODG,
_FIODH, _FIODI, _FIODJ))]

Translation:

E X:
     prenu(X);
     (E Y:
          cakla(Y); [] (citka(X,Y))
     (prami(mi,X))

                                 135


          Progress Report 3:  Lojban->Prolog:  conjunctions

mi .e ko'a cu prami ro lo nanmu gi'e xebni ro lo ninmu
Note:  c(C,X,Y) means C(X,Y), where C is some binary conjunction.
Here it is ".e", meaning AND.
[c(e, q(la, mi, [], [], c(e, q(ro, _FIPVD, nanmu(_FIPVD, _FIRSQ,
_FIRSR, _FIRSS, _FIRST), [], prami(mi, _FIPVD, _FIPVE, _FIPVF,
_FIPVG)), q(ro, _FISRZ, ninmu(_FISRZ, _FIUPM, _FIUPN, _FIUPO, _FIUPP),
[], xebni(mi, _FISRZ, _FISSA, _FISSB, _FISSC)))), q(la, koha, [], [],
c(e, q(ro, _FIPVD, nanmu(_FIPVD, _FIRSQ, _FIRSR, _FIRSS, _FIRST), [],
prami(koha, _FIPVD, _FIPVE, _FIPVF, _FIPVG)), q(ro, _FISRZ,
ninmu(_FISRZ, _FIUPM, _FIUPN, _FIUPO, _FIUPP), [], xebni(koha, _FISRZ,
_FISSA, _FISSB, _FISSC)))))]

Translation
AND(
     AND(
         All x (man x) loves(mi,x) ,
         All y (woman y) hates(mi,x)),
     AND(
         All x (man x) loves(koha,x) ,
         All y (woman y) hates(koha,y))).
Note that I'm using iota quantification for names and anaphors; this
is left in for ease of anaphor resolution later, and can be stripped
out.

           Progress Report 4:  Prolog:  event abstractions

mi nelci lenu ko'a banli ro lo xelso ku poi ke'a prami le gugde kei ku
poi ke'a cafne .e la kserkes. gi'e zutse le stizu
(Takes 16 seconds to parse).
c(e,
   c(e,
     q(suho(1), _FJKVW,
       nu(_FJKVW,
          q(ro, _FJLAZ,
            xelso(_FJLAZ, _FJLGI, _FJLGJ, _FJLGK, _FJLGL),
            q(suho(1), _FJLKF,
              gugde(_FJLKF, _FJLPO, _FJLPP, _FJLPQ, _FJLPR), [],
              prami(_FJLAZ, _FJLKF, _FJLKG, _FJLKH, _FJLKI)
             ),
            banli(koha, _FJLAZ, _FJLBA, _FJLBB, _FJLBC)
           ),
          _FJLSS, _FJLST, _FJLSU),
        cafne(_FJKVW, _FJLWO, _FJLWP, _FJLWQ, _FJLWR),
        nelci(mi, _FJKVW, _FJKUU, _FJKUV, _FJKUW)
      ),
     nelci(mi, [kserkses], _FJKUU, _FJKUV, _FJKUW)
    ),
   q(suho(1), _FJMDN,
     stizu(_FJMDN, _FJMID, _FJMIE, _FJMIF, _FJMIG), [],
     zutse(mi, _FJMDN, _FJMDO, _FJMDP, _FJMDQ)
    )
  )
AND(
     AND(
         {E X
           nu(X,
              A Y
                xelso(Y):

                                 136


                {E Z
                  gugde(Z);
                  prami(Y,Z)};
                banli(koha, Y)
              ):
            cafne(X);
            nelci(mi, X)
         },
         nelci(mi, [kserkses])
        ),
     E W:stizu(W);zutse(mi,W)
    )

        LOJBAN MACHINE GRAMMAR, E-BNF VERSION, dated 12 June 1993
 2nd baseline as of 23 June 1991, which is original baseline 20 July 1990
    incorporating technical fixes 1-28.  This version includes change
  proposals 1-32 to that baseline, excluding changes 21 and 28 which are
                            assumed annulled.
 Prepared by The Logical Language Group, Inc.  2904 Beau Lane, Fairfax VA
                22031 USA  lojbab@grebyn.com  703-385-0273
                                     
In accordance with the Logical Language Group, Inc. policy, this material
constitutes Lojban language definition materials and is hereby placed
irrevocably in the public domain.  Signed:  Robert LeChevalier, President,
The Logical Language Group, Inc.
We request the following when this material is used in derived works:
state that derivation and that the material baseline is preliminary, and
provide the name and address of the Logical Language Group, Inc. as a
source of further bonafide information about the material and about
Lojban.  We ask that all users of this material verify to ensure that they
are using the latest material.  Barring unexpected major problems there
will be no change to this material prior to completion of the Lojban
dictionary later in 1993, whereupon a 3rd baseline will declared.

Explanation of notation:
All rules have the form:
     name<number> = bnf-expression
which means that the grammatical construct "name" is defined by "bnf-
expression".  The number cross-references this grammar with the rule
numbers in the YACC grammar.  The names are the same as those in the YACC
grammar, except that subrules are labeled with A, B, C, ... in the YACC
grammar and with 1, 2, 3, ... in this grammar.  In addition, rule 971 is
"simple_tag" in the YACC grammar but "stag" in this grammar, because of
its frequent appearance, and rule 32 is "free_modifier" in the YACC
grammar but "free" in this grammar.
Conventions:
1)  Names in lower case are grammatical constructs.
2)  Names in UPPER CASE are selma'o (lexeme) names, and are terminals
     (i.e. they have no internal grammar, but are replaced by any of the
     Lojban words in that "selma'o".
3)  Concatenation is expressed by juxtaposition with no operator symbol.
4)  "|" represents alternation (choice).
5)  "[]" represents an optional element.
6)  "&" represents and/or ("A & B" is the same as "A | B | A B").
7)  "..." represents optional repetition of the construct to the left.
     Left-grouping is implied; right-grouping is shown by explicit self-
     referential recursion with no "..."
8)  "()" serves to indicate the grouping of the other operators.
     Otherwise, "..." binds closer than &, which binds closer than |.
9)  "#" is shorthand for "[free ...]", a construct which appears in many
     places.
10) "//" encloses an elidable terminator, which may be omitted (without
     change of meaning) if no grammatical ambiguity results.

text<0>  =   [NAI] [(CMENE ... #) | (indicators & free ...)] [joik-jek]
          text-1
text-1<2>  =   [(I [jek | joik] [[stag] BO] #) ... | NIhO ... # ]
          paragraphs
paragraphs<4>  =   paragraph [NIhO ... # paragraphs]
paragraph<10>  =   paragraph-1 [I [jek | joik] # [paragraph-1] ...
paragraph-1<11>  =   paragraph-2 [I [jek | joik] [stag] BO # paragraph-1]
paragraph-2<12>  =   utterance | [prenex | tag] TUhE # text-1 /TUhU#/
utterance<20>  =   ek # | gihek # | quantifier | NA | term ... /VAU#/ |
          prenex | relative-clauses | links | linkargs | sentence
prenex<30>  =   term ... ZOhU #
sentence<40>  =   bridi-tail | sentence-1
sentence-1<41>  =   term ... [CU #] bridi-tail | gek sentence-1 gik
          sentence | prenex sentence
bridi-tail<50>  =   bridi-tail-1 [gihek [stag] KE # bridi-tail /KEhE#/
          tail-terms] ...
bridi-tail-1<51>  =   bridi-tail-2 [gihek # bridi-tail-2 tail-terms] ...
bridi-tail-2<52>  =   bridi-tail-3 [gihek [stag] BO # bridi-tail-2 tail-
          terms]
bridi-tail-3<53>  =   selbri tail-terms | gek-bridi-tail
gek-bridi-tail<54>  =   gek bridi-tail gik bridi-tail-3 | tag KE gek-
          bridi-tail /KEhE#/ | NA # gek-bridi-tail
tail-terms<71>  =   [term ...] /VAU#/
term<81>  =   sumti | (tag | FA #) (sumti | /KU#/) | termset | NA KU #
termset<83>  =   NUhI gek term ... /NUhU#/ gik term ... /NUhU#/ | NUhI
          term ... /NUhU#/ joik-ek # term ... /NUhU#/
sumti<90>  =   sumti-1 [(ek | joik) [stag] KE # sumti /KEhE#/] ...
sumti-1<91>  =   sumti-2 [joik-ek sumti-2] ...
sumti-2<91>  =   sumti-3 [(ek | joik) [stag] BO # sumti-2]
sumti-3<93>  =   sumti-4 | gek sumti gik sumti-3
sumti-4<94>  =   [quantifier] sumti-5 [relative-clauses] | quantifier
          selbri /KU#/ [relative-clauses]
sumti-5<96>  =   (LAhE # | NAhE BO #) [relative-clauses] sumti /LUhU#/ |
          KOhA # | lerfu-string /BOI#/ | LA CMENE ... # | (LA | LE) sumti-
          tail /KU#/ | LI mex /LOhO#/ | ZO any-word # | LU text /LIhU/ # |
          LOhU any-word ... LEhU # | ZOI any-word anything any-word #
sumti-tail<111>  =   [sumti-5 [relative-clauses]] sumti-tail-1 | relative-
          clauses sumti-tail-1
sumti-tail-1<112>  =   [quantifier] selbri [relative-clauses] | quantifier
          sumti
relative-clauses<121>  =   relative-clause [ZIhE relative-clause] ...
relative-clause<122>  =   GOI term /GEhU#/ | NOI sentence /KUhO#/
selbri<130>  =   [tag] selbri-1
selbri-1<131>  =   selbri-2 | NA selbri
selbri-2<132>  =   selbri-3 [CO # selbri-2]
selbri-3<133>  =   selbri-4 ...
selbri-4<134>  =   selbri-5 [joik-jek selbri-5] ...
selbri-5<135>  =   selbri-6 [(jek | joik) BO # selbri-5]
selbri-6<136>  =   tanru-unit [BO selbri-6] | [NAhE #] guhek selbri gik
          selbri-6
tanru-unit<150>  =   tanru-unit-1 [CEI # tanru-unit-1] ...
tanru-unit-1<151>  =   tanru-unit-2 [linkargs]

tanru-unit-2<152>  =   BRIVLA # | GOhA [RAhO] # | KE selbri-3 /KEhE#/ | ME
          sumti /MEhU#/ [MOI] # | (number | lerfu-string) MOI # | NUhA
          mex-operator | SE # tanru-unit-2 | JAI [tag] tanru-unit-2 | any-
          word (ZEI any-word) ... | NAhE # tanru-unit-2 | NU [NAI] #
          [joik-jek NU [NAI] #] ... sentence /KEI#/
linkargs<160>  =   BE term [links] /BEhO#/
links<161>  =   BEI term [links]
quantifier<300>  =   number /BOI#/ | VEI mex /VEhO#/
mex<310>  =   mex-1 [operator mex-1] ... | FUhA rp-expression
mex-1<311>  =   mex-2 [BO operator mex-1]
mex-2<312>  =   operand | [PEhO] operator mex-2 ... /KUhE#/
rp-expression<330>  =   rp-operand rp-operand operator
rp-operand<332>  =   operand | rp-expression
operator<370>  =   operator-1 [joik-jek operator-1] ...
operator-1<371>  =   operator-2 | guhek operator-1 gik operator-2
operator-2<372>  =   mex-operator # | KE operator /KEhE#/
mex-operator<374>  =   SE # mex-operator | NAhE # mex-operator MAhO mex
          /TEhU#/ | NAhU selbri /TEhU#/ | VUhU
operand<380>  =   operand-1 [(ek | joik) [stag] KE # operand /KEhE#/] ...
operand-1<382>  =   operand-2 [joik-ek operand-2] ...
operand-2<383>  =   operand-3 [(ek | joik) [stag] BO # operand-2]
operand-3<385>  =   quantifier | lerfu-string /BOI#/ | NIhE selbri /TEhU#/
          | MOhE sumti /TEhU#/ | JOhI mex-2 ... /TEhU#/ | gek operand gik
          operand-3 | (LAhE # | NAhE BO #) operand /LUhU#/
number<812>  =   PA [PA | lerfu-word] ...
lerfu-string<817>  =   lerfu-word [PA | lerfu-word] ...
lerfu-word<987>  =   BY | any-word BU | LAU lerfu-word | TEI lerfu-string
          FOI
ek<802>  =   [NA] [SE] A [NAI]
gihek<818>  =   [NA] [SE] GIhA [NAI]
jek<805>  =   [NA] [SE] JA [NAI]
joik<806>  =   [SE] JOI [NAI] | interval | GAhO interval GAhO
interval<932>  =   [SE] BIhI [NAI]
joik-ek<421>  =   joik # | ek #
joik-jek<422>  =   joik # | jek #
gek<807)  =   [SE] GA [NAI] # | joik GI # | stag gik #
guhek<808>  =   [SE] GUhA [NAI] #
gik<816>  =   GI [NAI] #
tag<491>  =   tense-modal [joik-jek tense-modal] ...
stag<971>  =   simple-tense-modal [(jek | joik) simple-tense-modal] ...
tense-modal<815>  =   simple-tense-modal # | FIhO selbri /FEhU#/
simple-tense-modal<972>  =   [NAhE] [SE] BAI [NAI] [KI] | [NAhE] time &
          space & CAhA [KI] | KI | CUhE
time<1030>  =   ZI & time-offset ... & ZEhA [PU [NAI]] & interval-modifier
time-offset<1033>  =   PU [NAI] [ZI]
space<1040>  =   VA & space-offset ... & space-interval & (MOhI space-
          offset)
space-offset<1045>  =   FAhA [NAI] [VA]
space-interval<1046>  =   ((VEhA & VIhA) [FAhA [NAI]]) & FEhE interval-
          modifier
interval-modifier<1050>  =   interval-property & ZAhO
interval-property<1051>  =   number ROI [NAI] | TAhE [NAI]
free<32>  =   SEI # [term ... [CU #]] selbri /SEhU/ | SOI sumti [sumti]
          /SEhU/ | vocative selbri [relative-clauses] /DOhU/ | vocative
          relative-clauses sumti-tail-1 /DOhU/ | vocative CMENE ... #
          [relative-clauses] /DOhU/ | vocative [sumti] /DOhU/ | (number |
          lerfu-string) MAI | TO text /TOI/ | XI number /BOI/ | XI lerfu-
          string /BOI/ | XI VEI mex /VEhO/
vocative<415>  =   (COI [NAI]) ... & DOI
indicators<411>  =   [FUhE] indicator ...
indicator<413>  =    (UI | CAI) [NAI] | Y | POhA | DAhO | FUhO
          The following rules are non-formal:
word<1100>  =   [BAhE | PEhA] any-word [indicators]
any-word  =   "any single word (no compound cmavo)"
anything  =   "any text at all, whether Lojban or not"
null<1101>  =   any-word SI | utterance SA | text SU
          FAhO is a universal terminator and signals the end of parsable
          input.
                  06/01/93 Lojban baseline rafsi list
The Logical Language Group, Inc., 2904 Beau Lane, Fairfax VA 22031-1303
                                  USA
               703-385-0273     email:  lojbab@grebyn.com

In accordance with the Logical Language Group, Inc. policy, this
material constitutes Lojban language definition materials and is hereby
placed irrevocably in the public domain.  Signed:  Robert LeChevalier,
President, The Logical Language Group, Inc.
We request the following when this material is used in derived works:
state that derivation and that the material baseline is preliminary, and
provide the name and address of the Logical Language Group, Inc. as a
source of further bonafide information about the material and about
Lojban.  We ask that all users of this material verify to ensure that
they are using the latest material.  Barring unexpected major problems
there will be no change to this material prior to completion of the
Lojban dictionary later in 1993, whereupon a 3rd baseline will declared.

                          Lojban lujvo-MAKING

1. Long-form rafsi for gismu are derived directly from the gismu-form:
the gismu itself for final position, and the gismu with final vowel
replaced by 'y' for non-final position; cmavo have no long-form rafsi.
As you will note below, many gismu have no short-form rafsi and must use
the long forms in both initial and final positions.

