music terminology

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The proposals by Nick Nicholas, made in [1] (with corrections by [Veijo Vilva:http://wiw.org/~jkominek/lojban/9309/msg00138.html), are repeated here for comment and emendation. This is based in the first instance on the Classical Western musical tradition, and as such privileges Italian, the normative metalanguage for that tradition. Feel free to add terminology from other traditions, but please respect the current subdivisions.

(G = German; F = French; I = Italian; E = English)

General

musicology: zgiske

musical instrument: zgica'a

orchestra: balzgibe'e

band: zgigri

string quartet (group of musicians): mosyjgita vomei

Musical Genres

folk/ethnic music; naizgi

pop music; sopselneizgi

jazz: dja'aza

techno: te'ekno

anthem: gricniselsanga

classical music: nolzgi

classical music (European): ronri'izgi

Musical Forms

symphony: simfoni

symphony movement: simfoni zei pagbu

concerto: konceto

concerto movement: konceto zei pagbu

piano concerto: pipnrpiano zei konceto

violin concerto: jgitrviolino zei konceto

string quartet (composition): mosyjgita vomei selfi'i

composition: zgiselfi'i

opera: sagdraci

operetta/musical: sagjvetavdraci

note (sound): zgika'u

note (symbol): zgika'usni

Ranges

contrabass
snoraisli
bass
tcesnosli
baritone
mlisnosli
tenor
norsnosli
alto
norsutsli
mezzo-soprano
mlisutsli
soprano
tcesutsli
soprnanino
sutraisli

Diatonic Modes

Ionian (Major)
cistrxaioni,ane or cistrxioniano
Dorian
cistrdori,ane
Phrygian
cistrfrigi,ane
Lydian
cistrlidi,ane
Mixolydian
cistrmiksolidi,ane
Aeolian (Minor)
cistrxeioli,ane or cistrxaioliano
Locrian
cistrlokri,ane

Borrowing Graeco-Latin terms in their English pronunciation (which utterly mangles them) is something I will persist in combatting. -xi,oniano, -doriano, -frigiano, -lidiano, -miksolidiano, -xai,oli,ano, -lokriano -- nitcion

  • I agree and plead ignorance (and I was in fact hoping someone would correct these---I needed a way to say Aeolian for a translation I'm doing). Anyway, feel free to change the above and delete this. --jrd
    • I think that the -ano should be dropped since its function is served by the prefix cistr-. -phma
    • No. I want to retain the Latin morphology for recognisability. What the morphology actually means in Latin is immaterial. -- n

Stringed Instruments

Orchestral Strings
bende sa'erjgita
tip/point of bow
tersa'e jipno
scroll
jgita ke sarlu fanmo; jgita sarlyja'i (this brings out the purely ornamental nature of the scroll)
peg
togytikpijne
peg box
togytikpijnyvau
nut
jgita galxe (G has saddle; I has head of the fingerboard)
neck
pecta'o garna
fingerboard
pecta'o
wooden part of the bow
tersa'e mudri; tersa'e krogarna (a descriptive alternative); tersa'e tratygarna (a more functional alternative)
f-hole
me'o fy. zei kevna that does not parse; try {me me'o fy. kevna}
bridge
skosra (G, E, I have bridge, but F has support)
tailpiece
jgita skora'e (G)
bow hair
tersa'e kerfa; tersa'e tratykre (a descriptive alternative)
frog/heel of bow
tersa'e skora'e (by analogy with tailpiece)
soundpost
snakamju
string instrument
jgita
bowed string instrument
sa'erjgita
bow
tersa'e
string
terto'asko
front/table
jgita crane
back
jgita trixe
pizzicato
degji se jgita; degycpu
down-bow
nu mo'ini'a tersa'ecpu
up-bow
nu mo'iga'u tersa'ecpu
detach�
nu sepli tersa'ecpu
legato
nu kansa tersa'ecpu
lour�
nu cmacatke tersa'ecpu
martel�
nu mruli tersa'ecpu; nu skovrede'a tersa'ecpu
spiccato
nu selminra tersa'ecpu (minra means also bounce)
ricochet, jet�
nu renro tersa'ecpu
tremolo
nu tersa'e desku
snap pizzicato
nu bikla degycpu; nu ta'ordarxi degycpu
left-hand pizzicato
nu zulxa'e degycpu
harmonic
nalcmu selsli tonga
mute
smaca'a; kadyto'a (muting doesn't produce a mere change of volume but changes the tonal quality by suppressing the overtones)
portamento
tonga sakli
glissando
togyci'e sakli
scale
togyci'e
vibrato
tonga desku
trill
togycnesli; togyci'e togysli (non-enharmonic oscillation, within the scale)
scordatura
nu nalfadni togystika
double stop
nu relskosa'e
triple stop
nu cibyskosa'e
quadruple stop
nu vonskosa'e
arpeggio
nalsimcabna srato'agri (non-simultaneous chord)
chord
srato'agri (vertical tone-group)
violin
jgitrviolino
viola
jgitrviola; mlisli jgitrviolino (alto violin: F)
violoncello
jgitrviolontcelo, jgitrtcelo
double bass
jgitrkontrabaso
guitar
jgitrgitara
fret
pecta'osle
plectrum
seljgita cfine
capotasto, barre
jgitrkapotasto
mandolin
jgitrmandolino
ukulele
jgitrxukulele; civjgita ("'uku" means flea)
banjo
jgitrbanjo; damryjgita
electric bass
dikca snoslijgita

