zasni gerna

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  • xorxes:
    This is a version (not official) of the full grammar of Lojban. I intend to make many changes to it, some cosmetic, some not. Don't take the contents of this page too seriously for now. In zasni gerna cenba vreji I will try to keep a record of the changes as I make them.
; ****** GRAMMAR ******

text <- words-SU* SI-tail* post paragraphs FAhO#?

paragraphs <- paragraph (NIhO# paragraph)*

paragraph <- statement (I# statement)*

statement <- statement-1 (I# joik statement-1)*

statement-1 <- sentence (I# joik? tag? BO# sentence)*

sentence <- (term+ CU#?)? bridi-tail / TUhE# paragraphs TUhU#? / gek sentence GI# sentence / term+ ZOhU# sentence / term* VAU#?

bridi-tail <- bridi-tail-1 (gihek bridi-tail-1 term* VAU#?)*

bridi-tail-1 <- bridi-tail-2 (gihek tag? BO# bridi-tail-2 term* VAU#?)*

bridi-tail-2 <- selbri term* VAU#? / (tag / NA#)* gek bridi-tail GI# bridi-tail term* VAU#?

term <- FA#? sumti / tag? sumti / FA# KU#? / tag !selbri KU#? / NA# KU#? / gek term+ VAU#? GI# term+ VAU#?


sumti <- sumti-1 (joik sumti-1)* (VUhO# rels)?

sumti-1 <- sumti-2 (joik tag? BO# sumti-2)*

sumti-2 <- quantifier? bare-sumti / quantifier selbri KU#? rels? / gek sumti GI# sumti

bare-sumti <- (description / LI# mex LOhO#? / ZO-word# / LU# paragraphs LIhU#? / LOhU-words-LEhU# / ZOI-anything# / KOhA# / !tag !selbri lerfu+ BOI#? / !tag !selbri (LAhE# / NAhE# BO#) rels? sumti LUhU#?) rels?

description <- LE# (rels / bare-sumti)? quantifier? (selbri / bare-sumti) KU#?

quantifier <- !bare-sumti !selbri mex rels?

mex <- mex-1 (joik mex-1)*

mex-1 <- PA#+ BOI#? / lerfu+ BOI#? / NIhE# selbri TEhU#? / VEI# mex VEhO#? / (LAhE# / NAhE# BO#) mex LUhU#?

lerfu <- BY# / word-BU#

rels <- rel (ZIhE# rel)*

rel <- GOI# term GEhU#? / NOI# sentence KUhO#?

selbri <- selbri-1+ (CO# selbri-1)* rels? (CEI# selbri)? / tag selbri / NA# selbri

selbri-1 <- selbri-2 (joik selbri-2)*

selbri-2 <- selbri-3 (joik tag? BO# selbri-3)*

selbri-3 <- tanru-unit (BO# tanru-unit)*

tanru-unit <- tanru-unit-1 linkargs?

tanru-unit-1 <- BRIVLA# / word-ZEI-word# / CMEVLA# / GOhA# / mex MOI# / ME# (sumti / mex / joik) MEhU#? MOI#? / NU# sentence KEI#? / KE# selbri KEhE#? / (SE# / JAI# tag? / NAhE#) tanru-unit-1

linkargs <- BE# term (BEI# term)* BEhO#?

joik <- NA#? SE#? JOI#

gihek <- NA#? SE#? GIhA#

gek <- SE#? GA# / SE#? JOI# GI# / tag-unit+ (joik tag-unit+)* GI#

tag <- tag-unit+ (joik tag-unit+)* !GI#

tag-unit <- BAI# / mex ROI# / FIhO# selbri FEhU# / (NAhE# / SE#) tag-unit

free <- UI# / XI# mex-1 / mex-1 MAI# / SEI# (term+ CU#?)? selbri SEhU#? / TO# paragraphs TOI#? / vocative

vocative <- (COI#+ DOI#? / DOI#) (rels? selbri / sumti?) DOhU#?