Short form rafsi are derived from a limited set of possibilities:

C1V1C2C3V2 gismu have1
     CVC forms from  C1V1C2 or C1V1C3
     CVV forms from  C1V1V2 (C1V1'V2)
     CCV forms from  C2C3V2 or rarely C1C2V1

C1C2V1C3V2 gismu have
     CVC forms from  C1V1C3 or C2V1C3
     CVV forms from  C1V1V2 (C1V1'V2) or C2V1V2 (C2V1'V2)
     CCV forms from  C1C2V1

2. Any cmavo or other word may be incorporated into a lujvo
independently of the rafsi system using the cmavo "zei":
'any-word' zei 'any-word' forms a brivla

3. All forms of lujvo built out of exactly the same component
words/rafsi have identical meanings.  There is no stigma attached to use
of long forms, which can be especially useful when your audience is not
familiar with the rafsi, and is not likely to be looking up words in a
word-list.  Long-forms also may be preferred to guessing when you are
too lazy to use a list yourself, and you suspect that your audience will
be using one - there is nothing like trying to interpret a lujvo when
the unambiguously resolved components resolve into something totally
strange.

4. The rules for building lujvo-forms are fairly simple.

- Rules for Lojban word forms - The lujvo must be formed according to
Lojban's word-formation rules.  The constraints of Lojban word forms
____________________
1Note:  C and V in abbreviations of this sort stand for any Lojban
consonant and vowel, respectively.  The apostrophe is the Lojban "'",
which is considered neither a consonant nor a vowel.)

                                   2
forbid any lujvo from ending in a consonant, so that words most commonly
found in the final position of a tanru have been prioritized to have a
rafsi that ends in a vowel.  However, words found in initial positions
often form better sounding combinations if their rafsi end in a
consonant.  (Also, because we usually recognize words by the consonants
in them rather than the vowels, the rafsi of form CVV and CV'V are
harder to memorize.
     Certain sounds are forbidden to occur next to each other (so-called
'impermissible medial' consonants), and must be separated by a 'hyphen'-
sound, the "uh" of "sofa", represented in Lojban by the letter 'y' (this
letter is found only as a hyphen, in lerfu, the words for letters of the
alphabet, and along to represent the hesitation noise. It is thus not
normally considered a 'V' is the C/V convention scheme. Indeed, "CyC" is
considered a consonant cluster in Lojban morphology, albeit a hyphenated
one).  In addition, a CVV or CV'V rafsi at the beginning of any lujvo
must either carry the penultimate stress, it must be 'glued' to the
remaining rafsi with a syllabic 'r' or 'n' sound, or the rafsi falls off
into a separate word, a cmavo.  (In addition, a CVV or CV'V rafsi
followed by another CVV or CV'V rafsi in a 2-term lujvo must have the
'r' or 'n' added, or the consonant cluster mandatory in any brivla in
not present, and the rafsi break up into two separate cmavo.)

- Multiple rafsi to choose from - Because of these rules, there is
usually more than one rafsi usable for each gismu.  The one to be used
is simply whichever sounds best to the speaker/writer.  There are many
valid combinations of the possible rafsi.  Any rafsi for a given word is
equally valid in place of another, and all mean the same thing.  There
is an optional scoring component to the lujvo-making algorithm which
attempts to systematically pick the 'best' one; this algorithm tries for
short forms and tends to push more vowels into the words to make them
easier to say.  The Japanese, Chinese, and Polynesian speakers will
prefer this; Russians have a different aesthetic, since they are used to
saying consonant clusters.  But these are not necessarily the criteria
you will wish to use.

- lujvo have ONE meaning - While a tanru is ambiguous, having several
possible meanings, a lujvo (one that would be put into the dictionary)
has one meaning.  Just like gismu, a lujvo is a predicate which
encompasses one area of the semantic universe, with one set of places.
Hopefully this is the most 'useful' or 'logical' of the possible
semantic spaces.  A known source of linguistic drift in Lojban will be
as Lojbanic society evolves, and the concept represented by a sequence
of rafsi that is most 'useful' or 'logical' changes.  At that time, it
might be decided that we want to redefine the lujvo to assume the new
meaning. lujvo must not be allowed to retain two meanings.  So those
that maintain the dictionary will be ever watchful of tanru and lujvo
usage to ensure this standard is kept.
     One should try to be aware of the possibility of prior meanings of
a new lujvo, especially if you are writing for 'posterity'.  If a lujvo
is invented which involves the same tanru as one that is in the
dictionary, and is assigned a different meaning (including a different
place structure), linguistic drift results.  This isn't necessarily bad;
it happens in every natural language.  You communicate quite well in
English even though you don't know most words in the dictionary, and in
spite of the fact that you use some words in ways not found in the
dictionary.  Whenever you use a meaning different from the dictionary
definition, you risk a reader/listener using the dictionary and
therefore misunderstanding you.  One major reason for having a standard
____________________________________________________________


                                   3
lujvo scoring algorithm is that with several possible rafsi choices to
consider, a dictionary is most efficient by putting the definition under
the single most preferred form.
     You may optionally mark a nonce word that you create without
checking a dictionary by preceding it with "za'e".  "za'e" simply tells
the listener that the word is a nonce word, and may not agree with a
dictionary entry for that sequence of rafsi.  The essential nature of
human communication is that if the listener understands, then all is
well.  Let this be the ultimate guideline for choosing meanings and
place structures for invented lujvo.

- Zipf's law and lujvo - This complication is simple, but is the
scariest.  Zipf's Law (actually a hypothesis), says that the length of
words is inversely proportional to their frequency of usage.  The
shortest words are those which are used more; the longest ones are used
less.  The corollary for Lojban is that commonly used concepts will tend
to be abbreviated.  Speakers will choose the shortest form for
frequently expressed ideas that gets their meaning across, even at the
cost of accuracy in meaning.  In English, we have abbreviations and
acronyms and jargon, all of which are words for complex ideas used with
high frequency by a group of people.  So they shortened them to convey
the often-used information more rapidly.
     The jargon-forming interpretation of Zipf's Law may be a cause of
multiple meanings of words in the natural languages, especially of short
words.  If true, it threatens the Lojban rule that all lujvo must have
one meaning.  The Lojbanist thus resigned accepts a complication in
lujvo-making:  A perfectly good and clear tanru may have to be
abbreviated when made into a lujvo, if the concept it represents likely
will be used so often as to cause Zipf's Law to take effect.
     Thus, given a tanru with grouping markers, abstraction markers, and
other cmavo in it to make the tanru syntactically unambiguous, in many
cases one drops some of the cmavo to make a shorter (incorrect) tanru,
and then uses that one to make the lujvo.
     This doesn't lead to ambiguity, as it might seem.  A given lujvo
still has exactly one meaning and place structure.  But now, more than
one tanru is competing for the same lujvo.  This is not as difficult to
accept or allow for as it might seem:  more than one meaning for a
single tanru was already competing for the 'right' to be used for the
lujvo.  Someone has to use judgement in deciding which one meaning is to
be chosen over the others.  This judgement will be made on the basis of
usage, presumably by some fairly logical criteria.
     If the lujvo made by a shorter form of tanru is already in use, or
is likely to be useful for another meaning, the wordmaker then retains
one or more of the cmavo, preferably ones that clearly set this meaning
apart from the shorter form meaning that is used or anticipated.  In
Lojban, therefore, shorter lujvo will be used for a less complicated
concept, possibly even over a more frequent word.  If two concepts
compete for a single rafsi sequence, the simpler concept will take a
shorter form, and the more complex concept will have some indication of
its more complex nature added into the word structure.  It is easier to
add a cmavo to clarify the meaning of a more complex term than it is to
find a good alternate tanru for the simpler term.
     A good lujvo-composer considers the listener, and a good lujvo
interpreter remebers the difficulties of lujvo-making.  If someone hears
a word he doesn't know, decomposes it, and gets a tanru that makes no
sense for the context, he knows that the grouping operators may have
been dropped out, he may try alternate groupings.  Or he may try using
the verb form of the concept instead of the first sumti, inserting an
abstraction operator if it seems plausible.  Plausibility is key to
learning new ideas, and evaluating unfamiliar lujvo.

                                   4

                SHORT FORM OF THE LUJVO-MAKING ALGORITHM

The rules for the lujvo-making algorithm are stated formally.  This may
cause it to appear intimidating to a casual reader, and to seem harder
than it really is to use.  The following brief form, is more practical
to learn.

1. Find all rafsi forms for the component words.  5-letter forms can
only occur in final position; 4-letter+y form, and CVC short forms can
only occur in non-final positions.  Make all possible combinations of
the rafsi for the component words, keeping the order of the component
words.

2. Between any two impermissible medial consonants (see 5c of the formal
algorithm), stick a y.

3. Where there is a consonant triple formed where two rafsi join, if it
is impermissible (see 5d of the formal algorithm), stick in a y where
they join.

4. If you have a CVV rafsi at the beginning, add in an r hyphen after
it.  An n is used instead if the letter after the hyphen is also an r.
However, in a tanru with only 2 parts, do not add a hyphen when the
second rafsi is a CCV-form.

5. Always stick in a y hyphen after a 4-letter form, which is the gismu
without its final letter.

6. Perform the "tosmabru" test.  Starting from the left, look for a
sequence of 2-or-more CVC rafsi ending with (the first) hyphen 'y', or
one-or-more CVC rafsi followed by an end-of-word CVCCV full word rafsi
with a permissible medial as the CC.  If either case occurs, look at
each consonant pair, and if all of them are permissible initial
consonant pairs, insert a 'y' hyphen between the first consonant pair.


                       THE lujvo-MAKING ALGORITHM

     The following is the official algorithm for generating Lojban lujvo
(complex brivla, or predicate words), given a known tanru (metaphor) and
a complete list of gismu (Lojban primitive roots) and their assigned
rafsi (affixes).  Note that Lojban does not require use of the optimal,
or "best" form of a word.  Poetic usage allows any of the valid word
forms created by this algorithm to be used under appropriate
circumstances.
     Given an n-term tanru and the instruction to find the highest-
scoring lujvo:

1) For all terms except the final term, look up or generate all of the
rafsi (3- and 4- letter forms).  Three-letter forms will be of the
structure CVC, CCV, CVV, or CV'V (the apostrophe is not counted as a
letter in any Lojban rule).  A standard gismu list gives the three-
letter rafsi for each gismu and for each cmavo with an assigned rafsi.
You can memorize the list also.  This is not difficult if you use the
language much:  the set of possible rafsi for each word is limited, and
because almost all possible rafsi have an assigned meaning, the more you
know, the easier it is to learn the rest by elimination.


                                   5
   - Given a CCVCV gismu C1C2V1C3V2, the CVC rafsi, if any, will be
   C1V1C3 or C2V1C3.  The CVV/CV'V rafsi, if any, will be C1V1(')V2 or
   C2V1(')V2. The CCV rafsi, if any, will be C1C2V1.  Very few gismu
   have both a CCV and a CVV/CV'V assigned.
   
   - Given a CVCCV gismu C1V1C2C3V2, the CVC rafsi, if any, will be
   C1V1C2. The CVV/CV'V rafsi, if any, will be C1V1(')V2.  The CCV
   rafsi, if any, will be C1C2V2, or rarely, C1C2V1.
   
   - The rafsi for cmavo is assigned more arbitrarily.  A CVV/CV'V form
   cmavo will often be its own rafsi, but when this isn't possible, the
   final letter is changed.  A single letter, usually an arbitrary
   consonant, is added to a CV cmavo to make its rafsi.
   
   - The four-letter rafsi form for any gismu is formed by dropping the
   final vowel from the gismu (which is then effectively replaced by "y"
   in the lujvo).

2) For the final term, look up or generate all of the three-letter
rafsi, omitting any CVC-form rafsi since a lujvo cannot end in a
consonant.  Then, for this position only, add in the full gismu itself
as a '5-letter rafsi'.

3) Since most cmavo with rafsi have CVC rafsi and none has a 5-letter
form, few cmavo can occur in the final position of a tanru used as the
basis of a lujvo.  cmavo in those positions are rare anyway, the
exceptions being PA+MOI numbers.  If a cmavo in any position has no
rafsi, then it cannot be incorporated into the lujvo.  Consider
rephrasing or using "zei" to form an 'any-word' compound.

4) Form all of the ordered combinations of these rafsi, one rafsi per
corresponding term ordered in the sequence of their corresponding terms.

5) Audible 'hyphens' may be necessary between some adjacent rafsi to
make the word pronouncible, understandable, well-formed, and not prone
to breaking up into two-or-more smaller words.  Hyphens are never
optional; they are not permitted in-between rafsi unless they are
required.  Right-to-left testing is recommended for reasons discussed
below:

   a) If there are more than two terms, an initial CVV or CV'V rafsi
   will fall off and be heard as a separate cmavo.  It must therefore be
   glued on with the letter 'r', which nominally stands in a syllable by
   itself.  For example sai + zba + ta'u becomes sairzbata'u (syllabized
   as  sai,r,zba,TA'u).  If the initial rafsi is a CV'V, the 'r' may be
   joined onto the second syllable.  Thus sa'i + zba + ta'u becomes
   sa'irzbata'u (syllabized as sa,'ir,zba,TA'u).  If the first consonant
   of the second syllable is an 'r', the gluing 'hyphen' must be the
   letter 'n', instead of 'r' because doubled consonants are not
   permitted in Lojban.  Thus sai + rai + ta'u becomes sainraita'u
   (syllabized as sai,n,rai,TA'u and NOT sain,rai,TA'u).  'n' is NOT
   permitted unless the adjacent 'r' forces it.
      If there are exactly two terms, and the initial term is a CVV or
   CV'V rafsi AND the final term is a 5-letter rafsi, an 'r' hyphen is
   needed as described above to prevent the initial rafsi from falling
   off into a separate CVV or CV'V cmavo.  As above, an 'n' is used as
   glue if and only if an 'r' cannot be used.  Thus sai + taxfu needs
   hyphen 'r' to become sairtaxfu (sai,r,TAX,fu).  sai + ranji needs
   hyphen 'n' to become sainranji (sai,n,RAN,ji).

                                   6
      If there are exactly two terms, and the initial term is a CVV or
   CV'V rafsi AND the final term is a CVV or CV'V rafsi, an 'r' hyphen
   is needed, because the lujvo is not well-formed, lacking a consonant
   cluster, and will fall apart into two CVV or CV'V cmavo.  As above,
   an 'n' is used as glue if and only if an 'r' cannot be used.  Thus
   sai + ta'u needs hyphen 'r' to become sairta'u (sai,r,TA,'u).  sai +
   rai needs hyphen 'n' to become sainrai (SAI,n,rai).  Note that hyphen
   in a syllable by itself is not counted in determining penultimate
   stress.  However, if joined onto a vowel syllable as when ta'u + sai
   forms ta'ursai, the vowel syllable is counted and is stressed if
   penultimate (ta,'UR,sai).
      If there are exactly two terms, and the initial term is a CVV or
   CV'V rafsi AND the final term is a CCV rafsi, no hyphen is needed,
   because the lujvo is well-formed, having a consonant cluster, and
   penultimate stress falls on part of the CVV/CV'V rafsi, preventing it
   from falling off into a separate word.  Thus sai + zba needs no
   hyphen 'r' to form saizba.

   b) Put 'y' after any 4-letter rafsi form (e.g. zbasysai).  Do not
   count a syllable centered on this hyphen in determining penultimate
   stress.  (e.g. ZBAS,y,sai or ZBA,sy,sai).
   
   c) Put 'y' at any proscribed C/C joint (impermissible medial
   consonant pair, e.g. nunynau).  The following are the rules
   summarizing proscribed medials:
      Given that the consonant pair is defined as C1C2, that b, d, g, j,
   v and z are voiced consonants, c, f, k, p, s, t, and x are unvoiced
   consonants, and l, m, n, and r are nasal/liquid consonants.

      1.  C1 cannot be the same as C2. e.g.                        *kk
      2.  If C1 is voiced, then C2 must either be voiced or
          nasal/liquid.  If C1 is unvoiced, then C2 must be either un-
          voiced or nasal/liquid.                                  *bf
      3.  Both C1 and C2 cannot be among c, j, s, or z.            *cs
      4.  *cx, *kx, *xc, *xk, and *mz are not permitted.

   Do not count a syllable centered on this hyphen in determining
   penultimate stress.  (e.g.  NUN,y,nau or NU,ny,nau).

   d) Put y at any proscribed C/CC joint (e.g. nunydji).  The following
   are the rules for proscribed triples:

      The first two consonants of a consonant triple in a Lojban brivla
      must be restricted as for permissible medial consonant pairs per
      the above.  The second pair within the triple must be a
      permissible initial consonant pair.  Since you cannot get a triple
      in a lujvo unless the latter two consonants are part of a CCV
      rafsi, testing the first two consonants per c) is sufficient for
      this part of the test.  In addition, there are a few triples that
      meet the above conditions but are still not pronounceable so as to
      be easily and uniquely resolvable from other combinations.  Hence
      they are also not permitted, and require a hyphen.  These triples
      are:
      
                          n,dj   n,dz   n,tc   n,ts
      
      Do not count a syllable centered on this hyphen in determining
      penultimate stress.  (e.g.  NUN,y,dji or NU,ny,dji).


