BPFK Section: Aspect as of 24 May 2004

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Proposed Definitions

ba'o
Perfective aspect. It indicates that a situation is over, no longer taking place. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates an event concurrent with the aftermath of the situation. broda ba'o lo nu brode == ba'o broda ca lo nu brode

Keywords: "perfective", "has been", "is over", "is in its aftermath", "is in its aftermath by the time ..."

ze'a lo nanca be li so'i ba'o jamna i ku'i za'o cortu

The war has been over for years, but the pain is still with us.

la berger cu cliva le kumfa ba'o lo nu la klark sepi'o

la pauerpoint cu jarco lo se pensi be ky la rais

Berger had left the room by the time Clarke, using a

Powerpoint presentation, outlined his thinking to Rice.

ca'o
Progressive aspect. It indicates that a situation is in progress, ongoing. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates an event encompassed by the ongoing situation. It does not give the duration of the main event (ZEhAs do that), it only indicates that the main event completely overlaps another event. broda ca'o lo nu brode == ca'o broda ca lo nu brode

Keywords: "progressive", "continuitive", "is ongoing", "is ...-ing", "is ongoing while ...", "is ongoing throughout ..."

la mairas ca'o tcidu lo cukta ca lo nu lo fonxa cu janbe

Myra was reading a book when the phone rang.

le bi'unai stuzi ji'a cu se carvi piso'i snime i ji'a zukte

zbasu lo se jmina ca'o lo nu mi'o zvati sy

This place also got a lot of snow plus they were busy

making more the whole time we were there.

co'a
Initiative aspect. It indicates that a situation is at its outset, just beginning. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates the starting point. broda co'a lo nu brode == co'a broda ca lo nu brode

Keywords: "initiative", "starts", "is starting", "starting at ...", "from ..."

ti'u li ji'ipaxa ge co'a manku binxo

gi lo selba'e pe la fred co'a tilju zenba

It was around 4 pm when it started getting dark

and Fred's axe was starting to get heavier.

la mark pu bredi lo nu klama kei co'a lo pamoi djedi

Mark had been ready to go from the first day.

co'i
Punctual aspect. It indicates that a situation takes place at one moment in time, without duration. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates the point in time when the situation occurs. broda co'i lo nu brode == co'i broda ca lo nu brode

Keywords: "punctual", "achievative", "occurs fully at ..."

lo nu ko'a vlipa cu revgau lo gugde be lo elfe bei

bu'u la midju terdi co'u lo nu co'i daspo la turni djine

Their power maintained the realms of the Elves in Middle-earth

until the destruction of the Ruling Ring

i ku'i co'i ma lo cevni nu zukte cu punji lo pruxi lo fukpi tarbi

pe ne'i lo cipra tu'urvau i xu go'i co'i sai lo nu co'a bu'u jmive

But when would divine intervention place a soul in a cloned

fertilized egg in a test tube? Would this occur at the exact

moment when life begins therein?

co'u
Cessative aspect. It indicates that a situation is at its termination, ending. In the case of a process, it may or may not be completed (cf. 'mo'u'). When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates the ending point. broda co'u lo nu brode == co'u broda ca lo nu brode

Keywords: "cessative", "stops", "ends", "ending at...", "until ..."

lo prali be fi lo cteki pikta ba za lo nanca be li ci cu co'u banro

Interest on the tax certificates stops accruing after three years.

ko curmi lo nu lo mikce be do cu jdice lo du'u xukau do nitcu

lo velmicyxukmi i ganai my cusku zo ja'a gi ko di'i citka vy

co'u lo nu my minde do lo nu sisti

Let your doctor decide if you need medication. If he says 'yes',

take it regularly until he tells you to stop.

de'a
Pausative aspect. It indicates that a situation is interrupted, temporarily suspended. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates the period of interruption. broda de'a lo nu brode == de'a broda ca lo nu brode

Keywords: "pausative", "has stopped for a while", "pausing for ..."

ja'e lo xlamau mi ze'a lo masti be li ji'ixa cu

de'a sai lumci lo mi flira fo lo mokau jisygau

To make things worse, I pretty much stopped washing

my face with any kind of cleanser for about six months.

mi sanji lo nu mi tavla de'a lo nu mi pensi la sam

Suddenly I was aware that I had ceased talking while

I had been thinking about Sam.

di'a
Resumptive aspect. It indicates that a situation is being resumed after a pause. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates the point of resumption. broda di'a lo nu brode == di'a broda ca lo nu brode

Keywords: "resumptive", "resumes", "resumes when ..."

ta'e ji'ireroi ritli lo traji smaji pu lo

nu la garofalos di'a tavla lo vitke

There's usually a beat or two of deadly silence

before Garofalo resumes talking to the guest.

la skot cu se jibri di'a lo nu lo panzi be sy cu nanca li bi e li pano

Scott resumed her career when her children were eight and 10.

mo'u
Completitive aspect. It indicates that a situation is at its natural ending point, becoming complete. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates the point of completion. broda mo'u lo nu brode == mo'u broda ca lo nu brode

Keywords: "completive", "completes", "completes at ..."

ro tcidu cu frica fi lo ka mo'u finti le lisri

Each reader completes the novel in a different way.

