Expansion of logical connections

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Full bridi connections

Forethought:   { GA mi brode gi do brodo }
Afterthought:  { mi brode .i JA do brodo }

Full bridi connectives encodes a relation between two statements (du'u abstractions), and can be expressed using the appropriate predicate word:

  • kaxyje'u = both statements x1 (du'u) and x2 (du'u) are true (logical conjunction)
  • vlinyje'u = at least one of the statements x1 (du'u) and x2 (du'u) is true (logical disjunction)
  • (...)

Therefore, the bridi connection { ga mi brode gi do brodo } can be rephrased as below:

  • vlinyje'u fa lo du'u mi brode kei lo du'u do brodo

Bridi-tail connections

Forethought:   { mi GA [ brode ti ] gi [ brodo tu ] vau do }
Afterthought:  { mi [ brode ti ] GIhA [ brodo tu ] vau do }

=  GA mi brode ti do gi mi brodo tu do
=  mi brode ti do .i JA mi brodo tu do

Sumti connections

Forethought:   { GA mi gi do broda }
Afterthought:  { mi A do broda }

=  GA mi broda gi do broda
=  mi broda .i JA do broda

Termset connections follow the same expansion pattern as sumti connections.

Multiple sumti connections

mi .a do ti .o tu broda

=  ga [ go mi ti broda gi mi tu broda ] gi [ go do ti broda gi do tu broda ]
   .i ko'a .e ko'e broda fo'a .e fo'e
-> .i ko'a broda fo'a .e fo'e .ije ko'e broda fo'e .e fo'e
-> (.i ko'a broda fo'a .ije ko'a broda fo'e) .ije (ko'e broda fo'a .ijebo ko'e broda fo'e)

Interactions with scope

When a bridi connective is followed by the "nai" suffix, this means that the right-hand side of the connection is negated; when it is preceded by the "na" connective prefix, this means the left-hand side of the connection is negated. In both cases, the negation scopes over that of any scope-generating word or construct located within the target side of the connection. However, in the case of bridi-tail connections, the whole bridi-tail connection is under the scope of any scope-generating word located in the shared bridi-head.


• brode .i na ja nai brodo
= naku brode .i ja naku brodo

• ro da brode de na gi'a nai brodo di
= ro da brode naku de gi'a brodo naku di
= ro da zo'u da brode naku de .i ja da brodo naku di
= ro da zo'u ga da brode naku su'o de gi da brodo naku su'o di

In the case of sumti connectives, a negative connective affix (na, nai) will scope over the connected sumti, as shown in the example below:

• da broda ro brodo na .e de di
= da broda ro brodo na gi'e broda de vau di
= da broda naku ro brodo di .i je da broda de di

Furthermore, any quantifier or adverbial term appearing on the left of a GIhA or A connection will have scope over it:

• naku brode gi'e brodo
= naku ge brode gi brodo