                                   7
   e) Test all forms starting with a series of CVC rafsi for "tosmabru
   failure", which means that the first CV will fall off into a separate
   cmavo, leaving the rest a valid lujvo.  ("*tosmabru was a trial word
   that was found to so break up, and is used as the archetypal example
   of an invalid lujvo according to this rule.)  This is a tricky rule,
   but not that common a circumstance, because the CV falls off only if
   a valid lujvo remains.  The following are a set of simple short cuts
   to test for and correct all "tosmabru" situations.  (The same
   situation with an apparent le'avla form remaining does not break up
   simply because such forms are forbidden to le'avla.  This is the so-
   called "*slinku'i" rule for le'avla: if you stick a CV cmavo on the
   front of a le'avla and it forms a valid lujvo, then the le'avla is
   NOT valid.)
      If a series of rafsi has the pattern 'CVC ...  CVC + X' , where no
   'y' hyphens have been installed between any two of the CVC, there may
   be a "tosmabru" problem.
      - If X is a CVCCV long rafsi with a permissible initial as the
      consonant cluster, then even a single CVC rafsi on the front
      requires a "tosmabru test" (as in tos + mabru which would break up
      into to + smabru).  You are specifically testing here to ensure
      that the CV on the front does not fall off, leaving a lujvo
      composed of a series of CCV rafsi.
      - If X is any rafsi or partial-lujvo that causes a y hyphen to be
      installed between the previous CVC and itself by one of the above
      rules, and there are at least two CVC rafsi preceding, you must
      also test for "tosmabru" break up (as in tos + mab + bai which
      would have added a 'y' hyphen between the last two terms, and
      would break up into to + smabybai, where "smab" is a hypothetical
      4-letter rafsi form).  You are testing here to avoid the initial
      CV falling off to leave a lujvo with a spurious CCVC 4-letter
      rafsi form just before the X component. NOTE THAT THE RULES DO NOT
      DEPEND ON THERE ACTUALLY BEING RAFSI THAT WOULD MAKE THE BROKEN UP
      WORD POSSIBLE (smab- is not the 4-letter form for any gismu
      currently assigned, but the rules do not presume that the listener
      knows which rafsi are real - they are based ONLY on the forms if
      the words.)

      The "tosmabru" test is:
               Examine all the C/C joints between the CVC rafsi, and
          between the last CVC and the X term.
               If the ALL of those C/C joints, as well as the CC in X,
          if we are dealing with the CVCCV case for X, are "bridged" by
          permissible initials, listed in Section III or the back of the
          gismu list, then the trial word will break up into a cmavo and
          a shorter brivla ("tosmaktu" would thus be valid, unlike
          "tosmabru").
               If any C/C joint is unbridged, i.e., is impermissible as
          an initial CC, the trial word will not break up.  It has
          passed the "tosmabru test".
               Only the first joint in a trial word needs to be
          unbridged in order to ensure resolvability.  Thus: Install y
          as a hyphen at the first bridged joint if the "tosmabru" test
          fails (e.g.  tosymabru).
               The 'lazy Lojbanist' "tosmabru test" is to add a hyphen
          any time you have a CVC rafsi followed by a CV...  of 5-or-
          more letters, where the first C/C joint forms a permissible
          initial.  This is NOT a correct algorithm - it will put in
          hyphens that are not necessary, thus resulting in words that
          are technically invalid.  However, for nonce lujvo-making, if

                                   8
          an unnecessary hyphen is present, the word can be successfully
          and unambiguously analyzed.
               On the other hand, if a "tosmabru" hyphen is omitted, the
          word is likely to be incorrectly analyzed.
               Note that the 'tosmabru test' requires all hyphens based
          on other rules to have been determined before conducting the
          test.  This is why this step occurs last.

      6) Evaluate all combinations and select the word with the highest
      score, using some algorithm.

                           SCORING ALGORITHM

This algorithm was devised by Bob and Nora LeChevalier in 1989.  It is
not the only permitted algorithm, but it usually gives a choice that
people find preferable.  This is the algorithm encoded in the lujvo-
making program sold by la lojbangirz.  The algorithm may be changed in
the future.  Note that the algorithm basically encodes a hierarchy of
priorities, preferring short words (counting an apostrophe as a half of
a letter), then words with fewer hyphens, then words with fewer
syllables and/or more vowels.

Values are attached to various properties of the lujvo.  The score is
the sum of these values.

1.  Count the number of hyphens (h), including 'y', 'r', or 'n'.  2.
Count the number of vowels (v) not including 'y'.  3.  Count the number
of apostrophes (a).  4.  Count the total number of characters including
hyphens and apostrophes (l).  5.  For each rafsi component, find the
value in the following list.  Sum this total (r):

          Cvv        (sai)         8
          CCVC       (zbas)        4
          CCV        (zba)         7
          -CCVCV     (-zbasu)      3
          CV'V       (ta'u)        6
          CVCC       (sarj)        2
          CVC        (nun)         5
          -CVCCV     (-sarji)      1

The score is then 32500 - (1000 * l) + (500 * a) - (100 * h) + (10 * r)
+ v In case of ties, there is no preference.  This should be rare.

The following examples use the rafsi:

CVC = nun CCV = zba Cvv = nau, sai
CVCCV = sarji  CCVC- = zbas-  CV'V = ta'u

Stress is shown explicitly using capitalization in these examples.
Being algorithmic (always penultimate), it does not have to be
explicitly shown when these words are actually used.

    zba + sai                           ZBAsai
 32500 - (1000 * 6) + (500 * 0) - (100 * 0) + (10 * 15) + 3 = 26653
    nun + y + nau                       NUNynau
 32500 - (1000 * 7) + (500 * 0) - (100 * 1) + (10 * 13) + 3 = 25533
    sai + r + zba + ta'u                sairzbaTA'u
 32500 - (1000 * 11) + (500 * 1) - (100 * 1) + (10 * 21) + 5 = 22115
    zba + zbas + y + sarji              zbazbasySARji
 32500 - (1000 * 13) + (500 * 0) - (100 * 1) + (10 * 12) + 4 = 19524

                                   9



                                         10
 gismu                   berti ber          nort  briju bij          offi
 or                      h                        ce
 cmavo CVC   CCV    CVV  besna ben          brai  brito rit          Brit
 English keyword         n                        ish
                         betfu bef     be'u abdo  broda rod          pred
 bacru       ba'u   utte men                      icate var 1
 r                       betri bet          trag  brode       bo'e   pred
 badna         banana    edy                      icate var 2
 badri    dri       sad  bevri bev     bei  carr  brodi         predicate
 bajra baj          run  y                        var 3
 bakfu baf          bund bi biv        8          brodo         predicate
 le                      bi'i  biz          unor  var 4
 bakni bak          bovi dered interval           brodu         predicate
 ne                      bidju         bead       var 5
 bakri         chalk     bifce bic          bee   bruna bun     bu'a brot
 baktu         bucket    bikla bik          whip  her
 balji         bulb      bilga big          obli  bu bus      bu'i   word
 balni         balcony   ged                      to lerfu
 balre       ba'e   blad bilma       bi'a   ill   bu'a  bul          some
 e                       bilni bil          mili  selbri 1
 balvi bav          futu tary                     budjo buj     bu'o Budd
 re                      bindo bid          Indo  hist
 bancu bac          beyo nesian                   bukpu buk     bu'u clot
 nd                      binra         insure     h
 bandu bad          defe binxo bix     bi'o beco  bumru bum          fog
 nd                      me                       bunda bud          poun
 banfi         amphibian birje         beer       d
 bangu ban     bau  lang birka bir          arm   bunre bur     bu'e brow
 uage                    birti bit          cert  n
 banli bal     ba'i grea ain                      burcu    bru       brus
 t                       bisli bis          ice   h
 banro       ba'o   grow bitmu bim     bi'u wall  burna         embarrass
 banxa bax          bank blabi lab          whit  ed
 banzu baz          suff e                        ca'a  caz          actu
 ice                     blaci         glass      ally is
 bapli bap     bai  forc blanu    bla       blue  cabna cab          now
 e                       bliku    bli       bloc  cabra       ca'a   appa
 barda    bra       big  k                        ratus
 bargu bag          arch bloti lot   blo    lo'i  cacra         hour
 barja         bar       boat                     cadzu    dzu       walk
 barna       ba'a   mark bo bor        short      cafne caf          ofte
 bartu bar          out  scope link               n
 basna         emphasize bolci bol     boi  ball  cakla         chocolate
 basti bas          repl bongu bog     bo'u bone  calku cak          shel
 ace                     botpi bot     bo'i bott  l
 batci bat          bite le                       canci         vanish
 batke         button    boxfo bof     bo'o shee  cando cad          idle
 bavmi         barley    t                        cange cag          farm
 baxso         Malay-    boxna bon     bo'a wave  canja caj          exch
 Indonesian              bradi         enemy      ange
 bebna beb          fool bratu         hail       canko       ca'o   wind
 ish                     brazo raz          Braz  ow
 bemro bem     be'o Nort ilian                    canlu cal     ca'u spac
 h American              bredi red   bre          e
 bende bed     be'e crew ready                    canpa    cna       shov
 bengo beg          Beng bridi    bri       pred  el
 ali                     icate                    canre can          sand
 benji bej     be'i tran brife bif     bi'e bree  canti         gut
 sfer                    ze                       carce         cart
 bersa bes     be'a son

                                    11
 carmi cam     cai  inte ciksi    cki       expl  ckini       ki'i   rela
 nse                     ain                      ted
 carna car          turn cilce cic          wild  ckire kir          grat
 cartu cat          char cilmo cim          mois  eful
 t                       t                        ckule kul     cu'e scho
 carvi cav          rain cilre    cli       lear  ol
 casnu    snu       disc n                        ckunu       ku'u   coni
 uss                     cilta cil          thre  fer
 catke       ca'e   shov ad                       cladu       lau    loud
 e                       cimde         dimension  clani    cla       long
 catlu    cta       look cimni         infinite   claxu       cau    with
 catni       ca'i   auth cinba         kiss       out
 ority                   cindu         oak        clika         mossy
 catra         kill      cinfo         lion       clira lir          earl
 caxno cax          shal cinje cij          wrin  y
 low                     kle                      clite lit          poli
 ce cec        in a set  cinki         insect     te
 with                    cinla         thin       cliva liv     li'a leav
 ce'i  cez          perc cinmo    cni       emot  e
 ent                     ion                      clupa cup          loop
 ce'o        ce'o   in a cinri       ci'i   inte  cmaci         mathemati
 sequence with           resting                  cs
 cecla cel     ce'a laun cinse cin          sexu  cmalu    cma       smal
 cher                    al                       l
 cecmu cem     ce'u comm cinta         paint      cmana       ma'a   moun
 unity                   cinza         tongs      tain
 cedra         era       cipni    cpi       bird  cmavo       ma'o   stru
 cenba    cne       vary cipra cip          test  cture word
 censa ces          holy cirko    cri       lose  cmene    cme  me'e name
 centi cen          .01  cirla         cheese     cmila       mi'a   laug
 cerda ced          heir ciska       ci'a   writ  h
 cerni cer          morn e                        cmima mim   cmi         
 ing                     cisma         smile      member
 certu    cre       expe ciste       ci'e   syst  cmoni    cmo  co'i moan
 rt                      em                       cnano       na'o   norm
 cevni cev     cei  god  citka    cti       eat   cnebo neb     ne'o neck
 cfari    cfa       init citno cit     ci'o youn  cnemu nem     ne'u rewa
 iate                    g                        rd
 cfika fik     fi'a fict citri cir          hist  cnici nic          orde
 ion                     ory                      rly
 cfila    cfi       flaw citsi         season     cnino nin     ni'o new
 cfine         wedge     civla civ          lous  cnisa nis          lead
 cfipu       fi'u   conf e                        cnita nit     ni'a bene
 using                   cizra ciz          stra  ath
 ci cib        3         nge                      co col        tanru
 ciblu    blu       bloo ckabu         rubber     inversion
 d                       ckafi kaf          coff  co'a        co'a   init
 cicna         cyan      ee                       iative
 cidja    dja       food ckaji       kai    qual  co'e  com     co'e unsp
 cidni cid          knee ity                      ecif bridi
 cidro    dro       hydr ckana    cka       bed   co'u        co'u   cess
 ogen                    ckape cap          peri  ative
 cifnu cif          infa l                        cokcu    cko       soak
 nt                      ckasu cas          ridi  up
 cigla cig          glan cule                     condi con   cno    coi  
 d                       ckeji kej   cke          deep
 cikna cik          awak ashamed                  cortu cor   cro         
 e                       ckiku kik          key   pain
 cikre         repair    ckilu       ci'u   scal  cpacu    cpa       get
                         e                        cpana         upon

                                    12
 cpare par          clim dacru dac          draw  detri det          date
 b                       er                       dicra dir          inte
 cpedu    cpe       requ dacti       dai    obje  rrupt
 est                     ct                       dikca dic          elec
 cpina         pungent   dadjo daj          Taoi  tric
 cradi         radio     st                       diklo    klo       loca
 crane    cra       fron dakfu dak          knif  l
 t                       e                        dikni dik          regu
 creka cek          shir dakli         sack       lar
 t                       damba dab     da'a figh  dilcu         quotient
 crepu rep          harv t                        dilnu dil          clou
 est                     damri         drum       d
 cribe rib          bear dandu dad          hang  dimna dim          fate
 crida rid          fair danfu daf          answ  dinju dij     di'u buil
 y                       er                       ding
 crino       ri'o   gree danlu dal     da'u anim  dinko       di'o   nail
 n                       al                       dirba dib          dear
 cripu rip          brid danmo dam          smok  dirce       di'e   radi
 ge                      e                        ate
 crisa cis          summ danre       da'e   pres  dirgo dig          drop
 er                      sure                     dizlo diz   dzi         
 critu         autumn    dansu         dance      low
 ctaru         tide      danti dan          proj  djacu jac     jau  wate
 ctebi teb          lip  ectile                   r
 cteki tek     ce'i tax  daplu    plu       isla  djedi    dje  dei  full
 ctile         petroleum nd                       day
 ctino       ti'o   shad dapma dap          curs  djica    dji       desi
 ow                      e                        re
 ctuca    ctu       teac dargu dag          road  djine jin          ring
 h                       darlu       dau    argu  djuno jun     ju'o know
 cukla cuk          roun e                        do don      doi    you
 d                       darno dar     da'o far   donri dor     do'i dayt
 cukta    cku       book darsi         audacity   ime
 culno    clu       full darxi dax     da'i hit   dotco dot     do'o Germ
 cumki cum     cu'i poss daski         pocket     an
 ible                    dasni das          wear  draci         drama
 cumla cul          humb daspo    spo       dest  drani    dra       corr
 le                      roy                      ect
 cunmi         millet    dasri    sri       ribb  drata dat          othe
 cunso cun     cu'o rand on                       r
 om                      datka         duck       drudi rud   dru         
 cuntu       cu'u   affa datni         data       roof
 ir                      decti dec          .1    du dub      du'o   same
 cupra    pra       prod degji deg          fing  identity as
 uce                     er                       du'u  dum          brid
 curmi    cru       let  dejni dej          owe   i abstract
 curnu cur          worm dekpu         gallon     dugri dug          loga
 curve cuv          pure dekto dek          10    rithm
 cusku cus   sku         delno del     de'o cand  dukse dus     du'e exce
 express                 ela                      ss
 cutci cuc          shoe dembi deb          bean  dukti dut          oppo
 cutne cut          ches denci den     de'i toot  site
 t                       h                        dunda dud     du'a give
 cuxna cux     cu'a choo denmi dem          dens  dunja duj          free
 se                      e                        ze
 da dav   dza       some denpa dep     de'a wait  dunku duk     du'u angu
 thing 1                 dertu der     de'u dirt  ish
 da'a  daz          all  derxi    dre       heap  dunli dun     du'i equa
 except                  desku des          shak  l
                         e

