BPFK Section: Causation sumtcita as of 16 Jun 2005

From Lojban
Jump to: navigation, search

Contents

Proposed Definitions And Examples

Proposed Definition of ri'a

ri'a (BAI)
With cause... Tags a sumti as fitting the 1st place of rinka. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the 1st place of rinka and then fills it with the tagged sumti. In other words, the event described by the bridi is caused by the referent of the tagged sumti. See also: rinka, ja'e, ni'i, mu'i, ki'u, se ri'a, te ri'a, ri'a ma, ri'a nai, se ri'a nai.
    • Keywords: With cause

Examples of ri'a Usage

Artificial:

.i le bolci cu farlu ri'a lo nu mi co'u sarji ri

The ball fell because I stopped holding it up.

Proposed Definition of ri'a ma

ri'a ma (BAI*)
With what cause? Tags a sumti question marker as fitting the first place of rinka. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the first place of rinka and then fills it with a sumti question cmavo (ma). In other words, the tagged sumti asks what physically caused the event described by the bridi. See also: rinka, ja'e, ni'i, mu'i, ki'u, ri'a, se ri'a, te ri'a, ri'a nai, se ri'a nai.
    • Keywords: With what cause?

Examples of ri'a ma Usage

Artificial:

.i ri'a ma le tsani cu blanu

Why is the sky blue?

Proposed Definition of ri'a nai

ri'a nai (BAI*)
Not caused by... Tags a sumti as not fitting the 1st place of rinka. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the 1st place of na'e rinka and then fills it with the tagged sumti. In other words, the event described by the bridi is not caused by the referent of the tagged sumti. See also: rinka, ja'e, ni'i, mu'i, ki'u, ri'a, se ri'a, te ri'a, ri'a ma, se ri'a nai.
    • Keywords: Not caused by, regardles of cause.

Examples of ri'a nai Usage

Artificial:

.i mi nelci do ri'anai lo za'i do melbi

I like you, but not because you're beautiful.

Note

It should be noted (and this applies to all BAI+nai) constructs that while the above example asserts that "mi nelci do", and it asserts that this isn't a result of "do melbi", it does *not* assert "do melbi" one way or the other.

Proposed Definition of se ri'a

se ri'a (BAI*)
With result... Tags a sumti as fitting the 2nd place of rinka. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the 2nd place of rinka and then fills it with the tagged sumti. In other words, the event described by the bridi is the cause of the referent of the tagged sumti. See also: rinka, ja'e, mu'i, ni'i, ki'u, ri'a, te ri'a, ri'a ma, ri'a nai, se ri'a nai.
    • Keywords: With result

Examples of se ri'a Usage

Artificial:

.i do darxi mi seri'a lo za'i mi cortu

You hit me, which results in my pain.

Proposed Definition of se ri'a nai

se ri'a nai (BAI*)
Not resulting in... Tags a sumti as not fitting the 2nd place of rinka. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the 2nd place of na'e rinka and then fills it with the tagged sumti. In other words, the event described by the bridi does not cause the event described by the referent of the tagged sumti. See also: rinka, ja'e, mu'i, ni'i, ki'u, ri'a, se ri'a, te ri'a, ri'a ma, ri'a nai.
    • Keywords: Not resulting in

Examples of se ri'a nai Usage

Artificial:

.i do darxi le ve tivni seri'anai lonu ri se cikre

You hit the TV, but that doesn't result in it being repaired.

Proposed Definition of te ri'a

te ri'a (BAI*)
Caused under conditions... Tags a sumti as fitting the 3rd place of rinka. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the 3rd place of rinka and then fills it with the tagged sumti. In other words, the event described by the bridi is caused under the conditions described by the referent of the tagged sumti. See also: rinka, ja'e, mu'i, ni'i, ki'u, ri'a, se ri'a, ri'a ma, ri'a nai, se ri'a nai.
    • Keywords: Caused under conditions...

Examples of te ri'a Usage

Artificial:

.i le karce cu xe klama teri'a loza'i mi bilga lonu klama le zarci

When I have to go to the store, the car is a vehicle.

Proposed Definition of ni'i

ni'i (BAI)
By logic... Tags a sumti as fitting the 1st place of nibli. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the 1st place of nibli and then fills it with the tagged sumti. In other words, the event described by the bridi follows logically from the referent of the tagged sumti. See also: nibli, ja'e, mu'i, ri'a, ki'u, se ni'i, te ni'i, ni'i ma, ni'i nai, se ni'i nai.
    • Keywords: By logic...