ko'a pluka citka ro stasu muclai e ro molylai pe le toknu

bo seljukpa je selpilka nanba mo'u lo nu va'ucmo

He savoured every spoonful of his soup and every mouthful

of the roast and crusty bread until he finished it with a sigh.

da'i le ninmu cu ponse le pano rijno sicni gi'e cirko pa ri i xu ny na

cikygau lo tergu'i gi'e lumci lo zdani gi'e junri sisku mo'u lo nu facki

Or suppose a woman has ten silver coins and loses one. Does she not

light a lamp, sweep the house and search carefully until she finds it?

pu'o
Prospective aspect. It indicates that a situation is about to take place, not yet realized. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates an event occurring while the situation is not yet realized. broda pu'o lo nu brode == pu'o broda ca lo nu brode

Keywords: "prospective", "inchoative", "ia about to", "is on the verge of", "is about to happen when ..."

le kulnu be lo pruxa'u natmi cu ze'u pu'o daspo canci

The culture of the indigenous peoples was for a long

time on the verge of being eradicated.

mi tolji'a lo samci'e nunkei pu'o lo nu mi cpacu lo norji'a pinka

I was about to lose a network game, when I got a Tiebreaker notice.

za'o
Superfective aspect. It indicates that a situation is beyond its natural ending point, still taking place. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates the surpassed natural ending point. broda za'o lo nu brode == za'o broda ca lo nu brode

Keywords: "superfective", "keeps", "still", "still when..."

mi'o za'ure'u ru'u cadzu i mi'o ca lo nu le te batci

za'o se cortu cu co'a xanka

We walked around some more and when the bite

kept hurting, we began to worry.

la'e di'u rinka lo nu ko'a cikna za'o lo nu ko'a na'o sipna binxo

This kept her awake beyond the point where she really normally

would have fallen asleep.

la brest co'a se jibri ca lo cedra be lo nu lo clani lenjo cu jai zabna

tcaci i ku'i by ca'o pilno ly za'o lo nu ly co'u jai zantcaci

Brest started his career during an era when long lenses were all

the rage, but he's kept using them beyond the point where they

ceased to be fashionable.

Notes

Experimental ZAhO are not included in this page. See xa'o.

Some of the names of the aspects are changed with respect to CLL, in an attempt to get closer to a more standard terminology:

  • inchoative -> prospective (As far as I can tell, other than in Lojban "inchoative" seems to describe {co'a} rather than {pu'o}.)
  • continuitive -> progressive ("continuitive" seems to be used for an aspect that emphasizes continuation after a stage of ongoingness, so perhaps closer to {za'o}.)
  • cessitive -> cessative (Typo in CLL?)
  • achievative -> punctual (I don't know where "achievative" comes from.)

The proposed use of ZAhO's as sumti tcita differs from the one given in CLL:

Likewise, we might say:

12.8) mi klama le zarci pu'o le nu mi citka

I go-to the store inchoative the event-of I eat

which indicates that before my eating begins, I go to the store, whereas

12.9) mi klama le zarci ba'o le nu mi citka

I go-to the store perfective the event-of I eat

would indicate that I go to the store after I am finished eating.

CLL also says: The interpretation of ZAhO tcita differs from that of FAhA, VA, PU, and ZI tcita, however. The event described in the sumti is viewed as a process, and the action of the main bridi occurs at the phase of the process which the ZAhO specifies, or at least some part of that phase. The action of the main bridi itself is seen as a point event, so that there is no issue about which phase of the main bridi is intended. That, however, is at odds with the usage found for co'a and co'u, which follows the usual pattern of all other tags and apply to the main selbri.

Impact

  • Positive: Some usage that is currently against the prescription becomes validated. For example:

co'a lenu le cukta cu pagre cliva le viska mumkubli kei

da poi zvati lo darno kojna be le kumfa cu jai rink lenu

za'ure'u sanji le vanbi

As soon as the volume had gone below the line of sight,

something in an obscure corner of the room recalled

his attention to his surroundings.

From le nanmu kujo'u le since

mi xusra ledu'u ledi'e jetnu si'unai se jimpe .itu'e

ro remna cu jikydunli co'a lenu ri se zbasu

We hold these truths to be self-evident; that

all men are created equal.

From [1]

  • Negative: Some usage that currently follows the prescription becomes invalidated. For example:

.i le cribe noi nelci le pojma'a cu dukse leka tilju kei tu'a

le cripu .ije do ka'e xruti klama le zvati ba'o lenu mivgau

The bear (who likes the volcano) is too heavy for the bridge...

and you can go back to the scene after being resurrected.

From [2]

le javni cu binxo lo ralju javni ba'o le nu so'e kelci cu te javni

fi le javni ca'o su'orevo cacra

From lo javni be fi la camgusmis

With the proposed sumti tcita usage those would have to be:

.i le cribe noi nelci le pojma'a cu dukse leka tilju kei tu'a

le cripu .ije do ka'e xruti klama le zvati ca lenu ba'o mivgau

le javni cu binxo lo ralju javni ca le nu so'e kelci ba'o te javni

fi le javni ca'o su'orevo cacra


See [3] for some more data and discussion.