BPFK Section: Modal Aspects

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cmavo: ca'a (CAhA)

Proposed Definition

Tense marker used to express events/conditions/etc. that are actually happening.

Proposed Tag

Tense marker for actuality.

See Also

  • {ka'e}
  • {nu'o}
  • {ca}

Proposed Keywords

  • actually
  • currently
  • really

Usage Examples

.i su'a lo na krici cu zasti .i'a .i ku'i le mi bende cu ca'a gunka
"Well, there's certainly going to be those who doubt us, but our team is proving themselves through their work."

Notes

Meaning of {ca'a} used as sumtcita is unclear.


cmavo: ka'e (CAhA)

Proposed Definition

Tense marker used to express innate capability for events/conditions/etc. to happen -- regardless of those events/conditions/etc. actually taking place

Proposed Tag

Tense marker for innate capability.

See Also

  • {kakne}
  • {ca'a}
  • {nu'o}
  • {pu'i}

Proposed Keywords

  • could
  • capable of
  • able to
  • potentially

Usage Examples

.i do ka'e pilno lo tanru .i ku'i na satci
"'You can use tanru, but they're not precise.'"

Notes

Unlike {kakne}, {ka'e} expresses innate, potential capability, which doesn't have to be an actual, present capability. The difference is best illustrated by an example: birds (except for few species) can fly (lo cipni cu ka'e vofli) but among them there are some that cannot do so now (ti poi cipni na kakne lo zu'o vofli) due to being crippled, too young, confined in small cage, etc.

{ka'e} covers all situations where {pu'i} and {nu'o} are applicable (is more general than both of them).


cmavo: pu'i (CAhA)

Proposed Definition

Tense marker used to express capability which was demonstrated at least once.

Proposed Tag

Tense marker for demonstrated capability.

See Also

  • {ka'e}
  • {nu'o}
  • {kakne}

Proposed Keywords

  • can and has
  • actually able to

Usage Examples

.i .uinai xu tu'a le midju donri ke smaji pu'i cfari
"The mid-day calm has started."

Notes

Unlike {ka'e}, {pu'i} requires a capability to be demonstrated (that is, actually used) at least once. If that's not the case (but {ka'e} still applies), use {nu'o}.


cmavo: nu'o (CAhA)

Proposed Definition

Tense marker used to express undemonstrated capability or unrealised potential.

Proposed Tag

Tense marker for undemonstrated capability.

See Also

  • {ka'e}
  • {pu'i}
  • {kakne}

Proposed Keywords

  • can but has not
  • is expected to be able to

Usage Examples

.i mi nu'o se darxi fo lo stedu
"I am capable of being, but have never been, struck on the head."

Notes

{nu'o} requires a capability to not be demonstrated/used/etc. even once. It is applicable in situations where {ka'e} is but {pu'i} is not.

Issues

Not to be confused with {na'o}.

There is also apparently little-to-no difference between {nu'o} and {na'epu'i}. Further investigation needed.


Proposed Definition of na'epu'i

na'epu'i (CAhA*)
has never -- A modal aspect indicating an inability, or that something has never happened. (lit. "something other than a demonstrated ability")
    • Keywords: "has never", "can't"

Examples of na'epu'i Usage

.i mi la lisp. nelci .i ku'i mi na'epu'i pu pilno ri
"I like lisp, but I have never previously used it."

Notes

  • Why is only na'epu'i defined, but no other CAhA with to'e/na'e/na/nai? -lindar
  • na'epu'i seems to be either a carbon-copy of nu'o, or to be noroi actually. (Example suggests the latter). I would get rid of it altogether unless a both of my suppositions are false. - ksion
  • CAhA aren't allowed to be negated with nai by the grammar. This seems to be a mistake. Suggest ka'enai -> "is not capable of", ca'anai -> "is not currently", pu'inai would seem to suggest "either can't or has not or perhaps both" but "can't+hasn't" is "ka'enai", "can't+has" is logically impossible, "can +hasn't" is "nu'o", so it would it seeem to reduce to simply "hasn't, whether or not can't". Similarly, "nu'onai" would suggest "either can't or has or perhaps both", but "can't+has" is impossible, "can't+hasn't" is "ka'enai", "can+has" is "pu'i", so "nu'onai" is "has done if and only if can do" (e.g. "ro mabru nu'onai vasxu" (All mammals have breathed iff they can]. --gejyspa

CAhA + NAI has been previously discussed. It makes little sense that it cannot be used that way, and many want to change it.

  • The vast majority of the selbri tcita and sumti tcita cmavo can be mapped directly back to {fi'o} constructs. Example: {pu broda} -> {broda pu zo'e} -> {broda fi'o se purci zo'e}. CAhA apparently cannot. For example, there is apparently no broda such that {.i ko'a ka'e brode .ijo ko'a broda lo su'u brode} is true. While not a glaring, language-breaking issue, it's somewhat inelegant that there's this chunk of the language that isn't "structural" (like LE or FA, for example) or in brivla space that is primitive. Any thoughts? -latros

Impact