                                    13
 dunra dur          wint finti fin     fi'i inve  gapru gap          abov
 er                      nt                       e
 dzena    dze       elde flalu    fla       law   garna gar          rail
 r                       flani         flute      gasnu       gau    do
 dzipo zip     zi'o Anta flecu    fle       flow  gasta gat          stee
 rctican                 fliba    fli       fail  l
 facki fak     fa'i disc flira fir          face  genja gej          root
 over                    fo'a        fo'a   it-6  gento get     ge'o Arge
 fadni fad          ordi fo'e        fo'e   it-7  ntinian
 nary                    fo'i        fo'i   it-8  genxu gex          hook
 fagri fag          fire foldi    flo  foi  fiel  gerku ger     ge'u dog
 falnu fan          sail d                        gerna gen     ge'a gram
 famti         aunt or   fonmo fom     fo'o foam  mar
 uncle                   fonxa fon          tele  gidva gid     gi'a guid
 fancu         function  phone                    e
 fange         alien     forca    fro       fork  gigdo gig     gi'o 1E9
 fanmo fam     fa'o end  fraso fas          Fren  ginka gik          camp
 fanri         factory   ch                       girzu gir   gri         
 fanta         prevent   frati    fra       reac  group
 fanva         translate t                        gismu gim     gi'u root
 fanza faz          anno fraxu fax          forg  word
 y                       ive                      glare    gla       hot
 fapro fap   pro         frica fic          diff  gleki gek     gei  happ
 oppose                  er                       y
 farlu fal     fa'u fall friko       fi'o   Afri  gletu let   gle         
 farna far     fa'a dire can                      copulate
 ction                   frili fil          easy  glico gic   gli         
 farvi fav          deve frinu         fraction   English
 lop                     friti fit          offe  gluta    glu       glov
 fasnu       fau    even r                        e
 t                       frumu    fru       frow  gocti goc          1E-
 fatci fac          fact n                        24
 fatne fat     fa'e reve fukpi fuk     fu'i copy  gotro got          1E24
 rse                     fulta ful   flu          gradu       rau    unit
 fatri       fai    dist float                    grake    gra       gram
 ribute                  funca fun     fu'a luck  grana       ga'a   rod
 febvi feb          boil fusra fur          rott  grasu ras          grea
 femti fem          1E-  en                       se
 15                      fuzme fuz     fu'e resp  greku rek          fram
 fendi fed          divi onsible                  e
 de                      gacri       gai    cove  grusi rus          gray
 fengu feg     fe'u angr r                        grute rut          frui
 y                       gadri gad          arti  t
 fenki fek          craz cle                      gubni gub          publ
 y                       galfi gaf     ga'i modi  ic
 fenra fer     fe'a crac fy                       gugde gug     gu'e coun
 k                       galtu gal     ga'u high  try
 fenso fen     fe'o sew  galxe         throat     gundi gud          indu
 fepni fep     fei  cent ganlo       ga'o   clos  stry
 fepri         lung      ed                       gunka gun     gu'a work
 ferti    fre       fert ganra gan          broa  gunma gum          join
 ile                     d                        tly
 festi fes          wast ganse gas     ga'e sens  gunro gur     gu'o roll
 e                       e                        gunse         goose
 fetsi fet     fe'i fema ganti         testicle   gunta gut          atta
 le                      ganxo gax          anus  ck
 figre fig          fig  ganzu gaz          orga  gurni    gru       grai
 filso fis          Pale nize                     n
 stinian                 gapci gac          gas   guska guk          scra
 finpe fip     fi'e fish                          pe

                                    14
 gusni gus     gu'i illu jecta jec     je'a poli  jinsa jis          clea
 mine                    ty                       n
 gusta         restauran jeftu jef          week  jinto         well
 t                       jegvo jeg     je'o Jeho  jinvi jiv     ji'i opin
 gutci guc          cubi vist                     e
 t                       jei   jez          trut  jinzi jiz          inna
 gutra         womb      h abstract               te
 guzme guz   zme         jelca jel          burn  jipci         chicken
 melon                   jemna    jme       gem   jipno jip     ji'o tip
 ja jav        tanru or  jenca jen          shoc  jirna         horn
 jabre         brake     k                        jisra         juice
 jadni jad     ja'i ador jendu jed          axle  jitfa jif          fals
 n                       jenmi jem     jei  army  e
 jakne         rocket    jerna         earn       jitro    tro       cont
 jalge jag     ja'e resu jersi       je'i   chas  rol
 lt                      e                        jivbu         weave
 jalna         starch    jerxo jex          Alge  jivna    jvi       comp
 jalra         cockroach rian                     ete
 jamfu jaf   jma         jesni jes          need  jmaji jaj          gath
 foot                    le                       er
 jamna jam          war  jetce       je'e   jet   jmifa         shoal
 janbe jab          bell jetnu jet     je'u true  jmina min          add
 janco jan          shou jgalu       ja'u   claw  jmive miv     ji'e live
 lder                    jganu    jga       angl  jo jov        tanru iff
 janli jal          coll e                        jo'e  jom          unio
 ide                     jgari       jai    gras  n
 jansu jas          dipl p                        jo'u        jo'u   in
 omat                    jgena    jge       knot  common with
 janta jat          acco jgina gin          gene  joi   jol     joi  in a
 unt                     jgira    jgi       prid  mass with
 jarbu         suburb    e                        jordo jor     jo'o Jord
 jarco       ja'o   show jgita git          guit  anian
 jarki jak          narr ar                       jorne jon     jo'e join
 ow                      jibni    jbi       near  ed
 jaspu jap          pass jibri jib          job   ju juv        tanru
 port                    jicla         stir       whether
 jatna       ja'a   capt jicmu    cmu       basi  jubme jub   jbu         
 ain                     s                        table
 javni    jva       rule jijnu jij          intu  judri         address
 jbama bam          bomb it                       jufra juf     ju'a sent
 jbari    jba       berr jikca jik          soci  ence
 y                       alize                    jukni juk          spid
 jbena    jbe       born jikru         liquor     er
 jbera jer          borr jilka jil          alka  jukpa jup          cook
 ow                      li                       julne       ju'e   net
 jbini bin     bi'i betw jilra         jealous    jundi jud     ju'i atte
 een                     jimca jic          bran  ntive
 jdari jar          firm ch                       jungo jug          Chin
 jdice    jdi       deci jimpe    jmi       unde  ese
 de                      rstand                   junla jul          cloc
 jdika         decrease  jimte jit          limi  k
 jdima       di'a   pric t                        junri jur          seri
 e                       jinci         shears     ous
 jdini din     di'i mone jinga jig     ji'a win   junta         weight
 y                       jinku         vaccine    jurme jum          germ
 jduli dul   jdu         jinme jim          meta  jursa jus          seve
 jelly                   l                        re
 je jev   jve       tanr jinru jir          imme  jutsi jut          spec
 u and                   rse                      ies

                                    15
 juxre jux          clum kensa kes          oute  kruji ruj          crea
 sy                      r space                  m
 jvinu vin     ji'u view kerfa    kre       hair  kruvi ruv   kru         
 ka kam        property  kerlo ker          ear   curve
 abstract                ketco ket   tco          ku'a  kuz          inte
 kabri         cup       South American           rsection
 kacma         camera    kevna kev     ke'a cavi  kubli kub          cube
 kadno         Canadian  ty                       kucli         curious
 kafke         cough     kicne kic     ki'e cush  kufra kuf          comf
 kagni kag          comp ion                      ort
 any                     kijno kij          oxyg  kukte kuk          deli
 kajde    jde       warn en                       cious
 kajna         shelf     kilto       ki'o   1000  kulnu    klu       cult
 kakne       ka'e   able kinli kil          shar  ure
 kakpa         dig       p                        kumfa kum     ku'a room
 kalci         feces     kisto kis          Paki  kumte         camel
 kalri kar          open stani                    kunra kun          mine
 kalsa kas          chao klaji laj          stre  ral
 tic                     et                       kunti kut          empt
 kalte kat          hunt klaku kak          weep  y
 kamju         column    klama    kla       come  kurfa kur          squa
 kamni         committee klani       lai    quan  re
 kampu       kau    comm tity                     kurji kuj     ku'i take
 on                      klesi    kle  lei  clas  care of
 kanba         goat      s                        kurki         bitter
 kancu kac          coun klina    kli       clea  kuspe kup     ku'e rang
 t                       r                        e
 kandi kad          dim  kliru         chlorine   kusru kus          crue
 kanji kaj          calc kliti kit          clay  l
 ulate                   klupe lup     lu'e scre  labno         wolf
 kanla kal          eye  w                        lacpu lap   cpu         
 kanro       ka'o   heal kluza luz          loos  pull
 thy                     e                        lacri lac          rely
 kansa kan          with kobli kob     ko'i cabb  ladru lad          milk
 kantu       ka'u   quan age                      lafti laf          lift
 tum                     kojna koj     ko'a corn  lakne       la'e   prob
 kanxe kax          conj er                       able
 unction                 kolme kol     ko'e coal  lakse lak          wax
 karbi kab          comp komcu kom          comb  lalxu       la'u   lake
 are                     konju kon     ko'u cone  lamji lam     la'i adja
 karce         car       korbi kor     koi  edge  cent
 karda         card      korcu    kro       bent  lanbi         protein
 kargu         costly    korka kok          cork  lanci         flag
 karli         collar    kosta kos          coat  lanka         basket
 karni         journal   kramu         acre       lanli lal          anal
 katna       ka'a   cut  krasi    kra       sour  yze
 kavbu kav          capt ce                       lanme lan          shee
 ure                     krati       ka'i   repr  p
 ke kem        start     esent                    lante         can
 grouping                krefu ref     ke'u recu  lanxe lax          bala
 ke'e  kep     ke'e end  r                        nce
 grouping                krici    kri       beli  lanzu laz          fami
 kecti kec     ke'i pity eve                      ly
 kei   kez          end  krili         crystal    larcu lar          art
 abstraction             krinu rin     ki'u reas  lasna       la'a   fast
 kelci kel     kei  play on                       en
 kelvo       ke'o   kelv krixa kix     ki'a cry   lastu         brass
 in                      out                      latmo       la'o   Lati
 kenra ken          canc kruca kuc          inte  n
 er                      rsect                    latna         lotus

                                    16
 lazni         lazy      mabru mab          mamm  mentu met     me'u minu
 le'e  lem          the  al                       te
 stereotypical           macnu    cnu       manu  merko mer          Amer
 lebna leb     le'a take al                       ican
 lenjo len     le'o lens makcu       ma'u   matu  merli    mre       meas
 lenku lek          cold re                       ure
 lerci lec          late makfa maf          magi  mexco mex          Mexi
 lerfu ler     le'u lett c                        can
 eral                    maksi mak          magn  mi mib        me
 li'i  liz          expe et                       midju mij          midd
 rience abstract         malsi mas          temp  le
 libjo lib          Liby le                       mifra mif          code
 an                      mamta mam          moth  mikce mic          doct
 lidne       li'e   prec er                       or
 ede                     manci mac          wond  mikri mik          1E-6
 lifri lif   fri         er                       milti mil          .001
 experience              manfo         uniform    milxe    mli       mild
 lijda    jda       reli manku man          dark  minde mid     mi'e comm
 gion                    manri mar          refe  and
 limna lim          swim rence                    minji       mi'i   mach
 lindi lid          ligh mansa         satisfy    ine
 tning                   manti         ant        minli         mile
 linji lij     li'i line mapku map          cap   minra mir          refl
 linsi lin          chai mapni         cotton     ect
 n                       mapti mat          fit   mintu mit     mi'u same
 linto       li'o   ligh marbi    mra       shel  mipri mip          secr
 tweight                 ter                      et
 lisri lis          stor marce       ma'e   vehi  mirli         deer
 y                       cle                      misno mis     mi'o famo
 liste    ste       list marde mad          mora  us
 litce lic          lite ls                       misro         Egyptian
 r                       margu mag          merc  mitre    tre       mete
 litki lik          liqu ury                      r
 id                      marji maj     mai  mate  mixre mix   xre         
 litru       li'u   trav rial                     mixture
 el                      marna         hemp       mlana    mla       side
 livga         liver     marxa max          mash  mlatu lat          cat
 livla lil          fuel masno    sno       slow  mleca mec     me'a less
 lo'e  lom          the  masti       ma'i   mont  mledi led          mold
 typical                 h                        mluni lun          sate
 logji loj          logi matci         mat        llite
 c                       matli         linen      mo'a  mob          too
 lojbo lob   jbo         matne         butter     few
 Lojbanic                matra         motor      mo'i  mov          spac
 loldi lol     loi  floo mavji mav          oats  e motion
 r                       maxri    xri       whea  moi   mom     moi  ordi
 lorxu lor     lo'u fox  t                        nal selbri
 lubno       lu'o   Leba mebri meb          brow  mokca moc          poin
 nese                    megdo meg          1E6   t
 lujvo luv   jvo         mei   mem     mei  card  moklu mol     mo'u mout
 affix compound          inal selbri              h
 lumci lum     lu'i wash mekso mek     me'o MEX   molki    mlo       mill
 lunbe lub          bare melbi mel   mle          molro       mo'o   mole
 lunra lur          luna beautiful                morji moj     mo'i reme
 r                       meljo mej          Mala  mber
 lunsa lus          cond ysian                    morko mor          Moro
 ense                    menli men          mind  ccan
 mabla mal          dero mensi mes     me'i sist  morna mon     mo'a patt
 gative                  er                       ern
                                                  morsi    mro       dead

                                    17
 mosra mos          fric nejni nen          ener  panka         park
 tion                    gy                       panlo       pa'o   slic
 mraji         rye       nelci nel     nei  fond  e
 mrilu    mri       mail nenri ner     ne'i in    panpi pap          peac
 mruli    mru       hamm ni nil        amount     e
 er                      abstract                 panra         parallel
 mu mum        5         nibli nib     ni'i nece  pante pat          prot
 mu'e  muf          poin ssitate                  est
 t-event abstract        nicte    cte       nigh  panzi paz          offs
 mucti mut          imma t                        pring
 terial                  nikle nik          nick  papri         page
 mudri mud          wood el                       parbi pab          rati
 mukti muk     mu'i moti nilce       ni'e   furn  o
 ve                      iture                    pastu pas          robe
 mulno mul     mu'o comp nimre         citrus     patfu paf     pa'u fath
 lete                    ninmu nim     ni'u woma  er
 munje muj     mu'e univ n                        patlu         potato
 erse                    nirna nir          nerv  patxu pax          pot
 mupli mup          exam e                        pe'a  pev          figu
 ple                     nitcu    tcu       need  rative
 murse         glimmerin nivji niv          knit  pelji    ple       pape
 g                       nixli nix   xli          r
 murta mur     mu'a curt girl                     pelxu pel          yell
 ain                     no non        0          ow
 muslo mus          Isla no'e  nor     no'e scal  pemci pem          poem
 mic                     ar midpoint not          penbi peb          pen
 mutce    tce       much nobli nol     no'i nobl  pencu pec     pe'u touc
 muvdu muv     mu'u move e                        h
 muzga muz          muse notci not     noi  mess  pendo ped     pe'o frie
 um                      age                      nd
 na nar        bridi     nu nun        event      penmi pen     pe'i meet
 negator                 abstract                 pensi pes     pei  thin
 na'e  nal          scal nu'o        nu'o   can   k
 ar contrary             but has not              perli per          pear
 nabmi nam          prob nukni nuk          mage  pesxu pex          past
 lem                     nta                      e
 nakni nak          male nupre nup     nu'e prom  petso pet          1E15
 nalci       na'i   wing ise                      pezli pez          leaf
 namcu nac     na'u numb nurma num          rura  pi piz        decimal
 er                      l                        point
 nanba nab          brea nutli nul     nu'i neut  pi'u  piv          cros
 d                       ral                      s product
 nanca       na'a   year nuzba nuz          news  picti pic          1E-
 nandu nad          diff pa pav        1          12
 icult                   pacna       pa'a   hope  pijne         pin
 nanla         boy       pagbu pag     pau  part  pikci         beg
 nanmu       nau    man  pagre    gre       pass  pikta         ticket
 nanvi nav          1E-9 through                  pilji       pi'i   mult
 narge nag          nut  pajni       pai    judg  iply
 narju naj          oran e                        pilka pil     pi'a crus
 ge                      palci pac          evil  t
 natfe naf     na'e deny palku pak          pant  pilno    pli       use
 natmi nat     nai  nati s                        pimlu pim     pi'u feat
 on                      palne         tray       her
 navni         neon      palta         plate      pinca         urine
 naxle nax   xle         pambe         pump       pindi pid          poor
 canal                   panci pan          odor  pinfu pif          pris
 nazbi naz   zbi         pandi pad          punc  oner
 nose                    tuate                    pinji         penis
                         panje         sponge

