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                      Number 16 - May-June 1992
          Copyright 1992,  The Logical Language Group, Inc.
          2904 Beau Lane, Fairfax VA 22031 USA (703)385-0273
  Permission granted to copy, without charge to recipient, when for
                purpose of promotion of Loglan/Lojban.
                                   

           DOUBLE YOUR LOJBAN FUN -- TWO LOGFESTS THIS YEAR

                  JUNE 26-28 AND AUGUST 14-17, 1992

          NEW DC AREA LOJBAN CLASS STARTING -- SIGN UP NOW!
                       DETAILS IN NEWS SECTION

     ju'i lobypli  (JL)  is  the  quarterly  journal  of  The  Logical
Language Group,  Inc., known  in these  pages as  la lojbangirz.    la
lojbangirz. is  a non-profit  organization formed  for the  purpose of
completing and  spreading the  logical  human  language  "Lojban  -  A
Realization of  Loglan" (commonly  called "Lojban"), and informing the
community about logical languages in general.
     la  lojbangirz.   is  a  non-profit  organization  under  Section
501(c)(3) of  the U.S.  Internal Revenue  Code.   Your donations  (not
contributions to  your voluntary  balance) are  tax-deductible on U.S.
and most  state income  taxes.  Donors are notified at the end of each
year of their total deductible donations.
     For purposes  of  terminology,  "Lojban"  refers  to  a  specific
version  of  a  logical  human  language,  the  generic  language  and
associated research  project having  been called  "Loglan"  since  its
invention by  Dr. James  Cooke Brown in 1954.  Statements referring to
"Loglan/Lojban" refer  to both the generic language and to Lojban as a
specific instance  of that language.  The Lojban version of Loglan was
created as  an alternative  because Dr.  Brown  and  his  organization
claims  copyright   on  everything  in  his  version,  including  each
individual word  of the vocabulary.  The Lojban vocabulary and grammar
and all language definition materials, by contrast, are public domain.
Anyone may  freely use  Lojban for  any purpose  without permission or
royalty.   la lojbangirz. believes that such free usage is a necessary
condition for  an engineered  language like  Loglan/Lojban to become a
true human  language, and  to succeed  in the  various goals that have
been proposed for its use.
     Page count  this issue:  48 +  40 enclosures  = 88  ($8.80  North
America, $10.56 elsewhere).  Press run for this issue of ju'i lobypli:
                                  2
265.  We now have about 726 people receiving our publications, and 240
more awaiting textbook publication.

                          Your Mailing Label

Your mailing  label reports  your current  mailing  status,  and  your
current voluntary  balance including  this issue.  Please notify us of
changes in  your activity/interest  level.   Balances reflect  contri-
butions received  thru 30  May 1992.   Mailing  codes (and approximate
balance needs) are:

Activity/Interest Level:                        Highest Package
Received (Price Each)                           Other flags:
B - Observer     0 - Introductory Materials ($5)  JL JL Subscription
($28/yr)
C - Active Supporter                            1 - Word Lists and
Language Description ($15)                      (followed by
expiration issue #)
D - Lojban Student                              2 - Language Design
Information ($10)                               * indicates
subscription prepaid
E - Lojban Practitioner                         3 - Draft Teaching
Materials ($30)  LK LK Subscription ($5/yr)
                                                R  Review Copy (no
charge)
                                                UP Automatic Updates
(>$20)

  Please keep us informed of changes in your mailing address, and US
 subscribers are asked to provide ZIP+4 codes whenever you know them.

                                  3
                        Contents of This Issue

     Important:    Due  to  financial  constraints,  ju'i  lobypli  is
converting to  a full subscription basis, starting with the next issue
(JL17).  Please read the section on subscriptions for details.
     It's been  a while  since last  issue, as we attempted to get our
finances back  on an  even keel.   Our financial health plan is taking
effect, and  we  expect  future  issues  of  JL  to  resume  quarterly
appearance (if  you are  a subscriber,  of course).   (I  also want to
apologize to  people who have had to wait an excessively long time for
materials ordered  during the  last 6  months.   Hopefully  the  order
backlog will have been corrected when you get this issue.)
     As will  usually be  the case,  this issue contains much material
derived from  the Lojban  List computer  mailing list on the Internet.
Nearly all  such material has been edited, revised, and corrected from
the original.
     We continue  to be flooded with Lojban text from several writers,
and some of this material will be found in this issue.
     Several pieces  in this  issue  relate  to  Lojban  and  computer
applications, and our first research proposal is reprinted.
     The main  body of  this issue  will  be  short,  because  we  are
including two  long enclosures:  a major paper by John Cowan on Lojban
tense structures,  and a  major revision/improvement of the Diagrammed
Summary of Lojban Grammar Forms, which is becoming the mainstay of our
introductory materials.   Some of the material originally prepared for
this issue,  including about 10 pages of discussion of the Sapir-Whorf
Hypothesis, will  be delayed  until JL17  (which,  having  this  extra
preparation done, is much more likely to come out on time!)

                                   

                          Table of Contents

Brief Glossary of Lojban Terms                                ---3
News
  Subscriptions and Finances                                  ---3
  Athelstan Injured                                           ---4
  Language Education                                          ---5
  Electronic Distribution                                     ---5
  Logfest 92                                                  ---7
  Language Development Status                                 ---8
  Status of Products                                          --12
  Schedule                                                    --19
  Using the Language                                          --19
  Research Using Lojban                                       --20
  International News/Publicity                                --21
  News From the Institute                                     --21
le lojbo se ciska                         --22, 25, 31, 35, 37, 41
Text of the Court of Appeals Decision                         --23
lei lojbo                                                     --26
la lojbangirz.'s First Research Proposal                      --27
DLT - Esperanto-based Machine Translation                     --34
A Lojbanic Cultural Allegory                                  --36
Morphology Algorithm                                          --39
Translations of le lojbo se ciska                             --42
Next Issue                                                    --46
Sample Pages from Forthcoming Dictionary                      --46

                       Computer Net Information


                                  4
     Via Usenet/UUCP/Internet,  you can  send messages  and text files
(including things  for  JL  publication)  to  la  lojbangirz./Bob  at:
lojbab@grebyn.com      (This is a new address and supersedes the prior
"snark" address.)
     You can  also join the Lojban List mailing list (currently around
80 subscribers).  Send a single line message (automatically processed)
containing only:
"subscribe lojban yourfirstname yourlastname"  to:     listserv@cuvmb.
cc.columbia.edu
If you have problems needing human intervention, send to:   lojban-
list-request@snark.thyrsus.com
Send traffic for the mailing list to:   lojban@cuvmb.cc.columbia.edu
     Please keep us informed if your network mailing address changes.
     Compuserve subscribers  can also participate.  Precede any of the
above addresses  with INTERNET:   and  use your normal Compuserve mail
facility.   If you  want to  participate on Lojban List, you should be
prepared to  read your  mail at  least every couple of days; otherwise
your mailbox  fills up  and you  are dropped  from  the  mailing-list.
FIDOnet subscribers  can also  participate, although the connection is
not especially  robust.  Write to us for details if you don't know how
to access the Internet network.
     Whether you  wish to  participate in the news-group or not, it is
useful for us to know your Compuserve or Usenet/Internet address.

                                  5
  We've  been  requested  to  more    rafsi -  affix  combining  forms
explicitly identify people who are  for the gismu;
referred to by initials in JL, and    lujvo  -  compound  words  built
will regularly do so in this spot,  from rafsi;
immediately before  the news  sec-    le'avla -  words  borrowed  from
tion.   Note that  'Athelstan'  is  other languages;
that person's  real name,  used in    brivla - Lojban predicate words,
his public  life,  and  is  not  a  consisting of  gismu,  lujvo.  and
pseudonym.                          le'avla.
                                      tanru -  Lojban  metaphors,  the
  'pc' -  Dr. John Parks-Clifford,  most   productive   and   creative
Professor of  Logic and Philosophy  expression form of the language;
at the  University of  Missouri  -    sumti  -   the  arguments  of  a
St. Louis and Vice-President of la  logical predicate;
lojbangirz.;   he    is    usually    selbri - Lojban predicates which
addressed as  'pc' by  the  commu-  indicate a  relation among  one or
nity.                               more sumti.    A  selbri  is  most
  'Bob',    'lojbab'     -     Bob  often a  brivla or tanru; formerly
LeChevalier  -   President  of  la  called "kunbri" in error;
lojbangirz., and  editor  of  ju'i    bridi - Lojban predications, the
lobypli and le lojbo karni.         basic grammatical structure of the
  'Nora'  -   Nora  LeChevalier  -  language;  a   bridi  expresses  a
Secretary/Treasurer of  la lojban-  complete relationship:  the selbri
girz.,  Bob's   wife,  author   of  expresses  the  relation  and  the
LogFlash.                           sumti express  the various  things
  'JCB', 'Dr.  Brown' -  Dr. James  being related;
Cooke  Brown,   inventor  of   the    selma'o - grammatical categories
language,  and   founder  of   the  of Lojban  words; the basis of the
Loglan project.                     unambiguous formal  grammar of the
  'The  Institute',  'TLI'  -  The  language.      Traditionally   and
Loglan  Institute,   Inc.,   JCB's  erroneously called "lexeme" in the
organization  for   spreading  his  Loglan    community.         These
version of  Loglan, which  we call  categories typically  have a  name
'Institute Loglan'.                 derived  from  one  word  in  that
  'Loglan' -  This refers  to  the  grammatical category;  the name is
generic   language   or   language  all  capitals,   except  that   an
project, of  which 'Lojban' is the  apostrophe is  replaced by a small
most   successful   version,   and  letter 'h'.
'Institute    Loglan'     another.  
'Loglan/Lojban'   is    used    in                 News
discussions about  Lojban where we
wish to make it particularly clear      Subscriptions and Finances
that the  statement applies to the
generic language as well.             This may be your last issue of
  'PLS' -  The  Planned  Languages            ju'i lobypli.
Server,  a   no-charge   computer-    We are  converting JL  to a sub-
network-accessed      distribution  scription basis.  This is the last
center  for  materials  on  Lojban  issue sent to those not explicitly
(and other artificial languages).   requesting  (and   in  most  cases
                                    paying for) a subscription.
  Brief Glossary of Lojban Terms      At this  point  some  65  people
                                    have returned  forms requesting  a
  Following  are   definitions  of  subscription.    Perhaps  half  of
frequently  used   Lojban   terms.  these have  sufficient balances to
More complete  explanations of the  cover their subscription price.
following are  in the  Overview of    Our   new   special   fund   for
Lojban.                             'scholarship  subscriptions'  will
  cmavo - Lojban structure words    not allow  us to support more than
  gismu  -   Lojban  root   words;  a  few   people  on  a  non-paying
currently 1337;                     basis,     and      these     free

                                  6
subscriptions will be reserved for  deducting for  JL16 (this  issue),
those who  are actively working in  your mailing  label  will  have  a
the  language,   but  cannot   pay  number between "JL 17" and "JL 20"
(mostly international supporters).  on it  indicating that  your  sub-
  So here's where things stand:     scription   expires    with    the
                                    indicated  issue.    Your  balance
- For US and Canadian subscribers,  will be  deducted at a rate of $10
the  subscription  price  will  be  per issue (substantially above the
US$28 for  4 issues  (hopefully  1  subscription  price   for  US  and
year -  but our commitment will be  Canada  recipients,  less  so  for
for a number of issues rather than  overseas recipients),  for up to 4
a date,  just in case).  For those  issues, until  your balance  drops
in  other   countries,  the   sub-  below $10,  or until  we receive a
scription price  will be US$35 for  form  and/or   other  instructions
4 issues.                           from you.   You  will be given the
                                    lower-priced 4-issue  subscription
-  If  you  have  not  returned  a  rate when  we receive  your signed
subscription  form,   and  have  a  subscription  request   form  (and
negative balance  worse than  $-10  preferably enough  money to  raise
after  deducting  for  JL16  (this  your     balance     above     the
issue), your  mailing  label  will  subscription  minimum).    If  you
have a  "JL 16"  on it  indicating  cannot  afford   the  subscription
that your  'subscription'  expires  amount,    you     may     request
with the  current issue.   We must  scholarship  assistance   on   the
receive  a   signed   subscription  subscription  form.     You   will
request form  and enough  money to  receive highest priority after the
cover the  subscription price  AND  most  active  volunteers  to  gain
at  least  1/2  of  your  negative  such assistance  to fill  out your
balance.   If  you  cannot  afford  balance to a 4-issue subscription.
this  amount,   you  may   request
scholarship assistance on the sub-  -     If  you   have  returned   a
scription form,  but you  will  be  subscription form  and  have  more
lowest  priority   for  such  sub-  than $10  in  your  balance  after
scriptions unless  you are  a very  deducting for  JL16 (this  issue),
active  volunteer.    Contributing  your mailing  label  will  have  a
some of  the amount  required will  number between "JL 17" and "JL 20"
raise your priority considerably.   on it;  your subscription  expires
                                    with the  indicated  issue.    You
-  If  you  have  not  returned  a  have  either  been  given  a  full
subscription   form,    and   have  four-issue subscription  (if there
between  $-10   and  $10  in  your  is enough in your balance to cover
balance after  deducting for  JL16  the price), or a partial-year sub-
(this issue),  your mailing  label  scription prorated to your balance
will  have   a  "JL   16"  on   it  amount ($7/issue  for  US/Canada).
indicating        that        your  The subscription  price  has  been
'subscription'  expires  with  the  deducted from your balance, and an
current issue.   We must receive a  "*" on the mailing label indicates
signed subscription  request  form  that your  subscription  has  been
and  enough  money  to  cover  the  paid.   You  need  do  nothing  to
subscription price.  If you cannot  continue  receiving  JL;  we  will
afford  this   amount,   you   may  notify you by direct mail prior to
request scholarship  assistance on  your last  subscription issue  for
the  subscription   form.     Con-  renewal.
tributing  some   of  the   amount
required will  raise your priority
considerably.

-   If you  have  not  returned  a
subscription form,  and have  more
than $10  in  your  balance  after

                                  7
-     If  you   have  returned   a  "JL 17" since you have received no
subscription form  and  have  less  chance to  send in  a subscription
than $10  in  your  balance  after  request  form  until  now.    Your
deducting for  JL16 (this  issue),  balance will  be charged  $10  for
and  you  sent  at  least  $40  in  JL17 if  we have  not  received  a
balance  contributions  between  1  form prior to that issue.
Dec. 1991  and 15 April 1992, your
mailing label will have "JL 20" on  -   When  you  stop  receiving  JL
it.   You have  been given  a full  after the  subscription expiration
four-issue  subscription.      The  issue, you  will automatically  be
subscription price  has  been  de-  switched to  a subscription to the
ducted from  your balance,  and an  newsletter le  lojbo karni  (LK  -
"*" on the mailing label indicates  subscription price  of  around  $5
that your  subscription  has  been  per year).   We expect to cull the
paid.   You  need  do  nothing  to  LK mailing  list  after  the  next
continue  receiving  JL;  we  will  fund-raising   mailer,    dropping
notify  you  prior  to  your  last  those people  with  balances  less
subscription issue for renewal.     than $-30.
                                      We haven't  yet received  enough
-     If  you   have  returned   a  subscription  forms   to   justify
subscription form  and  have  less  applying for  a 2nd  class postage
than $10  in  your  balance  after  (though  we   are  close).     The
deducting for  JL16 (this  issue),  highest  subscription   price  has
and you have sent less than $40 in  been selected  because we'll  have
balance  contributions   since   1  to pay  1st class/air mail postage
December 1991,  your mailing label  rates for  at least  one issue, as
will have a number between "JL 17"  well as  at least  $275 to  obtain
and "JL  19" on it indicating that  the 2nd class permit (about $4 for
your subscription expires with the  each subscriber)  that will  allow
indicated issue.  You been given a  us to  save postage  costs  there-
part-year subscription.   We  have  after.
deducted the  cost of  this  issue  
from your  contribution (if  any),    Final  financial   results  from
and   determined   your   prorated  last  year   -  Our   1991  income
subscription period  based on  1/2  totalled $14,462.59, with expenses
of the  remaining contribution (if  of $14,746.31,  for a  net loss on
any), with  a minimum  of 1 issue.  the year  of about  $300.  Of that
The amount of the subscription has  amount  $10,725.73  was  donations
been deducted  from your  balance,  (around $6000  of  this  was  from
and an  "*" on  the mailing  label  Lojbab and  Nora).  In total, only
indicates that  your  subscription  $3700 was  contributed toward bal-
has  been   paid.    You  need  do  ances from  over 850 people on our
nothing to  continue receiving JL;  mailing list.   Only  through  our
we will  notify you  prior to your  end-of-year  fund-raiser   did  we
last   subscription    issue   for  even do  this well.   We  received
renewal.  However, we ask that you  $2500 during  the last  20 days of
contribute to  bring your  balance  December, much  of it  as a result
positive if possible.               of  the  fund-raising  drive,  re-
                                    ducing us  from a  deficit of over
-     If  you   have  returned   a  $2000 for the year that might have
subscription form  and  asked  for  crippled us.
scholarship   support   for   your    At the  end  of  1991,  we  owed
subscription:   we  have  not  yet  about $5800  in legal  fees on the
decided who will get such support,  trademark  battle,   which   we're
but given  the above  policy,  you  repaying at  $500 per month.  This
will at least receive JL17.         is taking every penny that Lojbab,
                                    Nora and  Jeff Prothero,  who  are
-     If  you   are  an   overseas  financing the legal fees, can con-
recipient  of  JL,  then  you  are  tribute.   We must  count  on  the
slated to receive at least through

                                  8
rest of  you  to  keep  the  orga-    Status this  year -  So  far  in
nization going financially.         1992, we're  losing money.   Up to
                                    now, against some $2500 in income,
                                    we've spent around $2800; JL16 and
                                    LK16 will  cost another $1200, and
                                    we have  over  $1500  precommitted
                                    towards future  JL  subscriptions.
                                    Thus, we  expect to  need  another
                                    fund-raising drive within a couple
                                    of months.   I  hope to tie such a
                                    fund-raiser to the announcement of
                                    the first Lojban book.  But please
                                    don't wait until then.  Contribute
                                    now!   We don't  know yet  how  we
                                    will  finance   book  publication,
                                    which will  cost several  thousand
                                    dollars.
                                      Our Numbers - Support for Lojban
                                    continues   to    grow    at    an
                                    outstanding  rate;   we  lose  few
                                    people (mostly people who move and
                                    forget  to   tell  us   their  new
                                    address), while  averaging  1  new
                                    person every 2-3 days for the last
                                    year.
                                      Following  are  our  numbers  by
                                    level   of   interest   and   sub-
                                    scription, as  of this publication
                                    (numbers  in  parentheses  include
                                    multiple persons per address):
                                    
                                      Level E  - Practitioner  (people
                                    who have  actually produced Lojban
                                    text, are  actively  working  with
                                    the   language,    and   receiving
                                    materials from us) - 13 (17)
                                      Level D  - Lojban  Student -  95
                                    (113)
                                      Level C  - Active Observer - 139
                                    (149)
                                      Level B  - Inactive  Observer  -
                                    627 (663)
                                      JL16 subscribers - 241 (272)
                                      JL17 subscribers - 114 (130)
                                      JL subscription request returned
                                    - 66 (72)
                                      Prepaid beyond JL17 - 55 (61)
                                      LK subscribers
                                      Total active  mailing  list  897
                                    (965)
                                                     
                                            Athelstan Injured
                                                     
                                      Our efforts  on Lojban  here  in
                                    the Washington  DC area were dealt
                                    a  severe   blow  at  the  end  of
                                    February.   Athelstan, one  of  la
                                    lojbangirz.'s Directors,  received
                                    a head injury in an auto accident,
                                    causing severe  brain damage.   He

                                  9
was in  a coma  for over  2 weeks,    Given my  close friendship  with
but has  made good progress since.  Athelstan, I have had to undertake
Early in April, he was transferred  commitments in  helping his family
to  a   rehabilitation   hospital,  and  other   friends  support  his
where  he   is  slowly   regaining  recovery; this  has taken  a  fair
memory and  living skills;  he  is  amount of  time away  from Lojban,
expected to remain in the hospital  though I  now seem  to be  back in
until    at     least    mid-July.  control of  my schedule.   Indeed,
Regaining his  full  abilities  is  the  incentive   of  knowing   how
uncertain, and  doing so will take  fragile our effort is while so few
many more months, if not years.     of us  know  the  details  of  the
  Athelstan was  one of  the  most  language seems to have remotivated
skilled of Lojbanists, and a major  me  to   get  the   community   of
participant    in    our    weekly  Lojbanists who  are expert  in the
conversation sessions  here in the  language up  to a  self-sustaining
DC area.   We  have had  to change  level.  Even amidst tragedy, there
from  conversation   sessions   to  can be growth and progress.
teaching,  reading,  and  transla-                   
tions sessions;  the  3  remaining          Language Education
conversation-skilled people (Nora,                   
Lojbab, and  Sylvia  Rutiser)  are    DC   Class    -   Even    before
not enough 'critical mass' to keep  Athelstan's accident, we needed to
conversations      lively      and  build up the activity of the local
interesting.                        Lojban  community.     Now,  local
  We've  also   lost   Athelstan's  teaching activities  are even more
contribution to  the endless  work  vital.  As such, starting in June,
that is  being done  around  here.  we'll be  trying to organize a new
Athelstan had  written up his oft-  Lojban   class    here   in    the
taught mini-lesson  in text  form,  Washington DC  area.    The  class
and was  in the middle of revising  will probably  meet in  Fairfax VA
it  for   publication   when   the  (although a  Rockville MD location
accident occurred.   I may be able  is also  being considered),  on  a
to finish  it, but  not quickly  -  weekly basis starting near the end
too much  else to  do.   Athelstan  of June  and last  throughout  the
was  also  one  of  the  principal  summer.   A principal goal will be
reviewers  of   ju'i  lobypli  and  to raise the students' skill level
other la  lojbangirz. publications  so  that   they  can   confidently
that I  and others  write; we  can  participate     in     in-language
only hope  that the quality of our  activities in  the August LogFest,
products is  sustained without his  and be  able to continue in Lojban
excellent  efforts   at   catching  conversation      sessions      or
typos and  more serious  technical  translation activities  after  the
errors.                             class ends.
  The good news is that it appears    Needless to  say, if you will be
that the  damage has not destroyed  in the  DC area  this summer,  and
Athelstan's capacity for language,  are interested in participating in
nor his  interest in  Lojban.   In  such a class, please contact me at
mid-April,  he   responded  to  my  the masthead address or telephone,
"coi.  .atlstan."  with  a  hearty  or via electronic mail per page 2.
"coi." in  return.   At the end of  
our   otherwise   English-language    Other education  efforts -  Most
visit, I  asked him  if he  remem-  of our  education efforts  in  the
bered how  to  say  goodbye;  with  last  several   months  have  been
only minimal  hesitation, he  came  through  electronic  mail  on  the
back with a confident "co'o."       computer networks.  I've been able
                                    to delegate  much of this teaching
                                    effort out to other Lojbanists who
                                    are active on Lojban List, and the
                                    numbers and  competency  of  those
                                    attempting to write on Lojban List

                                  10
has continued  to grow  with  each       Electronic Distribution
passing month.                                       
  The network has also served as a  What is  available and  how -  The
testing ground  for  new  teaching  electronic   distribution   policy
materials.  Athelstan's draft text  announced  last   issue  has  been
version of  his  mini-lesson  (see  implemented,  more-or-less.     We
below) was  tried out  by about  2  have been  unable to  place JL and
dozen people who returned comments  LK back-issues  and  a  few  other
and answers  to exercises.   These  longer materials  on  the  Planned
will be  lead to  a  significantly  Languages  Server  -  our  primary
revised and  improved version  for  electronic distribution point.  We
publication.                        have also been unable to implement
  Similarly,  a   draft   of   the  the file verification program that
Diagrammed Examples paper enclosed  we     intended     because     of
with   this    issue   has    been  incompatibilities between computer
extensively  distributed   on  the  systems    that     causes    such
networks (as  well as  to many new  techniques to fail.
mail order  Lojbanists) during the    In spite of this, there is now a
last 6  months.  French-Australian  lot    of    material    available
linguist   Jacques   Guy   finally  electronically, including  most of
culminated this  review with  some  the  now  public  domain  language
enormously   detailed    comments,  definition  materials   like  word
leading to  the major revision and  lists and  formal grammars.   I've
expansion   included   with   this  been  told   that  some   of  this
issue.                              material has  been transferred  to
  Even before  this final version,  Compuserve, and  I'm  hoping  that
the  Diagrammed   Examples,   with  more  will   be  moved   to   that
explanatory text,  has  proved  in  network, as  well as  to Genie and
recent  months   to  be  the  most  other  public  computer  networks.
significant learning  aid  to  new  (Let us  know if  you do  so,  and
Lojbanists actually  attempting to  what stuff  you are posting where,
learn   to   use   the   language.  so we can report accurately to the
Several Lojbanists  used only this  community as  to  what  is  avail-
paper and  word lists  (that  were  able).
generally obtained  by  electronic    Following  is   a  list  of  all
distribution  per  the  next  sec-  materials  (and  their  filenames)
tion), to self-teach themselves to  available on the Planned Languages
the  level   of  being   able   to  Server  as   of  this  publication
translate Lojban  text written  by  date,   and    instructions    for
more    experienced    Lojbanists.  obtaining them from the Server.
Then, with  a few  such efforts to  __________________________________
give them experience, we have seen            _____________
these Lojbanists start to write in  
Lojban, making  relatively few and    This is  an updated  version  of
minor errors  given the  lack of a  the  file   posted  to   the   PLS
full teaching  text.   (Those  who  entitled "readme"  which  includes
have  study   the  draft  textbook  an annotated and categorized index
and/or  used  LogFlash  have  done  to all files on the list.
still  better,   but  the   effec-    Following the  "readme" file  is
tiveness of  this relatively brief  an abbreviated set of instructions
description has  astounded several  for  obtaining   files  from   the
of us  to the  point of motivating  server.  Send the one line message
this new version.)                  'help' to:

                                    langserv@hebrew.cc.columbia.edu

                                    to  get  the  full  help  listing.
                                    While you  can  put  multiple  re-
                                    quests in  a file,  my  experience
                                    has been  that  if  there  is  any

                                  11
error on  any command,  the entire  the  network  is  not  free.    la
set  is   disregarded.    I  would  lojbangirz.   spent   some   $2000
therefore suggest  getting 1  file  during  1991  on  network  access,
at a  time until you are sure what  supporting   Lojban   List,   this
you are doing.                      archive, and  responding to people
  "gismu.lst"  is   the  official,  like you.  We do not make a profit
public domain  baseline that  many  on our printed materials, so it is
Lojbanists  already   possess   in  your donations  that will allow us
printed form.  It has 40-character  to continue  to serve  the network
definitions of  the Lojban  gismu,  community of Lojbanists and people
and has  been relatively unchanged  curious about Lojban.
for a  few years  now.  Only minor    The files  listed following  are
corrections have been put into the  the  official   postings  of   The
posted file,  and the 20 new words  Logical Language  Group,  Inc.  on
adopted  last   year  were   never  this server.   All  other postings
added.                              should be considered unsanctioned,
  "logdata.raw" is  a  preliminary  and possibly incorrect.
version  of  the  new  gismu  list    Language  design  materials  are
baseline.     I  intend   the  new  explicitly listed  here and in the
baseline to  take  effect  shortly  documents themselves  as being  in
after  the  publication  of  JL16,  the  public  domain.    All  other
hopefully within a month.  I would  documents  are  copyrighted  under
recommend   using    the   current  the same  heading listed above for
"logdata.raw" file,  and  ignoring  this document.
the "gismu.lst" file, UNLESS it is    Note on  file names.   All  file
vital to  you to be using a public  names  ending   with  ".unf"   may
domain version.   We  won't object  contain  lines  up  to  about  120
to  any   copying  of   the  still  characters   long.        Original
copyrighted draft  as long  as the  documents    published    by    la
copyright notice  and  the  notice  lojbangirz.  are  formatted  using
that it  is a  draft stays  intact  longer than  80  character  lines,
with the file.  To all intents and  and this wider line-length was de-
purposes,  the   old  40-character  termined to  give a  more readable
file is  obsolete.   I would  rec-  text  when   that  formatting  was
ommend  that   any  new   text  be  removed.   File names  ending with
written  using  the  "logdata.raw"  ".txt"  are   generally  under  80
place structures.   (All  text  in  characters in  width.   Other file
this issue  probably presumes this  name    extensions     have     no
newer version.)                     implication.
  Questions on  any file?  Contact    Many files  are compressed using
Bob LeChevalier  at  the  masthead  a rather  simplistic program  that
address or via:                     tabifies   every    8   characters
                                    INCLUDING A  SINGLE SPACE  IN A  0
lojbab@grebyn.com                   MOD 8  POSITION.   We  have  since
                                    learned that  some  tab  expanders
  See the file "epolicy.txt" for a  will take  a TAB  in  a  0  mod  8
more complete  explanation  of  la  position and expand it to 9 spaces
lojbangirz.             electronic  instead of 1. This could cause you
distribution policy.   We ask that  problems, which hopefully this no-
users  of   these  files  consider  tice will  help you  correct if it
donating money  for the support of  affects you.   We  consider this a
The Logical  Language Group,  Inc.  failed experiment:   when  we next
We  are   a  501(c)(3)  non-profit  send data  to PLS for uploading we
organization  and  such  donations  will send  files without  the  tab
are tax-deductible  in the  US, to  compression, but this may be a few
the extent  they exceed  the price  months.
of things  we send  you.  While it    The PLS  has very  limited  disk
costs us  little for  you to get a  space.   la lojbangirz.  has  con-
copy of the files on this archive,  vinced Mark and Jerry to post much