Examples of ni'i Usage

Artificial:

.i la platon mrobi'o ni'i le du'u py remna

Plato dies, which follows logically because he is human.

Proposed Definition of ni'i ma

ni'i ma (BAI*)
By what logic? Tags a sumti question marker as fitting the first place of nibli. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the first place of nibli and then fills it with a sumti question cmavo (ma). In other words, the tagged sumti asks by what logic the event described by the bridi occurs. See also: nibli, ja'e, ri'a, mu'i, ki'u, ni'i, se ni'i, te ni'i, ni'i nai, se ni'i nai.
    • Keywords: By what logic?

Examples of ni'i ma Usage

Artificial:

do krici lo du'u gendra ni'i ma

"You believe that is grammatical by what logic?"

Proposed Definition of ni'i nai

ni'i nai (BAI*)
Does not logically follow from... Tags a sumti as not fitting the 1st place of nibli. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the 1st place of nibli and then fills it with the tagged sumti. In other words, the event described by the bridi does not logically follow from the referent of the tagged sumti. See also: nibli, ja'e, ri'a, mu'i, ki'u, ni'i, se ni'i, te ni'i, ni'i ma, se ni'i nai.
    • Keywords: Does not logically follow from..., regardless of logical cause.

Examples of ni'i nai Usage

Artificial:

.i do bilga lonu pilno lo palku kei ni'inai loza'i do nanmu

Your being obliged to wear pants doesn't logically follow from the state of your being a man.

Proposed Definition of se ni'i

se ni'i (BAI*)
Logically therefore... Tags a sumti as fitting the 2nd place of nibli. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the 2nd place of nibli and then fills it with the tagged sumti. In other words, the event described by the bridi logically leads to the referent of the tagged sumti. See also: nibli, ja'e, mu'i, ri'a, ki'u, ni'i, te ni'i, ni'i ma, ni'i nai, se ni'i nai.
    • Keywords: Logically therefore...

Examples of se ni'i Usage

.i se ni'i ri cusku no da poi lojbo

Because of that, nothing lojbanic is expressed.

Proposed Definition of se ni'i nai

se ni'i nai (BAI*)
Does not logically entail... Tags a sumti as not fitting the 2nd place of nibli. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the 2nd place of nibli and then fills it with the tagged sumti. In other words, the event described by the bridi does not logically entail the referent of the tagged sumti. See also: nibli, ja'e, ri'a, mu'i, ki'u, ni'i, se ni'i, te ni'i, ni'i ma, ni'i nai.
    • Keywords: Does not logically entail...

Examples of se ni'i nai Usage

lo gerku lo plini cu simsa le ka barda .i se ni'i nai bo ri xi re ri xi ci simsa le ka barda

Dogs are similar to planets in size; it does not therefore follow that planets are similar to dogs in size.

(I don't actually have any idea what this person was talking about, but this is a real usage, very slightly modified.)

Proposed Definition of te ni'i

te ni'i (BAI*)
Under logic system... Tags a sumti as fitting the 3rd place of nibli. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the 3rd place of nibli and then fills it with the tagged sumti. In other words, the event described by the bridi occurs under the logic system described by the referent of the tagged sumti. See also: nibli, ja'e, mu'i, ri'a, ki'u, ni'i, se ni'i, ni'i ma, ni'i nai, se ni'i nai.
    • Keywords: Under logic system...

Examples of te ni'i Usage

Artificial:

li pa pi'i pa du li pa te ni'i lo cmaci

One times one is one, according to mathematics.

Proposed Definition of mu'i

mu'i (BAI)
Because of motive... Tags a sumti as fitting the 1st place of mukti. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the 1st place of mukti and then fills it with the tagged sumti. In other words, the event described by the bridi occurs because of the motive described by the referent of the tagged sumti. See also: mukti, ja'e, ni'i, ri'a, ki'u, se mu'i, te mu'i, mu'i ma, mu'i nai, se mu'i nai.
    • Keywords: Because of motive...

Examples of mu'i Usage

.i mi cliva mu'i le nu samru'e kelci gi'e sipna do'e le mi se prami

I leave motivated by computer gaming and sleeping with my beloved.