                                    18
 pinka pik          comm pruce ruc     ru'e proc  remna rem     re'a huma
 ent                     ess                      n
 pinsi pis          penc pruni pun          elas  renro rer     re'o thro
 il                      tic                      w
 pinta pin          leve pruxi rux     ru'i spir  renvi rev     re'i surv
 l                       it                       ive
 pinxe pix          drin pu'i  pus          can   respa res          rept
 k                       and has                  ile
 pipno       pi'o   pian pu'u  puv          proc  ricfu rif   cfu         
 o                       ess abstract             rich
 pixra pir   xra         pulce puc     pu'e dust  rigni rig          disg
 picture                 pulji         police     usting
 plana         plump     pulni         pulley     rijno rij          silv
 platu    pla       plan punji puj     pu'i put   er
 pleji lej     le'i pay  punli pul          swel  rilti ril          rhyt
 plibu pib          pubi ling                     hm
 c                       purci pur   pru          rimni rim          rhym
 plini         planet    past                     e
 plipe pip     pi'e leap purdi pud          gard  rinci         drain
 plise         apple     en                       rinju       ri'u   rest
 plita pit          plan purmo pum     pu'o powd  rain
 e                       er                       rinka rik     ri'a caus
 plixa lix          plow racli         sane       e
 pluja luj          comp ractu         rabbit     rinsa         greet
 licated                 radno       ra'o   radi  rirci         rare
 pluka puk     pu'a plea an                       rirni rir          pare
 sant                    rafsi raf          affi  nt
 pluta lut     lu'a rout x                        rirxe       ri'e   rive
 e                       ragve rav          acro  r
 polje    plo       fold ss                       rismi ris          rice
 polno pol          Poly rakso         Iraqi      risna         heart
 nesian                  raktu       ra'u   trou  ritli       ri'i   rite
 ponjo pon     po'o Japa ble                      rivbi riv          avoi
 nese                    ralci rac          deli  d
 ponse pos     po'e poss cate                     ro rol        each
 ess                     ralju ral          prin  roi   rom     roi  quan
 porpi pop     po'i brea cipal                    tified tense
 k                       ralte       ra'e   reta  rokci rok     ro'i rock
 porsi por     poi  sequ in                       romge rog          chro
 ence                    randa rad          yiel  me
 porto pot          Port d                        ropno ron     ro'o Euro
 uguese                  rango rag          orga  pean
 prali pal          prof n                        rorci ror          proc
 it                      ranji       ra'i   cont  reate
 prami pam     pa'i love inue                     rotsu rot   tsu    ro'u 
 prane       pa'e   perf ranmi ram          myth  thick
 ect                     ransu         bronze     rozgu roz   zgu         
 preja pej     pe'a spre ranti ran          soft  rose
 ad                      ranxi rax          iron  ruble rub   ble         
 prenu    pre       pers y                        weak
 on                      rapli rap          repe  rufsu ruf          roug
 preti ret     rei  ques at                       h
 tion                    rarna rar          natu  runme rum          melt
 prije pij          wise ral                      runta         dissolve
 prina    pri       prin ratcu         rat        rupnu rup     ru'u doll
 t                       ratni rat          atom  ar
 pritu         right     re rel        2          rusko ruk     ru'o Russ
 prosa ros     ro'a pros rebla reb          tail  ian
 e                       rectu rec     re'u meat  rutni run          arti
                                                  fact

                                    19
 sabji sab          prov senta set          laye  skori    sko       cord
 ide                     r                        skoto kot     ko'o Scot
 sabnu         cabin     senva sev   sne          tish
 sacki         match     dream                    skuro       ku'o   groo
 saclu         decimal   sepli sep     sei  apar  ve
 sadjo    djo       Saud t                        slabu       sau    old
 i                       serti ser          stai  slaka         syllable
 sakci sak          suck rs                       slami         acid
 sakli sal          slid setca       se'a   inse  slanu         cylinder
 e                       rt                       slari sar          sour
 sakta sat          suga sevzi sez     se'i self  slasi las          plas
 r                       sfani         fly        tic
 salci    sla       cele sfasa    sfa       puni  sligu lig          soli
 brate                   sh                       d
 salpo       sa'o   slop sfofa    sfo       sofa  slilu    sli       osci
 e                       sfubu sub     su'u dive  llate
 salta         salad     si'o  siz          conc  sliri         sulfur
 samcu         cassava   ept abstract             slovo lov     lo'o Slav
 sampu sap          simp siclu sil          whis  ic
 le                      tle                      sluji    slu       musc
 sance    sna       soun sicni       si'i   coin  le
 d                       sidbo sib     si'o idea  sluni         onion
 sanga sag     sa'a sing sidju    dju       help  smacu         mouse
 sanji saj          cons sigja sig          ciga  smadi         guess
 cious                   r                        smaji    sma       quie
 sanli       sa'i   stan silka sik          silk  t
 d                       silna         salt       smani         monkey
 sanmi       sai    meal simlu    mlu       seem  smoka    smo       sock
 sanso         sauce     simsa    smi       simi  smuci muc          spoo
 santa         umbrella  lar                      n
 sarcu       sa'u   nece simxu sim     si'u mutu  smuni mun   smu         
 ssary                   al                       meaning
 sarji    sra       supp since         snake      snada sad          succ
 ort                     sinma       si'a   este  eed
 sarlu         spiral    em                       snanu nan          sout
 sarxe sax          harm sinso         sine       h
 onious                  sinxa    sni       sign  snidu nid          seco
 saske    ske       scie sipna sip          slee  nd
 nce                     p                        snime       si'e   snow
 satci         exact     sirji sir          stra  snipa nip          stic
 satre       sa'e   stro ight                     ky
 ke                      sirxo six          Syri  snuji nuj          sand
 savru sav   vru         an                       wich
 noise                   sisku sis          seek  snura nur     nu'a secu
 sazri saz          oper sisti    sti       ceas  re
 ate                     e                        snuti nut          acci
 se sel        2nd       sitna sit          cite  dental
 conversion              sivni siv          priv  so soz        9
 sefta    sfe       surf ate                      so'a  soj          almo
 ace                     skaci         skirt      st all
 selci    sle       cell skami sam          comp  so'e  sop          most
 selfu sef     se'u serv uter                     so'i  sor     so'i many
 e                       skapi kap          pelt  so'o  sos          seve
 semto    sme       Semi skari    ska       colo  ral
 tic                     r                        so'u  sot          few
 senci sec          snee skicu    ski       desc  sobde sob     so'e soya
 ze                      ribe                     sodna         sodium
 senpi sen          doub skiji sij          ski   sodva sod          soda
 t                       skina kin          cine  softo sof          Sovi
                         ma                       et

                                    20
 solji    slo       gold steci tec     te'i spec  tance tac          tong
 solri sol          sola ific                     ue
 r                       stedu sed          head  tanjo         tangent
 sombo som     so'o sow  stela tel          lock  tanko         tobacco
 sonci son     soi  sold stero       te'o   ster  tanru       tau    phra
 ier                     adian                    se compound
 sorcu soc   sro         stici sic          west  tansi tas          pan
 store                   stidi sid     ti'i sugg  tanxe tax     ta'e box
 sorgu sog          sorg est                      tapla         tile
 hum                     stika tik          adju  tarbi         embryo
 sovda sov     so'a egg  st                       tarci tar          star
 spaji paj          surp stizu tiz          chai  tarla         tar
 rise                    r                        tarmi tam     tai  shap
 spali         polish    stodi    sto       cons  e
 spano san          Span tant                     tarti    tra       beha
 ish                     stuna sun          east  ve
 spati    spa       plan stura tur     su'a stru  taske         thirst
 t                       cture                    tatpi       ta'i   tire
 speni    spe       marr stuzi tuz   stu          d
 ied                     site                     tatru tat          brea
 spisa    spi       piec su'e  sup     su'e at    st
 e                       most                     tavla tav     ta'a talk
 spita         hospital  su'o  suz     su'o at    taxfu taf     ta'u garm
 spofu pof     po'u brok least                    ent
 en                      su'u  suv          unsp  tcaci cac          cust
 spoja poj     po'a expl ecif abstract            om
 ode                     sucta suc          abst  tcadu    tca       city
 spuda    spu       repl ract                     tcana         station
 y                       sudga sud          dry   tcati         tea
 sputu put     pu'u spit sufti    sfu       hoof  tcena ten          stre
 sraji raj          vert suksa suk          sudd  tch
 ical                    en                       tcica tic          dece
 sraku rak          scra sumji suj          sum   ive
 tch                     sumne         smell      tcidu tid          read
 sralo         Australia sumti sum     su'i argu  tcika         time of
 n                       ment                     day
 srana       ra'a   pert sunga sug          garl  tcila til          deta
 ain                     ic                       il
 srasu sas          gras sunla sul          wool  tcima tim     ti'a weat
 s                       surla sur          rela  her
 srera    sre       err  x                        tcini         situation
 srito         Sanskrit  sutra sut          fast  tcita         label
 sruma       ru'a   assu ta taz        that       te ter        3rd
 me                      there                    conversion
 sruri rur   sru         tabno tab          carb  temci tem     tei  time
 surround                on                       tenfa tef          expo
 stace sac          hone tabra         trumpet    nential
 st                      tadji         method     tengu teg     te'u text
 stagi         vegetable tadni tad          stud  ure
 staku tak          cera y                        terdi ted          eart
 mic                     tagji tag          snug  h
 stali    sta       rema talsa tal          chal  terpa tep     te'a fear
 in                      lenge                    terto tet          1E12
 stani         stalk     tamca         tomato     ti tif        this here
 stapa tap          step tamji taj          thum  tigni tig          perf
 stasu         soup      b                        orm
 stati         talent    tamne         cousin     tikpa tip          kick
 steba seb          frus tanbo       ta'o   boar  tilju tij          heav
 tration                 d                        y
                                                  tinbe tib          obey

                                    21
 tinci         tin       tutra tut          terr  vitno       vi'o   perm
 tinsa         stiff     itory                    anent
 tirna tin          hear va vaz        there at   vlagi lag          vulv
 tirse tir          iron vacri var          air   a
 tirxu         tiger     vajni vaj     vai  impo  vlile vil          viol
 tisna tis          fill rtant                    ent
 titla tit          swee valsi val   vla          vlina         alternati
 t                       word                     on
 tivni tiv          tele vamji vam     va'i valu  vlipa    vli       powe
 vision                  e                        rful
 tixnu tix     ti'u daug vamtu vat          vomi  vo von        4
 hter                    t                        vofli vol     voi  flig
 to'e  tol     to'e pola vanbi vab          envi  ht
 r opposite              ronment                  voksa vok     vo'a voic
 toknu tok          oven vanci vac          even  e
 toldi tod          butt ing                      vorme vor   vro         
 erfly                   vanju van          wine  door
 tonga tog     to'a tone vasru vas     vau  cont  vraga    vra       leve
 tordu tor     to'u shor ain                      r
 t                       vasxu vax     va'u brea  vreji rej     vei  reco
 torni ton     to'i twis the                      rd
 t                       ve vel        4th        vreta    vre       recl
 traji       rai    supe conversion               ining
 rlative                 ve'e        ve'e   whol  vrici         miscellan
 trano         nitrogen  e space interval         eous
 trati         taut      vecnu ven     ve'u sell  vrude vud     vu'e virt
 trene ren     re'e trai venfu vef          reve  ue
 n                       nge                      vrusi vus     vu'i tast
 tricu ric          tree vensa ves          spri  e
 trina    tri       attr ng                       vu vuz        yonder at
 act                     verba ver     ve'a chil  vukro vur     vu'o Ukra
 trixe rix     ti'e behi d                        inian
 nd                      vi viz        here at    xa xav        6
 troci toc     toi  try  vibna vib          vagi  xabju       xa'u   dwel
 tsali    tsa       stro na                       l
 ng                      vidni         video      xadba xab          half
 tsani tan          sky  vidru vir          viru  xadni xad          body
 tsapi         seasoning s                        xagji         hunger
 tsiju    tsi       seed vifne vif          fres  xagri         reed
 tsina sin          stag h                        xajmi xam          funn
 e                       vikmi vim     vi'i excr  y
 tu tuf        that      ete                      xaksu xak          use
 yonder                  viknu vik          visc  up
 tubnu       tu'u   tube ous                      xalbo         levity
 tugni tug     tu'i agre vimcu vic     vi'u remo  xalka xal          alco
 e                       ve                       hol
 tujli tuj          tuli vindu vid          pois  xalni         panic
 p                       on                       xamgu xag     xau  good
 tumla tum     tu'a land vinji vij          airp  xampo xap     xa'o ampe
 tunba tub          sibl lane                     re
 ing                     vipsi vip          depu  xamsi xas          sea
 tunka tuk          copp ty                       xance xan     xa'e hand
 er                      virnu    vri       brav  xanka         nervous
 tunlo tul     tu'o swal e                        xanri xar          imag
 low                     viska vis     vi'a see   inary
 tunta tun          poke vitci vit          irre  xanto         elephant
 tuple tup     tu'e leg  gular                    xarci xac     xa'i weap
 turni    tru       gove vitke       vi'e   gues  on
 rn                      t                        xarju xaj          pig
 tutci    tci       tool                          xarnu         stubborn

                                    22
 xasli         donkey    za'i  zaz          stat  zumri    zmu       maiz
 xasne         sweat     e abstract               e
 xatra       xa'a   lett za'o        za'o   supe  zungi zug          guil
 er                      rfective                 t
 xatsi xat          1E-  zabna zan     za'a favo  zunle zul          left
 18                      rable                    zunti zun     zu'i inte
 xazdo xaz   zdo         zajba zaj          gymn  rfere
 Asiatic                 ast                      zutse zut   tse         
 xe xel        5th       zalvi zal          grin  sit
 conversion              d                        zvati    zva       at
 xebni xen     xei  hate zanru zar     zau  appr
 xebro xeb   bro         ove
 Hebrew                  zarci zac     zai  mark
 xecto xet   cto         et
 100                     zargu zag     za'u butt
 xedja xej     xe'a jaw  ock
 xekri xek     xe'i blac zasni zas          temp
 k                       orary
 xelso xes          Gree zasti zat     za'i exis
 k                       t
 xendo xed     xe'o kind zbabu bab          soap
 xenru xer     xe'u regr zbani         bay
 et                      zbasu    zba       make
 xexso xex          1E18 zbepi    zbe       pede
 xindo xin          Hind stal
 i                       zdani    zda       nest
 xinmo xim          ink  zdile    zdi       amus
 xirma xir     xi'a hors ing
 e                       ze zel        7
 xislu xil     xi'u whee ze'e        ze'e   whol
 l                       e time interval
 xispo xip          Hisp ze'o  zev     ze'o outw
 anic                    ard
 xlali    xla       bad  zekri zer     zei  crim
 xlura    xlu       infl e
 uence                   zenba zen     ze'a incr
 xotli xol     xoi  hote ease
 l                       zepti zep          1E-
 xrabo rab          Arab 21
 ic                      zetro zet          1E21
 xrani       xai    inju zgana    zga       obse
 re                      rve
 xriso xis     xi'o Chri zgike    zgi  gi'e musi
 stian                   c
 xruba xub          buck zifre zif     zi'e free
 wheat                   zinki zin     zi'i zinc
 xruki xuk          turk zirpu zir     zi'u purp
 ey                      le
 xrula rul          flow zivle ziv   vle         
 er                      invest
 xruti    xru       retu zmadu    zma  mau  more
 rn                      zmiku    zmi       auto
 xukmi xum     xu'i chem matic
 ical                    zo'a  zon     zo'a tang
 xunre xun     xu'e red  ential to
 xurdo xur     xu'o Urdi zo'i  zor     zo'i inwa
 xusra xus     xu'a asse rd
 rt                      zu'o  zum          acti
 xutla xul          smoo vity abstract
 th                      zukte zuk     zu'e act

