BPFK Section: Aspect

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This page is imported from version 58 of the page BPFK Section: Aspect from the lojban Tiki.

Proposed Definitions

cmavo: ba'o (ZAhO)

Proposed Definition

Perfect/retrospective aspect. It indicates that a situation is over, no longer taking place. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates an event concurrent with the aftermath of the situation. broda ba'o lo nu brode ~= ca lo nu brode cu ba'o broda.

Proposed Tag

fi'o jai ca se tolcfabalvi be lo manri

See Also

  • {tolcfabalvi}
  • {pu'o}
  • {ca'o}

Proposed Keywords

  • retrospective
  • perfect
  • has been
  • is over
  • is in its aftermath
  • is in its aftermath by the time

Usage Examples

ze'a lo nanca be li so'i ba'o jamna i ku'i za'o cortu
The war has been over for years, but the pain is still with us.
la berger cu cliva le kumfa ba'o lo nu la klark sepi'o la pauerpoint cu jarco lo se pensi be ky la rais
Berger had left the room by the time Clarke, using a Powerpoint presentation, outlined his thinking to Rice.


cmavo: pu'o (ZAhO)

Proposed Definition

Prospective aspect. It indicates that a situation is about to take place, not yet realized. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates an event occurring while the situation is not yet realized. broda pu'o lo nu brode ~= ca lo nu brode cu pu'o broda.

Proposed Tag

fi'o jai ca se cfapru be lo manri

See Also

  • {cfapru}
  • {ba'o}
  • {ca'o}

Proposed Keywords

  • prospective
  • inchoative
  • ia about to
  • is on the verge of
  • is about to happen when ...

Usage Examples

le kulnu be lo pruxa'u natmi cu ze'u pu'o daspo canci
The culture of the indigenous peoples was for a long time on the verge of being eradicated.
mi tolji'a lo samci'e nunkei pu'o lo nu mi cpacu lo norji'a pinka
I was about to lose a network game, when I got a Tiebreaker notice.


cmavo: ca'o (ZAhO)

Proposed Definition

Progressive/imperfective aspect. It indicates that a situation is in progress, ongoing. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates an event encompassed by the ongoing situation. It does not give the duration of the main event (ZEhAs do that), it only indicates that the main event completely overlaps another event. broda ca'o lo nu brode ~= ca lo nu brode cu ca'o broda.

Proposed Tag

See Also

Proposed Keywords

  • progressive
  • imperfective
  • continuative
  • is ongoing
  • is ...-ing
  • is ongoing while ...
  • is ongoing throughout ...

Usage Examples

la mairas ca'o tcidu lo cukta ca lo nu lo fonxa cu janbe
Myra was reading a book when the phone rang.
le bi'unai stuzi ji'a cu se carvi piso'i snime i ji'a zukte zbasu lo se jmina ca'o lo nu mi'o zvati sy
This place also got a lot of snow plus they were busy making more the whole time we were there.


cmavo: co'a (ZAhO)

Proposed Definition

Initiative aspect. It indicates that a situation is at its outset, just beginning. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates the starting point. broda co'a lo nu brode ~= ca lo nu brode cu co'a broda.

Proposed Tag

fi'o jai ca cfari

See Also

  • {cfari}
  • {co'u}

Proposed Keywords

  • initiative
  • inchoative
  • starts
  • is starting
  • starting at ...
  • from ...

Usage Examples

ti'u li ji'ipaxa ge co'a manku binxo gi lo selba'e pe la fred co'a tilju zenba
It was around 4 pm when it started getting dark and Fred's axe was starting to get heavier.
la mark pu bredi lo nu klama kei co'a lo pamoi djedi
Mark had been ready to go from the first day.


cmavo: co'i (ZAhO)

Proposed Definition

Punctual (perfective) aspect. It indicates that a situation takes place at one moment in time, without duration. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates the point in time when the situation occurs. broda co'i lo nu brode ~= ca lo nu brode cu co'i broda.

Proposed Tag

fi'o se mokca

See Also

  • {mokca}

Proposed Keywords

  • punctual
  • perfective
  • achievative
  • occurs fully at ...