; - SELMAhO -

COI# <- pre COI vocative-post

PA# <- pre PA number-post

BY# <- pre BY lerfu-post

BRIVLA# <- pre BRIVLA post

CMEVLA# <- pre CMEVLA post

CMAVO# <- pre CMAVO post

BAI# <- pre BAI post

BE# <- pre BE post

BEI# <- pre BEI post

BEhO# <- pre BEhO post

BO# <- pre BO post

BOI# <- pre BOI post

CEI# <- pre CEI post

CO# <- pre CO post

CU# <- pre CU post

DOhU# <- pre DOhU post

DOI# <- pre DOI post

FA# <- pre FA post

FAhO# <- pre FAhO post

FEhU# <- pre FEhU post

FIhO# <- pre FIhO post

GA# <- pre GA post

GEhU# <- pre GEhU post

GI# <- pre GI post

GIhA# <- pre GIhA post

GOI# <- pre GOI post

GOhA# <- pre GOhA post

I# <- pre I post

JAI# <- pre JAI post

JOI# <- pre JOI post

KE# <- pre KE post

KEhE# <- pre KEhE post

KEI# <- pre KEI post

KOhA# <- pre KOhA post

KU# <- pre KU post

KUhO# <- pre KUhO post

LAhE# <- pre LAhE post

LE# <- pre LE post

LEhU# <- pre LEhU post

LI# <- pre LI post

LIhU# <- pre LIhU post

LOhO# <- pre LOhO post

LU# <- pre LU post

LUhU# <- pre LUhU post

MAI# <- pre MAI post

ME# <- pre ME post

MEhU# <- pre MEhU post

MOI# <- pre MOI post

NA# <- pre NA post

NAhE# <- pre NAhE post

NIhE# <- pre NIhE post

NIhO# <- pre NIhO post

NOI# <- pre NOI post

NU# <- pre NU post

ROI# <- pre ROI post

SE# <- pre SE post

SEI# <- pre SEI post

SEhU# <- pre SEhU post

TEhU# <- pre TEhU post

TO# <- pre TO post

TOI# <- pre TOI post

TUhE# <- pre TUhE post

TUhU# <- pre TUhU post

UI# <- pre UI post

VAU# <- pre VAU post

VEI# <- pre VEI post

VEhO# <- pre VEhO post

VUhO# <- pre VUhO post

XI# <- pre XI post

ZIhE# <- pre ZIhE post

ZOhU# <- pre ZOhU post

; - Pseudo SELMAHO -

word-ZEI-word# <- pre word-ZEI-word post

word-BU# <- pre word-BU lerfu-post

ZO-word# <- pre ZO-word post

LOhU-words-LEhU# <- pre LOhU-words-LEhU post

ZOI-anything# <- pre ZOI-anything post

; - Word Modifiers -

pre <- (word-SI* BAhE)* word-SI*

post <- !BU-tail !ZEI-tail free?

number-post <- !BU-tail !ZEI-tail (!PA# free)?

lerfu-post <- !BU-tail !ZEI-tail (!lerfu free)?

vocative-post <- !BU-tail !ZEI-tail (!vocative free)?

; ****** MAGIC WORD CONSTRUCTS ******

; (ZOI-delimiters not fully implemented here.)

words-SU <- (word-ZEI-word / word-BU / ZO-word / LOhU-words-LEhU / ZOI-anything / !SU any-word)* SU-tail

word-SI <- (word-ZEI-word / word-BU / ZO-word / LOhU-words-LEhU / ZOI-anything / any-word) SI-tail

word-BU <- (ZO-word / LOhU-words-LEhU / ZOI-anything / any-word) (BU-tail* ZEI-tail+)* BU-tail+

word-ZEI-word <- (ZO-word / LOhU-words-LEhU / ZOI-anything / any-word) (ZEI-tail* BU-tail+)* ZEI-tail+

SU-tail <- word-SI* SU

SI-tail <- word-SI* SI

BU-tail <- word-SI* BU

ZEI-tail <- word-SI* ZEI any-word

ZO-word <- ZO any-word

LOhU-words-LEhU <- LOhU (!LEhU any-word)* LEhU?

ZOI-anything <- ZOI FAhO (!FAhO anything)* FAhO?

; ****** WORDS ******

anything <- Y* non-space+

any-word <- CMEVLA / BRIVLA / CMAVO

CMEVLA <- Y* cmevla

BRIVLA <- Y* brivla

CMAVO <- Y* cmavo

BAI <- Y* &cmavo ( c a h a / p u h i / n u h o / k a h e / c u h e / n a u / r u h i / t a h e / d i h i / n a h o / v e h u / v e h a / v e h i / v e h e / v i h i / v i h a / v i h u / v i h e / v i / v a / v u / d u h a / b e h a / n e h u / v u h a / g a h u / t i h a / n i h a / c a h u / z u h a / r i h u / r u h u / r e h o / t e h e / b u h u / n e h a / p a h o / n e h i / t o h o / z o h i / z e h o / z o h a / f a h a / z e h u / z e h a / z e h i / z e h e / c o h i / p u h o / c o h u / m o h u / c a h o / c o h a / d e h a / b a h o / d i h a / z a h o / z u / z a / z i / b a / p u / c a / k i / d u h o / s i h u / z a u / k i h i / d u h i / c u h u / t u h i / t i h u / d i h o / j i h u / r i h a / n i h i / m u h i / k i h u / v a h u / k o i / c a h i / t a h i / p u h e / j a h i / k a i / b a i / f i h e / d e h i / c i h o / m a u / m u h u / r i h i / r a h i / k a h a / p a h u / p a h a / l e h a / k u h u / t a i / b a u / m a h i / c i h e / f a u / p o h i / c a u / m a h e / c i h u / r a h a / p u h a / l i h e / l a h u / b a h i / k a h i / s a u / f a h e / b e h i / t i h i / j a h e / g a h a / v a h o / j i h o / m e h a / d o h e / j i h e / p i h o / g a u / z u h e / m e h e / r a i ) &&post-cmavo