                                  12
of the  material we sent them, but  pronounc.unf  9718    10-14-91
they do  not have  room for all of    Pronunciation  guide.     Public
it.  In particular, back issues of    domain.
JL and  LK, and  a LOT  of  Lojban  gismu.lst     88717   01-09-92
text could  not be posted.  I want    Baselined  gismu   list.  Public
to see  some or  all of this mate-    domain.       Expected   to   be
rial  available,   if  only  on  a    superseded soon  by  a  modified
limited time basis.  Therefore, in    version of  "logdata.raw", which
about 3  months, I  will be asking    will the be renamed "gismu.lst"
Mark and  Jerry  to  tell  me  the  logdata.raw   115603  01-09-92
rates   of   access   for   Lojban    Lojban gismu  (root word)  draft
directory files.   Seldom accessed    update  >80 characters wide
files may  be deleted  to allow us  roget.lst     40612   10-14-91
to make  room for  new  stuff,  as    gismu sorted  by Roget category.
listed at  the end  of  this  doc-    Draft.
ument.   So please don't delay too  logdata3.cma  88312   10-14-91
long if  you want to get a copy of    Lojban  cmavo  (structure  word)
a file listed here.                   list.     Public  domain.  cmavo
                                      order  >80 characters wide
File Name     Bytes   Date          logdata3.lex  88312   10-14-91
  Description                         Lojban  cmavo  (structure  word)
                                      list.   Public  domain.  selma'o
        Control documents             (grammar  category)   order  >80
                                      characters wide
readme        7668    01-09-92      lehavla.alg   2326    10-14-91
  A version of this index.            Draft  proposal   for  borrowing
epolicy.txt   2912    10-09-91        words.
  The  la  lojbangirz.  Electronic  
  Distribution Policy                   Introductory Materials in
orderfrm.unf  9497    10-14-91               Suggested Order
  Current la  lojbangirz.  Product  
  List & Order Form; Include Paper  loglan.txt    8598    10-14-91
  Postal  Address  on  any  order,    Introduction  and   history  for
  please.                             those familiar with other Loglan
                                      versions
  Language Design Materials and     brochure.eng  62820   10-14-91
              Drafts                  Basic    Lojban    Brochure    -
                                      formatted  for  electronic  dis-
grammar.28    64552   10-11-91        tribution
  Baselined Lojban  Grammar - YACC  postbroc.txt  28312   10-14-91
  version; Public Domain.  Without    An     edited     version     of
  explanatory  text   included  in    brochure.eng abbreviated  so  as
  printed versions.                   to   be    more   suitable   for
bnf.28        7872    10-11-91        electronic transmission.
  EBNF  form   of  the   Baselined  minilsne.txt  30917   10-16-91
  Lojban Grammar.   Not  verified.    Draft introductory  Draft Lojban
  Public domain.                      mini-lesson.   Return answers to
                                      la lojbangirz. for correction.
                                    overview.unf  63143   10-14-91
                                      Overview  of  the  language  and
                                      intro.   to   specialized   ter-
                                      minology
                                    diagexam.unf  10851   10-09-91
                                      Diagrammed  Examples  of  Lojban
                                      Text (the  original  version  of
                                      the  one   in  JL16  -  the  new
                                      version will  replace this  file
                                      shortly, and  is a  much  longer
                                      file)
                                    

                                  13
 Teaching Materials and Detailed      unpublished   draft   review   -
            Discussion                Loglan 1
                                    
useoldl1.txt  15233   10-14-91      ----------------------------------
  How to  use  1975  Loglan  1  to            --------------
  study Lojban  (partially correct    The following  unofficial  files
  for 1989 version)                   are known  to be  in the  lojban
newrafsi.unf  77773   10-14-91        directory   of    the    Planned
  List of  Lojban rafsi (combining    Languages Server:
  forms) and how to make compounds  
  (lujvo).                          brochure.french       49403   05-
negation.unf  127903  10-14-91        11-90
  Negation   in    Lojban.    Many    A  French   translation   of   a
  examples.                           somewhat earlier  version of the
scrabble.unf  6098    10-14-91        Lojban brochure.
  Suggested game  rules  based  on  Description   2334    01-09-92
  Lojban letter frequencies           The  official   PLS  description
                                      file of  all files in the Lojban
           Why Lojban?                directory.   Not as  detailed or
                                      as accurate as this file.
whylojb.txt   198651  10-14-91      elecread.me   815     06-24-91
  General   discussion   on   'Why    An obsolete version of this file
  Lojban?'  extracted   from  ju'i    that should soon be deleted
  lobypli, Includes  JCB on  Sapir  Index         1280    01-03-92
  Whorf.  Many contributors.          The  file   list  you   get   in
mactrans.txt  12681   10-14-91        response to  the command  "index
  Lojban and  machine  translation    lojban"
  by Patrick Juola                  lojbroch.e-o.tex      69755   09-
moody.txt     18972   10-14-91        12-91
  Lojban   and    other    planned    The draft  Esperanto translation
  languages by Todd Moody             of  the   Lojban   brochure   in
lojb_esp.txt  180734  10-14-91        brochure.eng      Comments   and
  Lojban  and   Esperanto   -   JL    suggestions welcome.
  discussions  including  comments  metflidjimao-vedsia   23871   12-
  from Donald  Harlow and Lojban's    19-90
  'Answer' to the '16 Rules'        welding-shop  27415   12-19-90
lojling.txt   18942   10-14-91        Jim Carter's  1984 Loglan  short
  Lojban's      relevance       to    story and  English translation -
  linguistics and  linguistics re-    not   Lojban    compatible   nor
  search                              consistent with  the current TLI
reply.txt     38747   10-14-91        language, it is still one of the
  1991 Reply  to  Arnold  Zwicky's    longest  Loglan   texts  written
  1969 "Language" Review of Loglan    originally in Loglan rather than
  1                                   in  translation.
netdisc.txt   178912  10-14-91      
  Extracted Network Discussions of   Forthcoming Material we hope to
  Lojban and  Sapir-Whorf - mostly            post this year
  8-9/90                            
                                    -    6 Draft  Textbook  Lessons  -
           Lojban Text                updated to 1992 language
                                    -    New Draft Textbook Lesson 1
lordpray.unf  7781    10-14-91      -    Esperanto   Translation    of
  Lojban Paternoster,  updated  to    Lojban Brochure  - Official  Re-
  current  language.    A  prosaic    lease      (the       unofficial
  version.                            "lojbroch.e-o.tex"  above  is  a
                                      draft version of this release)
         Other materials            -    Glossary of Lojban/linguistic
                                      terminology
l1longrv.txt  70543   6-08-91       -    Lojban    and     Sapir-Whorf
                                      Bibliography

                                  14
-    Lojban       and       Prolog    "Path" is  used to  override the
  demonstration example from JL16   mail path  that the archive server
-    Lojban gismu etymologies       chooses from  the header  of  your
-    Rebaselined gismu list         mail message.  You should use this
-    Revisions to the Lojban mini-  whenever you  know that the return
  lesson                            address of  your message  will not
-    the  JL16   version  of   the  be useful  to the  archive server.
  Diagrammed Summary of Lojban      The  archive   server  only  knows
-    Synopsis      of       Lojban  about domain style address.
  Orthography, Phonology, Morphol-
  ogy - updated to 1992               e.g.                        path
-    tense paper - introduction to  jbaltz@hebrew.cc.columbia.edu
  Lojban tense structures           
-    attitudinal paper  -  updated  send <archive> <file..>
  to 1992                           
-    logical connectives  paper  -    "Send" mails to you the files in
  introduction to logical and non-  the specified archive.  All of the
  logical connectives               files that  you  request  will  be
-    MEX paper - Lojban expression  sent  to   you  archived  together
  of mathematical text              possibly encoded and split up into
-    lerfu  paper   -   expressing  messages that  are small enough to
  alphabets and special symbols in  be mailed.   You  may have as many
  Lojban                            "sends" in  the body  of your mail
-    (papers are  planned to cover  message as you wish.
  other  aspects   of  the  Lojban
  grammar and  will also be posted    e.g.     send lojban logdata.raw
  as available)
-    All  published  Lojban  text;    By  default,   files  that   are
  Not updated to current language.  mailable are simply stuck together
  Mostly   translated    &    with  with the  text "cut  here" between
  commentary.   Probably with some  files and;  non-mailable files are
  kind of  difficulty and  quality  archived  via   Unix  "tar".  Non-
  grading  to   help  you   choose  mailable files  must be  converted
  appropriate materials.            to something mailable.  By default
                                    this  is   done  with  "uuencode".
 Abbreviated instructions for the   Some large  or  long-lined  Lojban
            PLS server              files  may   be  considered   non-
                                    mailable, and you will need to run
  To make  the archive  server  do  the companion  program  "uudecode"
something  you   should  send   an  which will  decode a  message that
electronic mail message to:         was  encrypted  using  "uuencode".
                                    This is  a standard  Unix command;
langserv@hebrew.cc.columbia.edu     Unix users  should see your system
                                    administrator if  you  don't  know
  Use a  null subject  line.   The  how  to   do  this.     On  MS-DOS
body of the message should consist  machines, there  are a  variety of
of one command per line.  The case  utility versions  of the  decoding
of  the   text  does  not  matter.  tool; we have no information about
Note,  however,  that  the  server  other computer system versions.
runs on  a UNIX  system, and thus,                   
for  filenames,   the  case   DOES              Logfest 92
matter, so  be sure  the files you                   
request are properly capitalized.     Because  of  Athelstan's  injury
                                    and other  schedule  problems,  we
  You can  find out what files are  have  delayed   LogFest   92,   la
available with  the command "index  lojbangirz.'s annual  meeting  and
lojban".                            gathering  of   Lojbanists   until
                                    August.  The planned date for this
path <mail-path>                    gathering here  in Fairfax  VA, is
                                    August 14-17,  1992.    If  you're

                                  15
interested in  coming,  and  espe-  started, will eventually amount to
cially if  you will  be travelling  a    complete     and     detailed
from out-of-town,  please  let  us  description of the language.
know.       As   usual,   we   can    People  have   been  justifiably
accommodate  several   out-of-town  frustrated by the continuing delay
visitors  as  sleeping-bag  guests  in   textbook    and    dictionary
here at Bob and Nora's house.  You  publication.   However, this state
can get  here via  subway from all  should not  stop most  people from
major transportation services into  being  able   to  learn   and  use
Washington DC, and you're unlikely  Lojban.  Indeed, with the possible
to need  a rental car.  Thus, it's  exception of  Esperanto (and  only
a cheap weekend of Lojban fun - we  then  because  so  much  has  been
ask  only  that  attendees  donate  written about it in 100 years), it
around  $25-$40   or  whatever  to  can safely  be said that Lojban is
cover food costs for the weekend.   by far the most thoroughly defined
  Originally, LogFest  was planned  artificial language  that has ever
for the last weekend in June (June  existed.     And  we  continue  to
26-28, 1992).  Because some people  refine that  definition -  not  so
already made plans to come in from  much  because   people  need  such
out-of-town, we will dedicate that  details to learn the language, but
weekend to  Lojban  activities  as  because linguists and computer re-
well, and  others are  invited  to  searchers seeking  to  use  Lojban
come,  too,  making  in  effect  a  for  applications   need  as  much
second LogFest  this summer.  This  detail as  possible  to  plan  re-
first gathering  in June  will  be  search activities.
informal; since  there will  be no    The final development activities
formal meeting,  there  should  be  of significance are those that are
plenty of  time for  a variety  of  tied to  preparation of  the first
Lojban   activities,    especially  Lojban book,  which  is  a  proto-
activities for new people who want  dictionary  and   reference  book.
to get  started  in  learning  the  Preparing this book has required a
language.   Let us know if you are  complete and  detailed  review  of
planning to  come, so  we can make  the gismu  list place  structures,
plans.                              trying to  make them  as clear and
                                    detailed   as    possible,   given
   Language Development Status      limited space.   There  also  were
                                    some   place   structure   changes
  The  language   has  been  quite  needed as  a result of the 'sumti-
stable in the last several months.  raising'  change   discussed  last
With the  breakup of  the USSR, we  issue, and  also as  a  result  of
have  added   cultural  gismu  for  other design  decisions made  over
"Ukrainian" and  "Slavic".   There  the  last  few  years.    We  also
have been  a few  cmavo additions,  wanted to  add in multiple English
and  one   or  two   deletions  in  synonyms where applicable, so that
connection with work by John Cowan  the English  side of the resulting
on papers  describing  the  Lojban  dictionary  will   no  longer   be
tense     system,     mathematical  limited    to    the    sometimes-
language,  and  representation  of  inaccurate unique English keywords
foreign alphabets.                  that the  gismu list  currently is
  Far more  significant  has  been  based on.   In a few cases, actual
those  papers   themselves,  which  usage has  pointed up  a need  for
have    greatly     refined    the  change, either  because the  place
specificity   of    the   language  structure was  too vaguely defined
definition  in  three  areas  that  for  use,  or  because  the  sumti
have not  been much used by people  values that were required for some
trying to  use Lojban.    John  is  place structure  places  were  too
continuing  to   work  on  papers,  difficult to  specify  for  'real'
which, added  to (updated versions  language use.   As a result, there
of) the  negation and  attitudinal  are a lot of little changes to the
papers that  were done  before  he  working  draft   versions  of  the

                                  16
gismu list.   The  final draft  is           Weekend Meeting
expected  to  go  out  for  review  
within a  couple  of  weeks  after    We finally  knew for  sure  that
this issue is mailed (over 1100 of  the design  of  the  language  was
the  1400   Lojban  entries   were  solidified  after  an  all-weekend
completed  and  verified  at  this  meeting that  took  place  January
writing).   After a  few weeks for  18-20, 1992.   John  Cowan came to
that review,  the first  book will  town,  and   several  of  us  met,
be assembled and published.         settling nearly  all  open  design
                                    questions.   Following is  a  more
                                    thorough report  on that  meeting,
                                    what  happened,  and  what  design
                                    decisions took  place.   Attendees
                                    included Bob LeChevalier (lojbab),
                                    John  Cowan,   Nora   LeChevalier,
                                    Athelstan,  and   Sylvia  Rutiser,
                                    with pc  joining  in  by  phone  a
                                    couple of times.

                                      The original agenda included:
                                    - A  2nd review  of papers  on the
                                      Lojban  tense   system  and  MEX
                                      (mathematical       expressions)
                                      system,  with   the  intent   of
                                      having them  ready, if possible,
                                      for publication with JL16.
                                    - Nora  and John have been working
                                      on a  formal  statement  of  the
                                      Lojban morphology algorithm, and
                                      some  issues  needed  resolution
                                      and decision.
                                    -  Deciding   on  all  open  cmavo
                                      questions, to  allow a  baseline
                                      of that list.
                                    - Reviewing  all open  comments on
                                      the   place    structures    and
                                      definitions of gismu
                                    -  Review   of  the   progress  in
                                      switching JL over to a subscrip-
                                      tion basis and the current fund-
                                      raising drive
                                    - Preliminary  decisions  on  book
                                      publishing
                                    - Determining  a policy on efforts
                                      by Dave  Cortesi, Bob  Chassell,
                                      and  others   to  put   together
                                      Lojban reference books.
                                    -  Including   John  in  a  Lojban
                                      conversation  session   (he  has
                                      never  before   been   able   to
                                      participate in one, since no one
                                      else in the NYC area seems to be
                                      actively studying).

                                      John arrived  late Friday night,
                                    and we  started the  weekend right
                                    by talking  till 4  AM.  Athelstan
                                    arrived about  2 AM  to  join  the
                                    party.  Most of Saturday was spent
                                    socializing     and     discussing

                                  17
business  matters,   and   various  would be  allowed  under  the  new
minor issues,  and  reviewing  the  grammar.   Because we  want people
tense paper.   Saturday  night, we  to   stick    with   the   current
again quit  late, around 5 AM this  baseline,  we  are  not  going  to
time, with everyone rising in time  distribute or talk much more about
to be  fully awake  for the Lojban  the next one until it is ready for
conversation session.   That ended  adoption   (at    the   time    of
up starting  late, but the 5 of us  publication of  the  first  book),
participated  in   fairly   lively  but people  who have an early need
discussion  for   about  2  hours.  for the  information  can  request
John had no real trouble following  it.   I will summarize the changes
what was  said, and  throwing  his  in store  so people  know what  is
own comments  in.   We then talked  going on:
in English for about an hour until  
Sylvia and Athelstan had to leave.  1)  correction   of  a  precedence
  After  dinner,   we  started  on  error, so  that EK+KE and GIhEK+KE
place structures,  and kept  going  bind  more   tightly  than   other
until 5  AM  again.    We  resumed  connective structures;
around 11  AM, and  kept  cranking  2) adding  JEK+BO to  parallel  BO
till   5    AM   Tues.    morning.  connective  structures  for  other
Athelstan was  there  for  all  of  logical connectives;
Monday's discussions,  Nora lasted  3) permitting  free  modifiers  in
until 10:30  PM, since  she had to  several new places;
work on Tuesday.  There was a long  4) adding selma'o ZEI to support a
conversation  with   pc   in   the  morphology algorithm  change  (see
afternoon to  resolve issues  that  below);
he needed a voice/vote in.  Monday  5)  permitting  "GEK  sentence  GI
evening, we  took a break from the  observative";
x1's and  x2's of place structures  6) in  the current  baseline gram-
to work on the x's and y's of MEX.  mar, it  is impossible  to  use  a
  On  Tuesday,  John  and  I  woke  PA+MAI   free-modifier   after   a
around 11  AM,  and  kept  talking  number   even    though   it    is
till I  dropped  him  at  the  bus  apparently  grammatically   legal:
station  around   1  PM.     Whew!  the number  will absorb  the added
Everything accomplished.            PA  values  because  there  is  no
  Now  here   is  the  summary  of  implicit "BOI" at the end of these
effects:                            numbers.  The problem was fixed by
                                    reworking the rules specifying how
             Grammar                free modifiers  attach to  numbers
                                    so  that   BOI  can  be  added  to
  The   grammar   is   of   course  separate them.
baselined and frozen until we make  7)  after   long   analysis,   the
updates and  republish it  in  the  relative-modifier logical  connec-
Lojban books.  Because we want the  tive selma'o  ZIhE was  determined
books to reflect the grammar after  not to  be especially  useful as a
the books  are  done,  we  do  our  logical connective,  and the group
writing based  on that  next revi-  has  been  stripped  down  to  the
sion of  the grammar.   There  are  single word "zi'e", which now sim-
now 15  minor changes  planned for  ply indicates  the  attachment  of
that revision,  all  but  4  being  multiple relative  modifiers to  a
extensions to  the language.  When  single  sumti.      The   multiple
we write  and publish materials in  logical connective  grammar  rules
JL, they  should be  in accordance  that were  present for  ZIhE  were
with the  current baseline.  Next-  stripped down  to  a  single  rule
baseline grammar changes will only  supporting simple connection;
be   used    in    the    unlikely  8) allowing I+BO-initial sentences
circumstance that  something needs  at the beginning of text;
to be  phrased using  a  construct  9) allowing  NAI at  the beginning
that is  now  illegal,  but  which  of text;

                                  18
10) allowing  any kind of JOI non-              Morphology
logical connectives  to be used in  
forethought,  in   parallel   with    John and  Nora have resolved all
forethought  causal   connectives:  open    issues    regarding    the
JOI GI construct GI construct;      morphology algorithm,  and  it  is
11) POhO,  which has been required  included in  JL16 for final review
at   the    end   of    incomplete  before    publication    in    the
sentences,  will   be  eliminated;  reference book.  Problems included
POhO was added at one point due to  strings  of   vowels   and   lujvo
problems found in some versions of  involving  le'avla.     Since  the
YACC (including  the one  we  were  morphology      is      baselined,
using) that  caused  a  parser  to  technically  any   change   is   a
falsely declare  an  ambiguity  in  baseline change,  but all  changes
such incomplete  sentences.   POhO  being considered  are in areas not
has been  shown to  no  longer  be  well-defined in  the existing  in-
necessary;                          formal 'Synopsis'  that  describes
12) NIhE,  one of  the  converters  the   morphology.       Highlights
used to  integrate  MEX  with  the  (again,   these    are   post-book
rest of  the grammar,  now permits  baseline features.):
an entire complex selbri construct  
to be converted;                    - Adding  selma'o ZEI,  with  only
13)   NAhE    is   disallowed   in  cmavo   "zei",    will   eliminate
forethought 'termsets'.   The rule  various other  schemes  of  making
permitting it had been erroneously  lujvo using  le'avla, all of which
generated    from     a    similar  involved  either  tricky  stress/-
structure.  Contrary negation of a  pronunciation  problems   or   had
termset  is  not  defined  in  the  potential breakdowns  of a  nature
negation paper.                     similar  to  the  'Tosmabru  test'
14) Multiple  I  and/or  I+BO  are  used in regular lujvo.  The result
permitted at the beginning of text  would  have   been  rules  so  un-
(a benefit primarily for those who  intuitively complicated as to make
stutter);                           them impractical  to  use  on-the-
15)  Allow   SE   conversions   of  fly, when most such compounds will
abstract   and    negated   selbri  be made.    ZEI  is  processed  in
without KE/KEhE parentheses.        advance of  lexer rules  (as is BU
                                    for lerfu  and ZO,  LOhU, ZOI, SI,
  If that  list doesn't make a lot  SA, and  SU) as  part of  the met-
of sense,  don't worry  about  it.  alinguistic grammar.    It  causes
These truly  are abstruse 'little'  one word immediately before it and
changes in  the grammar  that  are  one word  immediately after  it to
unlikely   to    affect   anyone's  be considered joined into a single
conversation  and   writing   very  construct equivalent  to a BRIVLA.
much, if at all.                    With  the  exception  of  some  of
                                    those  metalinguistic  cmavo  just
                                    listed, any  Lojban word can be so
                                    joined  to   any  other,  allowing
                                    lujvo to  be based  on cmavo  that
                                    have no rafsi, as well as le'avla.
                                    Many-part le'avla  lujvo will have
                                    a ZEI  between each pair of terms.
                                    Regular gismu  and lujvo  may also
                                    be used as terms in a ZEI lujvo.
                                    
                                    - cmavo space is now recognized to
                                    include certain  structures with 0
                                    or 1  consonant, followed  by more
                                    than two  vowels, with  apostrophe
                                    used between  every  pair  (except
                                    when  diphthongs   occur).    Thus
                                    "zo'o'o'o" could  be a legal cmavo

                                  19
(with an obvious meaning of a more  be changed,  since "mz"  is not  a
intense humor?)  These will not be  permissible medial.  "djeimyz." is
considered for  defined  use,  but  acceptable.
are  added   to  the  experimental  
cmavo space.    The  grammar  will                cmavo
treat   all    experimental    and  
undefined cmavo  as if  they  were  The following  cmavo  changes  are
members of UI.                      made.   Note that  one the  cmavo,
                                    "zei", has grammar contingent upon
- When  one word  ends in a vowel,  the next  baseline.  It will be in
and the following begins with one,  the next  draft of  the cmavo list
a pause,  and not a glide, must be  anyway, even  though  the  current
used to pronounce them.  This con-  grammar will not handle it.
firms the  original  design  deci-  
sion.   Actual usage has been that  zei ZEI lujvo glue joins preceding
some  UI  members  have  not  been                     and   following
separated  from   each  other  and                     word   into   a
other vowels  by pauses,  and this                     lujvo
was determined to be too difficult  
for the  resolver to handle, so it  ne'o    VUhU       factorial  reas
remains forbidden.   An example is                     signed     from
".ua.ui" which has been pronounced                     "zei"  to  make
"/wah,wee/",  but   must  be  pro-                     room for above
nounced  as   "/wah.wee/".      An  
example showing  the problems that  bu'u    FAhA       coincident with 
can result  is ".ui.iu",  which if                     space/time
pronounced  without   a  pause  is                     tense   equiva-
indistinguishable from ".ui,u".                        lent of CA
                                    
- Names  will be permitted to have  be'a    FAHA       north of   from
"la", "lai",  and  "doi"  in  them                     "berti"
WHEN  PRECEDED   BY  A  CONSONANT.  ne'u    FAhA       south of   from
This means  that the  'd'  or  'l'                     "snanu"
must be the at-least-2nd in a con-  du'a    FAhA       east of    from
sonant  cluster   such  that   the                     "stuna"
preceding letter  and the d/l form  vu'a    FAhA       west of    para
a  permissible   cluster,  or  are                     llel       with
initial  at  the  beginning  of  a                     "du'a"
word.   This  means  that  a  name  (these are added for compatibility
"zdoil." or "jdoil." is legal, and  with languages/cultures that use a
every consonant except another "l"  fixed    reference    frame    for
is  permitted   before  "la"   and  directions instead  of a  speaker-
"lai".             Thus      while  based one.  A secondary if trivial
"*nort.kerolainas."        remains  advantage is  that a  Lojban wind-
illegal, it  can easily be changed  vane is  more interesting, instead
to "nort.kerlainas.".   This  will  of having  the letters B-S-S-S for
then  allow  a  certain  erroneous  the four cardinal points.)
comic strip  to be  corrected,  by  
naming the  cat  "mlat.",  "*lat."  voi NOI descriptive clause    non-
remaining   illegal.    It    also                     veridical
corrects  the  embarrassment  that                     restrictive
the  other  English  name  of  the                     clause used  to
language -  "loglan."   - has been                     form       com-
an illegal name in "lojban."                           plicated    le-
                                                       like   descrip-
- Names  are  formally  restricted                     tions     using
from having  impermissible  medial                     "ke'a"
consonant clusters  in them.   The  This  is   in  a  way  similar  to
most significant effect of this is  "goi"/GOI, but  used with  clauses
to require  the name "*djeimz." to  (bridi) on  the right.  It defines

                                  20
a sumti  on the  left as being the  va'u    BAI        benefited by    
thing  the  speaker  has  in  mind                     indication of a
which fills  "ke'a" in the clause.                     beneficiary
Nick Nicholas  asked for  this  in                     when formulated
connection with  an alternate  ap-                     as  "seva'u"  =
proach to  sumti-raising  that  he                     "for        the
prefers to "tu'a".                                     benefit    of";
                                                       from    "xamgu"
Example:                                               (replaces     a
ko'a     voi      lenu ke'a cisma                      useful function
cu pluka mi       cu zutse                             of   the   word
The it1  whose    smiling pleases                      "du'a", deleted
me  sits.                                              last year as an
The one  whose smile pleases me is                     English-biased
sitting down.                                          member of BAI)
                                    
to'a    BY         lower      case  bi'u    BAhE       de-emphasize
                   shift reassigne                     next  the
                   d from  current                     reverse      of
                   "voi";     from                     "ba'e"    which
                   "tordu"                             emphasizes  the
                                                       next   word   -
ma'e    BAI        of material                         added        in
                   used to  add  a                     emulation of  a
                   material  to  a                     similar
                   bridi      more                     function   word
                   specific   than                     in   the   Mon-
                   the    existing                     golian language
                   "seta'i";  from                     Dagur
                   "marji"          
                                    ce'a    LAU        font shift chan
de'a    ZAhO       pausitive  even                     ge of  selma'o;
                   t contour for a                     indicates  that
                   temporary  halt                     the   following
                   and     ensuing                     character
                   pause   in    a                     specifies a new
                   process;   from                     font      (e.g.
                   "denpa"                             italic,   block
di'a    ZAhO       resumptive even                     print, or manu-
                   t  contour  for                     script). Super-
                   resumption of a                     sedes       old
                   paused process                      "ce'a"      and
Example:                                               "pe'e"    which
mi       de'a    citka    ca  lenu                     were        too
la noras.    tavla                                     limited;    the
I pausitively    eat      while                        latter  is  now
  Nora   talks.                                        unassigned.
I stop eating while Nora talks.     
                                    (In addition,  the grammar changes
vu'i    LUhI       the sequence     described  above   also  freed  up
                   converts  other  po'o, zi'a, zi'i, zi'o, and zi'u.)
                   sumti types  to  
                   sequences, even  remaining unassigned (27):
                   if the order is  bi'a bi'e bu'o (bo'a     bo'e bo'i 
                   vague            bo'o bo'u)     ce'e ce'u ci'a do'i 
                                    ja'u ju'e mi'i na'a ne'e pe'e po'o 
                                    re'u te'i va'e vu'o zi'a zi'i zi'o 
                                    zi'u
                                    
                                                  gismu

                                  21
                                             Keyword changes
The  following   two   gismu   are                   
proposed  for   addition  to   the    The     following     constitute
baselined  list,   and   will   be  baseline  changes,   even   though
adopted pending no objection:       there is  no significant change of
                                    meaning.   They will be considered
vukro     vuk vu'o  Ukrainian x1    adopted unless there is objection.
                  pertains to  the  
                  Ukrainian           All  metric  prefixes  currently
                  language/-        have keywords of the form:
                  culture/nation
                  in aspect x2      megdo     10E6
slovo     lov     Slavic x1         
                  pertains      to  It has  been pointed out that this
                  Slavic      lan-  does   not    conform   to    most
                  guages/culture/-  exponential   notations.       The
                  ethnos in aspect  keywords will  be globally changed
                  x2                to use "1" instead of "10" giving:
(lovle'u          Cyrillic    x1
                  is a  letter  of  megdo     1E6
                  Cyrillic     al-  
                  phabet              The following  are being changed
                  symbolizing x2)   to make them consistent with other
                                    culture words  by referring to the
These have  been reviewed  by Ivan  culture   rather   than   to   the
Derzhanski,  as  our  only  active  defining element of the culture.
native-Slavic  Lojbanist.      The  
breakup of  the Soviet  Union, has  budjo     Buddhist  x1 pertains to
made Ukraine  a large country with            the  Buddhist  culture/-
a Russian speaker base, one with a            religion/nation       in
Slavic language  of its  own and a            aspect x2
nationalistic  interest  in  being  dadjo     Taoist    x1 pertains to
clearly distinct  from Russia  and            the Taoist culture/reli-
the   ex-Soviet   Union.      (The            gion/nation in aspect x2
definition  of  "softo"  is  being  jegvo     Jehovist  x1 pertains to
broadened to cover the old Russian            culture/religion of  the
empire and  the new  Commonwealth,            Judeo-Christian-Islamic
but remains  tied to  the  keyword            deity in aspect x2
'Soviet' because  there really  is  xriso     Christian x1 pertains to
no  other  distinct  word.)    Our            the Christian  culture/-
standards   for   cultural   gismu            religion/nation       in
clearly put  Ukraine in  the group            aspect x2
that should  have a  gismu.   (The  
other  republics,   except  Russia    The change in keyword of "mukti"
itself,  will   be  covered   with  to  "motive",  part  of  the  last
le'avla.)                           baseline change,  did not get into
                                    the Planned  Languages Server file
With    two     Slavic     peoples  for  some   reason,   along   with
represented, the  family name also  appropriate   definition   wording
requires  a   gismu  (as   "semto"  changes.   Some copies of LogFlash
exists to  cover Hebrew and Arabic  were distributed  with this change
commonalties).    As  shown,  this  omitted.
gismu  will   also  be   used   to                   
generate a lujvo for "Cyrillic", a                rafsi
better  choice   than  "rusko"  or  
"softo" for  making  a  lujvo  for  "du" will  be added to the list as
that concept, anyway.               a result  of  being  assigned  the
                                    rafsi "dub"  and "du'o".   "selci"
                                    is being given "sle" from "selfu",
                                    which in  turn will be given "sef"

                                  22
from "sefta".   (Since the January  - More  care is  being taken  with
meeting, we  have compiled  a list  'under  conditions'  places.    In
of all  lujvo  used  thus  far  in  many cases,  an 'under conditions'
Lojban text.  This will be used to  place may  be appropriate  to some
generate a more accurate tuning of  event/state within  a single place
the rafsi  assignments to  reflect  of a  bridi, rather  than applying
expected usage.   A few additional  to the main bridi itself.
rafsi  changes   are   likely   to
result, and  will  appear  in  the  - The  use of  "du'u" abstractions
completed book.                     is clearly  distinguished in place
                                    structures  dealing  with  truths.
         Place structures           Some places dealing with knowledge
                                    and truth  have been  cleft paral-
We cannot  list all  of the  place  leling the "djuno" place structure
structure changes  and  definition  change in JL15.
changes being  made  for  the  new
baselined   list.       Based   on  - All known cleft place structures
decisions at  the weekend meeting,  have been reviewed, with more than
about 20%  of the  words will have  half  eliminated   by  putting  an
some   change   from   the   draft  event clause  in x1.   A few, such
"logdata.raw" list  posted to  the  as "simlu",  are remaining  cleft,
PLS  and  distributed  to  advance  but are  worded so  as to  suggest
recipients of the new LogFlash (We  "ka" property abstractions instead
were BUSY!).   Most  of these  are  of events in the cleft abstraction
minor  and   clarifying.      (The  place.
complete review  that Bob is doing
while typing  in these changes has  The  following   are  particularly
resulted  in   many   more   minor  significant  changes  in  meaning.
changes, mostly  clarifications in  Since there  is no keyword change,
wording).                           these are  not considered relevant
  Some general notes:               to the  baseline; place structures
                                    have  never   been  frozen.    The
- Bob  Chassell proposed  a  large  wording is abbreviated and approx-
set of  synonyms be  listed; these  imate, and  there may  be  further
are being  added to the definition  changes before the list is finally
field to make computer searches of  frozen.   For now,  however,  this
the list  easier.   These synonyms  will clarify  the meanings of many
will   also   show   up   in   the  words, and should give a good idea
dictionary as  additional  English  as to the nature of the most major
entries.                            changes being made.