                                    23
 bab    zbabu  soa big    bilga  obl  cag    cange  far  cim    cilmo  moi
         p                 iged               m                  st
 bac    bancu  bey bij    briju  off  caj    canja  exc  cin    cinse  sex
         ond               ice                hange              ual
 bad    bandu  def bik    bikla  whi  cak    calku  she  cip    cipra  tes
         end               p                  ll                 t
 baf    bakfu  bun bil    bilni  mil  cal    canlu  spa  cir    citri  his
         dle               itary              ce                 tory
 bag    bargu  arc bim    bitmu  wal  cam    carmi  int  cis    crisa  sum
         h                 l                  ense               mer
 baj    bajra  run bin    jbini  bet  can    canre  san  cit    citno  you
 bak    bakni  bov         ween               d                  ng
         ine       bir    birka  arm  cap    ckape  per  civ    civla  lou
 bal    banli  gre bis    bisli  ice          il                 se
         at        bit    birti  cer  car    carna  tur  ciz    cizra  str
 bam    jbama  bom         tain               n                  ange
         b         biv    bi     8    cas    ckasu  rid  col    co     tan
 ban    bangu  lan bix    binxo  bec          icule              ru
         guage             ome        cat    cartu  cha          inversion
 bap    bapli  for biz    bi'i   uno          rt         com    co'e   uns
         ce                rdered     cav    carvi  rai          pecif
 bar    bartu  out         interval           n                  bridi
 bas    basti  rep bof    boxfo  she  cax    caxno  sha  con    condi  dee
         lace              et                 llow               p
 bat    batci  bit bog    bongu  bon  caz    ca'a   act  cor    cortu  pai
         e                 e                  ually is           n
 bav    balvi  fut bol    bolci  bal  cec    ce     in   cuc    cutci  sho
         ure               l                  a set              e
 bax    banxa  ban bon    boxna  wav          with       cuk    cukla  rou
         k                 e          ced    cerda  hei          nd
 baz    banzu  suf bor    bo     sho          r          cul    cumla  hum
         fice              rt scope   cek    creka  shi          ble
 beb    bebna  foo         link               rt         cum    cumki  pos
         lish      bot    botpi  bot  cel    cecla  lau          sible
 bed    bende  cre         tle                ncher      cun    cunso  ran
         w         bud    bunda  pou  cem    cecmu  com          dom
 bef    betfu  abd         nd                 munity     cup    clupa  loo
         omen      buj    budjo  Bud  cen    centi  .01          p
 beg    bengo  Ben         dhist      cer    cerni  mor  cur    curnu  wor
         gali      buk    bukpu  clo          ning               m
 bej    benji  tra         th         ces    censa  hol  cus    cusku  exp
         nsfer     bul    bu'a   som          y                  ress
 bem    bemro  Nor         e selbri   cev    cevni  god  cut    cutne  che
         th                1          cez    ce'i   per          st
         American  bum    bumru  fog          cent       cuv    curve  pur
 ben    besna  bra bun    bruna  bro  cib    ci     3            e
         in                ther       cic    cilce  wil  cux    cuxna  cho
 ber    berti  nor bur    bunre  bro          d                  ose
         th                wn         cid    cidni  kne  dab    damba  fig
 bes    bersa  son bus    bu     wor          e                  ht
 bet    betri  tra         d to       cif    cifnu  inf  dac    dacru  dra
         gedy              lerfu              ant                wer
 bev    bevri  car cab    cabna  now  cig    cigla  gla  dad    dandu  han
         ry        cac    tcaci  cus          nd                 g
 bic    bifce  bee         tom        cij    cinje  wri  daf    danfu  ans
 bid    bindo  Ind cad    cando  idl          nkle               wer
         onesian           e          cik    cikna  awa  dag    dargu  roa
 bif    brife  bre caf    cafne  oft          ke                 d
         eze               en         cil    cilta  thr  daj    dadjo  Tao
                                              ead                ist

                                    24
 dak    dakfu  kni don    do     you  fed    fendi  div  gar    garna  rai
         fe        dor    donri  day          ide                l
 dal    danlu  ani         time       feg    fengu  ang  gas    ganse  sen
         mal       dot    dotco  Ger          ry                 se
 dam    danmo  smo         man        fek    fenki  cra  gat    gasta  ste
         ke        dub    du     sam          zy                 el
 dan    danti  pro         e          fem    femti  1E-  gax    ganxo  anu
         jectile           identity           15                 s
 dap    dapma  cur         as         fen    fenso  sew  gaz    ganzu  org
         se        dud    dunda  giv  fep    fepni  cen          anize
 dar    darno  far         e                  t          gej    genja  roo
 das    dasni  wea dug    dugri  log  fer    fenra  cra          t
         r                 arithm             ck         gek    gleki  hap
 dat    drata  oth duj    dunja  fre  fes    festi  was          py
         er                eze                te         gen    gerna  gra
 dav    da     som duk    dunku  ang  fet    fetsi  fem          mmar
         ething 1          uish               ale        ger    gerku  dog
 dax    darxi  hit dul    jduli  jel  fic    frica  dif  get    gento  Arg
 daz    da'a   all         ly                 fer                entinian
         except    dum    du'u   bri  fig    figre  fig  gex    genxu  hoo
 deb    dembi  bea         di         fik    cfika  fic          k
         n                 abstract           tion       gic    glico  Eng
 dec    decti  .1  dun    dunli  equ  fil    frili  eas          lish
 deg    degji  fin         al                 y          gid    gidva  gui
         ger       dur    dunra  win  fin    finti  inv          de
 dej    dejni  owe         ter                ent        gig    gigdo  1E9
 dek    dekto  10  dus    dukse  exc  fip    finpe  fis  gik    ginka  cam
 del    delno  can         ess                h                  p
         dela      dut    dukti  opp  fir    flira  fac  gim    gismu  roo
 dem    denmi  den         osite              e                  t word
         se        fac    fatci  fac  fis    filso  Pal  gin    jgina  gen
 den    denci  too         t                  estinian           e
         th        fad    fadni  ord  fit    friti  off  gir    girzu  gro
 dep    denpa  wai         inary              er                 up
         t         fag    fagri  fir  fom    fonmo  foa  git    jgita  gui
 der    dertu  dir         e                  m                  tar
         t         fak    facki  dis  fon    fonxa  tel  goc    gocti  1E-
 des    desku  sha         cover              ephone             24
         ke        fal    farlu  fal  fuk    fukpi  cop  got    gotro  1E2
 det    detri  dat         l                  y                  4
         e         fam    fanmo  end  ful    fulta  flo  gub    gubni  pub
 dib    dirba  dea fan    falnu  sai          at                 lic
         r                 l          fun    funca  luc  guc    gutci  cub
 dic    dikca  ele fap    fapro  opp          k                  it
         ctric             ose        fur    fusra  rot  gud    gundi  ind
 dig    dirgo  dro far    farna  dir          ten                ustry
         p                 ection     fuz    fuzme  res  gug    gugde  cou
 dij    dinju  bui fas    fraso  Fre          ponsible           ntry
         lding             nch        gac    gapci  gas  guk    guska  scr
 dik    dikni  reg fat    fatne  rev  gad    gadri  art          ape
         ular              erse               icle       gum    gunma  joi
 dil    dilnu  clo fav    farvi  dev  gaf    galfi  mod          ntly
         ud                elop               ify        gun    gunka  wor
 dim    dimna  fat fax    fraxu  for  gal    galtu  hig          k
         e                 give               h          gur    gunro  rol
 din    jdini  mon faz    fanza  ann  gan    ganra  bro          l
         ey                oy                 ad         gus    gusni  ill
 dir    dicra  int feb    febvi  boi  gap    gapru  abo          umine
         errupt            l                  ve         gut    gunta  att
 diz    dizlo  low                                               ack

                                    25
 guz    guzme  mel jic    jimca  bra  jut    jutsi  spe  kez    kei    end
         on                nch                cies               abstracti
 jab    janbe  bel jif    jitfa  fal  juv    ju     tan          on
         l                 se                 ru         kic    kicne  cus
 jac    djacu  wat jig    jinga  win          whether            hion
         er        jij    jijnu  int  jux    juxre  clu  kij    kijno  oxy
 jad    jadni  ado         uit                msy                gen
         rn        jik    jikca  soc  kab    karbi  com  kik    ckiku  key
 jaf    jamfu  foo         ialize             pare       kil    kinli  sha
         t         jil    jilka  alk  kac    kancu  cou          rp
 jag    jalge  res         ali                nt         kin    skina  cin
         ult       jim    jinme  met  kad    kandi  dim          ema
 jaj    jmaji  gat         al         kaf    ckafi  cof  kir    ckire  gra
         her       jin    djine  rin          fee                teful
 jak    jarki  nar         g          kag    kagni  com  kis    kisto  Pak
         row       jip    jipno  tip          pany               istani
 jal    janli  col jir    jinru  imm  kaj    kanji  cal  kit    kliti  cla
         lide              erse               culate             y
 jam    jamna  war jis    jinsa  cle  kak    klaku  wee  kix    krixa  cry
 jan    janco  sho         an                 p                  out
         ulder     jit    jimte  lim  kal    kanla  eye  kob    kobli  cab
 jap    jaspu  pas         it         kam    ka     pro          bage
         sport     jiv    jinvi  opi          perty      koj    kojna  cor
 jar    jdari  fir         ne                 abstract           ner
         m         jiz    jinzi  inn  kan    kansa  wit  kok    korka  cor
 jas    jansu  dip         ate                h                  k
         lomat     jol    joi    in   kap    skapi  pel  kol    kolme  coa
 jat    janta  acc         a mass             t                  l
         ount              with       kar    kalri  ope  kom    komcu  com
 jav    ja     tan jom    jo'e   uni          n                  b
         ru or             on         kas    kalsa  cha  kon    konju  con
 jec    jecta  pol jon    jorne  joi          otic               e
         ity               ned        kat    kalte  hun  kor    korbi  edg
 jed    jendu  axl jor    jordo  Jor          t                  e
         e                 danian     kav    kavbu  cap  kos    kosta  coa
 jef    jeftu  wee jov    jo     tan          ture               t
         k                 ru iff     kax    kanxe  con  kot    skoto  Sco
 jeg    jegvo  Jeh jub    jubme  tab          junction           ttish
         ovist             le         kec    kecti  pit  kub    kubli  cub
 jel    jelca  bur jud    jundi  att          y                  e
         n                 entive     kej    ckeji  ash  kuc    kruca  int
 jem    jenmi  arm juf    jufra  sen          amed               ersect
         y                 tence      kel    kelci  pla  kuf    kufra  com
 jen    jenca  sho jug    jungo  Chi          y                  fort
         ck                nese       kem    ke     sta  kuj    kurji  tak
 jer    jbera  bor juk    jukni  spi          rt                 e care of
         row               der                grouping   kuk    kukte  del
 jes    jesni  nee jul    junla  clo  ken    kenra  can          icious
         dle               ck                 cer        kul    ckule  sch
 jet    jetnu  tru jum    jurme  ger  kep    ke'e   end          ool
         e                 m                  grouping   kum    kumfa  roo
 jev    je     tan jun    djuno  kno  ker    kerlo  ear          m
         ru and            w          kes    kensa  out  kun    kunra  min
 jex    jerxo  Alg jup    jukpa  coo          er space           eral
         erian             k          ket    ketco  Sou  kup    kuspe  ran
 jez    jei    tru jur    junri  ser          th                 ge
         th                ious               American   kur    kurfa  squ
         abstract  jus    jursa  sev  kev    kevna  cav          are
 jib    jibri  job         ere                ity        kus    kusru  cru
                                                                 el

                                    26
 kut    kunti  emp lig    sligu  sol  mab    mabru  mam  mij    midju  mid
         ty                id                 mal                dle
 kuz    ku'a   int lij    linji  lin  mac    manci  won  mik    mikri  1E-
         ersection         e                  der                6
 lab    blabi  whi lik    litki  liq  mad    marde  mor  mil    milti  .00
         te                uid                als                1
 lac    lacri  rel lil    livla  fue  maf    makfa  mag  mim    cmima  mem
         y                 l                  ic                 ber
 lad    ladru  mil lim    limna  swi  mag    margu  mer  min    jmina  add
         k                 m                  cury       mip    mipri  sec
 laf    lafti  lif lin    linsi  cha  maj    marji  mat          ret
         t                 in                 erial      mir    minra  ref
 lag    vlagi  vul lir    clira  ear  mak    maksi  mag          lect
         va                ly                 net        mis    misno  fam
 laj    klaji  str lis    lisri  sto  mal    mabla  der          ous
         eet               ry                 ogative    mit    mintu  sam
 lak    lakse  wax lit    clite  pol  mam    mamta  mot          e
 lal    lanli  ana         ite                her        miv    jmive  liv
         lyze      liv    cliva  lea  man    manku  dar          e
 lam    lamji  adj         ve                 k          mix    mixre  mix
         acent     lix    plixa  plo  map    mapku  cap          ture
 lan    lanme  she         w          mar    manri  ref  mob    mo'a   too
         ep        liz    li'i   exp          erence             few
 lap    lacpu  pul         erience    mas    malsi  tem  moc    mokca  poi
         l                 abstract           ple                nt
 lar    larcu  art lob    lojbo  Loj  mat    mapti  fit  moj    morji  rem
 las    slasi  pla         banic      mav    mavji  oat          ember
         stic      loj    logji  log          s          mol    moklu  mou
 lat    mlatu  cat         ic         max    marxa  mas          th
 lax    lanxe  bal lol    loldi  flo          h          mom    moi    ord
         ance              or         meb    mebri  bro          inal
 laz    lanzu  fam lom    lo'e   the          w                  selbri
         ily               typical    mec    mleca  les  mon    morna  pat
 leb    lebna  tak lor    lorxu  fox          s                  tern
         e         lot    bloti  boa  meg    megdo  1E6  mor    morko  Mor
 lec    lerci  lat         t          mej    meljo  Mal          occan
         e         lov    slovo  Sla          aysian     mos    mosra  fri
 led    mledi  mol         vic        mek    mekso  MEX          ction
         d         lub    lunbe  bar  mel    melbi  bea  mov    mo'i   spa
 lej    pleji  pay         e                  utiful             ce motion
 lek    lenku  col luj    pluja  com  mem    mei    car  muc    smuci  spo
         d                 plicated           dinal              on
 lem    le'e   the lum    lumci  was          selbri     mud    mudri  woo
         stereotyp         h          men    menli  min          d
         ical      lun    mluni  sat          d          muf    mu'e   poi
 len    lenjo  len         ellite     mer    merko  Ame          nt-event
         s         lup    klupe  scr          rican              abstract
 ler    lerfu  let         ew         mes    mensi  sis  muj    munje  uni
         teral     lur    lunra  lun          ter                verse
 let    gletu  cop         ar         met    mentu  min  muk    mukti  mot
         ulate     lus    lunsa  con          ute                ive
 lib    libjo  Lib         dense      mex    mexco  Mex  mul    mulno  com
         yan       lut    pluta  rou          ican               plete
 lic    litce  lit         te         mib    mi     me   mum    mu     5
         er        luv    lujvo  aff  mic    mikce  doc  mun    smuni  mea
 lid    lindi  lig         ix                 tor                ning
         htning            compound   mid    minde  com  mup    mupli  exa
 lif    lifri  exp luz    kluza  loo          mand               mple
         erience           se         mif    mifra  cod  mur    murta  cur
                                              e                  tain

                                    27
 mus    muslo  Isl nim    ninmu  wom  pam    prami  lov  pip    plipe  lea
         amic              an                 e                  p
 mut    mucti  imm nin    cnino  new  pan    panci  odo  pir    pixra  pic
         aterial   nip    snipa  sti          r                  ture
 muv    muvdu  mov         cky        pap    panpi  pea  pis    pinsi  pen
         e         nir    nirna  ner          ce                 cil
 muz    muzga  mus         ve         par    cpare  cli  pit    plita  pla
         eum       nis    cnisa  lea          mb                 ne
 nab    nanba  bre         d          pas    pastu  rob  piv    pi'u   cro
         ad        nit    cnita  ben          e                  ss
 nac    namcu  num         eath       pat    pante  pro          product
         ber       niv    nivji  kni          test       pix    pinxe  dri
 nad    nandu  dif         t          pav    pa     1            nk
         ficult    nix    nixli  gir  pax    patxu  pot  piz    pi     dec
 naf    natfe  den         l          paz    panzi  off          imal
         y         nol    nobli  nob          spring             point
 nag    narge  nut         le         peb    penbi  pen  pof    spofu  bro
 naj    narju  ora non    no     0    pec    pencu  tou          ken
         nge       nor    no'e   sca          ch         poj    spoja  exp
 nak    nakni  mal         lar        ped    pendo  fri          lode
         e                 midpoint           end        pol    polno  Pol
 nal    na'e   sca         not        pej    preja  spr          ynesian
         lar       not    notci  mes          ead        pon    ponjo  Jap
         contrary          sage       pel    pelxu  yel          anese
 nam    nabmi  pro nuj    snuji  san          low        pop    porpi  bre
         blem              dwich      pem    pemci  poe          ak
 nan    snanu  sou nuk    nukni  mag          m          por    porsi  seq
         th                enta       pen    penmi  mee          uence
 nar    na     bri nul    nutli  neu          t          pos    ponse  pos
         di                tral       per    perli  pea          sess
         negator   num    nurma  rur          r          pot    porto  Por
 nat    natmi  nat         al         pes    pensi  thi          tuguese
         ion       nun    nu     eve          nk         puc    pulce  dus
 nav    nanvi  1E-         nt         pet    petso  1E1          t
         9                 abstract           5          pud    purdi  gar
 nax    naxle  can nup    nupre  pro  pev    pe'a   fig          den
         al                mise               urative    puj    punji  put
 naz    nazbi  nos nur    snura  sec  pex    pesxu  pas  puk    pluka  ple
         e                 ure                te                 asant
 neb    cnebo  nec nut    snuti  acc  pez    pezli  lea  pul    punli  swe
         k                 idental            f                  lling
 nel    nelci  fon nuz    nuzba  new  pib    plibu  pub  pum    purmo  pow
         d                 s                  ic                 der
 nem    cnemu  rew pab    parbi  rat  pic    picti  1E-  pun    pruni  ela
         ard               io                 12                 stic
 nen    nejni  ene pac    palci  evi  pid    pindi  poo  pur    purci  pas
         rgy               l                  r                  t
 ner    nenri  in  pad    pandi  pun  pif    pinfu  pri  pus    pu'i   can
 nib    nibli  nec         ctuate             soner              and has
         essitate  paf    patfu  fat  pij    prije  wis  put    sputu  spi
 nic    cnici  ord         her                e                  t
         erly      pag    pagbu  par  pik    pinka  com  puv    pu'u   pro
 nid    snidu  sec         t                  ment               cess
         ond       paj    spaji  sur  pil    pilka  cru          abstract
 nik    nikle  nic         prise              st         rab    xrabo  Ara
         kel       pak    palku  pan  pim    pimlu  fea          bic
 nil    ni     amo         ts                 ther       rac    ralci  del
         unt       pal    prali  pro  pin    pinta  lev          icate
         abstract          fit                el         rad    randa  yie
                                                                 ld