BAhE <- Y* &cmavo ( b a h e / z a h e ) &post-cmavo

BE <- Y* &cmavo ( b e ) &post-cmavo

BEI <- Y* &cmavo ( b e i ) &post-cmavo

BEhO <- Y* &cmavo ( b e h o ) &post-cmavo

BO <- Y* &cmavo ( b o ) &post-cmavo

BOI <- Y* &cmavo ( b o i ) &post-cmavo

BU <- Y* &cmavo ( b u ) &post-cmavo

BY <- Y* &cmavo ( t e i / f o i / c e h a / l a u / z a i / t a u / j o h o / r u h o / g e h o / j e h o / l o h a / n a h a / s e h e / t o h a / g a h e / y h y / b y / c y / d y / f y / g y / j y / k y / l y / m y / n y / p y / r y / s y / t y / v y / x y / z y ) &post-cmavo

CEI <- Y* &cmavo ( c e i ) &post-cmavo

CO <- Y* &cmavo ( c o ) &post-cmavo

COI <- Y* &cmavo ( j u h i / c o i / f i h i / t a h a / m u h o / f e h o / c o h o / p e h u / k e h o / n u h e / r e h i / b e h e / j e h e / m i h e / k i h e / v i h o ) &post-cmavo

CU <- Y* &cmavo ( c u ) &post-cmavo

DOI <- Y* &cmavo ( d o i ) &post-cmavo

DOhU <- Y* &cmavo ( d o h u ) &post-cmavo

FA <- Y* &cmavo ( f a i / f a / f e / f o / f u / f i h a / f i ) &post-cmavo

FAhO <- Y* &cmavo ( f a h o ) &post-cmavo

FEhU <- Y* &cmavo ( f e h u ) &post-cmavo

FIhO <- Y* &cmavo ( f i h o ) &post-cmavo

GA <- Y* &cmavo ( g e h i / g e / g o / g a / g u ) &post-cmavo

GEhU <- Y* &cmavo ( g e h u ) &post-cmavo

GI <- Y* &cmavo ( g i ) &post-cmavo

GIhA <- Y* &cmavo ( g i h e / g i h i / g i h o / g i h a / g i h u ) &post-cmavo

GOI <- Y* &cmavo ( n o h u / n e / g o i / p o h u / p e / p o h e / p o ) &post-cmavo

GOhA <- Y* &cmavo ( m o / n e i / g o h u / g o h o / g o h i / n o h a / g o h e / g o h a / d u / b u h a / b u h e / b u h i / c o h e ) &post-cmavo

I <- Y* &cmavo ( i ) &post-cmavo

JAI <- Y* &cmavo ( j a i ) &post-cmavo

JOI <- Y* &cmavo ( f a h u / p i h u / j o i / c e h o / c e / j o h u / k u h a / j o h e / j u h e / j o h i / j e h i / j e / j o / j a / j u / a / e / j i / o / u / m i h i / b i h o / b i h i / g e h a / f u h u / p i h i / f e h i / v u h u / s u h i / j u h u / g e i / p a h i / f a h i / t e h a / c u h a / v a h a / n e h o / d e h o / f e h a / s a h o / r e h a / r i h o / s a h i / p i h a / s i h i ) &post-cmavo

KE <- Y* &cmavo ( k e ) &post-cmavo

KEhE <- Y* &cmavo ( k e h e ) &post-cmavo

KEI <- Y* &cmavo ( k e i ) &post-cmavo

KOhA <- Y* &cmavo ( d a h u / d a h e / d i h u / d i h e / d e h u / d e h e / d e i / d o h i / m i h o / m a h a / m i h a / d o h o / k o h a / f o h u / k o h e / k o h i / k o h o / k o h u / f o h a / f o h e / f o h i / f o h o / v o h a / v o h e / v o h i / v o h o / v o h u / r u / r i / r a / t a / t u / t i / z i h o / k e h a / m a / z u h i / z o h e / c e h u / d a / d e / d i / k o / m i / d o ) &post-cmavo

