BPFK Section: Attitudinal Modifiers

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Contents

Proposed Definitions And Examples

cmavo: be'u (UI5)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal modifier. Used to express lack of something. When used as a modifier on another attitudinal, it indicates that the modified emotion is caused by or associated with a lack of something; it does not show a lack of the modified emotion. This word comprises a scale, along with "be'u cai" and "be'u nai". See also "be'u cai" and "be'u nai" the preface.

Proposed Keywords

  • lack
  • lacking
  • lack of
  • without
  • missing
  • at a loss for
  • bereft of
  • in want of
  • barren of
  • no ... at all
  • not at all

See Also

  • claxu
  • nitcu
  • mansa

Usage Examples

be'u
Many possible meanings, such as, "It's not here," "This is not enough." (lacking something does not comment on sufficiency; I think "Something's missing" is closer.)
.u'ibe'u
"Surprisingly related/due to a lack of something," or perhaps, "Heh heh, not enough." (.u'i means amused, not surprised. I suggest one interpretation "Giddy from having nothing left to lose" instead.)
fenso lo se vecnu be do bei le se marji bei le .iu jdima be'o fo be'u lo cilta be ti be'o 
"Sewing together the thing you sold to the components for the cost with thread (which I need) made of this stuff." (-_- I don't know. -Lindar )


cmavo: be'u cu'i (UI*5)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal modifier. Used to express presence {MORE DETAILS}. This word comprises a scale, along with "OTHER1" and "OTHER2". See also OTHER1, OTHER2, the preface.

Usage Examples

be'ucu'i mi nelci le lojbo casnu 
Ahh, I like Lojbanic conversation.'


cmavo: be'u nai (UI*5)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal modifier. Used to express satiation {MORE DETAILS}. This word comprises a scale, along with "OTHER1" and "OTHER2". See also OTHER1, OTHER2, the preface.

Usage Examples

ko pinxe so'a be'u nai cai dai ckafi 
Drink most, which will definitely sate you, of the coffee.


cmavo: dai (UI5)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal modifier. Used to express empathy {MORE DETAILS}.

See Also

  • cnijmi

Usage Examples

.y. la .clsn. sutra zmadu .i do jinga .ui dai 
Uhhh, Shoulsen quickly exceeded. You win. Yay you!
.oi le mi kibro cu xebni .iu nai dai mi 
Ugh, my internet hates me.

Notes

{dai} seems to have two used meanings. First is expressing the emotions of others, the second is expressing the direction of the emotions at the listener (which is se'inai or se'icu'i). I've included two examples to show the different uses. -Lindar


cmavo: fu'i (UI5)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal modifier. Used to express easy {MORE DETAILS}. This word comprises a scale, along with "OTHER1". See also OTHER1, OTHER2, the preface.

See Also

  • frili

Usage Examples

.i xu lo nu pilno la .emaks. fu'i dai rinka lo nu ruble degji fi do (slightly modified) 
Does using Emacs (which is probably easy for you) cause you to have weak fingers?


cmavo: fu'i nai (UI*5)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal modifier. Used to express difficult {MORE DETAILS}. This word comprises a scale, along with "OTHER1". See also OTHER1, OTHER2, the preface.

Usage Examples

mi krici lo du'u mi kakne lo nu cikre lo mi skami kei vau fu'inai (heavily edited, but usage/meaning kept) 
I despite a startling lack of evidence, I believe I may be able to repair my computer with much difficulty.


cmavo: ga'i (UI5)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal modifier/honorific. Used to express hauteur {MORE DETAILS}. This word comprises a scale, along with "OTHER1" and "OTHER2". See also OTHER1, OTHER2, the preface.

See Also

  • gapru
  • cnita

Usage Examples

ni'o xu do za'o na'e jimpe fi lo se cusku be mi'a vau ga'i .ionai .u'i (heavily modified to due grammar fail, but the actual usage was amazingly interesting) 
Are you -still- not understanding what we're saying, 'sir'? =P


cmavo: ga'i cu'i (UI*5)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal modifier/honorific. Used to express equal rank {MORE DETAILS}. This word comprises a scale, along with "OTHER1" and "OTHER2". See also OTHER1, OTHER2, the preface.

Usage Examples

.i mi ro do ga'icu'i tavla 
I'm talking to you, my peers.


cmavo: ga'i nai (UI*5)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal modifier/honorific. Used to express meekness {MORE DETAILS}. This word comprises a scale, along with "OTHER1" and "OTHER2". See also OTHER1, OTHER2, the preface.