Proposed Definition of mu'i ma

mu'i ma (BAI*)
With what motive? Tags a sumti question marker as fitting the first place of mukti. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the first place of mukti and then fills it with a sumti question cmavo (ma). In other words, the tagged sumti asks with what motive the event described by the bridi occurs. See also: mukti, ja'e, ri'a, ni'i, ki'u, mu'i, se mu'i, te mu'i, mu'i nai, se mu'i nai.
    • Keywords: With what motive?

Examples of mu'i ma Usage

.i do preti mu'i ma

Why do you ask?

Proposed Definition of mu'i nai

mu'i nai (BAI*)
Not motivated by... Tags a sumti as not fitting the 1st place of mukti. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the 1st place of mukti and then fills it with the tagged sumti. In other words, the event described by the bridi is not motivated by the referent of the tagged sumti. See also: mukti, ja'e, ri'a, ni'i, ki'u, mu'i, se mu'i, te mu'i, mu'i ma, se mu'i nai.
    • Keywords: Not motivated by..., regardless of motivation.

Examples of mu'i nai Usage

mi gleki le nu tavla do kei mu'i nai le cmalu temci

I like talking to you, regardless of the short amount of time.

Proposed Definition of se mu'i

se mu'i (BAI*)
Motive therefore... Tags a sumti as fitting the 2nd place of mukti. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the 2nd place of mukti and then fills it with the tagged sumti. In other words, the event described by the bridi is the motive behind the event described by the referent of the tagged sumti. See also: mukti, ja'e, ni'i, ri'a, ki'u,, mu'i, te mu'i, mu'i ma, mu'i nai, se mu'i nai.
    • Keywords: Motive therefore...

Examples of se mu'i Usage

.i mi mutce xagji se mu'i le nu mi pu'o citka (Modified from original.)

I'm very hungry, which motivates that I am about to eat.

Proposed Definition of se mu'i nai

se mu'i nai (BAI*)
Not motive for... Tags a sumti as not fitting the 2nd place of mukti. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the 2nd place of mukti and then fills it with the tagged sumti. In other words, the event described by the bridi is not the motive for the referent of the tagged sumti. See also: mukti, ja'e, ri'a, ni'i, ki'u, mu'i, se mu'i, te mu'i, mu'i ma, mu'i nai.
    • Keywords: Not motive for...

Examples of se mu'i nai Usage

Artificial:

mi cliva se mu'i nai lo nu do klaku

I'm leaving, but you don't have to cry.

Proposed Definition of te mu'i

te mu'i (BAI*)
Motive of person... Tags a sumti as fitting the 3rd place of mukti. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the 3rd place of mukti and then fills it with the tagged sumti. In other words, the event described by the bridi is somehow motivated by or motivates the person indicated by the referent of the tagged sumti. See also: mukti, ja'e, ni'i, ri'a, ki'u, mu'i, se mu'i, mu'i ma, mu'i nai, se mu'i nai.
    • Keywords: Motive of person...

Examples of te mu'i Usage

Artificial:

mi klama le zarci te mu'i le mi mamta

I go to the store because of/to motivate my mom.

(The English gloss is incurably inspecific)

Proposed Definition of ki'u

ki'u (BAI)
Because of reason... Tags a sumti as fitting the 1st place of krinu. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the 1st place of krinu and then fills it with the tagged sumti. In other words, the event described by the bridi occurs for the reason indicated by the referent of the tagged sumti. See also: krinu, ja'e, ni'i, ri'a, mu'i, se ki'u, ki'u ma, ki'u nai, se ku'i nai.
    • Keywords: Because of reason...

Examples of ki'u Usage

.i mi nelci la lojban ki'u lenu mi pensi ta'i le pe'a lojbo

I like lojban because I think in a figuratively lojbanic manner.

Proposed Definition of ki'u ma

ki'u ma (BAI*)
With what reason? Tags a sumti question marker as fitting the first place of krinu. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the first place of krinu and then fills it with a sumti question cmavo (ma). In other words, the tagged sumti asks with what reason the event described by the bridi occurs. See also: krinu, ja'e, ri'a, mu'i, ni'i, ki'u, se ki'u, ki'u nai, se ku'i nai.
    • Keywords: With what reason?

Examples of ki'u ma Usage

.i ki'u ma do cusku zo co'o

Why do you say goodbye?

Proposed Definition of ki'u nai

ki'u nai (BAI*)
Without reason... Tags a sumti as not fitting the 1st place of krinu. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the 1st place of krinu and then fills it with the tagged sumti. In other words, the event described by the bridi is not reasonably justified by the referent of the tagged sumti. See also: krinu, ja'e, ri'a, ni'i, ni'i, ki'u, se ki'u, ki'u ma, se ku'i nai.
    • Keywords: Without reason...