-  A  clarification  of  sets  and  balvi     x1 is in the future of/-
masses  and  sequences  and  their      later than/after  x2  in  time
roles as  place holders  in  bridi      (ONLY; cf. lidne)
caused many  changes  in  wording.  bilni     x1     is     military/-
All places  where these  have been      regimented/strongly
identified as  likely placeholders      organized/prepared  by  system
have been  examined  and  will  be      x2 for purpose x3
identified if space permits.        caxno     (paralleling       condi
                                        below)
- Several 'properties' gismu which  cfari     x1   (nu)    commences/-
are      generally      considered      begins/initiates/starts
subjective,  have   gained  a  'by      (intransitive) [no change, but
standard' place.  The standard may      cf. sisti)
only  the   personal  one  of  the  cimde     x1  is  a  dimension  of
observer, whatever  that  may  be.      space/object x2  according  to
Colors are  NOT included  in  this      rules/model x3
change.                             clupa     x1  is   a  loop/circuit
                                        in/of material  x2 defined  by
                                        (set of points) x3

                                  23
cmavo     x1 is  a structure  word  naxle     (paralleling       dargu
    having grammar  exemplified by      above)
    word x2  with meaning function  pajni     x1  judges/is   a  judge
    x3 in language x4                   determining/deciding matter x2
condi     x1 is  deep in extent in      (ka/ni/jei        abstraction)
    x2 (ka)  at locus x3 away from      (estimate/evaluate)
    observation   point    x4   by  panra     x1 is  parallel to x2 in
    standard x5                         property/pattern x3  by  stan-
cpare     x1     climbs/clambers/-      dard/geometry x4
    crawls/creeps on surface x2 in  pikta     x1 is a ticket entitling
    direction x3  using x4 (tools,      x2 to privilege/entitlement x3
    limbs)                              (nu) under conditions x4
danfu     x1   is   the   answer/-  platu     x1   plans/designs/plots
    response to question x2             plan/plot/arrangement  x2  for
dargu     x1 is  a road with route      state/process x3
    x2                              porsi     x1     (sequence)     is
fancu     x1 is a function/single-      sequenced/ordered by  compari-
    value mapping  from domain  x2      son/rules    x2     on     set
    to range  x3 defined  by rules      (unordered) x3
    x4                              prami     (paralleling       xebni
fasnu     x1  is   an  event  that      below)
    happens/occurs                  prina     x1 (agent)  prints x2 on
flalu     x1 is  a law  specifying      x3 using tool x4
    x2  (nu)   for  community   x3  purci     (paralleling       balvi
    (mass) under  conditions x4 by      above)
    law-giver x5                    ritli     x1 is  a rite/ceremony/-
funca     x1 (nu) is determined by      ritual/is  formal(legal)   for
    the luck/fortune of/for x2          purpose x2  under  custom  x3,
gasnu     x1 is agent in event x2;      under rules/form x4
    x1 'does' x2                    selci     x1  is   a   cell/atom/-
gradu     x1  (magnitude)   is   a      molecule/unit of  x2; x1 is an
    unit/degree   of/on    scale/-      indivisible basic  subunit  of
    reference standard  x2 (idea/-      x2 (cf. English 'atom')
    si'o) measuring x3 (ka)         simlu     x1   appears   to   have
gunma     x1  is   a  mass/team/is      property  x2   to   x3   under
    together,  of   components  x2      conditions x4
    considered jointly              sirji     x1 is  straight/direct/-
jbini     x1 is  between/among set      line segment/interval  between
    of boundaries x2 in x3 (ka)         x2 and x3
jdika     x1 is  decreased/reduced  sisti     x1   (agent)    ceases/-
    in x2  (ka) by  amount x3  (no      stops/halts   doing/being   x2
    change but cf. zenba)               (cf. cfari WHICH IS DIFFERENT)
kancu     x1 counts  the number in  skiji     x1 is a ski/skid/skate/-
    set x2 to be x3 (ni/number) in      runner for  surface  x2  (for)
    units x4                            supporting skier/skater/sled/-
karli     x1    is     a    collar      cargo x3
    surrounding x2 of material x3   suksa     x1 (nu) is sudden/abrupt
krefu     x1  is   a  recurrence/-      at  stage/achievement   x2  in
    repetition of  x2 (nu) for the      process x3;  x1 (ka)  suddenly
    x3th  (ni/number)   time;   x1      changes  at   point  x2   over
    happens again                       interval x3
kusru     x1 (person)  is  cruel/-  talsa     x1  (person)  challenges
    mean to x2                          x2 in x3 (ka)
lacpu     x1  pulls/tugs/drags  x2  trene     x1    is     a     train
    by handle at locus x3               (segmented-vehicle) of  cars/-
lafti     x1 lifts/applies lift to      units    (mass/sequence)    in
    x2 at locus x3                      system/railroad/of owners x3
lidne     x1 leads/precedes  x2 in  trina     x1   attracts/lures   x2
    sequence x3                         (person/action) with x3 (ka)

                                  24
venfu     x1   (person(s))   takes    John Cowan  writes the following
    revenge on/retaliates  against  as  further   explanation  of  the
    x2 (person(s))  for  wrong  x3  set/mass/sequence/individuals
    (nu) with vengeance x4 (nu)     changes:
vorme     x1   is    a   door/gate
    between  x2   and  x3  of/in/-    One of  the aims  of  the  place
    through structure x4            structure review  was  to  examine
xamsi     x1  is   an  ocean/sea/-  all the place structures that were
    gulf/atmosphere of  planet  x2  labeled  "(plural/set)"   to   see
    of fluid x3                     whether an  actual set was wanted,
xanri     x1 (si'o)  exists in the  or merely one or more individuals.
    imagination   of/is   imagined  In  addition,   sometimes  a  mass
    by/is imaginary/unreal to x2    seemed to be the right thing.  The
xebni     x1  hates  x2  (object/-  new place  structures which Lojbab
    abstract)                       is typing  up will  contain a good
xendo     (paralleling       kusru  deal of clarification.
    above)                            Essentially,  a   true  set   is
xlura     x1 (agent) influences x2  required if  the relationship does
    into action/event/state  x3 by  not hold  of each  member but only
    influence/threat/lure x4  (cf.  of the  totality.    For  example,
    trina)                          "kampu", "cnano",  and "fadni" are
xrani     x1 (nu)  injures/harms/-  all relationships  between  a  set
    damages victim  x2 in property  and  one  of  its  members  (or  a
    x3  resulting   in  injury  x4  property  thereof).     If   I  am
    (za'i/ka)                       typical of  ("cnano") the  set  of
zarci     x1 is  a  market/store/-  persons, that  doesn't  mean  that
    exchange/marketplace   selling  the  relation  "typical-of"  holds
    x2   operated    by    x3/with  between me  and  every  individual
    participants x3 (mass agent)    person --  indeed, the idea of one
zenba     x1    is     increased/-  person being  typical  of  another
    augmented  in  x2  (ka/ni)  by  makes no sense.
    amount  x3   (parallels   with    On the  other hand,  we  decided
    jdika)                          that "casnu"  should have  a mass,
zukte     x1   is    an   'entity'  rather than either a set or plural
    employing means x2 for/towards  individuals,  in   its  x1  place.
    end/purpose/goal x3             People may "casnu", or participate
                                    in a  discussion, even  though not
                                    all of them say anything.
                                      In  many  cases,  "(plural/set)"
                                    came up where "between" or "among"
                                    was involved.   Most  of these  we
                                    tried  to   reword  to  avoid  the
                                    problem, which often resulted from
                                    excess generality.   Thus  a  wall
                                    now separates  exactly two things,
                                    and a  door connects  exactly two.
                                    (A  wall   may  separate  multiple
                                    pairs of  things -  my house  from
                                    yours,  my  property  from  yours,
                                    Country 1  from Country 2 - all at
                                    once,  but   the  relationship  is
                                    still pairwise.)
                                      In addition, the phrase "ordered
                                    set"  was  changed  throughout  to
                                    "sequence",    and    the    place
                                    structure  of   "porsi"   is   now
                                    something like  "x1 is  a sequence
                                    of the  members of  set x2 ordered
                                    by rules  x3".   Sequences do  not
                                    have the  same level of support in

                                  25
Lojban as individuals, masses, and    Mini-Lesson -  Athelstan set the
sets; however,  we have  long  had  material  of   his  "Lojban  Mini-
the non-logical  connective "ce'o"  Lesson",       an        hour-long
which  constructs   them  item  by  presentation, down  in  text  last
item.     In  addition,  we  added  summer   and   fall   before   his
"vu'i",  a  converter  of  selma'o  accident.   We  distributed  draft
LUhI, transforming  a set  into  a  copies electronically  (the  draft
sequence, as  well as  individuals  is available  on  the  PLS  -  see
into a sequence-in-extension.       above), and  some two dozen people
  It now  seems that  "fa'u",  the  from 6  different  countries  have
non-logical     connective     for  tried it  and sent comments.  Alas
"respectively", may  be  taken  to  the  revision   effort  was   only
generate a  sequence-in-extension,  partially done  when the  accident
thus:                               occurred,  so   the   mini-lesson,
                                    planned for  this issue and at one
mi fa'u  do se cmene zo djan. fa'u  time  an  excuse  for  its  delay,
zo lojbab.                          isn't yet ready.
(I  respectively-with   you)  are-    People have in general found the
benamed ("John"  respectively-with  mini-lesson  to  be  a  very  good
"Lojbab").                          introduction to  the language,  as
                                    they   found    Athelstan's   oral
  Using  ".e"  logical  connection  presentation   similarly   useful.
will not  do, as  that would claim  Alas, on  paper it  takes  a  good
that each  of  us  is  named  both  deal more  than an  hour  to  work
"John" and "Lojbab".                through.   People  have  generally
                                    said  that   there  are  too  many
        Status of Products          exercises and too few examples.  A
                                    few of  the examples  and explana-
  We have a lot of products in the  tions are  perhaps too oriented to
works, and  a few of them are done  English-native  speakers,  but  we
or nearly  done.    More  signifi-  haven't  figured  a  good  way  to
cantly   perhaps,    several   new  correct that.
products have been identified, and    Given the accident, it is likely
are in  progress and in some cases  that I  (Bob) will  have to finish
near completion.   The  variety of  the revision, and it will thus not
Lojban   products   continues   to  be ready  until JL17 or even JL18.
multiply as  new  people  get  in-  The revised  mini-lesson will also
volved in its development.          form  part   of  the  introductory
  One is  of course the Diagrammed  package.
Summary   of    Lojban    Grammar,  
included  as  an  insert  in  this    LogFlash -  We have released the
issue.   This will  form the major  new version  of LogFlash described
language  explanatory  text  about  in the  last several issues.  Both
the language  for our introductory  LogFlash 1  (gismu) and LogFlash 3
package.   The  Overview  will  be  (cmavo)  are   being  successfully
recast to  talk mostly  about  the  used by several people.
ideas of  the language and not the    For  those  who  want  to  learn
grammar, and  a glossary  will  be  rafsi, the older combined LogFlash
added.   Eventually, this  package  1/2 will  continue to be available
will be  assembled into one of our  (LogFlash 2 teaches rafsi) until a
several book  publications.    Now  new version  is created  -  a  new
for the other products:             version of LogFlash 2 will be more
                                    difficult  to   develop  than  the
                                    other programs because the type of
                                    testing used  in lessons  is  more
                                    diverse.  The lujvo-making program
                                    will also be incorporated into the
                                    next revision  of LogFlash 2.  The
                                    priority of  this revision depends
                                    primarily  on   people  being  in-

                                  26
terested in  obtaining it - if you  only, but  since the  lists  being
are  ready  to  start  using  this  distributed are unofficial, people
program, or  expect that  you will  receiving them  need to  be  fore-
be within  6 months,  let us  know  warned.     Again,  we  will  make
and Nora will put more effort into  updated files  available to  those
this upgrade.   The  files for the  who purchase  copies now, probably
old version are not being updated,  at the  time  the  first  book  is
hence  several  newly-added  rafsi  released.
assignments  and   the  couple  of    The  instability   of  the  word
changes that  have been  made  are  files affects  LogFlash  3  a  bit
not reflected in this old version.  more significantly  because we are
This has  not proven  to be a sig-  more  freely  changing  words  and
nificant limitation.                keywords,  as  well  as  making  a
  There are  two  'problems'  with  small  number   of  additions  and
the current  release,  neither  of  deletions to  the cmavo list.  The
which prevents effective use.  The  changes being  made are  typically
first is that we've had no time to  minor, however, enough that we can
rewrite  the  user  documentation.  finally feel comfortable in recom-
There  are   now   an   enormously  mending that people use LogFlash 3
increased    number    of    user-  without too much fear of having to
selectable features  in  LogFlash,  do a  lot  of  relearning  due  to
and  documentation  is  needed  to  changes.
intelligently choose  among  them.  
You can  experiment or  ask - most    MacLojFlash -  Both versions  of
of these  functions  are  self-ex-  LogFlash for  the Apple  MacIntosh
planatory as to how they work, and  are being updated for the new data
playing around  is not damaging to  files.   Each version  already had
your    learning     effectiveness  some of  the features  now  incor-
(though it  can be  time consuming  porated into  the original  MS-DOS
given  the   number  of  options).  version, and will probably add new
However, explaining  when and  why  ones   to   keep   the   different
each option is intended to be used  versions  roughly   comparable  in
takes a  bit of  work.    Luckily,  capabilities.   The Hypercard  Mac
Nora   has    made   the   program  version by  Dave Cortesi  is being
effectively self-channelled  - the  upgraded to  Hypercard II; Richard
default option at each menu choice  Kennaway's  original  MAC  version
progresses  you   through   fairly  doesn't use Hypercard, is somewhat
optimal  usage.     I'd   like  to  faster, but  does not  have  voice
promise  the  documentation  soon,  synthesis  of   the   words,   and
but I'll  have to  admit  that  it  supports both  the gismu and cmavo
keeps getting shoved off for other  lists in  one program.   Richard's
priorities.     When  more  people  program   is    basically   ready,
start buying  the program, we will  awaiting  only   reasonably  final
of course  put  high  priority  on  word files.   (Our difficulties in
completing       the       support  supporting the  Mac continue,  and
documentation,  and   it  will  be  we   aren't   going   to   release
available free-of-charge  to those  incremental in-progress  Mac  ver-
of you who have done without until  sions of  the word-lists as we are
then.                               doing with  the original program.)
  The  other   'problem'  is  that  The Mac  programs are liable to be
because  of   the  above-mentioned  cheaper than  the MS-DOS versions,
revision  of   the   gismu   list,  partly  because   of   the   lower
especially     affecting     place  quality of  support that  we  have
structures,  the  version  of  the  been able to provide.
list we  are  giving  out  at  any  
particular  time   is  subject  to    Serious  Volunteers  Sought  for
changes.     These  changes  don't  LogFlash  Research   -   The   new
generally  affect   the   learning  version   of    LogFlash   (MS-DOS
process since place structures are  version only)  is instrumented for
provided for  information purposes  research  into   how  well  people

                                  27
learn Lojban  words.  This finally    Other  teaching  products  -  We
allows  testing   of   the   'word  have  contacted   two  firms  that
recognition scores'  that were the  commercially   produce    language
basis of Loglan/Lojban word-making  learning  materials   and   gotten
ever since  the project started in  interest in  assisting the  Lojban
the 1950s,  as  well  as  formally  project from  each of  them.   One
verifying the effectiveness of the  produces software that teaches you
LogFlash technique.                 words and structures as you read a
  We are looking for volunteers to  story or  stories in Lojban (not a
use  LogFlash   in  learning   the  simplified text  - you would learn
Lojban vocabulary.   At this point  to read  most any  Lojban text you
we have  no constraint  on who can  come  across).    The  other,  In-
volunteer,  as  long  as  you  can  ternational Learning  Corporation,
state more  or less  honestly that  produces  a  series  of  materials
you don't  yet know  much  of  the  called  "The   Learnables   (tm)",
Lojban gismu  vocabulary.    Later  which are  books of  cartoons  and
on,  we   will  have  to  add  re-  pictures associated with extensive
strictions  to   ensure  that  our  tapes.   These materials  are used
statistics are  valid, but for now  effectively in college classes.
we are looking for patterns in the    Both    products    have    been
learning of individuals.            recommended to us by more than one
  We  have  no  funding  for  this  Lojbanist.     Both  organizations
experiment -  we can't  pay anyone  have indicated  that they would be
to participate.    You  will  even  willing to  license us  to develop
have to  buy the  copy of LogFlash  Lojban versions  of their products
that you  use to  learn the words,  at no  cost to  us other  than the
because we  need the money to stay  effort    of     developing    the
in business  right now.   What  we  materials.   The resulting materi-
can promise  is that  someone  who  als should  be extremely effective
volunteers  AND  STICKS  WITH  THE  in teaching  Lojban and  offer the
EXPERIMENT  ENOUGH   TO  GIVE   US  confidence  of  having  been  used
USEFUL RESULTS  will  be  credited  effectively with  other languages.
afterwards  for   the   price   of  The down-side  of these  materials
LogFlash  and   any  other  Lojban  is that they will probably be more
teaching  materials   you  buy  to  expensive than  our self-developed
study while  participating in  the  materials (for existing languages,
experiment.     We'll  also   give  the software  package costs around
priority (subject  to our  limited  $100  plus   a  small  amount  per
funds)  for  volunteers  who  need  story, while  The Learnables costs
financial  assistance   to  obtain  around $45 for a book and 6 tapes,
Lojban materials.                   with 4  beginning and  4  advanced
  This isn't  a lot to offer for a  books covering  the  typical  lan-
commitment of 3-7 hours a week for  guage -  we can't  promise  to  be
4-8 months (probably 100-150 hours  able to  sell Lojban materials for
total,  about   the  same  as  the  any less  than  the  prices  these
homework  time   for   a   typical  organizations  charge   for  other
college class), but the work isn't  languages).
hard, and  you will  be  doing  it    These      are       significant
anyway  if  you  are  planning  on  opportunities to  get awareness of
learning the language.  We need is  Lojban  out   to  a   much  larger
people who  will use LogFlash more  audience, but  we  cannot  justify
or less  daily for  at  least  1/2  the time  to produce the materials
hour a  day (preferably  an hour -  unless there  is some  significant
learning may go 3 times as fast or  interest  in   the  community   in
better, at this more intense study  buying  and  using  the  resulting
rate; you  learn quicker,  and the  products.  So we need to hear from
experiment  is  shorter  and  more  you if you think you would buy the
likely to show expected results.)   materials.
                                    

                                  28
  Interlinear Glosser (and Parser)  applications for  which Lojban  is
- This new project of Nora's stems  especially suitable  is a  Lojban-
from four unrelated problems.       to-English translator.   Nora  has
  Because of the massive volume of  long been  interested in producing
Lojban text  now  being  produced,  a   simple    form   of   such   a
Nora and  I can no longer read and  translator, both  for study of the
check it  all - our own command of  problems of  machine  translation,
the  language   is  not   thorough  and as an effective teaching tool.
enough for  us  to  quickly  check  She first did a rudimentary trans-
words and  place structures,  much  lator, handling  a subset  of  the
less  to   comment   the   results  grammar    of     single    Loglan
thoroughly.                         sentences, on  a tiny  TRS-80 home
  People writing  Lojban text tend  computer back  in 1981.   Updating
to make  word choice  errors (e.g.  this program  to use  with  Lojban
lujvo-making               errors,  has been  difficult,  because  the
misspellings), and find it hard to  varieties of  sentences  that  are
catch    these    errors    before  typical for  Lojban are  much more
'inflicting' them  on others.    A  numerous than  for earlier  Loglan
simple    computerized    spelling  versions.
checker cannot  fully  solve  this    A few  months ago, we discovered
(even   if   you   can   build   a  a   free-ware    program    called
dictionary  file  easily)  because  "Shoebox"  (Summer   Institute  of
nearly  all   possible  cmavo  and  Linguistics)     that     produces
lujvo  word-forms   are  plausibly  interlinear   glosses   from   one
valid words.                        language  to   another,  using   a
  In addition,  people  using  the  simple word  look-up technique and
Lojban parser  to check their work  a specially  designed  word  data-
have found  the outputs to be hard  base.   Mark Shoulson  and  others
to use  in an odd way.  When there  have  set   up  this   program  to
is an  error, the parser tells you  produce quite  pretty glosses  for
(approximately)  where  the  error  Lojban text,  but the  translation
occurred, and  you know  where  to  is rather  difficult to read, even
look.   If it finds no errors, the  when you know Lojban grammar - the
rather lengthy fully-parenthesized  words that are substituted are the
output      contains      complete  keywords of  our word-lists, which
grammatical structure information.  are not intended necessarily to be
Unfortunately, a lot of simple er-  good  translations;  there  is  no
rors,    including    misspellings  provision  for   lujvo  compounds,
(noted  above)  and  omitted  ter-  even   though   they   are   quite
minators can lead to grammatically  regular;  several  cmavo  have  no
perfect text  that means something  valid English  gloss because  they
quite  different   from  what  you  serve  purely  grammatical  roles;
intended.     Reading  the  parser  and  finally,  Lojban's  predicate
output   to   find   such   errors  grammar means  that  you  need  to
requires great  care, as well as a  analyze the  grammatical situation
certain sense of what types of er-  to know  whether to  interpret the
rors to  look for.  It isn't being  English  equivalent  of  a  Lojban
done too  well,  and  people  have  word  as   a  noun,  a  verb,  and
found errors  in text  that seemed  adjective, or  an adverb - Shoebox
perfectly  valid,   even  to   the  is not  sufficiently  tailored  to
parser,   when   read   carefully.  Loglan/Lojban's             unique
(Though this  might seem  to be  a  regularities to  take advantage of
threat to  Lojban's viability as a  them to produce a readable output.
understandable     and     logical    Inspired by  this, Nora  started
language, the types of errors that  designing     a      grammar-smart
are occurring  seem to  be of  the  interlinear glosser.   Carl  Burke
types   that    fluent    speakers  has aided  with some  good  design
wouldn't often make.)               ideas, and  the  project  is  well
  Finally,  one   of  the  easiest  underway.    Indeed,  the  program
first steps  towards the  computer  already  produces  better  glosses

                                  29
than   the    comparable   Shoebox    The Cowan Papers, or "The Lojban
versions, even without many 'gram-  Textbook Effort  Grows Up" - 3 1/2
mar smarts', because it recognizes  years ago (October 1988) I started
Lojban  word  types,  disassembles  to write  a technical  description
lujvo,  recognizes  numbers  as  a  and  reference  for  Lojban.    40
unit,  and  other  simple  Lojban-  pages and  the  first  descriptive
specific functions.   It processes  cmavo   list    were    completed.
outputs from  John Cowan's  Lojban  Reviewers at  that point basically
parser,  separating  a  long  text  told me  that  the  text  was  not
into separate  sentences and other  working - most people did not know
logical chunks for easier reading,  the language  well enough to use a
and   optionally    retaining   or  reference  that   presumed   basic
deleting the  structure bracketing  knowledge of  the  grammar.    The
and inserted elidable marker words  format was very poor as a teaching
that the  parser provides  in  its  text.     The   result   was   the
output.   We also have developed a  recommendation  that   I  write  a
'dictionary' suited  for this pro-  Lojban textbook.
gram.                                 From January  through June 1989,
  If there  is demand, we can make  I wrote  6+ draft chapters of such
the   program   available   fairly  a  textbook   while  teaching  the
shortly in its in-development form  first Lojban  class.    About  150
bundled with  the parser (which it  people have  gotten those  lessons
requires).   We'll set a tentative  now, and  a  couple  of  dozen  of
price of  $50 for the combination,  these have  studied  the  language
partly  because   the  program  is  well  enough   to   write   fairly
incomplete; the  final program may  effectively   in   the   language.
be more  expensive.   John Cowan's  These   draft    lessons    remain
parser by  itself is available for  available and  are the  most  tho-
$25 (and may be available for some  rough teaching  materials we  have
UNIX machines  as well as MS-DOS).  for those trying to learn the lan-
People who  are writing  a LOT  of  guage.
Lojban text,  and sending it to us    Alas, the  draft lessons, though
or posting  it onto  Lojban  List,  they've   'aged    well',   remain
can  probably   convince   us   to  incomplete.    I  stopped  writing
provide a  test version  of either  when we  realized that  the  basic
or both  for free  (especially  if  structure of  the course  was  not
you cannot afford to pay for it) -  working in the way we intended and
we'd rather  have you  be checking  it was  getting harder  and harder
your text  before we get it rather  to  write   lessons   that   built
than be  doing it  ourselves.  The  constructively on  what  had  gone
user documentation  and support on  before.   The  completed  textbook
these  programs   will  be   quite  would be over 1000 pages, and sim-
limited  until   the  glosser   is  ply wasn't  good enough to justify
completed.                          that much effort.
  We  are  making  these  programs    I started  a new  draft in 1990,
available primarily  because  some  but  it   got  only  to  page  50.
people are  already  finding  them  Throughout  1990   and  1991,   as
useful,  not  because  we  believe  others learned  the language,  the
they are optimal products yet - if  advances  in   teaching  technique
you are  working  often  with  the  outstripped  my  writing  ability.
language, the  program limitations  Indeed, under  the able leadership
will   not   much   hinder   their  of Nick  Nicholas, the  last  year
usefulness.    Also,  frankly,  we  has  shown   a  truly  outstanding
need people to contribute more for  increase in  the sophistication of
our  support,   and   having   new  our    knowledge     of     Lojban
products   to   sell   gives   you  expression,  its  style,  and  its
something for  your money  besides  semantics.   But  that  evolution,
the good  feeling of  contributing  and  the  dozens  of  little  tiny
to keeping this project alive.      changes  in  the  corners  of  the
                                    language were  stresses that  hurt