Usage Examples

.i ko ga'inai nenri klama le mi ganxo (quoted from that picture we all love) 
"I am an Esperantist."
.i lo rectu be ko ku se canlu le briju vau ga'i nai 
Get your meat right into my office, you maggot.


cmavo: ju'o (UI5)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal modifier. Used to express certainty {MORE DETAILS}. This word comprises a scale, along with "OTHER1" and "OTHER2". See also OTHER1, OTHER2, the preface.

See Also

  • birti
  • cumki

Usage Examples

le puza selmri be by. noi ju'o do pu tcidu ke'a 
B (who must certainly be you)'s e-mail got read.


cmavo: ju'ocai (UI*5)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal modifier. Used to express quite certain {MORE DETAILS}.

Problems

This should not be here. Why is this here and anything else + cai isn't? Vote to remove, plz. -Lindar


cmavo: ju'o cu'i (UI*5)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal modifier. Used to express uncertainty {MORE DETAILS}. This word comprises a scale, along with "OTHER1" and "OTHER2". See also OTHER1, OTHER2, the preface.

Usage Examples

.ii ju'o cu'i mi pu zi dukse citka 
Oh geez, I'm not sure, but I think I ate too much.


cmavo: ju'o nai (UI*5)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal modifier. Used to express impossibility {MORE DETAILS}. This word comprises a scale, along with "OTHER1" and "OTHER2". See also OTHER1, OTHER2, the preface.

Usage Examples

doi la eimis. do sruma lo du'u cumki lenu facki roda poi jetnu ju'onai (+mod) 
Eimi, you assume it's possible when you find the truth, which is impossible.


cmavo: le'o (UI5)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal modifier. Used to express aggressive {MORE DETAILS}. This word comprises a scale, along with "OTHER1" and "OTHER2". See also OTHER1, OTHER2, the preface.

See Also

  • gunta
  • bandu

Usage Examples

le'o ro ko tinbe fi mi 
HEY! Everybody step in line! Follow me!


cmavo: le'o cu'i (UI*5)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal modifier. Used to express passive {MORE DETAILS}. This word comprises a scale, along with "OTHER1" and "OTHER2". See also OTHER1, OTHER2, the preface.

Usage Examples

le'ocu'i mi pu troci lenu slabu rinsa do 
Hey, I was trying to familiarly greet you.
.i le'ocu'i do na bredi lo nu casnu lo kagni kei poi plixau 
No worries, you aren't ready to talk about the company, which is useful.


cmavo: le'o nai (UI*5)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal modifier. Used to express defensive {MORE DETAILS}. This word comprises a scale, along with "OTHER1" and "OTHER2". See also OTHER1, OTHER2, the preface.

Usage Examples

lo go'i na danfu lo mi preti vau le'o nai 
That's the response to my question! :-(


cmavo: ri'e (UI5)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal modifier. Used to express release of emotion {MORE DETAILS}. This word comprises a scale, along with "OTHER1". See also OTHER1, OTHER2, the preface.

See Also

  • cniri'u
  • cnicru

Usage Examples

zumri ri'e fa le te stagi be fi le spati be'o 
Corn... ah... is the plant containing edible portions. (wtf lojbot?)


cmavo: ri'e nai (UI*5)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal modifier. Used to express restraint of emotion {MORE DETAILS}. This word comprises a scale, along with "OTHER1". See also OTHER1, OTHER2, the preface.

Usage Examples

.o'o nai ri'e nai na jvojva 
Okay, yes, ehm... it's not a lojbanic rule, though, you see.


cmavo: se'a (UI5)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal modifier. Used to express self-sufficiency {MORE DETAILS}. This word comprises a scale, along with "OTHER1". See also OTHER1, OTHER2, the preface.

See Also

  • sezysei
  • kantcu

Usage Examples

i mi'o se'a kakne secau lo'e xasyjukni 
We, by ourselves, are able to, without a typical crab.


cmavo: se'a nai (UI*5)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal modifier. Used to express dependency {MORE DETAILS}. This word comprises a scale, along with "OTHER1". See also OTHER1, OTHER2, the preface.

Usage Examples

ku'i lo ckafi to milxe kukte toi minji cu ze'e selplicru .ui .oi se'a nai However, the coffee (mildly delicious) machine is always permitted for use. Yay, but ugh for caffeine!



cmavo: se'i (UI5)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal modifier. Used to express self-oriented {MORE DETAILS}. This word comprises a scale, along with "OTHER1". See also OTHER1, OTHER2, the preface.