                                    28
 raf    rafsi  aff rid    crida  fai  ruk    rusko  Rus  sel    se     2nd
         ix                ry                 sian               conversio
 rag    rango  org rif    ricfu  ric  rul    xrula  flo          n
         an                h                  wer        sen    senpi  dou
 raj    sraji  ver rig    rigni  dis  rum    runme  mel          bt
         tical             gusting            t          sep    sepli  apa
 rak    sraku  scr rij    rijno  sil  run    rutni  art          rt
         atch              ver                ifact      ser    serti  sta
 ral    ralju  pri rik    rinka  cau  rup    rupnu  dol          irs
         ncipal            se                 lar        set    senta  lay
 ram    ranmi  myt ril    rilti  rhy  rur    sruri  sur          er
         h                 thm                round      sev    senva  dre
 ran    ranti  sof rim    rimni  rhy  rus    grusi  gra          am
         t                 me                 y          sez    sevzi  sel
 rap    rapli  rep rin    krinu  rea  rut    grute  fru          f
         eat               son                it         sib    sidbo  ide
 rar    rarna  nat rip    cripu  bri  ruv    kruvi  cur          a
         ural              dge                ve         sic    stici  wes
 ras    grasu  gre rir    rirni  par  rux    pruxi  spi          t
         ase               ent                rit        sid    stidi  sug
 rat    ratni  ato ris    rismi  ric  sab    sabji  pro          gest
         m                 e                  vide       sig    sigja  cig
 rav    ragve  acr rit    brito  Bri  sac    stace  hon          ar
         oss               tish               est        sij    skiji  ski
 rax    ranxi  iro riv    rivbi  avo  sad    snada  suc  sik    silka  sil
         ny                id                 ceed               k
 raz    brazo  Bra rix    trixe  beh  sag    sanga  sin  sil    siclu  whi
         zilian            ind                g                  stle
 reb    rebla  tai rod    broda  pre  saj    sanji  con  sim    simxu  mut
         l                 dicate             scious             ual
 rec    rectu  mea         var 1      sak    sakci  suc  sin    tsina  sta
         t         rog    romge  chr          k                  ge
 red    bredi  rea         ome        sal    sakli  sli  sip    sipna  sle
         dy        rok    rokci  roc          de                 ep
 ref    krefu  rec         k          sam    skami  com  sir    sirji  str
         ur        rol    ro     eac          puter              aight
 rej    vreji  rec         h          san    spano  Spa  sis    sisku  see
         ord       rom    roi    qua          nish               k
 rek    greku  fra         ntified    sap    sampu  sim  sit    sitna  cit
         me                tense              ple                e
 rel    re     2   ron    ropno  Eur  sar    slari  sou  siv    sivni  pri
 rem    remna  hum         opean              r                  vate
         an        ror    rorci  pro  sas    srasu  gra  six    sirxo  Syr
 ren    trene  tra         create             ss                 ian
         in        ros    prosa  pro  sat    sakta  sug  siz    si'o   con
 rep    crepu  har         se                 ar                 cept
         vest      rot    rotsu  thi  sav    savru  noi          abstract
 rer    renro  thr         ck                 se         sob    sobde  soy
         ow        roz    rozgu  ros  sax    sarxe  har          a
 res    respa  rep         e                  monious    soc    sorcu  sto
         tile      rub    ruble  wea  saz    sazri  ope          re
 ret    preti  que         k                  rate       sod    sodva  sod
         stion     ruc    pruce  pro  seb    steba  fru          a
 rev    renvi  sur         cess               stration   sof    softo  Sov
         vive      rud    drudi  roo  sec    senci  sne          iet
 rib    cribe  bea         f                  eze        sog    sorgu  sor
         r         ruf    rufsu  rou  sed    stedu  hea          ghum
 ric    tricu  tre         gh                 d          soj    so'a   alm
         e         ruj    kruji  cre  sef    selfu  ser          ost all
                           am                 ve

                                    29
 sol    solri  sol tap    stapa  ste  tis    tisna  fil  vas    vasru  con
         ar                p                  l                  tain
 som    sombo  sow tar    tarci  sta  tit    titla  swe  vat    vamtu  vom
 son    sonci  sol         r                  et                 it
         dier      tas    tansi  pan  tiv    tivni  tel  vax    vasxu  bre
 sop    so'e   mos tat    tatru  bre          evision            athe
         t                 ast        tix    tixnu  dau  vaz    va     the
 sor    so'i   man tav    tavla  tal          ghter              re at
         y                 k          tiz    stizu  cha  vef    venfu  rev
 sos    so'o   sev tax    tanxe  box          ir                 enge
         eral      taz    ta     tha  toc    troci  try  vel    ve     4th
 sot    so'u   few         t there    tod    toldi  but          conversio
 sov    sovda  egg teb    ctebi  lip          terfly             n
 soz    so     9   tec    steci  spe  tog    tonga  ton  ven    vecnu  sel
 sub    sfubu  div         cific              e                  l
         e         ted    terdi  ear  tok    toknu  ove  ver    verba  chi
 suc    sucta  abs         th                 n                  ld
         tract     tef    tenfa  exp  tol    to'e   pol  ves    vensa  spr
 sud    sudga  dry         onential           ar                 ing
 sug    sunga  gar teg    tengu  tex          opposite   vib    vibna  vag
         lic               ture       ton    torni  twi          ina
 suj    sumji  sum tek    cteki  tax          st         vic    vimcu  rem
 suk    suksa  sud tel    stela  loc  tor    tordu  sho          ove
         den               k                  rt         vid    vindu  poi
 sul    sunla  woo tem    temci  tim  tub    tunba  sib          son
         l                 e                  ling       vif    vifne  fre
 sum    sumti  arg ten    tcena  str  tuf    tu     tha          sh
         ument             etch               t yonder   vij    vinji  air
 sun    stuna  eas tep    terpa  fea  tug    tugni  agr          plane
         t                 r                  ee         vik    viknu  vis
 sup    su'e   at  ter    te     3rd  tuj    tujli  tul          cous
         most              conversio          ip         vil    vlile  vio
 sur    surla  rel         n          tuk    tunka  cop          lent
         ax        tet    terto  1E1          per        vim    vikmi  exc
 sut    sutra  fas         2          tul    tunlo  swa          rete
         t         tib    tinbe  obe          llow       vin    jvinu  vie
 suv    su'u   uns         y          tum    tumla  lan          w
         pecif     tic    tcica  dec          d          vip    vipsi  dep
         abstract          eive       tun    tunta  pok          uty
 suz    su'o   at  tid    tcidu  rea          e          vir    vidru  vir
         least             d          tup    tuple  leg          us
 tab    tabno  car tif    ti     thi  tur    stura  str  vis    viska  see
         bon               s here             ucture     vit    vitci  irr
 tac    tance  ton tig    tigni  per  tut    tutra  ter          egular
         gue               form               ritory     viz    vi     her
 tad    tadni  stu tij    tilju  hea  tuz    stuzi  sit          e at
         dy                vy                 e          vok    voksa  voi
 taf    taxfu  gar tik    stika  adj  vab    vanbi  env          ce
         ment              ust                ironment   vol    vofli  fli
 tag    tagji  snu til    tcila  det  vac    vanci  eve          ght
         g                 ail                ning       von    vo     4
 taj    tamji  thu tim    tcima  wea  vaj    vajni  imp  vor    vorme  doo
         mb                ther               ortant             r
 tak    staku  cer tin    tirna  hea  val    valsi  wor  vud    vrude  vir
         amic              r                  d                  tue
 tal    talsa  cha tip    tikpa  kic  vam    vamji  val  vur    vukro  Ukr
         llenge            k                  ue                 ainian
 tam    tarmi  sha tir    tirse  iro  van    vanju  win  vus    vrusi  tas
         pe                n                  e                  te
 tan    tsani  sky                    var    vacri  air

                                    30
 vuz    vu     yon xol    xotli  hot  zug    zungi  gui  cmo    cmoni  moa
         der at            el                 lt                 n
 xab    xadba  hal xub    xruba  buc  zuk    zukte  act  cmu    jicmu  bas
         f                 kwheat     zul    zunle  lef          is
 xac    xarci  wea xuk    xruki  tur          t          cna    canpa  sho
         pon               key        zum    zu'o   act          vel
 xad    xadni  bod xul    xutla  smo          ivity      cne    cenba  var
         y                 oth                abstract           y
 xag    xamgu  goo xum    xukmi  che  zun    zunti  int  cni    cinmo  emo
         d                 mical              erfere             tion
 xaj    xarju  pig xun    xunre  red  zut    zutse  sit  cno    condi  dee
 xak    xaksu  use xur    xurdo  Urd                             p
         up                i                             cnu    macnu  man
 xal    xalka  alc xus    xusra  ass                             ual
         ohol              ert        bla    blanu  blu  cpa    cpacu  get
 xam    xajmi  fun zac    zarci  mar          e          cpe    cpedu  req
         ny                ket        ble    ruble  wea          uest
 xan    xance  han zag    zargu  but          k          cpi    cipni  bir
         d                 tock       bli    bliku  blo          d
 xap    xampo  amp zaj    zajba  gym          ck         cpu    lacpu  pul
         ere               nast       blo    bloti  boa          l
 xar    xanri  ima zal    zalvi  gri          t          cra    crane  fro
         ginary            nd         blu    ciblu  blo          nt
 xas    xamsi  sea zan    zabna  fav          od         cre    certu  exp
 xat    xatsi  1E-         orable     bra    barda  big          ert
         18        zar    zanru  app  bre    bredi  rea  cri    cirko  los
 xav    xa     6           rove               dy                 e
 xaz    xazdo  Asi zas    zasni  tem  bri    bridi  pre  cro    cortu  pai
         atic              porary             dicate             n
 xeb    xebro  Heb zat    zasti  exi  bro    xebro  Heb  cru    curmi  let
         rew               st                 rew        cta    catlu  loo
 xed    xendo  kin zaz    za'i   sta  bru    burcu  bru          k
         d                 te                 sh         cte    nicte  nig
 xej    xedja  jaw         abstract   cfa    cfari  ini          ht
 xek    xekri  bla zel    ze     7            tiate      cti    citka  eat
         ck        zen    zenba  inc  cfi    cfila  fla  cto    xecto  100
 xel    xe     5th         rease              w          ctu    ctuca  tea
         conversio zep    zepti  1E-  cfu    ricfu  ric          ch
         n                 21                 h          dja    cidja  foo
 xen    xebni  hat zer    zekri  cri  cka    ckana  bed          d
         e                 me         cke    ckeji  ash  dje    djedi  ful
 xer    xenru  reg zet    zetro  1E2          amed               l day
         ret               1          cki    ciksi  exp  dji    djica  des
 xes    xelso  Gre zev    ze'o   out          lain               ire
         ek                ward       cko    cokcu  soa  djo    sadjo  Sau
 xet    xecto  100 zif    zifre  fre          k up               di
 xex    xexso  1E1         e          cku    cukta  boo  dju    sidju  hel
         8         zin    zinki  zin          k                  p
 xil    xislu  whe         c          cla    clani  lon  dra    drani  cor
         el        zip    dzipo  Ant          g                  rect
 xim    xinmo  ink         arctican   cli    cilre  lea  dre    derxi  hea
 xin    xindo  Hin zir    zirpu  pur          rn                 p
         di                ple        clu    culno  ful  dri    badri  sad
 xip    xispo  His ziv    zivle  inv          l          dro    cidro  hyd
         panic             est        cma    cmalu  sma          rogen
 xir    xirma  hor zon    zo'a   tan          ll         dru    drudi  roo
         se                gential    cme    cmene  nam          f
 xis    xriso  Chr         to                 e          dza    da     som
         istian    zor    zo'i   inw  cmi    cmima  mem          ething 1
                           ard                ber

                                    31
 dze    dzena  eld jge    jgena  kno  ple    pelji  pap  sni    sinxa  sig
         er                t                  er                 n
 dzi    dizlo  low jgi    jgira  pri  pli    pilno  use  sno    masno  slo
 dzu    cadzu  wal         de         plo    polje  fol          w
         k         jma    jamfu  foo          d          snu    casnu  dis
 fla    flalu  law         t          plu    daplu  isl          cuss
 fle    flecu  flo jme    jemna  gem          and        spa    spati  pla
         w         jmi    jimpe  und  pra    cupra  pro          nt
 fli    fliba  fai         erstand            duce       spe    speni  mar
         l         jva    javni  rul  pre    prenu  per          ried
 flo    foldi  fie         e                  son        spi    spisa  pie
         ld        jve    je     tan  pri    prina  pri          ce
 flu    fulta  flo         ru and             nt         spo    daspo  des
         at        jvi    jivna  com  pro    fapro  opp          troy
 fra    frati  rea         pete               ose        spu    spuda  rep
         ct        jvo    lujvo  aff  pru    purci  pas          ly
 fre    ferti  fer         ix                 t          sra    sarji  sup
         tile              compound   sfa    sfasa  pun          port
 fri    lifri  exp kla    klama  com          ish        sre    srera  err
         erience           e          sfe    sefta  sur  sri    dasri  rib
 fro    forca  for kle    klesi  cla          face               bon
         k                 ss         sfo    sfofa  sof  sro    sorcu  sto
 fru    frumu  fro kli    klina  cle          a                  re
         wn                ar         sfu    sufti  hoo  sru    sruri  sur
 gla    glare  hot klo    diklo  loc          f                  round
 gle    gletu  cop         al         ska    skari  col  sta    stali  rem
         ulate     klu    kulnu  cul          or                 ain
 gli    glico  Eng         ture       ske    saske  sci  ste    liste  lis
         lish      kra    krasi  sou          ence               t
 glu    gluta  glo         rce        ski    skicu  des  sti    sisti  cea
         ve        kre    kerfa  hai          cribe              se
 gra    grake  gra         r          sko    skori  cor  sto    stodi  con
         m         kri    krici  bel          d                  stant
 gre    pagre  pas         ieve       sku    cusku  exp  stu    stuzi  sit
         s through kro    korcu  ben          ress               e
 gri    girzu  gro         t          sla    salci  cel  tca    tcadu  cit
         up        kru    kruvi  cur          ebrate             y
 gru    gurni  gra         ve         sle    selci  cel  tce    mutce  muc
         in        mla    mlana  sid          l                  h
 jba    jbari  ber         e          sli    slilu  osc  tci    tutci  too
         ry        mle    melbi  bea          illate             l
 jbe    jbena  bor         utiful     slo    solji  gol  tco    ketco  Sou
         n         mli    milxe  mil          d                  th
 jbi    jibni  nea         d          slu    sluji  mus          American
         r         mlo    molki  mil          cle        tcu    nitcu  nee
 jbo    lojbo  Loj         l          sma    smaji  qui          d
         banic     mlu    simlu  see          et         tra    tarti  beh
 jbu    jubme  tab         m          sme    semto  Sem          ave
         le        mra    marbi  she          itic       tre    mitre  met
 jda    lijda  rel         lter       smi    simsa  sim          er
         igion     mre    merli  mea          ilar       tri    trina  att
 jde    kajde  war         sure       smo    smoka  soc          ract
         n         mri    mrilu  mai          k          tro    jitro  con
 jdi    jdice  dec         l          smu    smuni  mea          trol
         ide       mro    morsi  dea          ning       tru    turni  gov
 jdu    jduli  jel         d          sna    sance  sou          ern
         ly        mru    mruli  ham          nd         tsa    tsali  str
 jga    jganu  ang         mer        sne    senva  dre          ong
         le        pla    platu  pla          am         tse    zutse  sit
                           n

