BPFK Section: Personal Pro-sumti

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This page is imported from version 24 of the page BPFK Section: Personal Pro-sumti from the lojban Tiki.

Proposed Definitions And Examples

cmavo: do (KOhA3)

Proposed definition

A pro-sumti referring to "you," the person or people that the speaker is addressing.

See also

  • {do'o}
  • {ko}
  • {mi}
  • {ma'a}
  • {doi}

Proposed keywords

  • you
  • y'all

Usage examples

coi ro do
"Hello, everybody."
xu do jimpe
"Do you understand (these facts)?"

Notes

This word can be either second-person singular or second-person plural. The listener(s) it refers to can be specifically identified by vocatives (such as {doi}) or identifiers such as {goi} or {no'u}.

Issues

None.


cmavo: do'o (KOhA3)

Proposed definition

A pro-sumti for "you and others," referring to the person or people that the speaker is addressing along with one or more other people, considered together.

See also

  • {do}
  • {mi'o}
  • {ma'a}

Proposed keywords

  • you and them

Usage examples

mi sidju do'o
"I help you and them."
mi simsa do'o le ka zasti
"I am like you, in being real."

Notes

This cmavo combines the second- and third-persons together. The people it refers to can be specifically identified by vocatives (such as {doi}) or identifiers such as {goi} or {no'u}.

Issues

None.


cmavo: ko (KOhA3)

Proposed definition

An imperative pro-sumti for "you," the person or people that the speaker is addressing. Similar to "do", except that the sentence it is in becomes imperative in the sense, "Make this sentence true."

See also

  • {do}
  • {e'o}
  • {pe'u}

Proposed keywords

  • you (imperative)
  • you (command)

Usage examples

ko sarji la lojban
"Support Lojban."
ko kurji ko
"Take care of yourself."

Notes

Like {do}, this cmavo can be used multiple times in a sentence, anywhere where a {sumti} is valid. It changes the sentence from a statement into a request in the sense of somehow making the sentence true. For instance, "la .djan. klama ko" closely means, "Make it so that 'John comes to you' is true," or, "Make John come to you."

Issues


cmavo: ma'a (KOhA3)

Proposed definition

A pro-sumti for "you, we, and they," referring to the the speaker, the person or people that the speaker is addressing, and and one or more other people, all considered together.

See also

  • {mi'o}
  • {mi'a}
  • {do'o}

Proposed keywords

  • you, us, and them
  • you, me, and them

Usage examples

xu .ei ma'a zbasu lo ctucku
"Do you, I, and they have to create a textbook?"
ma'a xusra du'u lei jetnu
"We (meaning the signatories of the Declaration of Independence, the American reader, and the citizens of the nation) hold these truths."

Notes

This cmavo combines the first-, second-, and third-persons together.

Issues

None.


cmavo: mi (KOhA3)

Proposed definition

A pro-sumti for "I" and "we," referring to the the speaker(s) of the utterance.

See also

  • {do}
  • {mi'o}
  • {mi'a}
  • {ma'a}
  • {mi'e}

Proposed keywords

  • I
  • we
  • me
  • us

Usage examples

mi pendo do
"I am a friend of you."
xrani mi lo ka cinmo
"(Something) hurt me in my feelings."

Notes

This word can be either first-person singular or first-person plural. The speaker(s) it refers to can be specifically identified by the vocative {mi'e} or identifiers such as {goi} or {no'u}.

Issues

None.


cmavo: mi'a (KOhA3)

Proposed definition

A pro-sumti for "I/we and others," referring to the speaker(s) along with one or more other people, considered together.

See also

  • {mi}
  • {do'o}
  • {mi'o}
  • {ma'a}

Proposed keywords

  • they and I
  • we and they
  • me and them
  • us and them

Usage examples

ca ma mi'a kakne lo nu co'a tcidu
"When can they and I start reading?"
mi'a ca'o sisku
"They and I continue to search."

Notes

This cmavo combines the first- and third-persons together. The people it refers to can be specifically identified by vocatives (such as {doi}) or identifiers such as {goi} or {no'u}.

Issues

It is currently uncertain whether this word always excludes {do}. According to its current official description, the word refers to "me/we ... & others unspecified, but not you, the listener," which excludes {do}. However, excluding {do} implies that in the case that the speakers and addressees of an utterance share some people, {mi'a} excludes those shared members, thus becoming different from the combination of the first- and third-persons.


cmavo: mi'o (KOhA3)

Proposed definition

A pro-sumti for "you and I/we," referring to the speaker(s) along with the person or people that the speaker is addressing, considered together.

See also

  • {mi}
  • {do}
  • {ma'a}

Proposed keywords

  • you and I
  • you and we

Usage examples

lo ro cribe poi jersi mi'o bunre
"All bears that chase you and me are brown."
xu tu joi mi'o bebna
"Are those (people) over there and we being fools?"

Notes

This cmavo combines the first- and second-persons together. The people it refers to can be specifically identified by vocatives (such as {mi'e} or {doi}) or identifiers such as {goi} or {no'u}.

Issues

None.

General section issues

None.