Examples of ki'u nai Usage

Artificial:

la uest cu se nabmi ge ki'u nai lo nu .u bu mitcinpa'i nanmu gi ki'u lo nu .u bu simlu lo ka djica lo nu pilno lo nu catni fi lo gubni jibri kei lo nu cpedu lo cinse nu selfu

"West is in trouble not because he is a gay man, but because he is a man who was apparently willing to use the power of his public office to solicit sexual favors."

Proposed Definition of se ki'u

se ki'u (BAI*)
Reasonably therefore... Tags a sumti as fitting the 2nd place of krinu. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the 2nd place of krinu and then fills it with the tagged sumti. In other words, the event described by the bridi is the reason behind the event described by the referent of the tagged sumti. See also: krinu, ja'e, ni'i, ri'a, mu'i, ki'u, ki'u ma, ki'u nai, se ku'i nai.
    • Keywords: Reasonably therefore..., thereby....

Examples of se ki'u Usage

.i mi ca gunka penmi seki'u le nu masno spuda (Slightly modified.)

I am at a work meeting, which is the reason for my slow replies.

Proposed Definition of se ki'u nai

se ki'u nai (BAI*)
Not a reason to... Tags a sumti as not fitting the 2nd place of krinu. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the 2nd place of krinu and then fills it with the tagged sumti. In other words, the event described by the bridi is not the reason for the referent of the tagged sumti. See also: krinu, ja'e, ri'a, ni'i, mu'i, ki'u, se ki'u, ki'u ma, ki'u nai.
    • Keywords: Not a reason to...

Examples of se ki'u nai Usage

.i se ki'u nai bo mi jai bandu le nobli ke lojbo bangu lo vlatai zekri (Slightly modified.)

Regardless of that reason, I defend the noble Lojban language against word-shape crimes.

Proposed Definition of bai

bai (BAI)
Compelled by... Tags a sumti as fitting the 1st place of bapli. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the 1st place of bapli and then fills it with the tagged sumti. In other words, the event described by the bridi is compelled by the referent of the tagged sumti. See also: bapli, se bai.
    • Keywords: Compelled by

Examples of bai Usage

.i za'a bai lo skami mi nalviska le se cinri nu casnu (Rather modified.)

Apparently, the computer compels me to not see the interesting discussion.

Proposed Definition of se bai

se bai (BAI*)
Forcing result... Tags a sumti as fitting the 2nd place of bapli. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the 2nd place of bapli and then fills it with the tagged sumti. In other words, the event described by the bridi compels the result described by the referent of the tagged sumti. See also: bapli, bai.
    • Keywords: Forcing result

Examples of se bai Usage

Artificial:

mi darxi le bolci se bai lo nu ri gunro farlu fi le gapru traji mokca be le cmalu cmana

I hit the ball forcing it to roll down from the top of the hill.

Proposed Definition of fau

fau (BAI)
In the event of... Tags a sumti as fitting the 1st place of fasnu. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the 1st place of fasnu and then fills it with the tagged sumti. In other words, the event described by the bridi is associated with an event described by referent of the tagged sumti. See also: fasnu.
    • Keywords: In the event of...

Examples of fau Usage

Artificial:

.i fau le nu mi sanli binxo kei mi cusku le se du'u mo'u citka

With the event of standing up, I express that the eating is over.

Proposed definition of sau

sau (BAI)
Requiring... Tags a sumti as fitting the 1st place of sarcu. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the 1st place of sarcu and then fills it with the tagged sumti. In other words, the event described by the bridi requires the referent of the tagged sumti. See also: sarcu, se sau, te sau.
    • Keywords: Requiring...

Examples of sau Usage

Artificial:

.i do nenri sau tu'a le ckiku valsi

You enter, with requirement the key word.

Proposed Definition of se sau

se sau (BAI*)
Required for... Tags a sumti as fitting the 2nd place of sarcu. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the 2nd place of sarcu and then fills it with the tagged sumti. In other words, the event described by the bridi is required for the referent of the tagged sumti. See also: sarcu, sau, te sau.
    • Keywords: Required for...

Examples of se sau Usage

.i .e'o ko sanli vi le serti se sau le nu mi fi do badgau (Slightly modified.)

Please stand at the stairs, which is required for my defending you.

