test10

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The 16 Rules of Esperanto Corresponding Rules for Lojban 1) There is no Indefinite Article, there is only a definite article (la), alike for all sexes, cases, and numbers. 1) The articles la, le, lo, li, and lu are the name, non-veridical, veridical, numeral, and utterance articles, respectively. lai, lei, and loi are the mass articles and la'i, le'i, and lo'i are the set articles corresponding to the first three above. lo'e is the typical/average article, and le'e is the stereotypical article. None vary by number, case or sex.

Comment: This is the one rule where Lojban is not as succinct as Esperanto in covering the same ground.

2) Substantives end in o. To form the plural j is added. There are only two cases: nominative and accusative; the latter is obtained from the nominative by adding n. Other cases are expressed by preposition (genitive de, dative al, ablative per, etc.) 2) sumti (arguments) assume the case of the sumti place they occupy. The place tags fa, fe, fi, fo, and fu may be used to explicitly state the place. Also, the case tags bai, bau, di'u, etc. may be used to specify the case.

Comment: Lojban words do not change endings, so the corresponding rule only deals with determination of cases. Note that this is a conglomeration of four rules, each in its own sentence.

3) The Adjective ends in a. Case and number as for substantives. The Comparative is made by means of the word pli, the Superlative by plej; with the Comparative the conjunction ol is used. 3) Any selbri may modify any other selbri by position. Comparatives and Superlatives are formed by simple modification.

7 Comment: The Lojban rule describes a secondary function, as there are no separate words that act only as adjectives in Lojban. The Esperanto rule consists of six rules this time; the second sentence is short but refers to two separate rules inside Rule 2.

4) The cardinal Numerals (not declined) are: unu, du, tri, kvar, kvin, ses, sep, ok, nau, dek, cent, mil. Tens and hundreds are formed by simple junction of the numerals. To mark the ordinal numerals a is added; for the multiple, obl; for the fractional, on; for the collective, op; for the distributive, the preposition po. Substantival and adverbial numerals can also be used. 4) The digits are pa, re, ci, vo, mu, xa, ze, bi, so, and no (zero). pi is the decimal point. Numbers are formed by junction of the digits. li ... boi surround simple numbers as sumti. To mark the ordinal, the post-position moi is used; similarly mei for the collective. pi ... mei surrounds the fractional.

Comment: These two Rules correspond closely for the first seven parts, but the last sentence of Zamenhof's rule invokes rules from Rule 2 and Rule 3, adding ten rules in all for a total of seventeen rules directly and indirectly contained in this paragraph.

5) Personal Pronouns: mi, vi, li, si, gi (thing or animal), si, ni, vi, ili, oni; possessives are formed by adding a. Declension as for substantives. 5) Anaphora: ko'a, ko'e, etc; mi, do, ko, ti, ta, tu, ri, ra, ru, zu'i, zo'e; possessives are formed by position or with prepositions pe, po, po'e.

Comment: These are of similar length except that Rule 2's substantive declension rules are included. I count six rules, therefore, to Lojban's three.

6) The Verb undergoes no change with regard to person or number. Forms of the verb: time being (Present) takes the termination -as; time been (Past) -is; time about-to-be (Future) -os; Conditional mood -us; Imperative mood -u; Infinitive - i. Participles (with adjectival or adverbial sense): active present -ant; active past -int; active future -ont; passive present -at; passive past -it; passive future -ot. The passive is rendered by a corresponding form of the verb esti and a passive participle of the required verb; the preposition with the passive is de. 6) The selbri undergoes no change. The tense markers pu (past), ca (present), ba (future), vi, va, vu (space), etc. may be used with any selbri or within sumti. nu, ka, ni, etc. are the abstraction operators. For the imperative, use the anaphorum ko.

Comment: Without reference to any other Rules, Zamenhof has packed Rule 6 with sixteen rules. Lojban's nine include the abstraction operators, which have no counterpart in Esperanto. Also, I have counted the tense markers as three separate rules, but they should probably count as one, like any of the other lists.

7) Adverbs end in e; comparison as for adjectives.

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Comment: This is covered under Rule 3 on modification.

8) All Prepositions govern the nominative.

 (not applicable)

Comment: Lojban has no cases in the sense used here, so it needs no rule corresponding to this one.

9) Every word is Pronounced as it is Spelt. 7) Every word is Pronounced as it is Spelt.

10) The Accent is always on the second-last syllable. 8) The Accent is always on the second-last syllable (names may be marked for irregular stress).

8 11) Compound Words are formed by simple junction of the words (the chief word stands at the end). Grammatical terminations are also regarded as independent words. 9) lujvo are formed by simple junction of the gismu or rafsi, substituting or inserting y where appropriate.

Comment: As Zamenhof left off variant compounding rules, I felt equally free in leaving out the more extensive lujvo-making considerations.

12) When another negative word is present the word ne is left out. 10) na acts to negate a bridi, and is never an intensifier.

Comment: I have recently examined a treatise on the scope of negation in the natural languages. It is medium-sized, and an inch and a half thick; both of these two Rule statements obviously miss a lot of ground. [Bob's note: the current Lojban negation proposal covers all of the ground of negation with 4 cmavo, and involves 47 of the 600-odd machine grammar rules. But it requires a lot of explanation to cover all of natural language negation, as will be seen in JL12.]

13) In order to show direction towards, words take the termination of the accusative.

 (not applicable)

Comment: see comment on 8, above.

14) Each Preposition has a definite and constant meaning; but if the direct sense does not indicate which it should be, we use the preposition je, which has no meaning of its own. Instead of je we may use the accusative without a preposition.

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15) The so-called Foreign Words, that is, those which the majority of languages have taken from one source, undergo no change in Esperanto, beyond conforming to its orthography; but with various words from one root, it is better to use unchanged only the fundamental word and to form the rest from this latter in accordance with the rules of the Esperanto language. 11) Nonce le'avla are marked with le'a and a marker rafsi as appropriate, and should conform to Lojban orthography.

Comment: Zamenhof's Rule here does not seem to admit of any major group of languages that are not closely interrelated. That is, he assumes that if a word varies, it varies from one fundamental root word. I have included a description of borrowed terms as the closest approximation to this rule.

16) The Final Vowel of the substantive and of the article may sometimes be dropped and be replaced by an apostrophe.

 (not applicable)