See Also

  • sevzi
  • drata

Usage Examples

.i la gejyspa ba'e ku cusku vau .oi se'i 
Gejyspa is talking... eff me...


cmavo: se'i nai (UI*5)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal modifier. Used to express other-oriented {MORE DETAILS}. This word comprises a scale, along with "OTHER1". See also OTHER1, OTHER2, the preface.

Usage Examples

.i .e'o ko te lisri tu'a ko'a ca lo bavlamdei .a'u sai .ui .a'o se'i nai ro'i 
Hey, could you tell a story about it tomorrow? I'm very interested, and I hope you can.


cmavo: vu'e (UI5)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal modifier. Used to express virtue {MORE DETAILS}. This word comprises a scale, along with "OTHER1". See also OTHER1, OTHER2, the preface.

See Also

  • vrude
  • zungi

Usage Examples

ko tcidu .i ba'anai do pante vu'e le za'i le banrglico cu bangu le jboskepre 
Read it. As I remember, you protested quite virtuously the fact that English was the language of the Lojban material.


cmavo: vu'e nai (UI*5)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal modifier. Used to express sin {MORE DETAILS}. This word comprises a scale, along with "OTHER1". See also OTHER1, OTHER2, the preface.

Usage Examples

na go'i .i ko se gunma ty. .i'i vu'enai 
Not so. Be a follower of T.


cmavo: zo'o (UI5)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal modifier. Used to express humorously {MORE DETAILS}. This word comprises a scale, along with "OTHER1" and "OTHER2". See also OTHER1, OTHER2, the preface.

See Also

  • xajmi
  • junri



cmavo: zo'o cu'i (UI*5)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal modifier. Used to express dully {MORE DETAILS}. This word comprises a scale, along with "OTHER1" and "OTHER2". See also OTHER1, OTHER2, the preface.

Usage Examples

zo'o cu'i ru'a mi ca lo nu lo ba'o pampe'o cu cliva lo zdani be mi cu tavla vo'a fo la lojban 
Seriously, I postulate that I am, right after my ex-girlfriend leaves my house, going to talk to myself in Lojban.


cmavo: zo'o nai (UI*5)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal modifier. Used to express seriously {MORE DETAILS}. This word comprises a scale, along with "OTHER1" and "OTHER2". See also OTHER1, OTHER2, the preface.

Usage Examples

zo'o nai na xajmi mi 
No. I don't find that very funny.


Notes

Propose to change zo'o scale to (humorously - seriously - solemnly) instead of the current scale of (humorously - dully - seriously). Usage varies a lot, so while nobody knows how it works anyway, let's match it up to a scale that's more like the other scales. - Lindar

  • UI5 should be CAI. UI doesn't modify UI, CAI does. — donri

Impact

Issues

dai is a giant clusterfuck; see notes here and also http://groups.google.com/group/lojban/browse_frm/thread/fba2085b67e7d26a -- camgusmis, Nov 2011

1. Is "dai" about emotions you feel out of empathy, or emotions you perceive in others?

1a. If I say ".uidai", am I expressing your (and/or a third party's) happiness and/or observing that you seem to be happy, or am I expressing my own happiness derived from empathetic reactions to your experiences? That is, is it closer to "You seem pleased" or to "I'm happy for you"? Does ".oidai" imply ".oi"?

1b. Relatedly: is ".uedai" remotely close in meaning to "Surprise!" as one would yell when surprising somebody?

1c. How does one say "oooh, that must have hurt" in Lojban? The "oooh" part is clearly some sort of attitudinal-like expression lacking a truth value, like a Lojban UI, but can it be ".oidai" if the speaker does not wish to express that they are experiencing any sort of pain?

Note that all of this has a lot of bearing on the debate about "da'oi," because some da'oi advocates claim it functions semantically as being like "dai" but with a specified referent, but seem to base this description on the presumption that "dai" is more observational than it is expressive of an internal sentiment. It has also been described as a shortcut for "peipaunaidoi" but the two definitions do not seem compatible to me. (Not that this part is directly relevant to the BPFK, since"da'oi" is an unofficial experimental cmavo, but that's part of why this discussion is happening right now.)

Per rlpowell's request, I'll put here that I've used {dai nai} to emphasize that it's my own emotions being mentioned, and {dai cu'i} for "you and me both, brother".


  • The examples for {ga'i nai} seem like they were intended for {ga'i}. --iifle

Poll