                                  30
my confidence  that I was teaching    This lack  of examples was a big
the language  appropriately to the  hang-up in  textbook  writing,  as
ways it  is  coming  to  be  used.  well.  I spent endless time trying
I've  also  spent  too  much  time  to concoct  meaningful examples of
dealing  with   our  unending  fi-  sentences  that   exemplified  the
nancial   problems    and   simply  points I was trying to make, which
coordinating the  rapid  expansion  were limited  in  vocabulary,  but
of our organization.                still interesting.  This is NOT my
  The reference  materials of  the  strong skill.  Still, the 50 pages
language continued  to  evolve  as  of  the  new  draft  textbook  has
well, and,  although the  language  dozens of  examples and  even more
itself  is   quite   stable,   our  exercises.
published  descriptions   of   the    When  John  Cowan  first  became
language   have    edged   towards  involved in  Lojban, 2  years ago,
obsolescence.     The  gismu  list  his first  promised goal  was  the
place structures  were  too  short  rather ambitious one of writing an
and   vague,    but   the    words  example sentence  for every gismu.
themselves were  quite stable,  as  He then  decided instead  to write
were the rafsi affixes.  The cmavo  one  sentence   for  every  cmavo,
list was  nearly  as  stable,  but  covering    every    variety    of
incessant little  changes  in  the  grammatical usage.
grammar   coupled    with    major    A  nice   ideal,  but   far  too
advances of  our knowledge  of how  ambitious,  as   John  found  out.
to communicate in Lojban have made  Some  cmavo  are  permitted  in  a
a simple list of cmavo inadequate.  variety  of   usages  but   aren't
The YACC-based  formal grammar has  pragmatically useful  in  most  of
similarly been quite stable; there  them -  at least not in a way that
were little  changes and we had to  we  English  speakers  can  easily
update the  baseline a year later,  recognize.   For example, it seems
and a new baseline will take place  rather  odd   to  contemplate  the
when  the  first  book  comes  out  mathematical number  "pi"  treated
(though  the   number  of  grammar  like all other numbers and used as
change  proposals  in  the  second  a digit,  or to  enumerate objects
baseline year  have been less than  or  events:  "pi  events  of  Mary
half of those in the first year).   going to  the store" is irrational
  Since  every   example  in   the  in more  than  one  sense  of  the
textbook  must   be  accurate  and  word.
consistent  with   the   reference    John's continuing  work with the
lists, the  more examples I've put  grammar has  made  him  even  more
into the  text,  the  shakier  the  expert in  its details  than I am.
result   has   become.      Simply  He has performed the modifications
checking  every   example  in  the  to the  YACC grammar  for all  the
existing 6 chapters requires hours  little changes  of  the  last  two
of work  - the  new  textbook  has  years.      In   developing   that
several times as many examples for  expertise,    he    learned    how
each key grammar point.             thoroughly   the    language    is
  In addition, the YACC grammar is  defined, while  how little of that
not too  well understood  by those  design is  yet set  down on paper.
who aren't  used to  that type  of  He set  to remedy  this problem in
grammar definition.   There  are a  the context  of his previous goal,
lot of trees, with no sense of the  choosing  to   write  a   "selma'o
forest.   The shorter EBNF form of  catalog" that  would list  all the
the grammar  is  better  for  some  grammatical components of the lan-
people, but it is still formalized  guage,  giving   explanations  and
and  difficult   for  non-computer  examples of  the use  of  each  of
people.   An especial  lack  is  a  them.   Maybe he wouldn't find one
series of examples showing all the  example for  every word  in  every
various structures of the grammar,  grammatical context,  but at least
and  discussing   why  they   were  there would  be an example of each
present.                            such  grammatical  form,  and  the

                                  31
result would show how the rules of  understand the  'B'  words,  while
the grammar  interacted in  actual  'C' requires knowledge of both 'A'
usage (as  opposed to  the  arcane  and 'B', etc.
formulae of the YACC grammar).        Finally, although  John  created
  John spent several months on the  over a  hundred example  sentences
selma'o  catalog,  and  created  a  for the  selma'o catalog,  this is
very  nice  document  that  a  few  not nearly enough to exemplify the
people have  used  effectively  to  entire Lojban grammar.
learn    about     the    language    The selma'o  catalog will appear
structures.     The  document  has  in print,  probably in  the  first
remained  a   draft,  though,  for  book to  be published (see below).
several   reasons.      Basically,  However, it needs to be integrated
though,  John  realized  that  his  with other materials in that book,
goal remained  far beyond  what he  which will take a bit of work.  It
was capable of writing.  I'm going  unfortunately  cannot   serve  the
to  exaggerate  the  negatives  to  purpose John  originally  set  out
make the  reasons  clear  -  as  I  for it  - to exemplify the variety
said, the  document  proved  quite  of cmavo  and their  usages in the
useful  and  informative  for  the  grammar.
limited audience  of reviewers who    To accomplish  the latter,  John
already  knew   a  bit  about  the  has undertaken  and made excellent
language.   Everyone who  read it,  progress on  a new  approach.   He
including me,  learned a  lot from  has divided  the grammar of Lojban
John's explanations.                into some  15 topics.   There will
  The draft  selma'o catalog  is a  be a paper on each topic, covering
couple of hundred paragraphs, with  the cmavo  used in  the portion of
a   couple   of   hundred   cross-  the grammar  that  addresses  that
references; but  the latter is not  topic.   A  half  dozen  of  these
nearly enough.   It turns out that  papers   are    done   or   nearly
so  many  of  the  structures  are  complete.
redundant to each other that it is    The  topics   are  not  an  even
difficult    to     write    about  division of  the  grammar  -  some
individual word categories without  topics can  be covered in very few
referring   to    what   is   said  pages, while  others need a lot of
elsewhere,  or  without  repeating  explanation and  examples.  On the
the same  thing many  times  over.  average,  the   topics  are  being
John also  had to  make use  of so  covered to  at least  the level of
many technical jargon terms that a  detail as the "On Lojban Negation"
explanatory glossary  was going to  paper,  which   was  published   a
be needed  that was fully as large  couple of years ago with JL and is
as the  catalog text, in order for  now distributed  with "Package  3"
the catalog  to be understood by a  for  active   language   students.
beginner.   Finally, because  John  (John's  writing   in  these   new
wrote the  catalog from  start  to  papers seems to me to be much more
end, it  reads fairly  well  as  a  readable  then   my  own   in  the
textual   explanation    of    the  negation paper.)   Each  paper has
selma'o.                            dozens of  examples;  in  some  of
  However, as  a catalog reference  them, over  a hundred examples may
work not  intended to be read from  be found.
start  to   finish,  the  document    The most important of the papers
failed.   Individual  entries  are  completed thus  far is  the  tense
hard to understand - even with all  paper included  with  this  issue.
the cross-references,  too much of  One   of   the   most   thoroughly
the text  presumes that the reader  analyzed and  designed aspects  of
has read and understood what comes  Lojban,  as   distinguished   from
'before it'  in the  catalog.  The  earlier versions  of  Loglan,  the
result  is   like   a   dictionary  tense system  benefits  from  pc's
wherein   you    must   know   and  expertise in  tense logic  and its
understand almost  every  word  in  expression in the languages of the
the 'A'  section before  trying to  world.

                                  32
  I've said  that the Lojban tense  suppose over  a period  of time, X
system is overdesigned - it allows  continues this cruel behavior, the
the  entire   variety  of   tense-  dog's condition  deteriorates, and
related expressions used by any of  it dies.  In English, we might say
the  world's   languages,  without  that "X  kept on:  kept on hitting
particularly  favoring   any   one  the dog  too long, too long."  But
approach.   But each  natural lan-  without      the       long-winded
guage   has   evolved   a   highly  explanation,  you   would   almost
specialized  and  often  idiomatic  certainly consider  that  sentence
approach to expressing tense.  The  both ungrammatical  and  nonsense,
English speaker  tackling  Russian  when it is neither.  (And there is
or Greek  or Irish,  all  Indo-Eu-  no way  to clearly  punctuate  the
ropean   languages,   must   learn  sentence, either,  as I just found
elaborate tense  systems involving  out.)     Lojban  expresses   this
perfective   tenses    that   work  situation easily.
entirely unlike  those of English.    Now  think   of  one   of  those
Making the matter even worse, most  cartoons where  the main character
English speakers  are ill-educated  drives  a   motorboat  across  the
as to  the complexity of the tense  lake, then  continues up  on shore
structures of  their own language,  and  across   the  land.      This
and  the   subtleties  of   nuance  situation is  expressed in  Lojban
implicit in  various forms  of ex-  using a  tense  quite  similar  to
pression.   As a  result, a  major  that of  the last  example:    the
failing people  have  in  learning  character  kept   on  driving  the
foreign languages is that they are  motorboat too far 'on' the lake.
unable to  grasp the  new ways  of    There are  all manner  of  other
relating time  and space  embodied  tense  structures   permitted   in
in the foreign language, and speak  Lojban,  some  of  which  have  no
in a  very stilted dialect that is  parallel  in   natural   language.
difficult    for     natives    to  Lojban's  tenses  are  symmetrical
understand.     (Most   artificial  with respect  to time  -  you  can
languages  have   little   or   no  talk about  future  events  in  as
thought  put   into  their   tense  elaborate detail  as you  can talk
system, and probably never achieve  about  past   ones,  whereas  some
the subtleties of meaning conveyed  natural    languages    (including
by natural language tenses.)        English) have  only a  very degen-
  The tense paper included in this  erate grammar  for  talking  about
issue  will  likely  stretch  your  things to come.
mind to envision new relationships    Will people  find Lojban's tense
in time  and space as expressed in  grammar enabling?    Or  will  its
language, relationships  that  are  many unusual forms never find use,
not easily conveyed in English, if  and fall  by the  wayside.   We'll
at all.                             only come  to  know  after  people
  For example,  at the moment I am  have a  chance  to  learn  from  a
writing this,  I say  that  "I  am  thorough explanation  of the tense
writing JL16".   But since JL16 is  system,  such   as  John  has  now
not yet  published, it doesn't yet  provided us.
exist while  I write it (except as    Here is  a list  of  the  papers
a figment  of my imagination).  In  currently   planned,   and   their
Lojban, we  can make this clear by  status:
stating  that  I  am  writing  the  -   morphology,   phonology,   and
inchoative JL16.                      orthography     (written     and
  Another   example,    long    my    published,    needs    stylistic
favorite,  was   coined   by   pc.    rewrite to match later papers);
Suppose X  has a dog which he hits  - negation (written and published,
in punishment  whenever  it  chews    needs minor update and reworking
X's clothes.   Indeed,  he hits it    to be  stylistically  consistent
so long  that it  sustains lasting    with later papers);
injury, though  a trip  to the vet  -     attitudinals/metalinguistics
remedies much of this damage.  Now    (written  and  published,  needs

                                  33
  major   rewrite    adding   many  1988,  before   the  textbook  was
  examples);                        conceived.
-  tense  (written  and  published    We have  come full circle.  In a
  with this issue);                 year, when the papers are complete
-  MEX:  mathematical  expressions  and  published,   Lojban  will  be
  (written and internally reviewed  well-documented, and  the language
  - to be published with JL17);     and its community will be much the
- logical connectives (written and  richer for it.
  in internal review);              
- text  structure (written  and in    Bob and  Nora Studying Russian -
  internal review);                 Nora  and   I  have   started   an
- lerfu  (written and  in internal  intensive study  of Russian.    We
  review);                          are trying  to adopt  one or  more
                                    young children  from  Russia,  and
Not yet  written (though  in  some  will  have   to  travel   to  that
cases  planned   in   considerable  country, deal  with  children  who
detail) are:                        have likely  started to understand
- abstraction;                      or even to speak Russian, and also
- logical quantification;           to  teach   those  children  about
-  sumti  structures  -  anaphora,  their heritage  as they  grow  up.
  descriptions,   names,   quotes,  (Yes, we  also plan  to teach  our
  numbers;                          kids Lojban.)
- places and place structures;        What does  this have  to do with
- selbri structures;                Lojban?
- tanru making;                       Our learning  efforts started in
- anaphora;                         April,  and  have  already  had  a
- elidable terminators;             significant effect  on the  future
                                    textbook.     Our   situation   in
  John will  write most  of  these  learning Russian is not too unlike
papers.   I (Lojbab) will probably  the typical Lojbanist who wants to
do  a  couple  of  them,  possibly  learn Lojban  - we  want  to  very
including the major rewrite of the  quickly acquire as much competency
attitudinal   paper,    a   lesser  in the  language as  we  can,  but
rewrite of the negation paper, and  have minimal  opportunity to  take
writing some  or all of the papers  formal classes  or  interact  with
on  tanru,   elidables,  and   ab-  native speakers.
straction.     These  papers  will    We've  spent  a  good  chunk  of
probably take  another year  to be  money  on  textbooks,  tapes,  and
completed,      reviewed,      and  other learning aids; we've adapted
integrated for publishing, but the  LogFlash to  the study  of Russian
resulting book  will be a detailed  vocabulary (surprisingly  easy due
explanation of  all aspects of the  to Nora's excellent program design
Lojban    grammar     (called    a  foresight,  even   though  Russian
'reference grammar' by linguists).  uses  a   keyboard  and   alphabet
  These   papers    will   be   an  rather   different    from    what
invaluable  resource  in  creating  normally appears  on your computer
examples and  exercises to  enrich  screen).
the long-delayed  Lojban textbook.    Only a  month into  the  effort,
Teaching of  the intermediate  and  I'm learning what methods work for
advanced aspects  of the  language  rapid self-teaching,  and which do
that were  not covered  in  the  6  not.
draft lessons already written will    When Nora and I learned Loglan/-
be especially helped.               Lojban,  we  acquired  it  slowly,
  As I  went  to  describe  John's  over   several    years,   without
papers, and the role that they fit  prepared materials  to work  from,
in the documentation of the Lojban  and our  level of  skill until the
design,  I   realized  that  these  last  couple   of  years  did  not
collected papers  will be  nothing  approach  a  useful  level.    Our
other than  the  Lojban  technical  experience was unlike what the new
description that I started back in  Lojbanist faces in trying to learn

                                  34
the  language,   and   even   more  language     textbooks,      their
strongly different from the way we  structure,  and   teaching   tech-
hope  Lojbanists  will  learn  the  niques.   I've read  over a  dozen
language in  the future  after the  books on  standard and  unorthodox
books  and   other  materials  are  language  teaching   methodologies
complete.                           and on  textbook writing  for both
  However,   our   experience   in  commonly studied languages and for
studying  Russian   from  prepared  little-known languages  for  which
materials in  a  short  time  will  native speaker  materials are hard
more   closely   approximate   the  to acquire.
typical Lojbanist's situation.        (You  would   be  surprised  how
  What have  we learned?   We need  little  agreement   there  is   on
many more examples and exercises -  teaching    methodologies    among
each of  the books  we  are  using  language  teaching  professionals.
gives  dozens   of   very   simple  Simply  speaking,   there  is   no
exercises for  each point  taught,  methodology  that  has  proven  to
several exercises requiring use of  work  effectively   for  the  wide
each vocabulary  word to  be added  variety of student backgrounds and
to    the    learner's    'active'  goals.   The  best  materials  are
vocabulary, and an incremental ap-  those for  learning  English,  but
proach  that   adds  new   grammar  English-speaking natives  like  me
features quickly  (at least at our  cannot look at these materials and
study pace)  but  only  one  at  a  truly understand the methods being
time.   We have  also  found  that  used, and how they might relate to
tapes are  useful and  indeed  im-  designing  materials   for   other
portant   to    giving    students  languages - the best materials are
confidence that  they can actually  quite  unlike   the  ones   native
speak the  language, as  they copy  speakers study  in English grammar
what  is   being   said.      Tape  class.)
exercises   give    practice    in    This  reading   means   that   I
listening to the language, as well  actually understand the techniques
as correction  of the  errors  and  being used by the Russian textbook
other problems that creep into the  writers as  they use  them  on  me
self-teaching            student's  (the best Russian textbooks on the
pronunciation.                      market were  written in  Russia by
  I am  also getting  specifically  professionals  there,   and   then
helpful samples  of  style:    how  translated   and    adapted    for
much  explanation  is  appropriate  English-speaking  audiences).    I
and  useful,   and  what  type  of  can see which techniques work well
wording is clearest.  Indeed, some  with a  self-teaching student, and
specific   Russian   pronunciation  which  would   need  two  or  more
explanations  will   prove   quite  people, or  even a  class,  to  be
useful   in   explaining   similar  effective.
points about Lojban.                  It is  no big  surprise that the
  I've spent  a lot  of thought on  techniques that  work best  on  me
the textbook  writing problem, and  are quite  similar to the LogFlash
sent  out   a   questionnaire   to  flash  card   technique.    It  IS
potential Lojban  students on  the  significant,  both   to  me,   and
computer networks.   The  problems  potentially to  people who  design
I've had  in writing  the textbook  materials for other languages, how
have included  a lack of time, too  valuable an understanding of WHY I
many things  to do, instability in  am doing  an exercise  helps me do
the details  of the  language, and  that   exercise    better   -    I
low morale.   But the real problem  concentrate on  what is important,
was that  I was  trying to write a  and don't  worry about the rest (I
textbook     with      no     real  can tell  this benefit  because  I
understanding of  what a  language  can see  the problems that Nora is
textbook needs to contain.          having,  not   having   had   this
  I've spent  a lot  of time  over  background  in  language  teaching
the   last   5   years   examining  theory.)

                                  35
  It  turns   out  that  this  new  January weekend  meeting discussed
information will  not  affect  the  above led  to a  lot of changes in
textbook writing  I've  done  thus  the gismu  list place  structures,
far.   We decided  a long time ago  and all other documents have to be
to totally  rewrite the  materials  reconciled with  those changes.  A
in the  draft 6 lessons in the new  lot of  progress  has  been  made,
textbook,  which   will   have   a  though, and  I  can  surely  state
different organization, as well as  that,  except  for  the  time  I'm
a  different  style.    The  draft  taking to  produce this  JL issue,
lessons, updated  to  the  current  la lojbangirz.  is decidedly  in a
language  with  minimal  stylistic  book-producing mode.
changes, will  still be put out as    The number  of books planned has
a book later this year, because we  increased as  we produce  the  two
can  get   it  done   quickly  and  originally identified.  Here's the
because people have proven able to  current plan:
learn from the book.                
  The rewritten  textbook has been    Textbook -  The  existing  draft
stalled near  the end of Chapter 1  textbook lessons  will be  updated
for over a year - partly from lack  to the  current language and minor
of  time,   more   recently   from  changes put in to reflect specific
reduced priority.  Chapter 1 is an  difficulties that  people had with
overview of the entire language, a  an  explanation.    This  revision
big-picture summary  that attempts  will  take  time,  but  isn't  too
to  get   across  the  fundamental  difficult.   Some  added  tutorial
differences  between   Lojban  and  materials, dealing with topics not
other languages in hopes that when  covered in  the 6 lessons that are
we turn to a detailed, incremental  important to  new Lojbanists  will
buildup of language skills in suc-  be appended, and the first chapter
ceeding chapters, people will have  of the  new  draft  textbook  will
a framework to build upon.  (It is  serve as an overview at the begin-
rather difficult to properly teach  ning.
about  Lojban   sentence  features    Thereafter, work  will  commence
without   knowing    that   Lojban  on writing  the  'real'  textbook,
sentences      themselves      are  using  some   of  the  ideas  I've
conceptually    unlike     English  learned from teaching the language
sentences.)   It will  take little  since the first draft textbook was
work to  adapt Lesson  1 for  this  started in  1989, as  well as from
new approach,  but I now, finally,  our learning Russian, as described
have some idea how to write Lesson  above.   This writing  may take  a
2 -  which has  been a significant  year or  two, so  that the revised
hindrance on my writing.            draft textbook  is what there will
                                    be until  then.  The full textbook
  Book  Plans   -  Last  issue,  I  may run  to 2  volumes - I haven't
expected that we would have one or  yet seen  a  textbook  that  gives
two books  completed by the end of  conversational   fluency    in   a
the  year,   those   books   being  language in even two books.
composed of  updated  versions  of    Lojban, while  simpler than most
already published materials.        languages,  still   has  a   large
  Surprising few people, the books  vocabulary to  learn.   There is a
haven't   yet   happened.      The  minimum amount  of vocabulary that
distractions  of   the   financial  must  be   mastered  to   converse
situation  hurt  both  morale  and  fluently in any language.  We have
concrete    progress.         More  had little  success in  convincing
important, the  documents that  we  people to  get that  head start on
intended to  incorporate into book  the  vocabulary   needed  to  make
form have  lots of  elusive little  textbook learning  flow  smoothly.
inconsistencies which are taking a  The draft lessons averaged 100 new
long time  to resolve and document  words per  lesson, and  people  in
so that  we  don't  introduce  new  the first  class did not do enough
errors as we correct the old.  The  self-study of  this vocabulary  to

                                  36
have the  vocabulary keep  up with  text so far into lists (there have
their  grammar   learning.     The  been over 2000 such lujvo actually
answer   is    smaller,    shorter  used in  Lojban text, which can be
lessons, and  some additional work  added to  some 5000 proposed words
on   vocabulary    teaching    and  that are  on  paper  and  computer
drilling techniques.  But language  disk from earlier Loglan work).  I
textbooks seem  to set a target of  expect that  the  slow  production
around  1000-1200   words  for   a  process will  allow me enough time
typical textbook, and this is only  to put  a non-trivial  sampling of
enough       for       rudimentary  these  into   the   book.      The
communication in  most  languages,  resulting  lists   will  be   less
including Lojban.   Thus  we  will  thoroughly  checked  and  standard
need 2  books to get people to ac-  than the  well-analyzed gismu  and
tive  use  vocabularies  of  2000+  cmavo  lists,  but  the  reference
words, which  is almost  certainly  book is  now looking more like the
the minimum  needed for  any  real  dictionary that people really want
comfort in communicating.           to see.
  Of course  people using LogFlash    It won't  be  the  dictionary  I
can get  to that  2000 word  level  WANT to  produce, but it will have
much more  quickly, and  without a  more  to   it  than   most   first
book, since the gismu and cmavo in  dictionaries     of     artificial
LogFlash  3   together  amount  to  languages, and  will  serve  as  a
around 2000  words,  and  most  of  good start.
these    have    some    use    in    I have  been calling  this  book
conversation and writing.           the 'proto-dictionary'.
                                      The proto-dictionary  will  also
  Reference   Book/Dictionary    -  have the  formal grammar  in  both
Originally  the   dictionary   was  YACC and  BNF forms, a glossary of
going to  come after the textbook.  Lojban  and   technical/linguistic
This has  changed.   As  indicated  jargon that  often appears in dis-
last issue, we decided to assemble  cussion of  Lojban, the morphology
the   various    draft   reference  rules, and  other useful reference
materials into  a single  book re-  material.   I plan  to  include  a
placing our  motley collection  of  form  of   the   selma'o   catalog
printed  handouts   and  reference  started by  John Cowan  (described
lists with a single cheaper volume  above).
that is also up-to-date.              A more  complete dictionary will
  Because   we   need   up-to-date  be built  after this  one is done,
references in  order to revise the  but it again will take a couple of
draft textbook,  we  decided  last  years - I've always known this was
year that  this book  was to  come  a big  project for one person, and
first.   It has  turned  out  that  without  funding   for  more  than
producing  it  was  not  a  simple  myself to work on it, it will take
assembly of  old documents because  a lot of time.
bringing  those   documents   into       Nora has  found a purse-sized
consistency   with   the   current  gismu list that I prepared for her
language has  taken a lot of time.  as  an   experiment  to   be  very
However, the  added time  has pro-  useful.      therefore,   we   are
vided insights  that will make the  considering  putting  out  a  tiny
new document  better  than  origi-  pocket  version   of  the   proto-
nally expected.  The revised gismu  dictionary with  word lists  only.
list, for  example, now  typically  If you  think such a book would be
has 2  or more English glosses for  useful enough  for you  to buy  in
each Lojban  word, and the English  addition  to   the   full   proto-
order  list   will  be  much  more  dictionary,  let  us  know  -  the
useful for those looking up words.  market   for    this   book   will
We've had  side projects  going on  determine whether  it is  produced
regarding Lojbanization  of names,  in  this   generation  of   Lojban
and are  even starting to assemble  materials,  rather   than  waiting
some of  the lujvo  used in Lojban

                                  37
until there are more Lojbanists to  
buy it.                               Schedule -  We may  not  be  too
                                    good   lately   at   meeting   our
  Grammar   Description   -   John  schedules, being  too dependent on
Cowan's papers,  described  above,  both time  and money  that are not
along with the ones I have written  under our  control, but  having  a
and will write in the future, will  schedule helps  us keep priorities
form the third basic Lojban book.   straight, and  helps you know what
                                    he are doing to bring the language
  Introduction  to  Lojban  -  The  to you.
cost to  us  of  our  introductory    Here are the current plans:
package is  quite high,  and  only
some 10-20%  of the people who ask              (June 92)
for information  send us  payment.  LogFest 92A
By  assembling   the  introductory  Printed:
package into  a small book, we can    JL16
get  better   postal   rates   for    LK16
mailing it,  as well  as  reducing    Diagrammed  Examples  of  Lojban
our printing  costs.   The savings  Sentences
is only  a few  hundred dollars  a    Tense Paper
year, but  every little bit helps,  Electronic postings to PLS:
and a  lower price might encourage    Diagrammed  Examples  of  Lojban
more to pay.                        Sentences
                                      Tense Paper
  Lojban Phrase  Book - We started    Mex Paper
doing a  phrase book  for  LogFest    lerfu Paper draft
last year,  and a  few dozen pages    Text Structure Paper draft
of materials  have been assembled.    Logical Connectives Paper draft
The  concept  is  similar  to  the    Revised cmavo list
standard  'Berlitz'   phrase-books
for travellers,  recognizing  that             (August 92)
the phrases  a Lojbanist needs are  LogFest 92B - Annual Meeting
not quite the same as those that a  Printed:
traveller  to  a  foreign  country    JL17
would want.                           LK17
                                      Lojban Mini-Lesson
  Lojban Reader  -  We  are  still    Mex Paper
talking about this book, though it    What is  Lojban -  la lojban. mo
will likely be delayed because the       Brochure (Esperanto version)
other books are more important and  Electronic postings to PLS.:
the market  for a  reader is still    lerfu Paper
small.   The amount of Lojban text    Text Structure Paper
that has  been  written  or  tran-    What is  Lojban -  la lojban. mo
slated is  now enormous.  However,       Brochure (Esperanto  version)
checking the translations are slow       - updated
and   inefficient;    even   small    A comparison  of Lojban and 1989
changes in  the language require a       Institute Loglan (Cowan)
rechecking.   We are  also  hoping    Glossary  of   Lojban/linguistic
that more  Lojbanists  will  start       terminology
writing new things in the language
rather  than  translating.    Most            (September 92)
things people  wish  to  translate  Books:
are  covered   by  copyright,  and    Lojban   Reference   Materials/-
tracking down  of  permissions  to       Proto-Dictionary
reproduce    such     translations    Lojban Pocket Dictionary
commercially   is   something   we  Software:
haven't  figured  out  how  to  do    Hypercard     LogFlash/Mac     -
efficiently (along  with the  fact       (Revised and New versions)
that  we   might   have   to   pay
royalties).                                   (November 92)

                                  38
Printed:                                    Using the Language
  JL18                                               
  LK18                                The most  heartening development
  Lojban Learning Materials (Book)  of the  last  several  months  has
Electronic postings to PLS.:        been the  spread  of  regular  and
  Revised Draft Lessons 1-6         active  Lojban   work  to  several
  Negation paper (updated)          people outside  of  the  DC  area.
  Attitudinal Paper (updated)       These people, primarily in contact
  Synopsis of  Lojban Orthography,  with each  other through  the com-
     Phonology,   and   Morphology  puter  networks,   are   doing   a
     (updated)                      variety of  translations and other
                                    writings, games,  and discussions.
             (Dec 92)               The  activities  being  undertaken
Software                            often  rely   on  advanced  Lojban
  Lojban Parser  (PC and some UNIX  skills.   That people  are able to
     versions)                      do   these    activities   without
  Lojban Parser/Glosser             direction  or   instruction   from
  Logflash 2 - rafsi (Revision 7)   those of  us who  did the language
                                    design proves  that  the  language
     Unscheduled But Planned        has now  been defined  well enough
Printed:                            that  it   is  no  longer  totally
  Lojban Textbook                   dependent on  Nora, pc, John Cowan
  Lojban Dictionary                 and myself for survival.
  Lojban Reader                       Even  more   significantly,  the
  Lojban Phrase Book                people participating  in these ac-
Printed and Electronic:             tivities come  from a  variety  of
  Lojban gismu Etymologies          language   backgrounds.       Ivan
Software:                           Derzhanski, in Scotland, is native
  Lojban Adventure Game             Bulgarian.     Nick  Nicholas,  in
                                    Australia,  is  native  Greek/Eng-
                                    lish.    Colin Fine, in the UK, of
                                    course uses British English, while
                                    Mark   Shoulson    uses   American
                                    English (though  he does  most  of
                                    his  translating  to  Lojban  from
                                    Hebrew).   A new  Lojbanist, Veijo
                                    Vilva is Finnish.
                                    
                                      Lojban  Conversation   Group   -
                                    Before  Athelstan's   accident  in
                                    February, the  Lojban conversation
                                    group here  in DC passed its first
                                    anniversary  of   regular   weekly
                                    conversation sessions  in  Lojban.
                                    Without Athelstan, we have shifted
                                    to   non-conversation   activities
                                    such as  translations to  and from
                                    Lojban  of   simple  texts,  while
                                    teaching new Lojbanist David Young
                                    enough of the language that he can
                                    comfortably     participate     in
                                    conversation.  As described above,
                                    we    expect    to    merge    the
                                    conversation  group   into  a  new
                                    Lojban class  here in  the DC area
                                    that will  swell  our  numbers  of
                                    conversant speakers.
                                    
