BPFK Section: Tense

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This page is imported from version 73 of the page BPFK Section: Tense from the lojban Tiki.

cmavo: cu'e (CUhE)

Proposed Definition

Tense/modal question. Turns the entire bridi into a question, and requests that the listener provide a tense/modal as an answer. The tense/modal response fills the place where cu'e was in the original bridi and the resulting bridi is the answer offered to the question.

Proposed Tag

fi'o mo

See Also

  • {mo}
  • {ma}
  • {pei}
  • {xo}
  • {xu}

Proposed Keywords

  • tense/modal question

Usage Examples

do cu'e se bangu la .lojban.
When did you use Lojban?
.i doi .kapos. do cu'e tadni la .lojban.
Kapos, when have you previously/are you currently/will you study Lojban?
do cikybi'o cu'e lo nu lo zerle'a cu cliva
Did you wake up before or after the burglar left, or while he left, or what?

Notes

It is nigh impossible to translate this word into English without using at least three sentences.

Issues

cmavo: nau (CUhE)

Proposed Definition

Time tense. It refers to the current space/time absolutely.

Proposed Tag

  • ca je bu'u lo nu cusku dei

See Also

  • ca
  • bu'u
  • dei

Proposed Keywords

  • now
  • here and now

Usage Examples

ni'o nau djedi li bi fa lo mi nu spofu bu'u lo kutytu'a
It is now eight days I have been broken down in the desert.

Notes

Issues

While this word can be used as a sumtcita, it has no specified meaning, nor can I think of any useful meaning. I would like to add a sentence to the definition that says something like "Use as a sumtcita is not intended" or somesuch.



cmavo: ba (PU)

Proposed Definition

A time tense relation/direction. The meaning as a sumtcita is that the main bridi happens after the attached sumti. Defaults to a perspective of future-tense, and can be used with a meaning similar to future-tense in natural languages, or as "after".

Proposed Tag

fi'o se balvi

See Also

  • {ca}
  • {pu}
  • {balvi}

Proposed Keywords

  • will
  • going to
  • future-tense

Usage Examples

.i xu ro cmene be lo gugde ba se vasru la jbovlaste
Will every country name be in Jbovlaste?

.au pei mi'o kelci lo bolci ba lo nu mi cikre lo karce
Would you like us to play ball after I fix the car?

Notes

Issues

cmavo: ca (PU)

Proposed Definition

A time tense relation/direction. The meaning as a sumtcita is that the main bridi happens simultaneous to the attached sumti. Defaults to a perspective of present-tense, and can be used with a meaning similar to present-tense in natural languages, or as "concurrent with" or "at the same time as".

Proposed Tag

fi'o se cabna

See Also

  • {ba}
  • {pu}
  • {cabna}

Proposed Keywords

  • at/during
  • now

Usage Examples

xu do ca jimpe
Do you now understand?
.i la .ko'an. ca tcidu fi la xunre cukta
Kohan is reading in the Red Book.
.i ui mi surla ca lo cabdei
Yay, today I relax.
mi ca lo nu mi'o kansi'u cu glekyrai lo ro remna
When we are together, I am the happiest of all the humans.

Notes

Issues

cmavo: pu (PU)

Proposed Definition

Before. A time tense relation/direction. The meaning as a sumtcita is that the main bridi happens before the attached sumti. Defaults to a perspective of past-tense, and can be used with a meaning similar to past-tense in natural languages, or as "before".

Proposed Tag

fi'o se purci

See Also

  • {ba}
  • {ca}
  • {purci}

Proposed Keywords

  • was
  • before
  • past-tense

Usage Examples

mi pu zi dunda lo ropno rupnu be li re no la .djef.leit. noi finti la purmo ku noi me la .nintendon.dys. selkei
I just gave twenty euros to Jeff Lait, the creator of POWDER, which is a game for the Nintendo DS.
.i do pu cusku lu la cizra cu palci li'u
You said, 'The Strange One is evil'.
mi djica lo nu do pu lo nu sipna cu lumci lo denci be do
I want you to brush your teeth before you sleep.

Notes

Issues

cmavo: ki (KI)

Proposed Definition

Set tense default. Establishes the tagged sumti as time, space, and/or modal reference point of the bridi, until end of text or the tense is reset. When following another tense, it establishes that tense as the default reference point.

Proposed Tag

fi'o manri

See Also

Proposed Keywords

  • set reference point
  • from

Usage Examples

.i mi sipna ki lo zdani be mi va lo ki'otre be li so'i
I slept many kilometres away from home.
.i ku'i pu ki ku mi na sanji le du'u do ca mutce gunka tu'a la .penguikon.
Previously, however, I wasn't aware of the fact that you were working hard on Penguicon.'

Notes

Issues

Restrictions using ki? Does a new {ki} work from an existing one, or replace it? Needs notes on cancellation (empty {ki}) and subscripting for storing tenses for later.


cmavo: ca ma (PU*)

Proposed Definition

A cmavo compound time tense relation/direction. Asks with what the main bridi is concurrent, similar to English "when?".

Proposed Tag

fi'o se cabna ma

See Also

  • {ca}
  • {ma}

Proposed Keywords

  • when

Usage Examples

ca ma do mo'u cilre fo le balcu'e
When will or did you graduate from Uni?

Notes

Issues

General Section Issues

Poll