KU <- Y* &cmavo ( k u ) &post-cmavo

KUhO <- Y* &cmavo ( k u h o ) &post-cmavo

LAhE <- Y* &cmavo ( t u h a / l u h a / l u h o / l a h e / v u h i / l u h i / l u h e ) &post-cmavo

LE <- Y* &cmavo ( l a i / l a h i / l a / l e i / l o i / l e h i / l o h i / l e h e / l o h e / l o / l e ) &post-cmavo

LEhU <- Y* &cmavo ( l e h u ) &post-cmavo

LI <- Y* &cmavo ( m e h o / l i ) &post-cmavo

LIhU <- Y* &cmavo ( l i h u ) &post-cmavo

LOhO <- Y* &cmavo ( l o h o ) &post-cmavo

LOhU <- Y* &cmavo ( l o h u ) &post-cmavo

LU <- Y* &cmavo ( l u ) &post-cmavo

LUhU <- Y* &cmavo ( l u h u ) &post-cmavo

MAI <- Y* &cmavo ( m o h o / m a i ) &post-cmavo

ME <- Y* &cmavo ( m e / n u h a ) &post-cmavo

MEhU <- Y* &cmavo ( m e h u ) &post-cmavo

MOI <- Y* &cmavo ( m e h u / m e i / m o i / s i h e / c u h o / v a h e ) &post-cmavo

NA <- Y* &cmavo ( j a h a / n a ) &post-cmavo

NAhE <- Y* &cmavo ( f e h e / m o h i / t o h e / j e h a / n a h e / n o h e ) &post-cmavo

NIhE <- Y* &cmavo ( n i h e ) &post-cmavo

NIhO <- Y* &cmavo ( n i h o / n o h i ) &post-cmavo

NOI <- Y* &cmavo ( v o i / n o i / p o i ) &post-cmavo

NU <- Y* &cmavo ( n i / d u h u / s i h o / n u / l i h i / k a / j e i / s u h u / z u h o / m u h e / p u h u / z a h i ) &post-cmavo

PA <- Y* &cmavo ( d a u / f e i / g a i / j a u / r e i / v a i / p i h e / p i / f i h u / z a h u / m e h i / n i h u / k i h o / c e h i / m a h u / r a h e / d a h a / s o h a / j i h i / s u h o / s u h e / r o / r a u / s o h u / s o h i / s o h e / s o h o / m o h a / d u h e / t e h o / k a h o / c i h i / t u h o / x o / p a i / n o h o / n o / p a / r e / c i / v o / m u / x a / z e / b i / s o ) &post-cmavo

ROI <- Y* &cmavo ( r e h u / r o i ) &post-cmavo

SE <- Y* &cmavo ( s e / t e / v e / x e ) &post-cmavo

SEI <- Y* &cmavo ( s e i / t i h o ) &post-cmavo

SEhU <- Y* &cmavo ( s e h u ) &post-cmavo

SI <- Y* &cmavo ( s i ) &post-cmavo

SU <- Y* &cmavo ( s u ) &post-cmavo

TEhU <- Y* &cmavo ( t e h u ) &post-cmavo

TO <- Y* &cmavo ( t o h i / t o ) &post-cmavo

TOI <- Y* &cmavo ( t o i ) &post-cmavo

TUhE <- Y* &cmavo ( t u h e ) &post-cmavo

TUhU <- Y* &cmavo ( t u h u ) &post-cmavo

UI <- Y* &cmavo ( r a h o / k e h i / g a h o / n a i / p e i / c a i / c u h i / s a i / r u h e / d a h o / f u h e / f u h o / i h a / i e / a h e / u h i / i h o / i h e / a h a / i a / o h i / o h e / e h e / o i / u o / e h i / u h o / a u / u a / a h i / i h u / i i / u h a / u i / a h o / a i / a h u / i u / e i / o h o / e h a / u u / o h a / o h u / u h u / e h o / i o / e h u / u e / i h i / u h e / b a h a / j a h o / c a h e / s u h a / t i h e / k a h u / s e h o / z a h a / p e h i / r u h a / j u h a / t a h o / r a h u / l i h a / b a h u / m u h a / d o h a / t o h u / v a h i / p a h e / z u h u / s a h e / l a h a / k e h u / s a h u / d a h i / j e h u / s a h a / k a u / t a h u / n a h i / j o h a / b i h u / l i h o / p a u / m i h u / k u h i / j i h a / s i h a / p o h o / p e h a / r o h i / r o h e / r o h o / r o h u / r o h a / r e h e / l e h o / j u h o / f u h i / d a i / g a h i / z o h o / b e h u / r i h e / s e h i / s e h a / v u h e / k i h a / x u / g e h e / b u h o ) &post-cmavo