                                      On the  Net -  Lojban  List  has
                                    remained steady  at  around  60-80

                                  39
members, though the last few weeks  post-game commentary, appear in le
have shown  a new  group of people  lojbo se ciska below.  People par-
joining in.   While  most  of  the  ticipating in  the game learn much
subscribers  to   this  list   are  from  trying   to  find   ways  to
'lurkers' in net terminology (they  rephrase what  they receive.  Nick
read  what's   posted  but  seldom  is hoping  to increase  the number
contribute),   the    number   who  of participants in the next round.
contribute  to   discussions   has  
grown to a couple of dozen.           Translations and  other Writings
  The  intensity   of   discussion  -  The   volume  of  Lojban  text,
varies.   Earlier this  year,  the  mostly translations,  continues to
list   was   averaging   a   dozen  grow.   So does  the diversity  of
messages a  day, some  of  consid-  translators  and  sources.    Nick
erable  length.    Lately,  things  Nicholas  is   still  by  far  the
have been  quiet, with only one or  leading  translator  into  Lojban,
two messages a day.                 with  about   10  new  efforts  of
  The    technical     level    of  length comparable  to that in JL15
discussions has  increased.    In-  since that  issue  was  published.
deed, we've  had a  little problem  Some  of  these  translations  are
in  that   new   subscribers   who  from  Greek,   both  ancient   and
haven't  received   our  materials  modern, some  are from  Esperanto,
tend to  be  a  bit  lost  in  the  and even  a couple  from  English.
details  of  the  fairly  advanced  Nick    has     also     completed
discussions, and  very  little  is  translating  the   text   of   the
posted for  beginning  Lojbanists.  original   'Adventure'    computer
I keep  urging beginners  to  post  game,  known  as  'Colossal  Cave'
questions, but few participate.     (badbarda kevna),  and we  hope to
                                    have a Lojban version of this game
  Phone Game  - The old party game  available by the end of the year.
called variously  "the phone game"    Ivan Derzhanski  has  translated
or "whisper  down  the  line"  has  two stories  from  Bulgarian  into
found a new incarnation in Lojban.  Lojban.     One  of   these   will
Originally   started    by    Jack  probably appear in the next issue,
Bennetto,  this   game   is   just  unless we  get  the  final  review
completing   its    3rd   'round'.  done  in  time  for  this  issue's
Lojbanists  are   each   given   a  deadline.       Ivan   has    been
message,  originally  in  English.  complimented  for   his  'natural'
They translate  it into Lojban and  Lojban use  that is  very easy  to
pass it  to the  next person,  who  read.
translates  it  back  to  English,    Mark  Shoulson   has  translated
then the next back to Lojban, etc.  sections  of   Genesis  from   the
until the  message has  gone  full  original Hebrew,  as well  as some
circle.   The  requirement  is  to  traditional Hebrew  songs.   Colin
translate about  two lines  once a  Fine has translated the fairy tale
week, so  the time  commitment  is  "The Princess  and the  Pea",  and
rather small.                       several songs,  including  one  of
  Participants in  the  latest  5-  his   own.      John   Cowan   has
message   round    include    Ivan  translated  a   short  tale   from
Derzhanski, Sylvia  Rutiser,  Mark  Hakka, a  rural  Chinese  dialect.
Shoulson,  Colin  Fine,  and  Nora  Veijo Vilva  and  And  Rosta  have
LeChevalier,  with  Nick  Nicholas  each translated  haiku poetry, and
coordinating things and assembling  Lojbab translated  a  Gilbert  and
the results.                        Sullivan song.   Jamie Bechtel re-
  At the  end of  the  game,  Nick  vised his translation of an Ursula
collects comments from everyone on  Leguin  science   fiction   story,
the  obvious   and  not-so-obvious  which we  will print if we can get
errors   that   creep   into   the  copyright release.   And of course
translations, and  they are posted  the DC group has done a variety of
to  Lojban   List.     Two  sample  translations,  mostly   of  simple
messages from  the 2nd round, with  texts  from   the   19th   century

                                  40
schoolbooks   called    "McGuffy's        Research Using Lojban
Readers".                                            
  Michael Helsem  recently sent  a    As we have gained respect in the
new poem  written in Lojban, after  linguistics   community,   a   few
several months of inactivity while  linguists have  offered ideas  for
relocating to  Seattle.   Thus far  how  Lojban  would  be  useful  in
he's  the   only  one  emphasizing  their work.   I'll highlight three
original writing in Lojban.         key contacts.
                                      Alexis Manaster-Ramer  -  Alexis
  Discussions -  Lojban  List  has  is a noted linguist at Wayne State
had  discussions   on  innumerable  University in  Michigan.    He  is
topics, and space is forcing us to  active in a variety of linguistics
leave most  of these  out of  this  arenas, and leads in international
issue.    These  discussions  have  relations   with    the    Russian
been  very  helpful  in  resolving  linguistics  community,   computa-
some of the issues that come up as  tional linguistics, and historical
we clean  up the loose ends in the  linguistics (he  has a forthcoming
language documentation.   Some  of  paper that  will be  the first in-
the discussions  are excerpted  in  depth technical review by American
this issue,  and more  will appear  linguists   of   the   'Nostratic'
in later issues, but we can hardly  theory  of   language   evolution,
start to  include  the  volume  of  which has  been much-discussed  in
material appearing on Lojban List.  the popular press.
                                      Alexis has suggested that Lojban
  Linguist List  - John  Cowan and  may  be  well-suited  for  use  in
Lojbab have  also been  active  in  semantic  analysis   of  differing
"Linguist List",  a  mailing  list  natural languages.   Specifically,
for professional linguists who are  if you  have, for  example, a word
conducting research.  Our activity  in Polish,  and a word in English,
has earned  us, and  Lojban,  name  they might  be translated into two
recognition in  this critical com-  separate words in Lojban, but then
munity,  and   we  have   garnered  using some of Lojban's features to
considerable respect  for Lojban's  serve  as   a   metalanguage   for
potential  value   in  linguistics  talking  about  the  relationships
research   (see    research   news  between the  meanings.    He  says
below).                             that    linguists    often    make
                                    nonsensical claims/errors  because
  Conlang -  A third  mailing list  in dealing  with glosses  of words
exists for  people  interested  in  from other  languages, they  often
constructed languages  in  general  forget  that   the  gloss  is  not
as opposed to Lojban or some other  necessarily identical in meaning.
particular language.   Many of the    (He cites  as an  example a  guy
participants are  people inventing  who did  his thesis  demonstrating
their own languages, often for fun  that  English   "if"  was   not  a
or for use in fiction.  Lojbanists  logical  connection  by  examining
contribute  frequently   on   this  how   translations   of   "if"   s
forum, and  we have gained several  sentences into  Tagalog  were  not
new supporters as a result.         logical  connectives  because  the
                                    word used  in  Tagalog  definitely
                                    doesn't  ever   act  like  such  a
                                    connective.    Alexis  notes  that
                                    this  argument   is  silly  -  the
                                    Tagalog word  was not  necessarily
                                    identical  in   meaning   to   the
                                    English word,  even if it WAS used
                                    in translation.   Ideally you want
                                    to never  assume that two words in
                                    different language  map to exactly
                                    the same semantic space.

                                  41
  Another  example,   from  Polish  longer term  goal need not even be
(which    is     Alexis'    native  dealt with at first.
language).  'Orange' in its Polish    It  is   interesting   that   an
incarnation is  not as  primary  a  opportunity like  this comes up in
color as  it is  in English.  Even  semantics, the  area where we have
though the archetype orange may be  done the least work in Lojban, and
similar or  identical in  the  two  yet the lack of work done is not a
languages,  the   word   for   the  handicap for  the research  Alexis
concept covers  a narrower band in  has in mind.
Polish,  so  some  things  English    For  the   technically   minded,
calls 'orange'  Alexis sees  as  a  linguist David  Elworthy attempted
flavor of  yellow and  more rarely  to reformulate  my description  in
as   red.       Lojban   has   the  more formal  terms.   In some ways
capability,  independent   of  the  his version  seems more clear than
vaguely defined  Lojban narju,  to  my presentation.  David writes:
add words glinarju and polskrnarju    We   are   considering   lexical
for  the   two   source   language  translation between  two languages
"oranges".      Having   different  lg1 and  lg2.   Such a translation
words,  a   Lojban-using   analyst  will    only    rarely    be    an
wouldn't   assume   them   to   be  isomorphism, in the sense that the
identical in  meaning,  and  would  words   (or   whatever)   in   the
perhaps also have the metalanguage  language   will   have   identical
capability  through   adding   BAI  meanings; most of the time we have
places and  the like,  to  clearly  a homomorphism, i.e. in going from
distinguish the  meanings and  the  lg1 to  lg2 we discard some of the
transformations needed  to  relate  meaning and add in some extra bits
the two.   Each word would have an  of meaning.   The  problem is that
archetype and  a range in both hue  linguists and others who work with
and  saturation   -   the   limits  translations forget  that they are
between orange  and  other  colors  using a  homomorphism and treat it
being different  in Polish than in  as an isomorphism:  hence the "if"
English.                            in English  and  Tagalog  example.
  Alexis thus  sees in  Lojban the  The picture of what happens at the
basis for  a general  or universal  moment is thus:
semantic theory  after the concept  
that none  other  than  Whorf  had      lg1 -----------------> lg2
(Whorf  apparently   thought  that                  h
gestalt psychology  could serve as  
the  basis   of   an   independent  (using h for the homomorphism).
universal    semantic     theory).  
Lojban's   cultural   independence    The proposal  is to  use a three
(whether neutral  or  not,  it  is  stage process:  lg1 to the nearest
relatively  independent  of  other  object (word,  phrase) in  Lojban,
cultures  through   the  need   to  some object  in Lojban to lg2, and
reformulate     and      reanalyze  something to  link the  two Lojban
virtually every  concept for  both  objects, i.e.:
syntactic   and   semantic   place  
structure    values    when    you  lg1 ----> Lojban ----> Lojban ----
translate into  Lojban),  and  its  > lg2
extensibility allow  for a  lot of       h1           h2           h3
power in semantic analysis.         
  While the  goal is  some kind of  such  that   composing  the  three
universal    semantic     analysis  homomorphisms h1,  h2 and h3 gives
capability, just  the  ability  to  you h.
use   Lojban   to   tackle   small    The suggestion is that Lojban is
problems, like the color words, or  a good  tool for  this because  we
Nootka sentence  words or 57 Inuit  can produce objects for the middle
words for snow, would be a boon to  stages which  have a  very precise
linguists doing  their work.   The  meaning  (so  we  get  h1  and  h3
                                    right), and furthermore that these

                                  42
meanings can be reduced to members  
of a small collection of primitive    Alan Libert - Alan is a linguist
objects joined  with  well-defined  at McGill  University  in  Canada.
connective.   Hence we  should  be  In April he gave a presentation at
able  to  get  h2.    So  we  have  the   International    Linguistics
reduced h to simpler terms, and so  Association meeting  in Washington
we can  get a  more precise under-  DC,  which  I  attended.    Alan's
standing of  the  original  trans-  paper was on the use of artificial
lation.                             languages, especially  those (like
  When I  started to  write this I  Lojban) which  do not  attempt  to
was trying  to work out why I felt  copy the  structures of some other
skeptical about  it, and I think I  language or  group of languages (a
now find  that I am less skeptical  priori languages)  to research  in
than  I   thought!     The   major  language    universals.         He
difficulty is  in h1  and h3.   To  hypothesizes that those who invent
know whether  you have  got  these  languages    will    unconsciously
right, i.e.  found or  constructed  incorporate  true   universals  in
the right Lojban objects, you have  their language  design  even  when
to  make  reference  to  something  they are  trying  to  depart  from
outside  the  languages  involved,  their native language constraints.
and this  might just mean that you    His  initial   efforts,  dealing
have replaced  the need to do this  with the  well-known  analyses  of
once (in  h) with  a need to do it  word  order   in  languages,  were
twice (h1  and h3).   But  perhaps  inconclusive.   However, we  noted
this is really the aim:  to reduce  in discussion  of the  paper  that
one hard  problem  to  two  easier  such   'obvious'    features    of
ones.                               language design are too well-known
                                    and  hence   likely   to   be   an
  Ivan notes  further that  Lojban  intentional choice  on the part of
may be  most helpful  where it  is  the  language   inventor.      For
important to forget about cultural  example, the  recently  publicized
concepts  or   about   the   Indo-  "Klingon"  language  used  in  the
Europeanish concept  of  parts  of  Star Trek  movies  was  explicitly
speech.   He also  mentions family  invented  to  have  Object  before
relationship words  and tenses  as  Subject  order,   a  rare  feature
fruitful areas of investigation.    found only  in a few Amazon-region
  Anyone  interested  in  actively  languages.
keeping abreast  of this  research  
project should  let us  know.   If     International News/Publicity
you have  access to  the  computer                   
nets, this  is helpful, since that    There is  not much news in these
is likely  where  most  discussion  areas that  isn't already  covered
will take  place as  we attempt to  elsewhere.  With active Lojbanists
focus  this  into  a  more  formal  now  scattered  around  the  world
research proposal.    We  will  of  (indeed, while our mailing list is
course keep people generally aware  heavily concentrated  in  the  US,
of how this develops in JL.         the people  actually learning  and
                                    using    the     language     seem
  Ivan  Derzhanski   -   Ivan   is  exceptionally  spread  out),  news
pursuing  his   own  research  in-  about     Lojban      is     often
terests  at   the  University   of  'international'.
Edinburgh.  He plans to use Lojban    In the  publicity arena, we have
significantly  in   his  research.  had  some   useful   international
Among other  activities, Ivan  has  developments.         The    major
written  and   submitted  a  paper  international  Esperanto   monthly
addressing    the    variety    of  Monato   had   a   short   article
modification    strategies    that  mentioning Lojban  and giving  our
languages use in tanru (modifier/-  mail and  computer addresses.    A
modificand pairings).  He includes  couple of  dozen  have  responded,
some Lojban examples.               almost all  from outside  the  US,

                                  43
and  we  hope  to  encourage  this  Given the wide overlap between TLI
development into  a further  spurt  supporters  and  readers  of  this
of international Lojban use.        publication and  our computer  net
  The second  development is  Nora  discussions, there may be a reason
and my  eventual trip to Russia as  for this.
part of our adopting a child.  The    JCB    has    been    especially
nature of  that  process  is  such  invisible the last several months.
that we  will not  be able  to  do  Having moved TLI to San Diego when
much lead  planning of  the  trip,  he relocated  there  last  summer,
but I certainly intend to take ad-  JCB has  apparently spent the time
vantage of  our visit  to  promote  since last  November preparing and
Lojban in  that country, noted for  sailing  his  yacht  from  Florida
its diverse  ethnic and linguistic  around to his new home.
heritage.   (I'm hoping  to have a  
Russian translation  of the Lojban    TLI Legal  Appeal Rejected  - As
brochure   and    perhaps    other  reported last  issue, TLI appealed
materials before leaving).          the US Patent and Trademark Office
  There is a good possibility that  ruling in  our favor that 'Loglan'
la lojbangirz.  will lose  its ca-  was  not  a  valid  trademark  for
pability  to  accept  credit  card  TLI's "dictionaries  and grammars"
orders/contributions,   which   we  because it is a generic name for a
started primarily  for the benefit  language  and  not  an  indication
of non-US  supporters.  We are now  that the  source of those products
paying US$15/month  minimum and no  is TLI.   This  ruling, the result
annual  fee;  this  will  rise  in  of a  long dispute  between us and
October  to  US$50  per  year  and  TLI, would  allow us  to use 'Log-
US$25/month minimum.   We  will be  lan' freely  in our  promotion  of
paying more  in fees  most  months  our   materials,   especially   in
than we gain in income from credit  attempting to reach the people who
cards.   Unless  we  find  a  new,  have heard  of Loglan  through the
cheaper  avenue   for   processing  1960 Scientific  American article,
credit cards,  this  service  will  Heinlein's reference  in The  Moon
have to be dropped.  We will still  is a Harsh Mistress and other such
be   able    to   process   non-US  instances  that   predate  or  are
denominated cheques  using  Thomas  otherwise unrelated to TLI and its
Cook, for  a US$3.50  fee.  If you  products.   The legal  battle  was
are   planning   a   credit   card  started   in    1988   after   TLI
contribution, though,  I recommend  threatened legal  action over  our
that you do so before summer ends.  use of  the term 'Loglan' in JL in
                                    ways they did not approve.
     News From the Institute          Oral  arguments  on  the  appeal
                                    were  held  on  7  November  1991,
  The   Loglan   Institute   (TLI)  before three judges of the Circuit
continues to  survive, though this  Court of  Appeals for  the Federal
remains fairly  invisible  on  the  Circuit.   Bill Herbert  of  Staas
forums that  we see.    Since  our  and   Halsey    argued   for    la
last issue,  two  more  issues  of  lojbangirz., while  Wesley Parsons
Lognet  have   appeared.      Each  argued for  TLI.   JCB was present
contains a  short piece  of Loglan  in the  courtroom, as  were Athel-
text, and  discussions of  various  stan and myself.
technical issues.  Lognet seems to    Oral arguments lasted only about
look like  some of  our  early  JL  a half  hour; then a long wait for
issues, only much smaller.          the decision,  which  was  finally
  Most entertaining  is how  users  issued on  28 April.  The decision
of the TLI version are discovering  was clearly  and strongly  in  our
many of  the improvements  we made  favor,    and     makes    further
in creating Lojban 5 years ago, or  likelihood that  our position will
have added  since.  Indeed, almost  be refuted quite remote.  Mr. Par-
every  change   reported  in   TLI  sons has  filed a  request for re-
Loglan was already part of Lojban.  hearing, as is often done, but the

                                  44
appeals court  rarely grants  such  through our  attorneys to set up a
requests.                           mediated discussion of differences
  The Circuit  Court of Appeals is  leading to  a resolution  of those
normally the  court of last resort  differences.   When TLI  seemed to
for    trademark     and     other  show   interest,    we   hurriedly
intellectual property  cases.  The  drafted  a   lengthy  proposal  to
only higher  court is  the  U.  S.  serve as  an  agenda  for  such  a
Supreme  Court,   and  they   take  meeting,    indicating     several
perhaps  one   such   case   every  options  that  could  be  pursued.
several  years;  the  grounds  for  However, TLI  quickly rejected the
such a  Supreme Court  appeal have  proposal/agenda  without  comment,
to    typically    require    some  and indicated  that they  found no
particular controversy, a signifi-  basis  for   mutual   discussions.
cant  constitutional   issue,   or  Thus, even  though JCB  and I were
disagreement between  lower courts  in the same courtroom in November,
(which cannot  happen in trademark  at his choice no meeting occurred.
cases, since there is now only one                   
appeals court  that handles trade-          le lojbo se ciska
mark issues).   These  grounds are
going to be particularly difficult  Excerpt from the 2nd Round of the
to find in the Loglan decision.  A              Phone Game
Supreme Court  case is  also quite                   
expensive to  file for  such a low    Here is  the first of two sample
chance of  success, and  with this  sentences  from   the  phone  game
appeal decision,  the courts  have  played on the computer nets.  This
started requiring  TLI to pay some  one   communicated    very   well.
of our  costs  in  refuting  their  Commentary   courtesy    of   Nick
appeals.                            Nicholas.
  In  discussing   the  appeal  in  
Lognet,   JCB    made   statements    The original phrase was:
suggesting that  he was  confident    Hot?! Man, it was so hot, if you
of victory  and that it was just a    cracked an  egg on the sidewalk,
matter   of    time   until   this    it'd fry  in ten  seconds  flat!
occurred.   As a  result of  these    Honest!
statements, our attorney has urged  
that  we   publish   the   Appeals    Mark  Shoulson  translated  this
decision in  full so that there is  as:
no question  that TLI's  case  has    xu pu  glare  paunai    .i  leni
little on  which to stand.  We are    glare zo'u  lenu karpo'i da'i lo
doing  so   below,  omitting  only    sovda vi  lo dzuklaji  cu  rinka
legal case citations that wouldn't    lenu ra  bazi binxo  lo se jukpa
mean much except to lawyers (we'll    ba'o lo snidu be li pano sa'e .i
supply a copy of the decision, and    ba'ucu'i
of the  original trademark cancel-    
lation decision  to those  wanting    (Was it  hot?   (This is  not  a
these  details,   at  reproduction    question).   For the  amount  of
cost).                                heat, (something)  open-breaking
                                      (suppose) into  an egg  (pieces)
  One  more   settlement   attempt    at a  walk-street causes that it
rejected -  While we  continue  to    (the  egg   pieces)   become   a
defend our  right to  use the term    cooked-thing  after  10  seconds
"Loglan"    in    promoting    the    (exactly!).  (Accuracy!))
language,   we   have   continued,
whenever      avenues      present    Mark  justified  not  explicitly
themselves,   to    pursue    more  flagging exaggeration by saying:
productive  resolutions   of   our    A little  strange, in  that  the
disputes with TLI.  Discovering on    speaker claims  not  to  be  ex-
short notice  that JCB  was coming    aggerating, but  then that's the
to  Washington   to   attend   the    most     common      form     of
hearing,  we   initiated   contact    exaggeration.   It hardly  seems

                                  45
  likely to expect Lojban speakers  snidu ja'e  sequence doesn't  make
  to   be    honest   with   their  much sense  to me.   Well it does,
  attitudinals and  lose the power  but   it   circuitous.      What's
  their hyperbole.  Then again, we  happening is: "it's a being-cooked
  can  assume  that  the  sentence  lasting-n-seconds   thing"   which
  really is true, so that's okay.   makes  sense,  sorta,  but  you're
                                    waiting to find out what n is, and
  The main  blunder  is  with  the  instead  of  n  being  the  second
place structure  of porpi:  it has  place    (seljukpa     snidu    li
x1 breaking  into pieces  x2,  not  su'epano), it  shows up  as a ja'e
agent x1  breaking x2  into pieces  place:   "resulting in  the number
x3  (this   is  popygau   or  some  10".  Now this could mean "it's an
variant  of   popri'a).    I  like  n-second cook  ending up  being 10
prenexes too, but I would put leni  seconds" (cf.:   it's a ten-second
glare into  an explicit  BAI place  wait) which  is fine,  but  it  in
(ki'u...).                          fact ends  up as "it's an n-second
  What I  was in  fact looking for  cook resulting in the number ten."
is  the  translation  of  "so  hot  In Lojban,  of course, it's easier
that..." suggested  by Lojbab in a  to deduce  from the  second phrase
past JL:  ".i  glare  seja'e  lenu  that the first was meant.  I would
co'eli'o".   Are we  sure that, if  still, however, regard this use of
the  breaking   of  the   egg   is  ja'e as anomalous, and dangerously
hypothetical,  that   its   effect  vague.
(it's  being   cooked)   is   also    None the  less, the  meaning  is
hypothetical;   ie.   the   Lojban  still   retrievable,   and   there
doesn't necessarily  imply "If you  hasn't   been    any   significant
were to  break the  egg,  it  will  distortion, as in other sentences.
ca'a cook"?  I suppose so.          
  One may  debate  whether  Mark's  [Another phone  game extract  will
translation   was    good   Lojban  be found below.]
(personally, I  think it was).  In  
any case, it was excellent English     Text of the Court of Appeals
:), as Colin's translation shows:                Decision
                                                     
  WAS IT  HOT!   The heat - if you    As stated  above,  this  is  the
  cracked an  egg on  the pavement  text of  the decision  by  the  US
  it  would   be  cooked   in  ten  Circuit Court  of Appeals  for the
  seconds, no more, really!         Federal Circuit in TLI's appeal of
                                    our   successful    petition   for
  (I don't  have  any  comment  to  cancellation of  TLI's  registered
make:   this is  the first almost-  trademark for  'Loglan'.  The text
fully successful  message relay in  is printed  verbatim,  except  for
this game).                         asterisks in brackets substituting
  Sylvia came up with:              for multitudinous  legal citations
                                    that mean  little to  the  average
  .u'e glare .ije da'i lo sovda cu  reader.
  selporpi di'o  le dagysfe seri'a  
  seljukpa snidu  ja'e li  su'e pa               92-1254
  no                                     Cancellation No. 18,026
                                       THE LOGLAN INSTITUTE, INC.,
  ((Wonder!)  Heat.  And (suppose)              Appellant,
  an egg is broken at the locus of                  v.
  the road-surface  causing (that:  THE LOGICAL LANGUAGE GROUP, INC.,
  {lenu} omitted)  (something) is-              Appellee.
  cooked lasting-  -(some)-seconds                   
  result the number at most 10.)         DECIDED:  April 28, 1992
                                                     
  This has  me a bit worried.  The  Before  PLAGER,   Circuit   Judge,
place of  da'i in the sentence can  SKELTON, Senior Circuit Judge, and
be argued  about, but the seljukpa  LOURIE, Circuit Judge.

                                  46
                                      On May  23, 1989,  the  Language
LOURIE, Circuit Judge.              Group  petitioned   the  Board  to
                                    cancel       the       Institute's
  The   Loglan   Institute,   Inc.  registration of  the mark  Loglan,
(Institute),  appeals   the  final  alleging that  Loglan is  merely a
decision of  the  Trademark  Trial  contraction of,  or  generic  name
and  Appeal   Board   (Board)   in  for  a   logical  language.    The
Cancellation No.  18,026 (February  Language group also contended that
4, 1991).   The  Board granted The  the application  for  registration
Logical  Language   Group,  Inc.'s  had been fraudulently made, or, if
(Language   Group)    motion   for  a  trademark   ever  existed   for
summary  judgement,  holding  that  Loglan,   the    mark   had   been
the Institute's  mark, LOGLAN,  is  abandoned.    After  both  parties
generic  and  ordered  the  regis-  moved for  summary  judgment,  the
tration cancelled.  We affirm.      Board granted the Language Group's
                                    motion and ordered cancellation on
BACKGROUND                          the  ground   that  Loglan  is  "a
                                    generic designation  identifying a
  In   1955,   Dr.   James   Brown  language rather  than a  trademark
invented  a   "logical   language"  to indicate  the source of goods."
which was  designed  to  test  the  Additionally, the Board found that
theory  that   natural   languages  the  application   had  not   been
limit human  thought.  It has been  fraudulently  made  and  that  the
described   by    Dr.   Brown   as  abandonment issue  was moot.   The
"symbolic  logic  made  speakable"  Board  refused   to  consider  the
which  "derives   its   word-stock  affirmative defenses raised by the
impartially from  the  eight  most  Institute, stating  that some were
widely  spoken  natural  languages  not     within     the     Board's
and so  is culturally  and politi-  jurisdiction and  others were  not
cally neutral  as well as suitable  good defenses  against a charge of
for   cross-cultural    linguistic  genericness.  The Institute argues
experimentation."      Dr.   Brown  here  that   the  Board  erred  in
coined the  word "Loglan" (derived  holding that  Loglan was a generic
from    logical    language)    to  term and  in refusing  to consider
designate the  new language.    He  the affirmative defenses.
first used  the term  Loglan in  a  
publication in 1956; several years  DISCUSSION
later,  in  1962,  he  formed  the  
Institute    to     promote    the  A.  Summary Judgment
development and use of Loglan.  On  
August  17,1987,   the   Institute    The  requirements  for  granting
applied for registration of Loglan  summary judgment  in  a  trademark
as a  mark for  "Dictionaries  and  cancellation  proceeding  are  the
Grammars."      The   registration  same as  in any  other case, viz.,
issued on April 12, 1988.           that there  be no genuine issue of
  Apparently  unhappy   with   the  material fact  and the  movant  be
Institute's progress in developing  entitled to  judgment as  a matter
the  language,  a  member  of  the  of  law.   [*].    We  review  the
Institute  left  and  in  November  propriety of  summary judgment  de
1988 founded  the Language  Group.  novo. [*]
In  February  1989,  the  Language    The  parties   agree  that   the
Group   published   a   newsletter  factual     issues      underlying
regarding  the   progress  of  its  genericness    are     undisputed.
logical   language.       In   the  Though genericness itself has been
newsletter,   several   references  categorized as  a question of fact
were made to Loglan, prompting the  [*], the  parties have  each moved
Institute to threaten the Language  for  summary   judgment  on   that
Group     with     a     trademark  question.   The  Board  considered
infringement suit.                  the   lengthy    affidavits    and
                                    numerous   exhibits   each   party

                                  47
submitted  in   support   of   its  consideration in  a  determination
motion, and  concluded that Loglan  of genericness [*].
was generic.   Our review requires    The Institute  concedes that the
us to  determine whether, based on  relevant  public   is  "the  small
the evidence  of record, the Board  group of  persons who have written
was correct  in  that  conclusion.  about the  language or  have  been
After examining  the record, we do  involved in  the invented language
not believe  the  Board  erred  in  research effort  as well  as those
concluding that the Language Group  to whom  the Loglan  language  has
was  entitled  to  judgment  as  a  been or  is being  marketed."  The
matter of law.                      Institute's     definition      of
                                    "relevant  public"  is  consistent
B.  Genericness                     with this  court's reading  of the
                                    term as  encompassing both "actual
  The Lanham  Act provides for the  [and] potential  purchasers of ...
cancellation of a mark which is or  goods or services." [*].  Evidence
has become  the generic  name  for  of  what   the   relevant   public
goods or  services [*].   While  a  understands the  term to  mean may
trademark   registration   has   a  come    from    direct    consumer
presumption  of   validity,  in  a  testimony,   surveys,   dictionary
cancellation    proceeding    that  listings,  newspapers,  and  other
presumption  may  be  rebutted  by  publication [*].  Although in many
evidence from  the  party  seeking  situation a survey is desirable to
cancellation  [*].     Before  the  establish the public's perception,
Board,    the    Language    Group  given  the  limited  size  of  the
presented   numerous   pieces   of  relevant group  here, the numerous
evidence to  show that  Loglan  is  examples submitted  by the parties
used generically  to  designate  a  are sufficient  to  determine  how
logical language.                   the relevant  group perceives  the
  The parties  do not dispute that  term Loglan.
if Loglan  is used  generically to    The evidence  indicates the  Dr.
designate  a  language,  the  term  Brown himself  has used  the  term
cannot properly be registered as a  Loglan only  in a  generic  sense.
trademark  for  "dictionaries  and  For example, in 1984, Brown stated
grammars" any  more  than  English  to the Institute's membership:
can   be    registered    for    a
dictionary.  That Loglan is not as    I'm insisting  on moving  in the
well   known    as   English    is    right   direction   for   Loglan
immaterial.  Because a language is    whether   this    means   losing
not "goods"  or  "services"  under    control  of   the  institute   I
the Act [*], a name originated for    founded  or  not...    Your  can
a new  language is  inherently not    always write  me  if  you  still
registrable for  the language.  By    want to talk to me about Loglan,
the same  token, a generic name of    or to  help me  in putting it to
a language  alone cannot  function    use.   As  a  private  person  I
as a  trademark to indicate origin    shall always  be available to my
of a  dictionary  describing  that    old    Loglandian     friends...
language.  Thus, our determination    Loglan  may   not  suffer   very
hinges on  whether the  Board  was    much...   Health permitting I'll
correct  in  concluding  that  the    still  write   those  couple  of
term   Loglan   is,   "a   generic    books.   Perhaps with my example
designation     identifying      a    others will too.
language."
  The Institute  argues  that  the  His encouragement  for  others  to
relevant public  does not perceive  write Loglan  books  or  books  in
Loglan as generic, but rather sees  Loglan  negates   the  claim   now
it as  indicating a  single source  asserted of  proprietary rights in
of the  language.    The  public's  Loglan.
perception    is    the    primary    Also, the  Institute published a
                                    book, entitled  "Loglan  (1):    A