                                    32
 tsi    tsiju  see zmu    zumri  mai  bu'i   bu     wor  cu'u   cuntu  aff
         d                 ze                 d to               air
 tsu    rotsu  thi zva    zvati  at           lerfu      da'a   damba  fig
         ck                           bu'o   budjo  Bud          ht
 vla    valsi  wor                            dhist      da'e   danre  pre
         d                            bu'u   bukpu  clo          ssure
 vle    zivle  inv ba'a   barna  mar          th         da'i   darxi  hit
         est               k          ca'a   cabra  app  da'o   darno  far
 vli    vlipa  pow ba'e   balre  bla          aratus     da'u   danlu  ani
         erful             de         ca'e   catke  sho          mal
 vra    vraga  lev ba'i   banli  gre          ve         dai    dacti  obj
         er                at         ca'i   catni  aut          ect
 vre    vreta  rec ba'o   banro  gro          hority     dau    darlu  arg
         lining            w          ca'o   canko  win          ue
 vri    virnu  bra ba'u   bacru  utt          dow        de'a   denpa  wai
         ve                er         ca'u   canlu  spa          t
 vro    vorme  doo bai    bapli  for          ce         de'i   denci  too
         r                 ce         cai    carmi  int          th
 vru    savru  noi bau    bangu  lan          ense       de'o   delno  can
         se                guage      cau    claxu  wit          dela
 xla    xlali  bad be'a   bersa  son          hout       de'u   dertu  dir
 xle    naxle  can be'e   bende  cre  ce'a   cecla  lau          t
         al                w                  ncher      dei    djedi  ful
 xli    nixli  gir be'i   benji  tra  ce'i   cteki  tax          l day
         l                 nsfer      ce'o   ce'o   in   di'a   jdima  pri
 xlu    xlura  inf be'o   bemro  Nor          a                  ce
         luence            th                 sequence   di'e   dirce  rad
 xra    pixra  pic         American           with               iate
         ture      be'u   betfu  abd  ce'u   cecmu  com  di'i   jdini  mon
 xre    mixre  mix         omen               munity             ey
         ture      bei    bevri  car  cei    cevni  god  di'o   dinko  nai
 xri    maxri  whe         ry         ci'a   ciska  wri          l
         at        bi'a   bilma  ill          te         di'u   dinju  bui
 xru    xruti  ret bi'e   brife  bre  ci'e   ciste  sys          lding
         urn               eze                tem        do'i   donri  day
 zba    zbasu  mak bi'i   jbini  bet  ci'i   cinri  int          time
         e                 ween               eresting   do'o   dotco  Ger
 zbe    zbepi  ped bi'o   binxo  bec  ci'o   citno  you          man
         estal             ome                ng         doi    do     you
 zbi    nazbi  nos bi'u   bitmu  wal  ci'u   ckilu  sca  du'a   dunda  giv
         e                 l                  le                 e
 zda    zdani  nes bo'a   boxna  wav  co'a   co'a   ini  du'e   dukse  exc
         t                 e                  tiative            ess
 zdi    zdile  amu bo'e   brode  pre  co'e   co'e   uns  du'i   dunli  equ
         sing              dicate             pecif              al
 zdo    xazdo  Asi         var 2              bridi      du'o   du     sam
         atic      bo'i   botpi  bot  co'i   cmoni  moa          e
 zga    zgana  obs         tle                n                  identity
         erve      bo'o   boxfo  she  co'u   co'u   ces          as
 zgi    zgike  mus         et                 sative     du'u   dunku  ang
         ic        bo'u   bongu  bon  coi    condi  dee          uish
 zgu    rozgu  ros         e                  p          fa'a   farna  dir
         e         boi    bolci  bal  cu'a   cuxna  cho          ection
 zma    zmadu  mor         l                  ose        fa'e   fatne  rev
         e         bu'a   bruna  bro  cu'e   ckule  sch          erse
 zme    guzme  mel         ther               ool        fa'i   facki  dis
         on        bu'e   bunre  bro  cu'i   cumki  pos          cover
 zmi    zmiku  aut         wn                 sible      fa'o   fanmo  end
         omatic                       cu'o   cunso  ran  fa'u   farlu  fal
                                              dom                l

                                    33
 fai    fatri  dis gi'e   zgike  mus  ju'i   jundi  att  ku'u   ckunu  con
         tribute           ic                 entive             ifer
 fau    fasnu  eve gi'o   gigdo  1E9  ju'o   djuno  kno  la'a   lasna  fas
         nt        gi'u   gismu  roo          w                  ten
 fe'a   fenra  cra         t word     ka'a   katna  cut  la'e   lakne  pro
         ck        gu'a   gunka  wor  ka'e   kakne  abl          bable
 fe'i   fetsi  fem         k                  e          la'i   lamji  adj
         ale       gu'e   gugde  cou  ka'i   krati  rep          acent
 fe'o   fenso  sew         ntry               resent     la'o   latmo  Lat
 fe'u   fengu  ang gu'i   gusni  ill  ka'o   kanro  hea          in
         ry                umine              lthy       la'u   lalxu  lak
 fei    fepni  cen gu'o   gunro  rol  ka'u   kantu  qua          e
         t                 l                  ntum       lai    klani  qua
 fi'a   cfika  fic ja'a   jatna  cap  kai    ckaji  qua          ntity
         tion              tain               lity       lau    cladu  lou
 fi'e   finpe  fis ja'e   jalge  res  kau    kampu  com          d
         h                 ult                mon        le'a   lebna  tak
 fi'i   finti  inv ja'i   jadni  ado  ke'a   kevna  cav          e
         ent               rn                 ity        le'i   pleji  pay
 fi'o   friko  Afr ja'o   jarco  sho  ke'e   ke'e   end  le'o   lenjo  len
         ican              w                  grouping           s
 fi'u   cfipu  con ja'u   jgalu  cla  ke'i   kecti  pit  le'u   lerfu  let
         fusing            w                  y                  teral
 fo'a   fo'a   it- jai    jgari  gra  ke'o   kelvo  kel  lei    klesi  cla
         6                 sp                 vin                ss
 fo'e   fo'e   it- jau    djacu  wat  ke'u   krefu  rec  li'a   cliva  lea
         7                 er                 ur                 ve
 fo'i   fo'i   it- je'a   jecta  pol  kei    kelci  pla  li'e   lidne  pre
         8                 ity                y                  cede
 fo'o   fonmo  foa je'e   jetce  jet  ki'a   krixa  cry  li'i   linji  lin
         m         je'i   jersi  cha          out                e
 foi    foldi  fie         se         ki'e   kicne  cus  li'o   linto  lig
         ld        je'o   jegvo  Jeh          hion               htweight
 fu'a   funca  luc         ovist      ki'i   ckini  rel  li'u   litru  tra
         k         je'u   jetnu  tru          ated               vel
 fu'e   fuzme  res         e          ki'o   kilto  100  lo'i   bloti  boa
         ponsible  jei    jenmi  arm          0                  t
 fu'i   fukpi  cop         y          ki'u   krinu  rea  lo'o   slovo  Sla
         y         ji'a   jinga  win          son                vic
 ga'a   grana  rod ji'e   jmive  liv  ko'a   kojna  cor  lo'u   lorxu  fox
 ga'e   ganse  sen         e                  ner        loi    loldi  flo
         se        ji'i   jinvi  opi  ko'e   kolme  coa          or
 ga'i   galfi  mod         ne                 l          lu'a   pluta  rou
         ify       ji'o   jipno  tip  ko'i   kobli  cab          te
 ga'o   ganlo  clo ji'u   jvinu  vie          bage       lu'e   klupe  scr
         sed               w          ko'o   skoto  Sco          ew
 ga'u   galtu  hig jo'e   jorne  joi          ttish      lu'i   lumci  was
         h                 ned        ko'u   konju  con          h
 gai    gacri  cov jo'o   jordo  Jor          e          lu'o   lubno  Leb
         er                danian     koi    korbi  edg          anese
 gau    gasnu  do  jo'u   jo'u   in           e          ma'a   cmana  mou
 ge'a   gerna  gra         common     ku'a   kumfa  roo          ntain
         mmar              with               m          ma'e   marce  veh
 ge'o   gento  Arg joi    joi    in   ku'e   kuspe  ran          icle
         entinian          a mass             ge         ma'i   masti  mon
 ge'u   gerku  dog         with       ku'i   kurji  tak          th
 gei    gleki  hap ju'a   jufra  sen          e care of  ma'o   cmavo  str
         py                tence      ku'o   skuro  gro          ucture
 gi'a   gidva  gui ju'e   julne  net          ove                word
         de

                                    34
 ma'u   makcu  mat nai    natmi  nat  pi'a   pilka  cru  ri'e   rirxe  riv
         ure               ion                st                 er
 mai    marji  mat nau    nanmu  man  pi'e   plipe  lea  ri'i   ritli  rit
         erial     ne'i   nenri  in           p                  e
 mau    zmadu  mor ne'o   cnebo  nec  pi'i   pilji  mul  ri'o   crino  gre
         e                 k                  tiply              en
 me'a   mleca  les ne'u   cnemu  rew  pi'o   pipno  pia  ri'u   rinju  res
         s                 ard                no                 train
 me'e   cmene  nam nei    nelci  fon  pi'u   pimlu  fea  ro'a   prosa  pro
         e                 d                  ther               se
 me'i   mensi  sis ni'a   cnita  ben  po'a   spoja  exp  ro'i   rokci  roc
         ter               eath               lode               k
 me'o   mekso  MEX ni'e   nilce  fur  po'e   ponse  pos  ro'o   ropno  Eur
 me'u   mentu  min         niture             sess               opean
         ute       ni'i   nibli  nec  po'i   porpi  bre  ro'u   rotsu  thi
 mei    mei    car         essitate           ak                 ck
         dinal     ni'o   cnino  new  po'o   ponjo  Jap  roi    roi    qua
         selbri    ni'u   ninmu  wom          anese              ntified
 mi'a   cmila  lau         an         po'u   spofu  bro          tense
         gh        no'e   no'e   sca          ken        ru'a   sruma  ass
 mi'e   minde  com         lar        poi    porsi  seq          ume
         mand              midpoint           uence      ru'e   pruce  pro
 mi'i   minji  mac         not        pu'a   pluka  ple          cess
         hine      no'i   nobli  nob          asant      ru'i   pruxi  spi
 mi'o   misno  fam         le         pu'e   pulce  dus          rit
         ous       noi    notci  mes          t          ru'o   rusko  Rus
 mi'u   mintu  sam         sage       pu'i   punji  put          sian
         e         nu'a   snura  sec  pu'o   purmo  pow  ru'u   rupnu  dol
 mo'a   morna  pat         ure                der                lar
         tern      nu'e   nupre  pro  pu'u   sputu  spi  sa'a   sanga  sin
 mo'i   morji  rem         mise               t                  g
         ember     nu'i   nutli  neu  ra'a   srana  per  sa'e   satre  str
 mo'o   molro  mol         tral               tain               oke
         e         nu'o   nu'o   can  ra'e   ralte  ret  sa'i   sanli  sta
 mo'u   moklu  mou         but has            ain                nd
         th                not        ra'i   ranji  con  sa'o   salpo  slo
 moi    moi    ord pa'a   pacna  hop          tinue              pe
         inal              e          ra'o   radno  rad  sa'u   sarcu  nec
         selbri    pa'e   prane  per          ian                essary
 mu'a   murta  cur         fect       ra'u   raktu  tro  sai    sanmi  mea
         tain      pa'i   prami  lov          uble               l
 mu'e   munje  uni         e          rai    traji  sup  sau    slabu  old
         verse     pa'o   panlo  sli          erlative   se'a   setca  ins
 mu'i   mukti  mot         ce         rau    gradu  uni          ert
         ive       pa'u   patfu  fat          t          se'i   sevzi  sel
 mu'o   mulno  com         her        re'a   remna  hum          f
         plete     pai    pajni  jud          an         se'u   selfu  ser
 mu'u   muvdu  mov         ge         re'e   trene  tra          ve
         e         pau    pagbu  par          in         sei    sepli  apa
 na'a   nanca  yea         t          re'i   renvi  sur          rt
         r         pe'a   preja  spr          vive       si'a   sinma  est
 na'e   natfe  den         ead        re'o   renro  thr          eem
         y         pe'i   penmi  mee          ow         si'e   snime  sno
 na'i   nalci  win         t          re'u   rectu  mea          w
         g         pe'o   pendo  fri          t          si'i   sicni  coi
 na'o   cnano  nor         end        rei    preti  que          n
         m         pe'u   pencu  tou          stion      si'o   sidbo  ide
 na'u   namcu  num         ch         ri'a   rinka  cau          a
         ber       pei    pensi  thi          se         si'u   simxu  mut
                           nk                                    ual

                                    35
 so'a   sovda  egg to'u   tordu  sho  xau    xamgu  goo  zu'e   zukte  act
 so'e   sobde  soy         rt                 d          zu'i   zunti  int
         a         toi    troci  try  xe'a   xedja  jaw          erfere
 so'i   so'i   man tu'a   tumla  lan  xe'i   xekri  bla
         y                 d                  ck
 so'o   sombo  sow tu'e   tuple  leg  xe'o   xendo  kin
 soi    sonci  sol tu'i   tugni  agr          d
         dier              ee         xe'u   xenru  reg
 su'a   stura  str tu'o   tunlo  swa          ret
         ucture            llow       xei    xebni  hat
 su'e   su'e   at  tu'u   tubnu  tub          e
         most              e          xi'a   xirma  hor
 su'i   sumti  arg va'i   vamji  val          se
         ument             ue         xi'o   xriso  Chr
 su'o   su'o   at  va'u   vasxu  bre          istian
         least             athe       xi'u   xislu  whe
 su'u   sfubu  div vai    vajni  imp          el
         e                 ortant     xoi    xotli  hot
 ta'a   tavla  tal vau    vasru  con          el
         k                 tain       xu'a   xusra  ass
 ta'e   tanxe  box ve'a   verba  chi          ert
 ta'i   tatpi  tir         ld         xu'e   xunre  red
         ed        ve'e   ve'e   who  xu'i   xukmi  che
 ta'o   tanbo  boa         le space           mical
         rd                interval   xu'o   xurdo  Urd
 ta'u   taxfu  gar ve'u   vecnu  sel          i
         ment              l          za'a   zabna  fav
 tai    tarmi  sha vei    vreji  rec          orable
         pe                ord        za'i   zasti  exi
 tau    tanru  phr vi'a   viska  see          st
         ase       vi'e   vitke  gue  za'o   za'o   sup
         compound          st                 erfective
 te'a   terpa  fea vi'i   vikmi  exc  za'u   zargu  but
         r                 rete               tock
 te'i   steci  spe vi'o   vitno  per  zai    zarci  mar
         cific             manent             ket
 te'o   stero  ste vi'u   vimcu  rem  zau    zanru  app
         radian            ove                rove
 te'u   tengu  tex vo'a   voksa  voi  ze'a   zenba  inc
         ture              ce                 rease
 tei    temci  tim voi    vofli  fli  ze'e   ze'e   who
         e                 ght                le time
 ti'a   tcima  wea vu'e   vrude  vir          interval
         ther              tue        ze'o   ze'o   out
 ti'e   trixe  beh vu'i   vrusi  tas          ward
         ind               te         zei    zekri  cri
 ti'i   stidi  sug vu'o   vukro  Ukr          me
         gest              ainian     zi'e   zifre  fre
 ti'o   ctino  sha xa'a   xatra  let          e
         dow               ter        zi'i   zinki  zin
 ti'u   tixnu  dau xa'e   xance  han          c
         ghter             d          zi'o   dzipo  Ant
 to'a   tonga  ton xa'i   xarci  wea          arctican
         e                 pon        zi'u   zirpu  pur
 to'e   to'e   pol xa'o   xampo  amp          ple
         ar                ere        zo'a   zo'a   tan
         opposite  xa'u   xabju  dwe          gential
 to'i   torni  twi         ll                 to
         st        xai    xrani  inj  zo'i   zo'i   inw
                           ure                ard