Usage Examples

lo nu ko'a vlipa cu revgau lo gugde be lo elfe bei bu'u la midju terdi co'u lo nu co'i daspo la turni djine
Their power maintained the realms of the Elves in Middle-earth until the destruction of the Ruling Ring
i ku'i co'i ma lo cevni nu zukte cu punji lo pruxi lo fukpi tarbi pe ne'i lo cipra tu'urvau i xu go'i co'i sai lo nu co'a bu'u jmive
But when would divine intervention place a soul in a cloned fertilized egg in a test tube? Would this occur at the exact moment when life begins therein?


cmavo: co'u (ZAhO)

Proposed Definition

Cessative aspect. It indicates that a situation is at its termination, ending. In the case of a process, it may or may not be completed (cf. 'mo'u'). When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates the ending point. broda co'u lo nu brode ~= ca lo nu brode cu co'u broda.

Proposed Tag

fi'o jai ca tolcfa

See Also

  • {tolcfa}
  • {co'a}

Keywords

  • cessative
  • stops
  • ends
  • ending at...
  • until ...

Usage Examples

lo prali be fi lo cteki pikta ba za lo nanca be li ci cu co'u banro
Interest on the tax certificates stops accruing after three years.
ko curmi lo nu lo mikce be do cu jdice lo du'u xukau do nitcu lo velmicyxukmi i ganai my cusku zo ja'a gi ko di'i citka vy co'u lo nu my minde do lo nu sisti
Let your doctor decide if you need medication. If he says 'yes', take it regularly until he tells you to stop.


cmavo: de'a (ZAhO)

Proposed Definition

Pausative aspect. It indicates that a situation is interrupted, temporarily suspended. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates the period of interruption. broda de'a lo nu brode ~= ca lo nu brode cu de'a broda.

Proposed Tag

fi'o jai ca dicra

See Also

  • {dicra}
  • {di'a}

Proposed Keywords

  • pausative
  • has stopped for a while
  • pausing for ...

Usage Examples

ja'e lo xlamau mi ze'a lo masti be li ji'ixa cu de'a sai lumci lo mi flira fo lo mokau jisygau
To make things worse, I pretty much stopped washing my face with any kind of cleanser for about six months.
mi sanji lo nu mi tavla de'a lo nu mi pensi la sam
Suddenly I was aware that I had ceased talking while I had been thinking about Sam.


cmavo: di'a (ZAhO)

Proposed Definition

Resumptive aspect. It indicates that a situation is being resumed after a pause. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates the point of resumption. broda di'a lo nu brode ~= ca lo nu brode cu di'a broda.

Proposed Tag

fi'o jai ca toldicra

See Also

  • {toldicra}
  • {de'a}

Proposed Keywords

  • resumptive
  • resumes
  • resumes when ...

Usage Examples

ta'e ji'ireroi ritli lo traji smaji pu lo nu la garofalos di'a tavla lo vitke
There's usually a beat or two of deadly silence before Garofalo resumes talking to the guest.
la skot cu se jibri di'a lo nu lo panzi be sy cu nanca li bi e li pano
Scott resumed her career when her children were eight and 10.


cmavo: mo'u (ZAhO)

Proposed Definition

Completive aspect. It indicates that a situation is at its natural ending point, becoming complete. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates the point of completion. broda mo'u lo nu brode ~= ca lo nu brode cu mo'u broda.

Proposed Tag

fi'o jai ca mulfa'o

See Also

  • {mulfa'o}

Proposed Keywords

  • completive
  • completes
  • completes at ...

Usage Examples

ro tcidu cu frica fi lo ka mo'u finti le lisri
Each reader completes the novel in a different way.
ko'a pluka citka ro stasu muclai e ro molylai pe le toknu bo seljukpa je selpilka nanba mo'u lo nu va'ucmo
He savoured every spoonful of his soup and every mouthful of the roast and crusty bread until he finished it with a sigh.
da'i le ninmu cu ponse le pano rijno sicni gi'e cirko pa ri i xu ny na cikygau lo tergu'i gi'e lumci lo zdani gi'e junri sisku mo'u lo nu facki
Or suppose a woman has ten silver coins and loses one. Does she not light a lamp, sweep the house and search carefully until she finds it?


cmavo: za'o (ZAhO)

Proposed Tag

Proposed Definition

Superfective aspect. It indicates that a situation is beyond its natural ending point, still taking place. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates the surpassed natural ending point. broda za'o lo nu brode ~= ca lo nu brode cu za'o broda.