Proposed Definition of te sau

te sau (BAI*)
Required under conditions... Tags a sumti as fitting the 3rd place of sarcu. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the 3rd place of sarcu and then fills it with the tagged sumti. In other words, the event described by the bridi is required under the conditions described by the referent of the tagged sumti. See also: sarcu, sau, se sau.
    • Keywords: Required under conditions...

Examples of te sau Usage

Artificial:

mi klama le briju te sau lo nu mi gunka

I go to the office as required by my work.

Proposed Definition of ja'e

ja'e (BAI)
Therefore result... Tags a sumti as fitting the 1st place of jalge. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the 1st place of jalge and then fills it with the tagged sumti. In other words, the event described by the bridi results from the tagged sumti. See also: jalge, se ja'e, ja'e nai, se ja'e nai.
    • Keywords: Therefore result...

Examples of ja'e Usage

.i le li'i clupa nu casnu bau roda ja'e node cu rinka (Slightly modified.)

The experience of a looping discussion in all languages which results in nothing is the cause.

Proposed Definition of ja'e nai

ja'e nai (BAI*)
Without result... Tags a sumti as not fitting the 1st place of jalge. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the 1st place of jalge and then fills it with the tagged sumti. In other words, the event described by the bridi does not result in the referent of the tagged sumti. See also: jalge, ja'e, se ja'e, se ja'e nai.
    • Keywords: Without result...

Examples of ja'e nai Usage

.i ja'e nai bo mi na ka'e sipna

Regardless of this, I am not able to sleep.

Proposed Definition of se ja'e

se ja'e (BAI*)
Results because ... Tags a sumti as fitting the 2nd place of jalge. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the 2nd place of jalge and then fills it with the tagged sumti. In other words, the event described by the bridi results because of the referent of the tagged sumti. See also: jalge, ja'e, ja'e nai, se ja'e nai.
    • Keywords: Results because...

Examples of se ja'e Usage

Artificial:

mi cadzu se ja'e lo nu mi na ponse lo karce

I walk because I don't own a car.

Proposed Definition of se ja'e nai

se ja'e nai (BAI*)
Results not because ... Tags a sumti as not fitting the 2nd place of jalge. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the 2nd place of jalge and then fills it with the tagged sumti. In other words, the event described by the bridi is not the reason for the referent of the tagged sumti. See also: jalge, ja'e, se ja'e, ja'e nai.
    • Keywords: Results not because

Examples of se ja'e nai Usage

Artificial:

mi cadzu se ja'e nai lo nu mi na ponse lo karce

I walk, but not because I don't own a car.

I walk regardless of whether or not I own a car.

Proposed Definition of va'o

va'o (BAI)
Under conditions... Tags a sumti as fitting the 1st place of vanbi. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the 1st place of vanbi and then fills it with the tagged sumti. In other words, the event described by the bridi occurs under the conditions described by the tagged sumti. See also: vanbi, se va'o.
    • Keywords: Under conditions...

Examples of va'o Usage

.i .e'o ko na damba va'o le nu rodo na kakne le nu damba bau la lojban.

Under the conditions of y'all not being able to fight in lojban, please don't fight.

Proposed Definition of se va'o

se va'o (BAI*)
As conditions for ... Tags a sumti as fitting the 2nd place of vanbi. Augments the bridi in which it occurs, adding an extra place with the meaning of the 2nd place of vanbi and then fills it with the tagged sumti. In other words, the event described by the bridi is the condition under which the referent of the tagged sumti occurs. See also: vanbi, va'o.
    • Keywords: As conditions for...

Examples of se va'o Usage

Artificial:

la .bais. cu mulno se va'o lo nu la camgusmis cu gleki

The BAI sections are complete as a condition for Robin (camgusmis) being happy.

Notes

Impact

There exists a contradiction between the CLL and the ma'oste about the meaning of BAInai WRT causals. The interpretation we are using (explicated in the preface section) here for "ri'a nai" and such matches with that found in the CLL (Chapter 9, Section 13). To get the meaning shown in the ma'oste (despite...), it is suggested to use e.g. to'eri'anai instead of ri'anai.

This is shown as the following:

  • ri'a == with cause
  • ri'anai == not with cause (regardless of cause)
  • to'eri'a == prevented by
  • to'eri'anai == not prevented by (despite)

Poll

{POLL(pollId=>17)}BPFK Poll: Causation sumtcita{POLL}