→19th Century: Schleiermacher, 1813
[[Wilhelm von Humboldt]] was a pioneering language scholar whose studies encompassed a broad selection of languages from different families around the world, notably including Basque, American, and Polynesian languages. He spent his last years studying the ancient Kawi language of Indonesia. In 1836, a year after his death, his theoretical views on language were published as "The Diversity of Human Language-Structure and its Influence on the intellectual and spiritual Development of Mankind" (''Über die Verschiedenheit des menschlichen Sprachbaus und seinen Einfluss auf die geistige Entwickelung des Menschengeschlechts''). For Humboldt, language was not merely an instrument for representing or communicating thought, but a "formative organ of thought" (''bildende Organ des Gedankens''): Different languages present "a diversity of world perspectives" (''Verschiedenheit der Weltansichten'').