                                  48
Logical Language."    Included  in  understand Loglan  to be a generic
the 1989 version is the statement   term; this  understanding did  not
                                    arise only  from  actions  of  the
  In my  English idiolect,  as  in  Language  Group.     Rather,   the
  Loglan and  French,  words  like  Language  Group   and  the  public
  "loglanist",   "loglandic"   and  merely followed  the generic usage
  "loglandical" are  general terms  of the Institute.
  like  "cat"   and  "dog"  (i.e.,  
  common nouns  or adjectives) and  C.  Equitable Defenses
  therefore uncapitalized, whereas  
  words    like    "Loglan"    and    As  part   of  its  answer,  the
  "Loglandia" are  singular  terms  Institute  alleged   various   af-
  (words  with  single  designata,  firmative defenses,  including the
  like "John"  or "Greenland") and  equitable  defenses   of   unclean
  therefore  capitalized.     Both  hands,      estoppel,       fraud,
  Loglan  and   French  are   more  acquiescence,  and  waiver.    The
  fastidious  about  such  logical  Board  found   that  the   unclean
  matters than Standard English.    hands, fraud and estoppel defenses
                                    were based  on allegation of trade
As he stated, Loglan is a name for  secret theft  and infringement and
a language like French or English.  therefore  were   not  within  the
Based on  all this  evidence,  the  jurisdiction   of    the    Board.
Board  had   adequate   basis   to  Further, the Board stated that the
conclude that  both Brown  and the  equitable defense  of acquiescence
Institute adopted  the term Loglan  was not  valid against  the  claim
as the generic name of a language.  that the  mark was  generic.    We
  The Institute argues that no one  affirm.
else has used the term Loglan in a    Application  of  these  defenses
generic  fashion   and   that   by  must be considered in light of the
capitalizing   Loglan    in    its  clear purposes  of  the  Trademark
newsletter,  the   Language  Group  Act that  a registered mark may be
itself treats  the term  in a non-  cancelled  at   any  time  on  the
generic  manner.     We  disagree.  ground that it is generic [*], and
Capitalization is the correct form  also  in   light  of  the  Board's
for the  name of a language, e.g.,  discretionary power  to apply  the
English, French,  or  German  [*];  defenses.
this it is compatible with generic    To  support   the  defenses   of
use.     Moreover,  the   Language  unclean   hands,   estoppel,   and
Group's  own   logical   language,  fraud, the  Institute pleaded that
"Lojban", is referred to as a type  the  Language   Group  "wrongfully
of Loglan.    The  Language  Group  acquired the  trade secrets of the
refers to  "[Brown's]  version  of  [Institute]..., and  has converted
'Loglan'" and  states that "Lojban  and used  such  trade  secrets  to
is indeed a Loglan."                [Language Group]'s benefit... [and
  In addition  to generic  use  of  that the  Language  Group]  wrong-
the term  Loglan by  the Institute  fully used  the mark  'Loglan'  in
and  the  Language  Group,  others  interstate  commerce...,   thereby
have so  used the  term.  Numerous  infringing  on  [the  Institute's]
letters have  been written  to the  trademark."    As  pleaded,  these
Language  Group   inquiring  about  defenses are essentially claims of
Loglan,  requesting  to  be  main-  trademark infringement  and unfair
tained  on   its  Loglan   mailing  competition premised on the Insti-
lists, and  even  inquiring  about  tute's  assertion   of   trademark
the status  of the Loglan language  rights in  Loglan.   The Institute
being developed  by  the  Language  also alleges  that  after  it  de-
Group.     The   fact   that   the  manded  that  the  Language  Group
"consuming public"  would write to  stop using  its "mark," the latter
someone other  than the  Institute  acquiesced and ceased using Loglan
regarding  the   Loglan   language  to designate its logical language.
indicates   that   third   parties

                                  49
  The  Lanham   Act   specifically  nection,  and   the   mathematical
provides  that   "[i]n  all  inter  selbri words.
partes    proceedings    equitable
principles  of  laches,  estoppel,  **********************************
and acquiescence, where applicable  **************
may  be  considered  and  applied"  Examples    of    bridi    logical
[*].   While the  Board must  con-  connection
sider such  defenses, we determine  **********************************
that  it  properly  exercised  its  **************
discretion  in  not  allowing  the  mi dansu gi'e sanga
defenses to  prevail here.  As the  I dance and sing.
Board   stated,   these   defenses  .i lenu  mi dansu  gi'e  sanga  cu
cannot  override  the  controlling    nibli lenu mi dansu
fact that  Loglan is  the  generic  (The event  that I dance and sing)
name for  a language  and that  it    logically   necessitates    (the
cannot therefore  be  a  trademark    event that I dance).
for dictionaries.   The  Board did  My dancing and singing necessarily
not err  in declining to apply the    implies my dancing.
defenses, as  the public  interest  .i lenu  mi dansu  gi'e  sanga  cu
in a  cancellation  proceeding  to    nibli lenu mi sanga
rid the register of a generic mark  (The event  that I dance and sing)
transcends them.   The  Board  may    logically   necessitates    (the
have  erred  in  stating  that  it    event that I sing).
lacked jurisdiction  over the  de-  My dancing and singing necessarily
fenses,   but   that   error   was    implies my singing.
harmless under the circumstances.   do limna gi'a bajra
  We, of  course, do  not rule  on  You swim or run.
whether the  Institute may have an  .i la'edi'u  goi ko'a  cu na nibli
action against  the Language Group    lenu do limna
on   any    matters   of    unfair  The event  of  the  last  sentence
competition.     The  record  here    (ko'a)  doesn't   logically  ne-
simply show  that the  term Loglan    cessitate  (the   event  of  you
has never  been a  trademark,  but    swimming).
rather entered  the public  domain  This  doesn't   necessarily  imply
as a generic name from the time of    that you swim.
its inception.                      .i ko'a cu na nibli lenu do bajra
                                    It doesn't  logically  necessitate
CONCLUSION                            (the event of you running).
                                    It also  doesn't necessarily imply
The  decision   of  the  Board  is    that you run.
therefore                           mi djica lenu sipna gi'a citka
                                    I desire (the event of sleeping or
AFFIRMED                              eating).
__________________________________  I want to sleep or eat.
              _____                 .i do  djica lenu  sipna  ku  gi'a
                                      citka
    le lojbo se ciska (cont.)       I desire the event of sleeping, or
                                      eat.
  Back  when  I  was  writing  the  I either want to sleep, or I eat.
draft textbook  lessons, Nora  was  ti berti ta gi'o se snanu ta
busily inventing  examples for me.  This is north of that if-and-only-
I  never  finished  writing  draft    if be-southed by that.
Lesson 7,  but Nora  had plenty of  This is north of that if-and-only-
examples.       Here   are   those    if that is south of it.
examples, without  the textual ex-  .i ti ta berti gi'o se snanu
planation that was never finished.  This, of  that, is  north  if-and-
As with  most of  Nora's examples,    only-if be-southed.
they stand  quite  well  on  their  ro da jetnu gi'o na jitfa
own, anyway.   The  primary topics  All-somethings  are  true  if-and-
are  abstraction,   logical   con-    only-if not false

                                  50
ro da jetnu gi'onai jitfa           mi ba  cuxna le  xunre .a le xekri
All-somethings are true exclusive-    .i mi ba na cuxna le xunre .e le
  or false.                           xekri
All-somethings are  true or  false  I  will  choose  the  red  or  the
  (but not both).                     black.   And I  will not  choose
All-somethings  are  true  if-and-    the red and the black.
  only-if not false.                .iseni'ibo mi  ba cuxna  le  xunre
ko gasnu gi'o se minde                .onai le xekri
(Imperative!) You! do if-and-only-  Therefore-logically I  will choose
  if as-commanded.                    the red exclusive-or the black.
(Imperative!)       You!        Do  Therefore I will choose the red or
  equivalently-to as-commanded.       the black, but not both.
Do as  you are  told, and  ONLY as  mi djica loi ladru .anai loi ckafi
  you are told!                       .i mi  na  nelci  loi  na  ladru
le bloti cu marce gi'u spofu          ckafi
The boat is a vehicle, whether-or-  I want  Milk, or not: Coffee.  And
  not broken.                         I  not:   fond-of  not:   Milky-
le ka  prane cu  se troci  gi'u se    coffee.
  kakne                             I want  milk, if  coffee.  I'm not
The  quality   of  perfection   is    fond  of   things  that   aren't
  attempted,        whether-or-not    milked-coffee.
  within-the-ability.               do ba  viska la  rik. .o la .alis.
ti vinji nagi'a vofli                 ni'i lenu  la rik.  ba kansa  la
This is-an-airplane Not! or flies.    .alis.
This is-an-airplane  only-if  (it)  You will  see Rick  if-and-only-if
  flies.                              Alice,  logically-because   (the
If this  is an  airplane, then  it    event  of   Rick  will   be-with
  flies.                              Alice.)
mi klama le lalxu nagi'a limna      You  will  see  Rick  when  Alice,
I go-to the lake Not!, or swim/am-    because Rick will be with Alice.
  a-swimmer.                        la djos.  na.a la  rut.  ba  zvati
I  go   to  the  lake  only  if  a    mu'i lenu ri nelci ra
  swimmer.                          (Joe  Not!   or  Ruth)   will   be
If I  go to  the lake,  then I'm a    present-at,  motivated  by  (the
  swimmer                             event of  the latter  is fond of
ti blaci nagi'a ralci  .i ti ralci    the former).
  gi'anai blaci                     Joe,   only-if   Ruth,   will   be
This is  glass Not!,  or delicate.    present, because  she is fond of
  And this  is  delicate  or  not:    him.
  glass.                            If Joe (will be present) then Ruth
This is  glass  only-if  delicate.    will be  present, because she is
  And this is delicate if glass.      fond of him.
do kakne  lenu  cilre  ku  gi'anai  
  troci                             lenu ti  jubme gi'e bunre cu nibli
You are  able  at  (the  event-of-    lenu ti jubme .e lenu ti bunre
  learning) or not: trying.         (The event  of this is-a-table and
You are  able to  learn  if  (you)    is-brown) logically necessitates
  try.                                (the event that this is-a-table)
                                      and (the  event  that  this  is-
**********************************    brown).
  **************                    That this  is a  table  and  brown
Examples    of    sumti    Logical    logically necessitates that this
  Connection                          is a  table  AND  that  this  is
**********************************    brown.
  **************                    
la rik.  .e la  .alis. cu klama le  More examples below.
  cilre nu penmi                                     
Rick and  Alice go-to the learner-
  (event-of-meeting).
Rick and Alice go to class.

                                  51


                                  52
 la lojbangirz.'s First Research    91-15 for  innovative research  in
             Proposal               linguistics and  natural  language
                                    processing (NLP).   We propose re-
  Following is  the  text  of  our  search and  development towards  a
first   research    proposal,    a  prototype NLP system based on Loj-
preliminary  project   description  ban,      a       human-speakable,
made  to  the  US  defense  agency  syntactically          unambiguous
DARPA last  August.   DARPA is the  predicate language.
major  funding   organization  for    Lojban's  design   has  numerous
natural language processing within  possibilities for  enormous impact
the US  government.   Our proposal  on  the   processing  of   natural
was rejected  as being unlikely to  languages.      LLG   proposes   a
win  funding   at  this  time;  we  research approach, using Lojban as
obtained  no   other  information.  both  tool  and  target  language,
The  competition  drew  dozens  of  that maximizes  the  applicability
proposals, and  ours was  probably  of our  results to  potential  DOD
weeded out  as being  particularly  applications,  and   advances  the
high risk  or likely  to need  too  state of  the art by making Lojban
much of  the  very  limited  money  available to other NLP efforts.
available  for   'seed  projects'.    Research into  NLP  applications
The project  description  is  very  of Lojban  suits DARPA's  mission,
brief,  in   accordance  with  the  and is the type of research sought
constraints  of  the  Request  for  under this  BAA.  The BAA is well-
Proposal,  but  should  give  some  timed for LLG; we are now ready to
idea of  how we envision approach-  undertake  such  research,  having
ing the  use of  Lojban in natural  just completed  the prototype Loj-
language processing.   We welcome,  ban   parser    after   years   of
and  indeed   strongly  encourage,  research.   Meanwhile,  our  novel
comments on  how  we  can  improve  approach  makes  obtaining  tradi-
this proposal,  and also commit to  tional funding  for this next step
support as best we can others that  in Lojban  NLP research difficult.
wish to  submit research proposals  Applying Lojban  to NLP  is beyond
to   DARPA   and   other   funding  the  scope  of  our  current  all-
sources.                            volunteer  effort,   though   such
                                    application has  been a  long-term
Lojban Natural Language Processing  research goal.
                                      LLG is  proud of  its efforts to
  PROPOSAL ABSTRACT 19 July 1991    date.   What we  have accomplished
    Submitted to: DARPA/SISTO,      without funding speaks for itself,
    Arlington VA 22203-1714 In      and we've  demonstrated an ability
   Response To: BAA 91-15, by:      to deliver  a product  on  a  very
 The Logical Language Group, Inc.   tight   budget.      Several   key
2904 Beau Lane, Fairfax, VA 22031-  personnel, including  myself,  are
               1303                 experienced  in  military  systems
Technical/Administrative Point  of  development and  familiar with the
Contact: Robert  LeChevalier, 703-  standards and  practices expected.
385-0273                            LLG has  access to  personnel with
                                    NLP    experience     and     with
                      19 July 1991  demonstrated  skill  at  producing
Mr. Charles L. Wayne, DARPA/SISTO   complete, working  systems  within
Virginia Square Plaza               schedule and budget constraints.
3701 N. Fairfax Drive                 I will  be managing  the overall
Arlington VA 22203-1714             project and  will technically lead
                                    several tasks,  closely monitoring
Subject:  The   Logical   Language  the others.   I  am confident that
Group, Inc., Response to BAA 91-15  the  results   of  this  promising
                                    effort       will       contribute
Dear Mr. Wayne:                     substantially to  the state of the
  The Logical Language Group, Inc.  art    in     natural     language
(LLG) is pleased to respond to BAA  processing.

                                  53
                 Very truly yours,    While being used to develop such
     Robert LeChevalier, President  practical NLP  systems, Lojban can
  The Logical Language Group, Inc.  be   viewed    as   a   simplified
                                    linguistic 'model'  of  a  natural
Section 1 - Innovative Claims       language, providing  insights that
                                    will enhance development of other-
  Lojban,  an   artificial  human-  language NLP systems.
speakable  (and  hence  'natural')    LLG's   proposes   proving   our
language   with   an   unambiguous  concept  in   a  relatively  small
syntax based  on predicate  logic,  effort   that   provides   further
has several potential applications  innovative benefits  that  can  be
in  natural   language  processing  applied to other NLP efforts:
(NLP).   No prior attempt has been    1. Lojban's analytical semantics
made to design such a language and  allows LLG  to  research  semantic
apply it  to  NLP.    The  Logical  regularities in word structures of
Language  Group,  Inc.  (LLG)  has  a language,  such as  the compound
unique   expertise   in   Lojban's  morphemes of  Chinese (similar  to
design and applications; its corps  Lojban's    compounds),    seeking
of   volunteers    will   multiply  patterns  that  will  allow  rapid
efforts by funded researchers.      expansion of  the data  base.  LLG
  LLG  plans   to   research   and  will  investigate   a  variety  of
implement  an   NLP  system   that  texts, and  both English  and non-
processes Lojban,  but which  also  English words  and word-forms,  in
uses Lojban  as a  tool  for  NLP.  building its data base.
Using   a   highly   regular   yet    2.    Because     of    Lojban's
'natural'  language   reduces  the  unambiguous   syntax,   a   Lojban
difficulty  of   NLP   processing,  parser is  much simpler and faster
resulting  in   a   faster,   more  than  parsers   for  other   human
accurate NLP system.                languages.   LLG  will  produce  a
  Specific  applications   for   a  fast, portable parser for Lojban.
Lojban NLP  system include:  using    3. Lojban's  simple, unambiguous
Lojban  as  an  interface  control  isomorphism  between   spoken  and
medium for  NLP engineers  to more  written forms  make Lojban  speech
easily and  accurately input know-  recognition at  least an  order of
ledge and  dictionary  information  magnitude easier  than  for  other
into an  NLP system;  using Lojban  human languages,  allowing faster,
as  a   systems  requirements  and  higher  accuracy  real  time  pro-
design  language   and  using  NLP  cessing.   LLG  will  implement  a
deduction to detect and query sys-  module   for   its   parser   that
tem design  flaws;  and  partially  converts phoneme  and stress data,
translating mass text from English  derivable from  a  digital  signal
or   other   languages   into   an  processor, into parsed text.
unambiguous  Lojban   interlingua,    4.  LLG   will  prove   its  NLP
using NLP  to intelligently select  concept  in  a  restricted,  much-
text and speech for detailed human  researched application:  designing
analysis.                           and implementing  a  NLP  text-to-
  Using  Lojban  in  such  systems  data-base module  to  serve  as  a
offers the  unique  potential  for  front-end for  the dictionary data
the   system   to   understandably  base; in  this case,  however, the
explain   decisions,   interacting  interface module will use the data
with analysts  in  'natural'  lan-  base it interfaces with.  The mod-
guage (not  requiring intermediary  ule will  be expandable, by adding
engineers or programmers) to heur-  a knowledge engine and interactive
istically evolve  better criteria.  heuristics, into the complete con-
Lojban allows  natural  expression  trol interface  for NLP  engineers
in   such    interactions    while  or text analysts described above.
enforcing non-ambiguity in the in-    5. A  Lojban-interlingua machine
put,        simplifying        NLP  translator  modelled   after   the
implementation.                     Netherlands DLT effort would offer
                                    advantages over that system due to

                                  54
Lojban's  unambiguous  syntax  and  implementation      of      speech
special       structures       for  recognition of Lojban.
metalinguistics   and   discursive  
comments, tense  and modality, and  Task 4  - Parsed-Text-to-Data-Base
speaker attitude and emotion.  LLG  NLP
will  build   a  Lojban-to-English
translator based  on  its  parser,    a)  A   technical  report   will
which will  ease  verification  of  document the  design of  the  data
inputs via the data base interface  base interface  module.   LLG will
just mentioned.                     discuss problems  encountered, and
                                    conclusions     regarding      the
Section 2 - Deliverables            practicality of Lojban as an input
                                    language    for     NLP    control
  LLG will  produce the  following  interfaces.    LLG  will  identify
formal  deliverables,  subject  to  other NLP  systems found  to  have
funding   of   the   corresponding  commonalties  allowing   a  Lojban
tasks.   Implementations  of  more  control interface  processor to be
advanced applications described in  integrated  with   those  systems,
Section 1  are  options  partially  thus  reducing   the   effort   of
dependent  on   initial   results.  incorporating     Lojban      into
Formal   delivery    of   software  practical applications.
produced   during   the   research  
effort is also an option.           Task   5    -    Lojban-to-English
                                    Translator
Task 1  - Lojban  Dictionary  Data
Base                                  a)  A   technical  report   will
                                    document the design of the Lojban-
  a) A Lojban dictionary data base  to-English translator.   LLG  will
will contain all root concepts and  describe  conventions   used,  and
selected supplementary  data  sets  identify prospects  for  producing
supporting      specific       NLP  refined English translations as an
applications.                       enhancement.
  b)  A   technical  report   will  
describe the  dictionary data base
design,  and  the  nature  of  the
concepts  included.     LLG   will
report on  patterns found  in  the
analysis that provide insight into
the  process   of  NLP,   or  that
suggest methods of accelerating or
automating   the    building    of
dictionaries.

Task 2 - Lojban Parser

  a)  A   technical  report   will
document the  design of the Lojban
parser, and  the formal grammar of
Lojban as implemented therein.

Task 3 - Lojban Speech-Recognition
Stub

  a)  A   technical  report   will
document the  design of  a  Lojban
speech recognition  stub  for  the
Lojban  parser,   and  the  Lojban
morphology algorithm.    LLG  will
report on  analysis of  identified
issues that  affect the  practical

                                  55
Task 6 - Final Technical Report     - *Task 2  technical report  -  10
                                      MAC
  a)  A   technical  report   will  
summarize the  research  completed  Task 3 - Start - 9 MAC
as an integrated effort.  LLG will  - Lojban morphology algorithm - 10
report conclusions  regarding  the    MAC
practicality of  Lojban's  use  in  - Implementation     of     speech
NLP of  other languages as well as    recognition front-end  stub - 12
the capability  for NLP  of Lojban    MAC
text,  and   suggest  options  for  - Front-end stub high-level design
further research.                     document - 13 MAC
                                    - *Task 3  technical report  -  14
Task  7   -  Cost  and  Management    MAC
Reports                             
                                    Task 4 - Start - 4 MAC
  a) Formal  progress reports will  - Implementation  of   data   base
be submitted every 2 months.          interface NLP processor - 16 MAC
  b) Formal  cost reports  will be  - Data base  interface  high-level
submitted every 2 months.             design document - 17 MAC
                                    - *Task 4  technical report  -  18
Section   3    -   Schedule    and    MAC
Milestones                          
                                    Task 5 - Start - 12 MAC
  Deliverables are  marked with an  - Lojban-to-English  translator  -
asterisk.                             22 MAC
                                    - Translator  users   manual   and
Task 1  - Start  -  0 Months after    high-level design  document - 23
start of contract (MAC)               MAC
- Preliminary data base design - 1  - *Task 5  technical report  -  24
  MAC                                 MAC
- 1337 Lojban  root predicates  in  
  data base - 4 MAC                 Task 6
- 4000 commonly used predicates in  - *Final technical report - 24 MAC
  data base - 14 MAC                
- 1000   new    predicates    from
  American newspaper text - 16 MAC
- 1000 new predicates from foreign
  English-language newspaper  text
  - 18 MAC
- 1000   new    predicates    from
  selected Chinese  or  other-lan-
  guage text - 22 MAC
- *Task   1    technical   report:
  Preliminary - 15 MAC, Final - 23
  MAC
- *Data base delivery - 24 MAC

Task 2 - Start - 0 MAC
- Enhancement of  existing  parser
  for error reporting - 2 MAC
- Enhancement of speed of parser -
  4 MAC
- Enhanced  output  reporting  for
  parser - 6 MAC
- Investigation     of      error-
  detection/correction  techniques
  for parser - 8 MAC
- Parser user's  manual and  high-
  level design document - 9 MAC

                                  56
Task 7                                Archives, working documents, and
- Weekly  or   bi-weekly  informal  software produced  by The  Logical
  reports  will  be  prepared,  as  Language  Group,   Inc.,  or   its
  desired   by   the   contracting  volunteers,  and  publications  of
  organization.                     The Logical  Language Group, Inc.,
- *Progress reports  -  2  MAC,  4  not  released   into  the   public
  MAC, 6  MAC, 8  MAC, 10  MAC, 12  domain, and  not produced directly
  MAC, 14  MAC, 16 MAC, 18 MAC, 20  on time charged to the Government,
  MAC, 22 MAC, 24 MAC               and including  all such  documents
- *Cost reports  - 2 MAC, 4 MAC, 6  and software  started prior to the
  MAC, 8  MAC, 10  MAC, 12 MAC, 14  start of  funded tasking,  are the
  MAC, 16  MAC, 18 MAC, 20 MAC, 22  property of  The Logical  Language
  MAC, 24 MAC                       Group, Inc.,  or the individual or
                                    collective authors.    Since  this
  LLG  also   plans   to   publish  claim  does   not  cover  language
articles  regarding  its  work  in  design information,  no effect  on
technical  journals   to   enhance  use of  the results  of  this  re-
Lojban's  credibility  as  a  lan-  search is anticipated.
guage, a research tool, and a tool    Rights in certain prolegomena of
for NLP, and to validate LLG's NLP  the current  Lojban  language  are
approach with  other  researchers.  generally held  as  copyrights  on
Articles  warranted   by   project  published     and      unpublished
accomplishments   will    be   in-  material.       Such    materials,
corporated in  the schedule  so as  sometimes  associated   with   the
not  to   interfere  with  project  names 'Loglan', and/or 'The Loglan
milestones.                         Project', are  owned by  Dr. James
                                    Cooke Brown,  by The Loglan Insti-
Section 4 - Proprietary Claims      tute,   Inc.,   by   The   Logical
                                    Language Group,  Inc.,  by  Linker
  No   proprietary    claims   are  Systems,  Inc.,   or  possibly  by
expected to  interfere in  the use  other parties  unnamed or unknown.
of  results   of  this   research.  Lojban is  a version of the Loglan
However,  specific   known  claims  language invented  as part  of the
that might  affect  such  applica-  Loglan Project  by Dr.  Brown  and
tions  indirectly  are  identified  others,    including    all    key
herein.                             personnel on  this project.   None
  A  founding   principle  of  The  of  these   materials  should   be
Logical Language  Group,  Inc.  is  necessary for  use of  the results
that all  Lojban  language  design  of   this    research,   but   LLG
information that  it  produces  is  acknowledges the owners' rights.
placed  directly   in  the  public    The Logical Language Group, Inc.
domain.     This   principle   has  intends itself  to use the results
motivated our  volunteer force and  of this  research,  reserving  the
is vital  to our  integrity as  an  right  to   produce,   distribute,
organization.   For  this  effort,  and/or   sell   to   the   public,
language    design     information  derivative works  based on  any of
includes the  dictionary data,  as  the tasks  performed  as  part  of
opposed to  the actual  dictionary  this project.    These  derivative
data base  produced in Task 1, the  works   will   incorporate   LLG's
Lojban    morphology     algorithm  specialized    experience     with
produced  for   Task  3,  and  any  Lojban.   Rights  to  those  works
modified  version  of  the  Lojban  will be  owned by  LLG and/or  the
formal grammar produced in support  authors  of  those  works.    This
of any  task.   This claim  should  claim  should   not   affect   the
not affect  the ability to use the  ability  of   others  to  use  the
results  of   this  research,  and  results of this research.
indeed guarantees  that  potential  
use of  Lojban will not be impeded
by  any   proprietary  claims   on
language design information.