Wind Instruments

Woodwinds
flanyjoixagri
embouchure, blow hole
vaxyke'a
head joint
sedyterjo'e
closed hole
ganlo pecke'a
open hole
kalri pecke'a
pad
pecke'agai
tone hole
togytikyke'a
double reed
relxagri
conical bore
konju tu'ucra
octave key
xavyto'a batke
bocal
selxagryvau
bell
ganra tu'ucra
reed
selxagri
mouthpiece
vaxytu'upau
ligature
selxagri velyla'a
upper joint
gapru terjo'e
lower joint
cnita terjo'e
cylindrical bore
slanu tu'ucra
register key
du'ervasxu batke (G)
key
batke
finger hole
degyke'a
key hole
batkyke'a
attack
to'acfa
steady-state
to'asto
release
to'asti
legato
nu kansa vasxu
staccato
nu sepli vasxu
double tonguing
nu reroi tacto'acfa
flutter tonguing
nu desku tacto'acfa
slap tonguing
nu darxi tacto'acfa
breath tone
tcevaxyvruto'a
whistle tone
siclyto'a
smack tone
sakcyto'a
subtone
nalfadysmato'a
transverse flute
pinflani
piccolo
cmapinflani
alto flute in G
mlisli pinflani
bass flute in C
snosli pinflani
Eb flute
pinflani pe .ebu ni'ubu
recorder (alto, soprano, tenor, soprnanino, bass)
rajyflani
ocarina
flanrxokarina
oboe in C
xagrnxobo'e
English horn in F
xagrnkorno'ingleze; mlisli xagrnobo'e (Esperanto)
oboe d'amore in A
xagrnxobo'edamore
baritone oboe
snosli xagrnxobo'e
heckelphone
xagrnxekelfone
clarinet in Bb
xagrnklarineto pe me'o by ni'ubu
clarinet in A
xagrnklarineto pe me'o .abu
Bb bass clarinet
mlisnosli xagrnklarineto pe me'o by ni'ubu
Eb (D) soprano clarinet
tcesutsli xagrnklarineto pe me'o .ebu ni'ubu to me'o dy toi
Eb alto clarinet
mlisutsli xagrnklarineto pe me'o .ebu ni'ubu
Bb contrabass clarinet
snoraisli xagrnklarineto pe me'o by ni'ubu
Eb contra alto clarinet
tcesnosli xagrnklarineto pe me'o .ebu ni'ubu
basset horn in F
xagrnkornodibaseto
bassoon
xagrnfagoto
contrabassoon
xagrnkontrafagoto, snoraisli xagrnfagoto
Eb alto saxophone
norsutsli xagrnsaksofono pe me'o .ebu ni'ubu
Bb tenor saxophone
norsutsli xagrnsaksofono pe me'o by ni'ubu
Eb baritone saxophone
mlisutsli xagrnsaksofono pe me'o .ebu ni'ubu
Bb soprano saxophone
tcesutsli xagrnsaksofono pe me'o by ni'ubu
Bb bass saxophone
tcesnosli xagrnsaksofono pe me'o by ni'ubu
Eb sopranino saxophone
sutraisli xagrnsaksofono pe me'o .ebu ni'ubu
Eb contrabass saxophone
snoraisli xagrnsaksofono pe me'o .ebu ni'ubu
harmonica
xagrnxarmonika

Brass Instruments

Brasses
tabra
leadpipe
moltu'u (G)
valves
ca'erslanu
slide
togypra saklytu'u
tuning slide
togystika saklytu'u
bell
ganro tu'ucra
brassy (Schmettern)
jimto'a
bells up
tu'ucra lafti
stopped (horn)
xanzunto'a
con sordino
kadyto'a; gafto'a (the second alternative takes into account the many kinds of sordini used e.g. with trumpets)
French horn in F
tabrnkorno
Alto horn in Eb/F
mlisli tanrnflikorno
mellophone
tabrnmelofono
mellophonium
tabrnmelofonio
Wagner tuba
vagner zei tabrntuba
trumpet in Bb, C, D, Eb
tabrntromba
piccolo trumpet in Bb, A
tcetsli tabrntromba
bass trumpet in Eb, Bb
snosli tabrntromba
cornet in Bb, Eb
tabrnkorneta
flugelhorn in Bb
tabrnflikorno
trombone
tabnrtrombone; trombone; saltabra
tenor trombone
norsnosli tabrntrombone
alto trombone
norsutsli tabrntrombone
bass trombone
mutsnosli tabrntrombone
contrabass trombone
snoraisli tabrntrombone
valve trombone
ca'erslanu tabrntrombone
(contrabass) tuba in Bb, C
(snoraisli) tabrntuba
(bass) tuba in F, Eb
(tcesnosli) tabrntuba
euphonium
tabrnxe'ufonio; tcesnosli tabrnflikorno

