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Linguistic relativism

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19th Century: Schleiermacher, 1813
===19th Century===
[[Friedrich Schleiermacher]]'s 1813 lecture, ''Über die verschiedenen Methoden des Übersetzens'' ("On The Different Methods of Translating"), included the statement: "Every human being is, on the one hand, in the power of the language he speaks; he and all his thought are its products. He cannot think with complete certainty anything that lies outside its boundaries; the form of his ideas, the manner in which he combines them, and the limits of these combinations are all preordained by the language in which he was born and raised: both his intellect and his imagination are bound by it."
 
[[Wilhelm von Humboldt]] was a pioneering language scholar whose studies encompassed a broad selection of languages from different families around the world, notably including Basque, American, and Polynesian languages. He spent his last years studying the ancient Kawi language of Indonesia. In 1836, a year after his death, his theoretical views on language were published as "The Diversity of Human Language-Structure and its Influence on the intellectual and spiritual Development of Mankind" (''Über die Verschiedenheit des menschlichen Sprachbaus und seinen Einfluss auf die geistige Entwickelung des Menschengeschlechts''). For Humboldt, language was not merely an instrument for representing or communicating thought, but a "formative organ of thought" (''bildende Organ des Gedankens''): Different languages present "a diversity of world perspectives" (''Verschiedenheit der Weltansichten'').
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