                                  57
Section 5 - Technical Rationale     stead of following it as the rules
                                    of a  computer language drive that
  Two   points   regarding   LLG's  language's   use.       Consistent
approach   to    NLP    must    be  filtering by  experts in  the lan-
emphasized:                         guage will  lead to  an extensive,
Uniqueness  -   Among   artificial  semantically  regular  vocabulary,
languages,  Loglan  is  unique  in  incorporated in the NLP data base.
being designed  principally  as  a    As part  of this review process,
tool of  research in  linguistics.  LLG expects  to discover  semantic
The  Lojban  reimplementation  has  patterns in  both Lojban words and
incorporated   recent   gains   in  the  source-language   words  that
comparative linguistics,  and  NLP  represent the Lojban concepts.  In
research.                           addition,   while   building   the
Professionalism   -   The   Lojban  dictionary data base, LLG will an-
effort led  by LLG, though staffed  alyze texts  particularly relevant
by volunteers,  differs from other  to  DARPA's  mission.    LLG  will
artificial language efforts in its  extract concepts from those texts,
professional  approach,   and   in  expressing  them   as  new  Lojban
having     linguists,     computer  words,      while      identifying
scientists, and  systems engineers  additional   semantic    patterns.
as leaders.                         Texts will  include scientific and
  The   approach    described   in  technical  texts,   American   and
Section 1  takes advantage  of our  foreign English-language newspaper
resources,   builds    on   recent  text, and  vocabulary from foreign
accomplishments     in      Lojban  language  dictionaries   or  text.
development, and moves directly to  LLG  plans  to  emphasize  Chinese
show   Lojban's    relevance   and  vocabulary, from  which we  expect
viability for  NLP.  The following  to find  particularly  interesting
addresses the  five implementation  semantic patterns.   LLG will also
tasks identified in that section.   use volunteer  linguists to  study
                                    additional   texts   in   Russian,
  1.    Dictionary    Data    Base  Spanish,  German,  French,  and/or
Development and Related Research -  Arabic.  LLG seeks limited funding
The first  step  in  the  research  to support  particularly promising
effort is  development of a Lojban  studies by such linguists.
dictionary data  base.  A language    2. Lojban  Parser Enhancement  -
dictionary is  vital to  study and  After fifteen  years of  volunteer
use of that language by non-native  efforts  at  formalizing  Loglan/-
speakers -  and  Lojban  obviously  Lojban   grammar,   LLG   recently
lacks native  speakers.  Thus, for  completed a  parser for  the  com-
this  and   other   Lojban-related  plete Lojban  grammar, based  on a
efforts, LLG  needs to  develop  a  YACC LALR(1)  formal grammar  spe-
high quality  dictionary.  Our ap-  cification.   This formal  grammar
proach develops this dictionary in  is  the   first  complete   speci-
the form  of a  data base suitable  fication of  the  grammar  of  any
to NLP  activities,  later  adding  human-speakable          language.
modules  to  interface  with  this  Extensive  testing  has  found  no
system.                             limits  to   Lojban's   expressive
  Thousands  of  words  have  been  ability over  the total  range  of
generated   during    the   Loglan  human linguistic activity.
project.     This  data   must  be    The  completed   parser   is   a
filtered and  often  modified  for  prototype.   LLG must  refine  it,
use; definitions  must be specific  checking Lojban  text against  the
and conform  to Lojban's predicate  formal grammar,  performing  basic
structure, and  distinctions  rel-  error detection,  correction,  and
evant to  NLP  must  be  codified.  reporting, and  passing completely
Unlike preparing a data base for a  analyzed text structures to appli-
natural  language,  such  work  is  cation software.   The parser must
language  prescription   and   not  be optimized  for speed.  Previous
description; it  drives usage  in-  experience suggests  that  current

                                  58
processing times  (1 minute  for a  sults of  this study  in  its  NLP
4K-byte text with a 386/25MHz) can  effort.
be easily  reduced by  a factor of    Developing  an   NLP   interface
4.                                  module   supporting   the   Lojban
  3.  Lojban   Speech  Recognition  dictionary  data   base  ties  the
Parser   Module    -   Lojban   is  entire research  effort  together,
audiovisually isomorphic, allowing  simultaneously:
phonemes and  stress from a speech    - implementing and demonstrating
stream to  resolve into  a  unique  NLP of  that restricted  subset of
string of  words.  This design was  Lojban  that  is  useful  to  such
specifically  intended   to   ease  dictionary input;
speech      recognition       (SR)    - demonstrating  an  application
processing.   Application of  this  where Lojban is useful as an input
design to  SR requires specialized  language   for    use    by    NLP
equipment, and  is not part of the  processors;
initial effort.   However,  imple-    - enabling  more rapid input and
menting a  front-end to the parser  analysis   of   dictionary   data,
that turns phoneme and stress data  including   automated   techniques
into unambiguous  parsed text will  identified by  LLG  based  on  its
both verify  Lojban's  design  and  analyses.
justify later efforts to implement  Aspects of Lojban minimize the use
a Lojban SR system.                 of  idiom   and  other   difficult
  4. Lojban  Data Base Interface/-  expressions in  the language,  and
NLP Prototype  - Processing Lojban  help clarify  queries to  the user
text  through   NLP  is  a  useful  when difficult  expression occurs.
research end  in itself;  LLG  has  Lojban's  distinct  metalinguistic
determined      that       certain  and discursive  forms,  analytical
applications described  in Section  tense    and     modality,     and
1 offer pragmatic benefits.  Mean-  expressions of  speaker  attitudes
while, the  Lojban NLP  system, by  toward  the  discourse,  all  help
avoiding the  ambiguities of  nat-  make Lojban a clear, concise means
urally-evolved  human   languages,  of expressing data for NLP use.
will offer  insights that  aid  in    The data  base interface module,
bypassing  the   difficulties   of  while  modeled  on  similar  prior
processing those ambiguities.       work, is  the most  ambitious task
  LLG will  capitalize on Lojban's  in  the  research  program.    LLG
unambiguous predicate  grammar and  plans to  work for  maximum  func-
its  similarities  to  PROLOG,  to  tionality of  this processor,  but
establish  Lojban   as  a  control  to monitor  the scope  of the  ef-
language usable in NLP systems for  fort, deferring  aspects for later
efficient entry  and  analysis  of  efforts  rather   than  risk   not
data.     This   activity   is   a  completing other  portions of  the
miniature of  the NLP problem as a  research effort.
whole, and  a highly  regular one.    5. Lojban-to-English Translation
Users   are    aware   of   system  Module - A Lojban-to-rough-English
limitations  and  skilled  at  ex-  translator  is   less   risky   to
pressing  concepts  in  restricted  develop.   A translator  developed
computer languages,  and are  thus  for an  earlier version  of Loglan
likely to  avoid usages  that make  produced  understandable  results,
NLP difficult.                      but  was  not  based  on  a  full-
  LLG expects  to show that Lojban  language parser.   The translation
is itself  suitable  for  internal  module  will   be  well-integrated
processing of  NLP data,  reducing  into the  total  research  effort,
the front-end processing of Lojban  being  used  to  check  data  base
inputs to  a minimum.    LLG  will  interface module processing and to
study   NLP   systems   based   on  verify Lojban  text used  to input
predicate  computer  languages  to  dictionary data.   It will use the
determine  if   this  approach  is  dictionary   data   base   itself,
viable.   LLG will incorporate re-  easing verification  of that data,
                                    and  provide  a  window  into  the

                                  59
system for  those not  skilled  in  using     punched-card     sorting
Lojban.     LLG  will  investigate  techniques.   Brown 'verified' his
techniques to  improve translation  language grammar  as 'unambiguous'
quality, and research whether this  using manual  techniques developed
translator  could   serve  as  the  by  linguists.     In  the  1970s,
basis  of  a  machine  translation  computer science  caught  up  with
system similar  to the Netherlands  Loglan, and  people started to see
DLT project based on Esperanto.     its  potential  for  use  in  NLP.
                                    Funding for  NLP research couldn't
Section     6      -      Previous  be arranged,  but the prospect has
Accomplishments                     inspired   volunteers   from   the
                                    computer sciences since then.
  The Logical  Language Group  was    In 1976-77, Sheldon Linker first
founded in 1987 to develop what it  proposed  using   the  Bell   Labs
calls "Lojban  - A  Realization of  program  'YACC'   to  develop   an
Loglan".     LLG  incorporated  in  LALR(1)  formal   grammar  of  the
November, 1989,  and was  approved  language, thus  formally  verified
by the IRS in 1990 as a non-profit  to be unambiguous.  Work by Linker
educational/scientific         or-  and  later   by  others  proceeded
ganization tax-exempt  under I. R.  slowly, as  much of  the  language
C. 501(c)(3).  Prior to that time,  grammar was  reinvented from 1976-
other  versions  of  the  language  81.   Finally,  a  complete  trial
called 'Loglan'  were produced  in  corpus of sentences was accurately
an evolutionary  effort led by Dr.  parsed.
James Cooke  Brown.   Brown  first    In 1981, Nora Tansky LeChevalier
conceived of  Loglan  and  started  developed a Loglan random sentence
work on  the language  as early as  generator and  a Loglan-to-English
1955.   The  original  purpose  of  translator for  a  subset  of  the
Loglan was  as a  test vehicle for  Loglan grammar.    The  translator
linguistics  research,  especially  used    the     full     4000-word
into  the  concept  known  as  the  dictionary.     Despite  primitive
'Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis'.           equipment, the translator produced
  Early work  in the  language was  understandable English.
devoted   to    word-making    and    From  1981   through  1984,  the
developing  the   morphology   and  Loglan  grammar   and   vocabulary
predicate   structure    of    the  continued  to  evolve.    After  a
language.        The    best-known  political  dispute   within   TLI,
prolegomenon  of   the   language,  though,  most   volunteers  became
written by Brown, was published in  inactive; little progress occurred
the    June,    1960    Scientific  from  1984-86.    Bob  LeChevalier
American.   From 1962-64, research  then set  about  revitalizing  the
was   funded    under   an    NIMH  community.  This proved to require
linguistics  grant  to  produce  a  setting   up    a   community   of
Loglan  dictionary   and  teaching  volunteers separate from TLI; this
materials.   Brown published early  community became LLG.
editions of  these materials  from    In creating Lojban, LLG analyzed
1965-69.     Almost  all  work  on  and rebuilt  the entire vocabulary
Loglan and  Lojban since  1964 has  of  Loglan,  and  redeveloped  the
been  performed   by   volunteers;  formal  YACC   grammar.      These
progress has  been correspondingly  efforts  went   much  faster  than
slow.                               original efforts  due  to  intense
  The   Loglan   Institute   (TLI)  volunteer work,  better management
incorporated   as   a   non-profit  of    volunteers,    and    better
organization in 1974; it published  knowledge of  the language.    LLG
a printed  dictionary and language  baselined    the    Lojban    root
description in 1975.                vocabulary in  1988, and  the YACC
  Most of  the early  work on  the  grammar in  August 1990,  and just
language    was    done    without  re-baselined the  grammar in  June
computers,     although      Brown  1991,  while   documenting   other
developed the  first  dictionaries  aspects  of   the  language,   and

                                  60
training  the  first  speakers  of    Jeffrey Taylor,  Voting  Member,
Lojban.   The community interested  LLG -  100% over  the life  of the
in Lojban now exceeds 800, and in-  project,  subject  to  funding  of
cludes  many   AI  and   NLP   re-  Tasks 2,  3, 4,  and 5.  Less than
searchers,  several   dozen   sup-  25% participation  in the 2nd year
porters  outside   the  U.S.,  and  if Tasks  4 and  5 are not funded.
dozens  of  active  language  stu-  Mr. Taylor  will lead  the  effort
dents.   LLG supports  a quarterly  for Tasks  2 and  3 and 5.  Either
journal,    a    newsletter,    an  he or  Sheldon Linker  of LSI will
Internet-based mailing list, local  lead Task 4.
study groups, an annual gathering,    Sheldon Linker,  Vice President,
and weekly  conversation  sessions  LSI -  Up to  100% during  Tasks 4
at its primary office.              and 5.    Mr.  Linker  will  share
                                    leadership of  Task 4, and consult
Section 7 - Key Personnel           in overall  system design and data
                                    base design.
  All technical  personnel on this    John    Parks-Clifford,     Vice
project will work under consulting  President  and   Director,  LLG  -
agreements   with    LLG,   either  intermittent up  to 30% working on
directly or as employees of Linker  all tasks  over the  life  of  the
Systems,  Inc.   (LSI).    LLG  is  project,    primarily     as     a
capable   of    staffing   several  linguistics and NLP consultant and
additional positions  with  highly  expert on Lojban, but also leading
qualified programmers,  linguists,  production  of  technical  papers.
and engineers,  many of  whom have  Dr. Parks-Clifford is an Associate
experience   in    AI   and    NLP  Professor of  Logic and Philosophy
applications.  The key people lis-  at the University of Missouri, St.
ted below  are the  core team that  Louis.
will lead  efforts based  on their  
knowledge  and   understanding  of  Section 8  - Qualifications of Key
both  Lojban   and  our   research  Personnel
approach.                           
  Robert  LeChevalier,   President    Robert  LeChevalier,   President
and  Director,   LLG  -  60%  time  and   Director,    LLG    -    Mr.
during year  1 and 50% during year  LeChevalier  has   worked  on  the
2.     He  will  work  on  project  Loglan  project  since  1980,  and
management (Task  7), expertise in  very actively  since  early  1986.
Lojban, dictionary  data base work  He led  the rebirth  of Loglan  as
for  Task   1,  documentation  and  Lojban  in  1987,  and  co-founded
technical reports  for  all  tasks  LLG.     He  has   led  all  tasks
(Task 6),  and task leadership for  associated with  the redevelopment
Task 1, 6, and 7.  Mr. LeChevalier  of the  language, and  is the most
also will  manage a large corps of  skilled  speaker   and  writer  of
volunteers who  will contribute to  Lojban.  He has been working full-
the dictionary  data base  work at  time on Lojban since May 1988.
no cost  to the  Government.   Mr.    Mr. LeChevalier was a programmer
LeChevalier's unfunded  time  will  from 1974-81, then a systems engi-
be as  a volunteer  worker for LLG  neer  and   systems   requirements
doing  work   not  covered   under  analyst from  1981 to the present.
funded tasks.   This work includes  Mr. LeChevalier  worked for Syscon
editing and publishing the journal  Corp. from 1975-84, and SDC/Unisys
and  newsletter   and  writing   a  Corp. from  1984-88.  He worked on
Lojban textbook.                    Navy   systems   development   and
  Athelstan, Director,  LLG - 100%  design,  and   finally   as   SETA
over  the  life  of  the  project,  engineer leading  tasks supporting
working    primarily     on    the  the Air  Force on the GLCM program
dictionary data base (Task 1), and  until the  program ended.   He  is
providing expertise  in Lojban for  expert in  systems  documentation,
volunteer workers.                  complex    systems    requirements
                                    analysis,         operator-machine

                                  61
interface,   configuration    man-    John    Parks-Clifford,     Vice
agement,  and  quality  assurance.  President and  Director, LLG - Dr.
He has  a BS  in Astrophysics, and  Parks-Clifford   has   worked   on
is  knowledgeable  in  comparative  Loglan since  1975.  He edited the
linguistics.                        Loglan  journal   'The  Loglanist'
  Mr. LeChevalier  also will  work  from 1975-84, and was President of
on unfunded Lojban activities, and  the Loglan  Institute, Inc.,  from
may  seek   additional  grants  or  1982-84.       He   is   generally
contracts.     No  proposals   are  acknowledged  as  second  only  to
pending or specifically planned.    founder J.  C. Brown  in expertise
  Athelstan,   Director,   LLG   -  on  earlier  versions  of  Loglan,
Athelstan  has  worked  on  Lojban  with several  man-years total vol-
since   1988,    specializing   in  unteer effort.   He was co-founder
lexicon development, teaching, and  of  LLG,  and  consultant  on  all
translation.   He is knowledgeable  aspects of  the language redesign.
in comparative linguistics, and is  His degrees include BA Philosophy,
a  translator  of  Ancient  Greek,  MA  Linguistics  from  UCLA,  with
Latin, Anglo-Saxon, and Old Norse.  field work  in India,  and  a  PhD
He  is   working  on   degrees  in  Philosophy from  UCLA.   He worked
Mathematics and Linguistics.        directly in NLP with Rand Corp. in
  Jeffrey Taylor,  Voting  Member,  the 1960s,  and now works in tense
LLG -  Mr. Taylor  has  worked  on  logic and  logic education.    Dr.
Loglan since  1982, and  is a  co-  Parks-Clifford  is   an  Associate
founder  of   LLG.    His  Masters  Professor of  Logic and Philosophy
thesis included developing an SLR1  at the University of Missouri, St.
parser for  Loglan.   He served on  Louis.
the Loglan  'Word-Makers  Council'  
in 1986-87,  becoming  skilled  in      le lojbo se ciska (cont.)
the lexicon.  In 1988-89 he helped  
redevelop the  Lojban formal gram-  In   keeping    with   the   above
mar and wrote a preliminary parser  proposal, here  is a demonstration
as  a   test  vehicle   for   that  of  Lojban's   potential  in   the
grammar.   In  1989,  he  wrote  a  computer processing  field.   Some
preliminary  dictionary   of   the  of the  technical details  will be
Lojban structure word lexicon.      of  interest   only  to   computer
  Mr.   Taylor    has   17   years  programmers and logicians, but the
experience     in     programming,  Lojban in the following is a human
specializing   in   compiler   and  language, not a computer language.
parser development  and  later  in    But it  also  happens  that,  as
task and  project management,  and  cited  in   the  proposal   above,
including   extensive    work   in  Lojban is so thoroughly defined as
developing military  systems.   He  to  be  a  logical  equivalent  of
has  an   BSEE  and   an   MS   in  Prolog, a  computer language  that
Electrical      and       Computer  is one  of those  most  frequently
Engineering  from   University  of  used  in  artificial  intelligence
California, Davis.                  and natural  language  processing.
  Sheldon Linker,  Vice President,  To demonstrate  this,  John  Cowan
LSI -  Mr. Linker  has  worked  on  prepared  a  couple  of  examples.
Loglan since 1975.  He led initial  The first is an implementation, in
efforts to  develop a YACC grammar  a   Lojban   "computer   language"
for Loglan  from 1975-80,  and has  subset, of a complete Prolog algo-
been less  active  in  Loglan  and  rithm.   Then John  goes the other
Lojban since  then.    He  has  20  direction   -    from   a   Lojban
years experience  as a  programmer  translation of  a complex  English
and software  developer, including  language 'logic  problem'  into  a
NLP experience.   If  his time  is  Prolog equivalent  -  showing  the
not fully  funded, Mr. Linker will  applicability of Lojban both as an
be employed  by LSI on efforts un-  intermediate to  computer  program
related to this effort.             expression  as   well  as  logical
                                    analysis.  John:

                                  62
                                          .ijebo    dexire    poirja'e
  Except   for    the    universal  daxire
quantification at the beginning of        .ijebo de poirvelmi'a dexipa
each  Lojban  sentence  (which  is  di ce'o dexire
there because Prolog variables are
implicitly              quantified  pau? li  ci ce'o  li pa ce'o li vo
universally), the  Prolog and  the  ce'o li  pa ce'o li mu poirvelmi'a
Lojban  are  formally  equivalent.  ma?
Of course,  Lojban is  far  richer  li ci  ce'o li  pa ce'o li vo ce'o
than Prolog  -- it  is a  complete  li pa ce'o li mu poirvelmi'a
human   language,   which   Prolog    li pa ce'o li pa ce'o li ci ce'o
surely is not.                      li vo ce'o li mu
  The     following     algorithm,
expressed in Lojban, describes how    The   'program'    consists   of
to sort  a  list  of  numbers  (or  definitions  of  the  following  3
anything comparable  with  "zmadu"  functions,  which  use  the  place
and  "mleca")   into   least-first  structures as indicated:
order  using   Hoare's   quicksort
algorithm.     It  is   a   direct  poirvelmi'a:   x1 is the result of
translation    of     a     Prolog    appending x2 to x3
equivalent,   except    that   the  skamrpartiti:   x1 and  x2  are  a
arguments have  been re-ordered to    partition on pivot x3 of list x4
bring results to the beginning, in    [For non-technical  people, this
conformity      with      Lojbanic    means that  a list  of values is
conventions.                          divided   into    to   sub-lists
                                      (greater and  lesser)  based  on
ni'o roda zo'u:                       comparison with  a single  value
    da poirvelmi'a la nil. da         (the  pivot).     A  complicated
  .i roda rode rodi rodixire zo'u:    lujvo  based  on  "fendi"  could
    de ce'o  dixire poirvelmi'a de    perhaps have  been used  instead
ce'o di da                            of this borrowing:  x1 and x2 of
    .inaja dixire  poirvelmi'a  di    this function  correspond to the
da                                    x3 of  fendi (joined together by
                                      a non-logical  connective in the
ni'o roda  rodaxipa rodaxire  rode    latter case),  x3 corresponds to
rodi zo'u:                            the x4  of fendi,  and x4 to the
    de    ce'o    daxipa    daxire    x2 of fendi]
skamrpartiti de di ce'o da          poirja'e:   x1 is  the  result  of
    .ijanai de mleca di               ordering x2
      .ijebo     daxipa     daxire
skamrpartiti di da                  la nil.  is the  name of  the null
  .i roda  rodaxipa rodaxire  rode    list.
rodi zo'u:
    daxipa    de    ce'o    daxire
skamrpartiti de di ce'o da
    .ijanai de zmadu di
      .ijebo     daxipa     daxire
skamrpartiti di da
  .i roda zo'u:
    la nil.  la nil.  skamrpartiti
da la nil.

ni'o la nil. poirja'e la nil.
  .i roda  rodaxipa rodaxire  rode
  rodexipa rodexire rodi zo'u:
    de poirja'e di ce'o da
    .ijanai     daxipa      daxire
skamrpartiti di da
      .ijebo    dexipa    poirja'e
daxipa

                                  63
Thus a  translation of  the  first  .i  ro   grusi   je   sulpo'e   cu
function is:                          bilmrsalergeni
                                    .i ro  creka .e  ro  smoka  .e  ro
ni'o roda zo'u:                       siptaxfu  .e   ro  gerku  .e  ro
For all-X,                            tcokumte cu lu'ircumki
  da poirvelmi'a la nil. da         .i ro  tergu'imi'i .e  ro sfofa .e
  X is-the-result-of-joining that-    ro  mlatu   .e   ro   skami   cu
  named "nil" and X.                  nalylu'icumki
  .i roda rode rodi rodixire zo'u:  .i lemi  siptaxfu .e lemi sfofa .e
  For all-X, all-Y, all-Z, all-U:     la  totmes.   poi  mlatu  .e  la
    de ce'o  dixire poirvelmi'a de    milisent. poi  tcokumte cu grusi
ce'o di da                            je sulpo'e je selponse be mi
    Y   ordered-with   U   is-the-  .i ro ma jaurselylumci
    result-of-joining (Y  ordered-  .i ro ma sakcyselylumci
    with Z and X.                   
    .inaja dixire  poirvelmi'a  di    Literal rendering of the Lojban:
da                                  
    only-if  U   is-the-result-of-  All   wash-possible    and   sick-
joining Z and X.                      allergenic things  are water-be-
                                      washed.
append(X, nil, X).                  All  non-wash-possible  and  sick-
append([Y |  U], [Y  | Z],  X)  :-    allergenic things  are  suck-be-
append(U, Z, X).                      washed.
                                    All   gray   and   wool-possessing
  Translation  of  the  other  two    things are sick-allergenic.
functions   is    left    as    an  All shirts  and all  socks and all
'exercise'.  The last two lines of    sleep-garments and  all dogs and
the Lojban  ask the  correct  sort    all  South-American-camels   are
order of  a list  of numbers,  and    wash-possible.
present the correct sorted answer.  All   illumination-source-machines
  Prolog is  effectively a  subset    and all  sofas and  all cats and
of Lojban,  using many of the same    all  computers   are   non-wash-
concepts  and  terminology.    The    possible.
following  English  word  problem,  My sleep-garment  and my  sofa and
from John  F. Sowa  of IBM, neatly    Thothmes   who    is-a-cat   and
illustrates the  process that  can    Millicent    who     is-a-South-
make Lojban machine-intelligible.     American-camel  are   gray   and
  Sowa's original English:            wool-possessing and possessed by
Washable  allergenic   things  are    me.
washed.    Nonwashable  allergenic  All   what-things    are-water-be-
things are  vacuumed.   Everything    washed?
that  is   gray   and   fuzzy   is  All    what-things    are-suck-be-
allergenic.       Shirts,   socks,    washed?
pajamas,  dogs,   and  llamas  are
washable.  Lamps, sofas, cats, and
computers     are     nonwashable.
Following  are   my  gray,   fuzzy
possessions: my  pajamas, my sofa,
my cat Thothmes, and my llama Mil-
licent.
...  [D]etermine   which   of   my
possessions are  washed and  which
vacuumed.

  A free Lojban translation of the
  English:
ni'o     ro      lu'ircumki     je
  bilmrsalergeni cu jaurselylumci
.i     ro     nalylu'icumki     je
  bilmrsalergeni cu sakcyselylumci

                                  64
  Formalized Lojban  suitable  for    .i le siptaxfu cu jaurselylumci
Prolog conversion:                  re'i
                                      .i la milisent. jaurselylumci
ni'o roda zo'u:                     re'i
    da jaurselylumci                  fe'o
    .ijanai da lu'ircumki           ni'o ma? sakcyselylumci
      .ijebo da bilmrsalergeni        .i le sfofa cu sakcyselylumci
ni'o roda zo'u:                     re'i
    da sakcyselylumci                 .i la totmes. cu sakcyselylumci
    .ijanai da nalylu'icumki        re'i
      .ijebo da bilmrsalergeni        fe'o
ni'o roda zo'u:
    da bilmrsalergeni
    .ijanai da grusi
      .ijebo da sulpo'e
ni'o roda zo'u:
    da lu'ircumki
    .ijanai da creka
  .i roda zo'u:
    da lu'ircumki
    .ijanai da smoka
  .i roda zo'u:
    da lu'ircumki
    .ijanai da siptaxfu
  .i roda zo'u:
    da lu'ircumki
    .ijanai da gerku
  .i roda zo'u:
    da lu'ircumki
    .ijanai da tcokumte
ni'o roda zo'u:
    da nalylu'icumki
    .ijanai da tergu'imi'i
  .i roda zo'u:
    da nalylu'icumki
    .ijanai da sfofa
  .i roda zo'u:
    da nalylu'icumki
    .ijanai da mlatu
  .i roda zo'u:
    da nalylu'icumki
    .ijanai da skami
ni'o mi ponse le siptaxfu
  .i le siptaxfu cu siptaxfu
  .i le siptaxfu cu grusi
  .i le siptaxfu cu sulpo'e
ni'o mi ponse le sfofa
  .i le sfofa cu sfofa
  .i le sfofa cu grusi
  .i le sfofa cu sulpo'e
ni'o mi ponse la totmes.
  .i la totmes. cu mlatu
  .i la totmes. cu grusi
  .i la totmes cu sulpo'e
ni'o mi ponse la milisent.
  .i la milisent. cu tcokumte
  .i la milisent. cu grusi
  .i la milisent. cu sulpo'e

ni'oni'o ma? jaurselylumci

                                  65
Literal   translation    of    the  [New-topic] I  possess that-called
formalized Lojban:                  Thothmes.
                                      That-called Thothmes is-a-cat.
[New-topic] For-all x:                That-called Thothmes is-gray.
    x is-water-be-washed              That-called  Thothmes   is-wool-
    if (x is-wash-possible          possessing.
      and x is-allergenic).         [New-topic] I  possess that-called
[New-topic] For-all x:              Millicent.
    x is-suck-be-washed               That-called   Millicent   is   a
    if (x is-non-wash-possible      South-American-camel.
      and x is-allergenic).           That-called Millicent is-gray.
[New-topic] For-all x                 That-called  Millicent  is-wool-
    x is-allergenic                 possessing.
    if (x is-gray
      and x is-wool-possessing)     [Entirely-new-topic]   What    is-
[New-topic] For-all x:              water-be-washed?
    x is-wash-possible                That-described-as-a       sleep-
    if x is-a-shirt.                garment is-water-be-washed.
  For-all x:                        [Ready-to-receive]
    x is-wash-possible                That-called Millicent  is-water-
    if x is-a-sock.                 be-washed.
  For-all x:                        [Ready-to-receive]
    x is-wash-possible                [end-of-transmission]
    if x is-a-sleep-garment.        [New-topic]    What    is-suck-be-
  For-all x:                        washed?
    x is-wash-possible                That-described-as-a   sofa   is-
    if x is-a-dog.                  suck-be-washed
  For-all x:                        [Ready-to-receive]
    x is-wash-possible                That-called Thothmes is-suck-be-
    if   x    is-a-South-American-  washed
camel.                              [Ready-to-receive]
[New-topic] For-all x:                [End-of-transmission]
  x is-non-wash-possible
  if x  is-an-illumination-source-
machine.
  For-all x:
    x is-non-wash-possible
    if x is-a-sofa.
  For-all x:
    x is-non-wash-possible
    if x is-a-cat.
  For-all x:
    x is-non-wash-possible
    if x is-a-computer.
[New-topic]   I    possess   that-
described-as-a sleep-garment.
  That-described-as-a       sleep-
garment is-a-sleep-garment.
  That-described-as-a       sleep-
garment is-gray.
  That-described-as-a       sleep-
garment is-wool-possessing.
[New-topic]   I    possess   that-
described-as-a sofa.
  That-described-as-a  sofa  is-a-
sofa.
  That-described-as-a   sofa   is-
gray.
  That-described-as-a   sofa   is-
wool-possessing.