Percussion Instruments

Percussion
damri
single stroke
pamei nundarxi
flam
pavyprudarxi nundarxi (G)
drag
relprudarxi nundarxi
ruff
so'irprudarxi nundarxi
open roll
sluseltro nundarxi
closed roll
selminra nundarxi
deadsticking
terda'i vrede'a
rim shot
nu korbi joi damri darxi
on the rim
nu korbi darxi
choked
nu togdicra
let vibrate
nu to'arcurmi
paradiddle
pardadidli
ratamacue
tsaparatsa'i Is this meant to be onomatopaeic or something? yes and so is the English
sticks, mallets
terda'i
marimba
janbrmarimba
xylophone
janbrksilofono
xylomarimba
janbrksilomarimba
orchestral bells (glockenspiel)
jabrnkampaneli
vibraphone
janbrvibrafono
tubular chimes
jabytu'u
celesta
pipnrtcelesta
gong
janbrgonge (my book lists it as a tuned instrument)
crotales
janbrkrotali
steel drum
gatydamri
handbells
xanjanbe
almglocken (cowbells)
bakyjanbe
anvil
jimda'izbe
musical saw
zgike ka'arkomcu
flexatone
janbrflesatono
tubaphone
janbrtubafono
timpani
damrntimpano
roto-tom
damrnrototomtomo
slide whistle
saklysiclybra
musical glass
zgikabri
woodblock
jungo mudbliku (I)
temple block
kulnrkore'a mudbliku (I)
claves
damrnklave
castanets
damrnkastaniete
maracas
damrnmaraka
finger cymbals
degji paltydamri
crash cymbals
simdarxi paltydamri
suspended cymbal
dandu paltydamri
hi-hat
tagji paltydamri
triangle
cibjantradamri
sleighbells
janbrsonalii
snare drum
cmalu damrntamburo; slisko damrntamburo (the snare is more fundamental than the size)
military drum
jenmi damrntamburo
bongos
damrnbongo
bass drum
damrngrankasa
tambourine
damrntamburino
whip
biklydamri
police whistle
pulji siclybra
siren
pulji karce vrubra
drum kit
damri gunma

Keyboard Instruments

key
batke; terpe'u (from Finnish, makes possible to differentiate e.g. accordions with a piano keyboard from the variants with buttons batke terpe'u) I think keys are buttons, and these should only be differentiated by shape: cukla batke, tanbo batke
keyboard
terpe'ufoi (covers also various types of computer keyboards: buttons, pressure sensitive foils etc.); batkyfoi (by analogy)
keyboard instrument
terpe'ufoi zgica'a, pipno
piano
pipnrpiano
damper
smagai
hammer
mruli
damper pedal
smajmavra
sostenuto pedal
togra'ijmavra
una corda
pavyskojmavra
tre corda
nalpi'o le pavyskojmavra
electronic piano
dikca pipno
toy piano
selkei pipno
harpsichord
pipnrtcembalo
harp
jgitrxarpa
organ
pipnrxorgano
stop
to'arkaigri
stop knob
to'arkaigri batke
accordion
xagrnfisarmonika

Vocal

falsetto
voksrfalseto

Purely Electronic

Theremin
narpencu zgicabra

--> XORNbostel.zaxs.

---

originally:

clarinet in Bb
xagrnklarineto pe by ni'ubu
clarinet in A
xagrnklarineto pe .abu
Bb bass clarinet
mlisnosli xagrnklarineto pe by ni'ubu
Eb (D) soprano clarinet
tcesutsli xagrnklarineto pe .ebu ni'ubu to dy toi
Eb alto clarinet
mlisutsli xagrnklarineto pe .ebu ni'ubu
Bb contrabass clarinet
snoraisli xagrnklarineto pe by ni'ubu
Eb contra alto clarinet
tcesnosli xagrnklarineto pe .ebu ni'ubu
basset horn in F
xagrnkornodibaseto

Don't the above say things like "Clarinet relating to <last thing

mentioned which starts with A>"? I think either a {me'o} is needed

before the letterals or they should use cmene (after the acronymn

fashion: so perhaps la me .ebu ni'ubu for Eb, etc). --mi'e .djorden.