See Also

Proposed Keywords

  • superfective
  • keeps
  • still
  • still when...

Usage Examples

mi'o za'ure'u ru'u cadzu i mi'o ca lo nu le te batci za'o se cortu cu co'a xanka
We walked around some more and when the bite kept hurting, we began to worry.
la'e di'u rinka lo nu ko'a cikna za'o lo nu ko'a na'o sipna binxo
This kept her awake beyond the point where she really normally would have fallen asleep.
la brest co'a se jibri ca lo cedra be lo nu lo clani lenjo cu jai zabna tcaci i ku'i by ca'o pilno ly za'o lo nu ly co'u jai zantcaci
Brest started his career during an era when long lenses were all the rage, but he's kept using them beyond the point where they ceased to be fashionable.


Notes

Experimental ZAhO are not included in this page. See xa'o.
Past contention. Debate as to the interpretation under strange circumstance.
This and this. Debates on "the opposite of za'o".
More on xa'o.

Some of the names of the aspects are changed with respect to CLL, in an attempt to get closer to a more standard terminology:

  • inchoative -> prospective (As far as I can tell, other than in Lojban "inchoative" seems to describe {co'a} rather than {pu'o}.)
  • continuitive -> progressive ("continuitive" seems to be used for an aspect that emphasizes continuation after a stage of ongoingness, so perhaps closer to {za'o}.)
  • cessitive -> cessative (Typo in CLL?)
  • achievative -> punctual (I don't know where "achievative" comes from.)


The proposed use of ZAhO's as sumti tcita differs from the one given in CLL:

 Likewise, we might say:
 12.8)    mi klama le zarci pu'o le nu mi citka
     I go-to the store [inchoative] the event-of I eat
 which indicates that before my eating begins, I go to the store, whereas 
 12.9)    mi klama le zarci ba'o le nu mi citka
     I go-to the store [perfective] the event-of I eat
 would indicate that I go to the store after I am finished eating. 

CLL also says: The interpretation of ZAhO tcita differs from that of FAhA, VA, PU, and ZI tcita, however. The event described in the sumti is viewed as a process, and the action of the main bridi occurs at the phase of the process which the ZAhO specifies, or at least some part of that phase. The action of the main bridi itself is seen as a point event, so that there is no issue about which phase of the main bridi is intended. That, however, is at odds with the usage found for co'a and co'u, which follows the usual pattern of all other tags and apply to the main selbri.

This...


Impact

  • Positive: Some usage that is currently against the prescription becomes validated. For example:
    co'a lenu le cukta cu pagre cliva le viska mumkubli kei 
    da poi zvati lo darno kojna be le kumfa cu jai rink lenu 
    za'ure'u sanji le vanbi 
   As soon as the volume had gone below the line of sight, 
   something in an obscure corner of the room recalled
   his attention to his surroundings. 

From le nanmu kujo'u le since

     mi xusra ledu'u ledi'e jetnu si'unai se jimpe .itu'e 
     ro remna cu jikydunli co'a lenu ri se zbasu 
    We hold these truths to be self-evident; that 
    all men are created equal.

From [1]

  • Negative: Some usage that currently follows the prescription becomes invalidated. For example:
    .i le cribe noi nelci le pojma'a cu dukse leka tilju kei tu'a 
    le cripu .ije do ka'e xruti klama le zvati ba'o lenu mivgau
   The bear (who likes the volcano) is too heavy for the bridge... 
   and you can go back to the scene after being resurrected. 

From [2]

    le javni cu binxo lo ralju javni ba'o le nu so'e kelci cu te javni 
    fi le javni ca'o su'orevo cacra

From lo javni be fi la camgusmis


With the proposed sumti tcita usage those would have to be:

    .i le cribe noi nelci le pojma'a cu dukse leka tilju kei tu'a 
    le cripu .ije do ka'e xruti klama le zvati ca lenu ba'o mivgau
    le javni cu binxo lo ralju javni ca le nu so'e kelci ba'o te javni 
    fi le javni ca'o su'orevo cacra

See [3] for some more data and discussion.