VAU <- Y* &cmavo ( v a u ) &post-cmavo

VEI <- Y* &cmavo ( v e i ) &post-cmavo

VEhO <- Y* &cmavo ( v e h o ) &post-cmavo

VUhO <- Y* &cmavo ( v u h o ) &post-cmavo

XI <- Y* &cmavo ( x i ) &post-cmavo

ZEI <- Y* &cmavo ( z e i ) &post-cmavo

ZIhE <- Y* &cmavo ( z i h e ) &post-cmavo

ZO <- Y* &cmavo ( z o ) &post-cmavo

ZOI <- Y* &cmavo ( z o i / l a h o ) &post-cmavo

ZOhU <- Y* &cmavo ( z o h u ) &post-cmavo

; ****** MORPHOLOGY ******

cmevla <- jbocme / zifcme

jbocme <- &zifcme (onset nucleus coda?)+ &space

zifcme <- !h (V / VV / y / I / h / C !space)* C &space

cmavo <- !cmevla !CVCy-lujvo C? I? nucleus (h nucleus)* &post-cmavo

CVCy-lujvo <- C V C y initial-rafsi* (final-rafsi / gismu / fuhivla / type-3-fuhivla)

post-cmavo <- space / cmavo / brivla

brivla <- gismu / !h fuhivla / type-3-fuhivla / lujvo

lujvo <- !cmavo !h initial-rafsi+ (final-rafsi / gismu / fuhivla / type-3-fuhivla)

type-3-fuhivla <- !cmevla classifier syllable+ &space

fuhivla <- !cmevla !cmavo !rafsi-string !slinkuhi syllable syllable+ &space

gismu <- full-rafsi &space

final-rafsi <- !cmevla short-rafsi &space

initial-rafsi <- y-less-rafsi / y-rafsi / fuhivla-rafsi / type-3-rafsi / brivla-rafsi

brivla-rafsi <- !cmavo !slinkuhi syllable syllable+ h y

type-3-rafsi <- classifier syllable* onset y

fuhivla-rafsi <- !cmavo !rafsi-string !slinkuhi syllable+ onset y

slinkuhi <- C rafsi-string

rafsi-string <- y-less-rafsi* (gismu / final-rafsi / y-rafsi / CC y / h y / full-rafsi h y)

y-less-rafsi <- short-rafsi &rafsi-string

classifier <- C V C CR / CC V CR / C V CR / y-rafsi R

full-rafsi <- C V C C V / CC V C V

y-rafsi <- C V C C y / CC V C y / C V C y

short-rafsi <- C V C / CC V / C VV R? / C V h V R?

; ****** PHONOTACTICS ******

syllable <- onset !y nucleus coda?

coda <- !onset C

onset <- (h / C? I / affricate / sibilant? middle? liquid?) &nucleus

sibilant <- c / s !x / j !n !l !r / z !n !l !r

middle <- p / b / f / v / m / t !l / d !l / n !l !r / k / g / x

liquid <- l / r

CC <- &onset C C

CR <- C R / r n &C / r l &n / r l &affricate / n l &r

R <- r &C / n &r

C <- voiced / unvoiced / l / m / n / r

affricate <- t c / t s / d j / d z

voiced <- b / d / g / j / v / z

unvoiced <- c / f / k / p / s / t / x

l <- "l" !h !l

m <- "m" !h !m !z

n <- "n" !h !n !affricate

r <- "r" !h !r

b <- "b" !h !b !unvoiced

d <- "d" !h !d !unvoiced

g <- "g" !h !g !unvoiced

v <- "v" !h !v !unvoiced

j <- "j" !h !j !z !unvoiced

z <- "z" !h !z !j !unvoiced

s <- "s" !h !s !c !voiced

c <- "c" !h !c !s !x !voiced

x <- "x" !h !x !c !k !voiced

k <- "k" !h !k !x !voiced

f <- "f" !h !f !voiced

p <- "p" !h !p !voiced

t <- "t" !h !t !voiced

h <- "'" &nucleus

I <- (i / u) &nucleus

nucleus <- V / VV / y

VV <- (a i / a u / e i / o i) !nucleus !I

V <- (a / e / i / o / u) !nucleus

a <- "a"

e <- "e"

i <- "i"

o <- "o"

u <- "u"

y <- "y" !nucleus

Y <- "y"+ !nucleus / space

non-space <- !space .

space <- [.\t\n\r?!\u0020]