                                  66
Sowa's  original   (English-based)  been on the project staff.  DLT is
Prolog,  converted   from  IBM  to  the  machine   translation  system
Edinburgh syntax:                   cited in  the proposal  above (see
                                    page 30)  which  uses  a  modified
washed(X)     :-      washable(X),  Esperanto as its interlingua.
allergenic(X).                      
                                    Dan  Maxwell,  maxwell@ltb.bso.nl,
vacuumed(X)   :-   nonwashable(X),  responds to the following:
allergenic(X).                        By  the   way,  with   all  this
                                      discussion of  interlinguas  for
allergenic(X)     :-      gray(X),    computer translation,  it  might
fuzzy(X).                             be interesting  to hear from Dan
                                      Maxwell why  BSO chose Esperanto
washable(X) :- shirt(X).              for their  DLT project  and  not
washable(X) :- sock(X).               Loglan (which  already  had  two
washable(X) :- pajama(X).             decades behind  it at  the time)
washable(X) :- dog(X).                or some  other conlang, of which
washable(X) :- llama(X).              there are  quite  a  number,  or
                                      even one  developed specifically
nonwashable(X) :- lamp(X).            for the  purpose. Why they would
nonwashable(X) :- sofa(X).            choose a  conlang instead  of an
nonwashable(X) :- cat(X).             ethnic   language   seems   more
nonwashable(X) :- computer(X).        readily apparent.
                                    
possess(me,  pj1).    pajama(pj1).    The decision  to  use  Esperanto
  gray(pj1).  fuzzy(pj1).           was made  by the  creator of  DLT,
possess(me,  sf1).      sofa(pj1).  Toon Witkam, back in 1979.  As far
  gray(pj1).  fuzzy(pj1).           as  I  know,  he  never  seriously
possess(me,             thothmes).  considered another conlang, taking
  cat(thothmes).   gray(thothmes).  Esperanto as  a given  fundamental
  fuzzy(thothmes).                  property of  the project, although
possess(me,            millicent).  at the  time he  was not a speaker
  llama(millicent).                 of Esperanto.   He  probably  knew
  gray(millicent).                  little  or   nothing  about  other
  fuzzy(millicent).                 possibilities, and  maybe it never
                                    occurred to him to look into this.
?- washed(X)                          He is  no longer with the former
washed(pj1)                         DLT group, but is still on the BSO
;                                   payroll.   I can  find out  how to
washed(millicent)                   contact him  in BSO  if anyone  is
;                                   interested.
no                                    Lojban  seems  to  have  certain
                                    theoretical    advantages     over
?-vacuumed(X)                       Esperanto as  an interlingua.   On
vacuumed(sf1)                       the other hand, Esperanto has been
;                                   more tested  in practice (well, as
vacuumed(thothmes)                  a language  for humans  at  least)
;                                   and had  a larger pool of speakers
no                                  to draw  the people in the project
                                    from.
  DLT - Esperanto-based Machine       Hmm.   Maybe the  advantages and
           Translation              disadvantages     of     Esperanto
                                    compared to Lojban are the same as
  As our last item on the topic of  the advantages  and  disadvantages
computer     natural      language  of English  compared to Esperanto.
processing,  we  reprint  a  short  Comments invited.
report  on   the  status   of  the    Several people sent me questions
Distributed  Language   Translator  about DLT.   So instead of writing
(DLT) project  in the Netherlands.  individual responses, I decided to
Dan Maxwell,  who writes this, has

                                  67
write  a   general  one   for  all  achieved what  were  in  principle
conlangers.                         reasonable results  for the amount
  The use  of Esperanto  does  not  of money  and  manpower  expended.
solve  all  problems  involved  in  But  our   prototype,  like   most
machine translation  - I hope that  prototypes,  needed   to  be   re-
we never  claimed it  would -  but  designed       and       expanded.
does reduce  some of them and pro-  Unfortunately,  we   never  got  a
vide an  interesting framework for  chance to  test this,  because our
attempting to  solve others.  Even  funding ran  out.   We had  a six-
though our modified Esperanto was,  year   grant    from   the   Dutch
we       think,       structurally  government   (matched    by    our
unambiguous, this  only gives us a  company), but  this ended  in mid-
way  of  representing  alternative  1990. We  had  hoped  to  find  an
meanings (both  lexical and struc-  industrial partner to continue the
tural)  in   the  source  language  funding of  the project  by  then,
(This  was  English  in  our  pro-  but our  search was  unsuccessful.
totype),  not  of  choosing  among  We  are  still  keeping  our  eyes
them.                               open, but are not actively search-
  In order  to choose  among them,  ing.
we devised  a module called SWESIL    The modifications  to  Esperanto
(Semantic Word  Expert  System  In  in  the   early  planning   stages
the Inter-Lingua),  which made use  (early  1980s)   were   relatively
of a  probability-based  algorithm  radical, but  perhaps about 80% of
drawing on  a knowledge bank about  them  were  eliminated  after  the
semantic relatedness in Esperanto.  project started  for real.    This
This is  described in  some detail  all happened  before I  joined the
(c. 250  pages)  in  Working  with  project in  1986.   The move  back
Analogical              Semantics:  toward normal  Esperanto was  done
Disambiguation techniques  in DLT,  mainly for a practical reason:  we
1989,  by   Victor  Sadler,  Foris  needed   the    support   of   the
Publications, Box 5904, Dordrecht,  Esperanto community.   That is, we
Netherlands.   It is  number 5  of  needed Esperantists to work in the
the DLT series.                     project, and  this would  be  made
  You can also get a less detailed  more difficult  by  changes  which
(30  pages)   and  less  expensive  hindered  their  understanding  of
summary of  the entire project in:  the language.
Distributed Language  Translation:    The  most   important  remaining
A Multilingual Machine Translation  modifications  were:      dividers
Project, 1990., available from:     between  the  morphemes  within  a
Indiana   University   Linguistics  word;    e.g.,     "util'ig'ebl'a"
Club,     720     Atwater     St.,  instead of "utiligebla", and extra
Bloomington, IN  47401.   You  can  spaces to  distinguish between the
get it  from the above address for  readings of  sentences like "I ate
a few dollars.                      the fish  on the  table" and  "old
  For Esperantists,  there will be  men and women".
a paper by me called "Perkomputila    Outside of  these we had various
Tradukado:   la revo kaj la realo"  lexical  innovations  like  "antaw
published in  the series Oficialaj  ke" (the subordinating conjunction
Esperanto-Dokumentoj coming out in  "before") instead  of "antaw  ol".
a few  months.   This  deals  more  "kaw" in  place of  "kaj" (and) if
generally  with  the  problems  of  the coordinated  objects have  the
machine translation  and is  aimed  same referent,  as in  "my  friend
at a wider (Esperanto) public than  and companion".   Compound  tenses
just linguists.   But also the one  written      as      one      word
from     Indiana     is     fairly  ("trink'ont'is"=  "was   about  to
nontechnical.                       drink"    instead     of    "estis
  SWESIL  was   implemented  on  a  trinkonta"). Many  of these  minor
limited  scale  in  our  prototype  modifications are  in fact used by
(first   version    1987,   second  some  Esperantists.   A   complete
version 1988).   We  felt that  it  description of  these is available

                                  68
on paper  in Esperanto, but not in    are members  of a four-some, are
English.                              large.
                                    The two  owners of  the shoes  (of
    le lojbo se ciska (cont.)         which  there   are  four),   are
                                      large.
  More of Nora's examples from the
incomplete draft lessons.           vi le gusta
                                    At the restaurant:
**********************************  A: do xomei
**************                      You are a how-many-some?
Examples of numerical predicates    How many in your party?
**********************************  B: mi vomei
**************                      We are a four-some.

  2 +  2 = 4     3 + 3 = 6     4 +  ko poi romoi cu ganlygau le vorme
4 = 7                               (Imperative!) You the all-th one!,
                                      closed-do the door.
ti cimei sumji
This is a three-some sum.
.i le cimoi sumji cu na drani
And  the   three-th  sum  is  not:
  correct.
.i le pamoi remei sumji cu drani
And the  one-th two-some  sums are
  correct.

do bimoi  le liste  be le cpedu le
  se detri be lenu cpedu
You are  two-th in the list of the
  requestors, ordered  by date  of
  the event of requesting.
You are  the second one to ask, in
  date order.
.i la rik. so'imoi
And Rick is the many-th.
.i .uu mi romoi
And (Pity!)  I am  the all-th (the
  last).
.i lo romoi ba pamoi
And the all-th will-be one-th.
(The last shall be first.)

le cutci remei cu barda
The shoe two-some is large.
The pair of shoes is large.
.i le  se remei  be le'i  cutci cu
  barda
And the members of the two-some of
  the set of shoes are large.
.i le  se remei poi jadni le cutci
  cu barda
And the  members of  the  two-some
  which adorn the shoes are large.
(The two  things  ornamenting  the
  shoes are large.)
.i le  se remei poi ponse le cutci
  noi se vomei cu barda
And the  members of  the  two-some
  that possess  the  shoes,  which

                                  69
ti soso pivovo ce'isi'e curve       You  see   me  in-environment  the
This is-99.44%-portion pure           achievement point  of  my  being
                                      successful.
ti botpi le plise pipasi'e jisra    You  see   me  at   the  point  of
This is-a-bottle  of the apple-.1-    success.
  portion juice.
This bottle  of juice is 10% apple  da pu dicra leza'i do sipna
  juice.                            Something interrupted the state of
                                      you being asleep.
lenu carvi cu pizemu cu'o           Something interrupted your sleep.
The  event   of   rain   is   .75-  
  probability.                      **********************************
                                      **************
**********************************  A more complex example
  **************                    **********************************
Examples of  the  less  well-known    **************
  abstractors
**********************************  mi ba logji cipra le za'i nelci la
  **************                      rik. .e la .alis.
mi  pu  nelci  lesi'o  mulri'a  le  I will  logically-prove the  state
  bangu .enai  lepu'u  mulri'a  le    of fondness for Rick and Alice.
  bangu                             .i pamo'o  xu  la  rik.  nelci  la
I  was   fond  of   the  idea   of    .alis.
  completing  the  language,  and-  Section 1  - Is-it-true?  Rick  is
  not: the  process of  completing    fond of Alice.
  the language.   [Ed. note - this    .i pamai  roda na.a  la rik.  cu
  accurately reflects Nora's views      nelci la .alis.
  on the  drawn-out completion  of    1. Everyone1  Not!, or  Rick, is
  Loglan/Lojban.]                       fond of Alice.
                                      1. If  everyone, then  Rick,  is
la fred. na nelci lezu'o limna          fond of Alice.
Fred is  not: fond-of the activity    .ije remai  la fred. cu nelci la
  of swimming                           .alis.
                                      And 2. Fred is fond of Alice.
leli'i terpa cu rinka lenu morsi      .ije cimai di'u cu nibli le za'i
The  experience   of  being-afraid      de nelci la .alis.
  causes the event of being-dead.     And   3.   The   last   sentence
Fear causes death.                      logically   necessitates   the
                                        state of  someone2 being  fond
leli'i cortu  le na zasti tuple cu      of Alice.
  cizra                               .ije .ua leza'i la rik. cu nelci
The experience  of feeling-pain in      la .alis. cu se nibli
  the   not:    existing-leg    is    And (Discovery!)  The  state  of
  strange.       [The   experience      Rick being  fond of  Alice  is
  abstractor  was  proposed  by  a      logically necessary.
  Lojbanist who  has lost  a  leg,    [Ed. note.    Needless  to  say,
  noting that  such amputees  feel      this   proof    is   logically
  such 'phantom pains' in the non-      flawed..]
  existent leg.  "li'i" provides a
  way to  talk about such personal
  experiences    that    may    be
  otherwise     distinct      from
  'reality'.

lemu'e prane roda cu na cumki
The      achievement-point      of
  perfection in everything is not:
  possible.

do viska mi va'o lemu'e mi snada

                                  70
.i remo'o  xu la  .alis. nelci  la  seen  over  thirty  years  -  this
  rik.                              includes not  only a  month and  a
2nd section  Is-it-true? Alice  is  half of the conlang list, but also
  fond of Rick.                     the    Hardins'     "International
  .i pamai la .alis. cu nelci rodi  Language  Review,"   various  mag-
    poi nelci ri                    azines published  by proponents of
  1. Alice  is fond  of  everyone3  various language  projects, etc. -
    who is-fond-of her.             makes  me  think  of  a  group  of
  .ije remai  la rik.  cu nelci la  would-be  rock-climbers  clustered
    .alis.  ni'i   le  pamoi  mu'e  at the foot of El Capitan, a 1000-
    cipra                           meter sheer wall on the north side
  And 2.  Rick is  fond  of  Alice  of  Yosemite   Valley,   who   are
    logically-necessitated by  the  arguing among themselves about the
    first achievement of proof.     proper  technique   for   starting
  .ije .ua  la .alis.  cu nelci la  their climb  to the  top.   Two or
    rik ni'i le puvi jufra remei    three  have   actually  tried   to
  And (Discovery!)  Alice is  fond  start; a  couple got  three meters
    of Rick logically necessitated  off the ground and then fell back,
    by the  previous-here sentence  bruising   their   glutei   maximi
    two-some.                       (gluteos maximos, but I don't want
.i la  rik la .alis. cu nelci gi'e  to  offend  anybody  by  using  an
  .ui se nelci                      accusative ending) in the process,
Rick,  of   Alice,  is   fond  and  and one  has actually attained the
  (Happiness!) is-be-fonded-by.     twenty meter  level,  is  gritting
Rick is  fond of  Alice  and  vice  his teeth  in sheer determination,
  versa.                            and glumly  contemplates  the  980
                                    meters ahead  of him.   Meanwhile,
                                    the only  thing the  ones  on  the
   A Lojbanic Cultural Allegory     ground seem  able to  agree on  is
                                    that the  guy at  twenty meters up
  For a  lighter touch,  comes the  bought his  equipment  at  a  fire
following,   assembled   by   Nick  sale  and   learned  his  climbing
Nicholas   from    computer    net  technique in  a sandbox.  They may
messages.  The metaphors suggested  be right;  this is, after all, his
by the  allegory given have caught  first climb,  too, just  as it  is
on   among    the   most   skilled  theirs.   One of  them even shouts
Lojbanists, those  referred to  in  at  him   that  if   he  had   any
the  discussion.    These  include  consideration, he'd  rapelle  back
Nick  Nicholas,  Ivan  Derzhanski,  to the  ground and  make  way  for
Bob LeChevalier, John Cowan, Colin  some competent climbers.
Fine, Mark  Shoulson.  Other names    (I should  add  that  there's  a
referenced   in   the   text   are  gang of apes at the top who, every
Zamenhof, inventor  of  Esperanto,  now and then when they see someone
Jim Brown,  founder of  the Loglan  actually climbing, will kick a 100
project,  Schleyer,   inventor  of  kg. rock  down at  him to  try  to
VolapЃk, and  Jim Carter,  who  in  knock him  off.   They own the top
addition to supporting Lojban, has  of the  cliff, and  don't want you
developed his  predicate language.  to forget  it.  If you doubt this,
Bruce Gilson,  has similar spurred  read  Ulrich  Lins's  La  dan<gera
a recent  effort  on  the  net  to  lingvo, all 500+ pages of it.)
invent a 'predicate language with-    As to proper climbing technique,
out place structures'.              the main  question on  which  they
                                    cannot agree is this:  is the best
  The following  very  interesting  tool with which to start our climb
exchange happened on conlang list:  a three-legged  stool,  a  kitchen
                                    chair,  or   a  Sears   &  Roebuck
by           Don            Harlow  folding metal stepladder?
<72627.2647@CompuServe.COM>:          Stools, chairs  and  stepladders
  Bear with me for a moment.  Much  all have  their places in climbing
of  the  conlang  discussion  I've  - getting  that book  off the  top

                                  71
shelf,  cleaning   out  the   rain  the Lojbo  Jimbobs (not to mention
gutters,  getting  to  the  faucet  a fair few types clothed in elvish
when you're  three years old.  But  gear) aren't  as fussed  about the
they're out  of place  at the foot  wall as the others.  They've found
of El  Capitan.   In other  words,  a few relatively shallow pits, and
the climbers  are asking the wrong  are usually  happy to  jump in and
question.                           out of  them.   The  Jimbobs  like
  Similarly,    if     you're    a  somersaulting in  their soft sand-
scientific,  experimental,  liter-  pit.   The Silferistas  go  around
ary, or  simply curious conlanger,  performing home improvement opera-
questions     about     linguistic  tions  on  their  somewhat  deeper
structure,   vocabulary   sources,  pit, taking  advantage of the fact
etc. are  all important  and valid  that their  pit has been boot camp
ones.   Not only that, they're fun  for  the  Zamenhofos  for  a  long
to argue  (if you  don't make  the  time.   Some of  the stones hurled
mistake of  taking them  too seri-  by the  apes have  landed in  this
ously).   But if you're a "global"  pit; some  even think  that  lends
conlanger -  a proponent  of  some  the pit atmosphere.
particular  conlang,  or  even  of    I  don't   know  how  valid  the
just any  old conlang, as a global  analogy is;  as for  me, I receive
interlanguage, they are ultimately  mail at  both pits, and am usually
irrelevant,  or   at   best   only  not  that   distressed  about  the
marginally relevant.   Yeah,  that  niches the  mainstream Zamenhofos,
stepladder's the best of the three  yonder-ways, are  carving into the
- it'll get you two meters off the  face  of   the  wall   with  their
ground, and  leave you  a mere 998  penknives.
meters  to  go,  using  techniques    Ugh.   I don't  do this  analogy
that have nothing whatsoever to do  thing as  well as  you, Don :)  In
with     stools,     chairs     or  any case;  it is not true that all
stepladders.                        the subscribers  of  conlang  eat,
...                                 drink, and  sleep the  wall.   Me,
  Incidentally, that  guy's  still  I'm finding  my sandpit  a lot  of
twenty meters  up and climbing; he  fun.  So does Ivan derJimbob, Mark
learned early  to use pitons.  And  Joulsonbob,  and   Colin  Jinebob.
he's  a  lot  more  worried  about  Bob LeJimbob  doesn't hang  around
those apes  at the  top than he is  our particular sandpit these days,
about you.  Maybe you can pass him  but he  isn't really  at the  wall
while he's  sleeping.  Maybe he'll  you're at,  either.    He's  found
fall off  when he tries to sling a  himself a 500 meter wall, and he's
hammock.   Maybe the apes will hit  got rungs,  but he's still waiting
him with  a rock.  Maybe, once you  for the  hammers.   As to  whether
actually start  climbing,  they'll  your  shouted   instruction,  from
hit you with a rock!                your wall  across the  sandpits to
                                    his, will  help him  (and those in
by          Nick          Nicholas  the  sandpit),   time  will  tell.
<nsn@mullian.ee.Mu.OZ.AU>:          (That  and,   as  you   say,   the
  Don, a very good response there.  skeleton  of   the  "Schleyer  ist
Just a couple of clarifications.    Herrgot" team-member you passed by
  Not  everyone   is  going  rock-  in 1895).
climbing  up  the  wall  you  talk    I really  should lay  offa  them
about.     Some   see   the   apes  drugs.   Apologies to  anyone  who
abseiling down,  for instance, and  has felt  offended  by  this  very
aren't that  fussed.    Sure,  the  confused analogy.
apes tend  to  collide  with  each
other. but they do tend to cover a
lot of ground.
  A  few   members   of   the   El
Zamenhofo climbing  team,  on  the
other hand  (schismatics led by Il
Silferissimo), and  more than half

                                  72
by           John            Cowan  in recent  years say  that he  has
<cowan@snark.thyrsus.com>:          become much  subdued and  hard  to
  Nickbob writes:                   hear, and even (in one of his rare
                                    public   appearances)   completely
  Me, I'm finding my sandpit a lot  inaudible.   (The title  of "First
  of fun.  So does Ivan derJimbob,  Digger"  signifies  only  that  in
  Mark   Joulsonbob,   and   Colin  meetings of  the Jimbobs,  he digs
  Jinebob.   Bob LeJimbob  doesn't  first.)
  hang   around   our   particular    And so on....
  sandpit these days, but he isn't
  really at  the wall  you're  at,  Nick responds:
  either. He's found himself a 500
  meter wall,  and he's got rungs,    John McJohnbob, who always seems
  but he's  still waiting  for the    (inexplicably) to  get left  out
  hammers.                            of these lists...

  John McJohnbob, who always seems    Yeah, it  is strange that I keep
(inexplicably) to  get left out of  doing this, isn't it?  Hm.  If the
these lists,  is squatting  in the  conlangistanis  will   pardon  the
bottom of  the sandpit, feverishly  Lojban  politics,   part  of   the
re-reading his three-foot shelf of  reason is  that you seem to be the
climbing   documentation   (poorly  only  person   around  writing  up
bound,  unindexed,   and   typeset  shopping   lists    for   climbing
entirely in  mono-spaced  Flyspeck  equipment (and  toy shovels).   In
3).  In the other hand, he holds a  that respect,  you are, I daresay,
much-marked-up  list   of   needed  a tad  above the  sandpit.   After
equipment.   "Let's  see:    rope,  all, when I tell Mum all the great
hammers,     pitons,     crampons,  friends  I  made  at  kindergarten
tampons, clamp-ons,  spit, chewing  today, the  Teacher doesn't spring
gum....", he mutters.               to mind,  any more  than does  the
  And  then   we  mustn't   forget  School  Principal.     Perhaps  he
Carter Jimbob,  who  sits  at  the  should. Especially  as Teach is no
side of  the pit  with his back to  stranger to the sandpit games, the
the rest  of the  Jimbobs (he does  latest of  which involved  Beowulf
look     over     his     shoulder  :). [Editor's  note -  John  Cowan
occasionally).   He is  engaged in  recently translated  a small piece
digging  out   a  small  but  deep  of Beowulf into Lojban]
excavation with  his  bare  hands,    My  hats   off,  though,  for  a
and is  sometimes heard  to wonder  brilliant  sandpit   tale,   which
why he can't seem to keep the sand  deserves  to  get  into  a  JL  or
from  falling  back  in  so  fast.  three.
Next to  him are  Bruce  Jilsonbob
and his  merry men,  who are doing  [Signed] Nick,  splashing sand far
the same  with  their  larger  but  and wide, currently running a game
much shallower  hole.  The sand is  in which  a circle  of people pour
falling back  into their  hole  as  the same  cupful of sand into each
well, but they are digging so fast  other's hands (the phone game).
they haven't really noticed yet.
  There  is   a  rumor  among  the  John  Cowan   responds  to  Nick's
Jimbobs that somewhere in the pit,  comments about  his 'Jimbob  name'
or perhaps  in a  different pit of  and kindergarten:
the  same  size  and  shape  (this
question being hotly debated among    John McJohnbob writes:
the Jimbobs)  there  still  exists    (By  the   way,  John,  why  the
the legendary  First Digger,  Jim-    "Mc"?)
brownbob.   But whereas  the First
Digger was  formerly notorious for    Is simple.   "Cowan" is an Irish
the volume  of his  voice, audible  name,  "Mac  Eoin",  where  "Eoin"
at every  part of  the pit,  those  (pronounced roughly "Owen") is the
who claim  to have spoken with him

                                  73
earlier Irish  form of "John".  So    (Oh     sweet-beloved,     (this
I am John, son of John.               sentence is  expressed by Prince
                                      (uncertain)   (was   it?))   you
  After all,  when I  tell Mum all    express  everything   which   is
  the  great  friends  I  made  at    discussed by  none other  than a
  kindergarten today,  the Teacher    female  friend   to  me  who  is
  doesn't spring to mind, any more    (suppose) a girlfriend of you.)
  than does  the School Principal.
  Perhaps he should. Especially as  The "noi  da'i  fetypendo"  is  an
  Teach  is  no  stranger  to  the  excellent   compression   of   the
  sandpit games...                  English. By  the way,  fetpendo is
                                    quite alright.   The  fault creeps
  That's what  you say.   When  my  in  with  the  form  of  quotation
four-year-old  daughter   actually  used.   Does the "xu" tie with the
went to  kindergarten,  the  first  whole sentence  (as  intended)  or
friend  she   mentioned  was   the  only   with   the   name   Prince?
teacher.   (I should  mention that  (Actually, both make sense.)  More
this  is   one-a-dem   progressive  importantly, is  the "do"  of  the
places wherein  Teach is  known as  phrase the  "do" Prince  spoke to,
"Julie"    instead     of     "Ms.  or the  person I'm speaking to?  I
Kirkpatrick.")                      tend to  favour the  latter:   the
                                    "cu'u la  prins." is  a  tagged-on
    le lojbo se ciska (cont.)       part   of    the   sentence,   and
                                    shouldn't,  I   feel,  alter   the
  Now here  is Nick's summary of a  referent of "do".  And finally, is
second 'phone  game' message,  one  "doi titselprami"  included in the
that did  not pass as clearly from  quote or not?  I see no reason why
person to  person.   Note that the  it shouldn't  be  included.    The
group is fairly tolerant of Lojban  result thus comes out (assume I am
grammar errors, which is after all  talking to  Kate, and  Prince  was
one   reason    why   errors    in  talking to Cat):
'transmission' can  occur  in  the
phone game.  Since this is a game,    I  think   Prince   said   this:
it is  desirable that  some errors    Sweetheart, do you, Kate...
occur   -    that   is   how   the
participants  (and  you  who  read  as opposed to:
this) learn  what is  important in
Lojban  translation,  which  after    I  think   Prince   said   this:
all is  a  science  in  its  early    "Sweetheart, do you, Cat..."
infancy.  Here's Nick:
                                    but  not   I  think   (others  may
The second  phrase to  go  through  disagree):
the phone game was:
                                      I  think   Prince   said   this,
  As Prince once said, sweetheart,    sweetheart  Kate:     "Do   you,
  (if I  remember correctly) "If I    Cat..."
  was your  girlfriend, would  you
  still tell  me all  those things  This is critical.  The conclusion,
  only girlfriends talk about".     regrettably, is that "cu'u" is not
                                    the safest  way of  quoting  in  a
Sylvia handled it as:               sentence,   unless    the    whole
                                    sentence  is  quoted  -  including
  doi titselprami  cu'u la  .prins  "doi" (about UI I'm not sure), AND
  ju'ocu'i xu  do cusku  roda  poi  I still  think "do" outside quotes
  selcasnu no  de poi na fetypendo  (even with  a "cu'u"  tag)  stills
  ku'o ku'o  mi noi da'i fetypendo  refers to  your addressee, not the
  do                                quotee's.

                                    Colin comments:

                                  74
  I think  it's deeper - though in    "titselprami";  I'd  think  that
  a  way   simpler  -   than  your    attaching  figurative  qualities
  argument. "cu'u  la prins" is an    such  as  "sweet"  to  a  person
  adjunct not  of the jufra, still    would be  cultural.   I mean, is
  less the  selcu'u, but  strictly    your sweetheart literally sweet?
  of the  bridi. We  have a selbri    To the  taste?   I'd feel better
  "cusku" relating  several sumti:    with a culture-flag ("ku'u"?) or
  "do", "roda  li'o" and  "mi" ...    "pe'a" or "zabna" or their rafsi
  AND "la prins."                     somewhere  in   there  to  clear
                                      things up.    Or  even  drop  it
  You   express   all that ...  to    entirely.  'Course,   then  sub-
  me who ...  as said by Prince.      sequent  people  wouldn't  think
                                      "Sweetheart" where they did now,
    I  started  off  writing  this    but   remember   we   have   the
  comment thinking  that you  were    advantage  of  all  having  good
  basically right,  and the Lojban    colloquial command of English.
  did not work, but having written      Something about  "cu'u":  It's
  the above,  I think it does, and    a BAI,  so it  attaches  to  the
  is very  clever indeed (once the    selbri, and thus in some sense I
  "xu"  is  moved  to  the  proper    see it  as attaching  to the x1.
  place).   It is  NOT  a  literal    [Lojbab: No!   A  bridi  is  not
  translation, but  it  works  for    necessarily a  claim about x1 in
  me.   The basic  bridi is saying    particular among  the sumti, but
  "Do you  tell me all the things,    about all  of the  sumti.    The
  supposing  ..."  so  the  "cu'u"    only special  role of  x1 in the
  phrase adds  "As prince  said, I    language    comes    from    its
  think,  ..."     I   think  your    accessibility to "le" for making
  vocative stuff  is  missing  the    description    sumti.]        My
  point:      "cu'u"   cannot   be    translation probably  didn't use
  asserting   that   anything   in    this logic,  but consider  it  a
  particular was  actually said by    moment.  "mi klama cu'u la bab."
  Prince,  since  (except  in  the    This  doesn't  mean  "Bob  says,
  construction   "pecu'u"    etc.)    "I'm coming".  It means "I am-a-
  there isn't anything there to be    goer with-expressor  'bob'",  so
  the quotation.                      "mi" is the speaker (I guess I'm
                                      agreeing with  you here,  Nick).
(Nick gripes  that  that's  pretty    I really don't know exactly what
much what he was saying :)            the semantics  of this  sentence
                                      would be,  since "going" doesn't
  I notice  that  the  translation    make  too  much  sense  with  an
omits "still".                        "expressor" place;  barely  more
                                      than  it   would  make   with  a
Adds Mark:                            "chocolate" place  (fi'o cakla).
    The   original   sentence   is    I don't  think I trust "cu'u" in
  pretty convoluted to start with.    this  particular  sentence  (the
  Might have  worked  better  with    one I  just said  and the Prince
  "doi   titselprami   la   prins.    sentence).
  ju'ocu'ipei  cusku   lu  xu   do      Oh, and grammatically the "xu"
  cusku...  li'u",  that  is,  use    had to  attach to  "la  prins.",
  lu/li'u  to   scope  the  quote.    the way things were written.)
  Hence the  problem with the "xu"
  getting  attached   to   Prince.  [Lojbab notes that the intent with
  Something is sorta strange about  "cu'u" is  to  be  used  to  quote
  "roda poi  selcasnu no de poi na  either  directly   or  indirectly.
  fetypendo", but  something in me  Quote marks would indeed delimit a
  likes it.   It's  not  literally  direct quote  most accurately,  in
  what the  original  had,  but  I  which   case    you   must    have
  didn't  misunderstand   it,  and  "cu'usa'a" to  indicate  that  the
  it's elegant and logical.  I'm a  'said by'  isn't part of the quote
  little       unsure        about  proper.    Thus  the  tradeoff  is

                                  75
whether,  in   the  original,  the  think" is  lost.  Furthermore, the
quote is merely an accurate direct  "doi titselprami" is assumed to be
quote, or  whether the  intent is,  part of  what  Prince  is  saying.
as for  most English  speakers who  Apart from  that, it's an accurate
quote famous sayings in analogy to  guess,  but   Mark  felt  it  more
their own lives, that the meanings  honest to  rely on the text given,
of   referenced   'variables'   be  and chose  the first  alternative,
adapted to  the analogy.    As  an  which Colin translated as:
indirect quote, an expressor place
makes plenty  of sense.  "mi klama    doi selprami  la prins. xu du le
cu'u la bab." means "Bob says that    cusku be  ledu'u do  ba cusku fi
I went",  not "Bob  says 'I went'"    mi fe  ro te  tavla befi da na.a
An  indirect   quote  is   usually    lo   pendyfetsi   va'o   mi   do
intended   to    reflect    fairly    pendyfetsi da'i
accurately what  the speaker actu-
ally  said   without  trying   for    Beloved, was  Prince the one who
literal quotation.   "du'o"  is  a    expressed  the  sentence:    you
more vague source attribution that    will  tell  me  all  the  things
is available,  meaning  'according    talked about  by  X  only  if  a
to'; it  would typically  be  used    girlfriend    does,    in    the
when reporting (in paraphrase) the    environment of me, in the medium
information content  of the source    of  you,   undefined   argument:
material.]                            girlfriend (suppose).

  Mark was in two minds between:      The main  error is  the omission
                                    of  "va'o  lenu".    "da  na.a  lo
  Sweetheart, was  it  Prince  who  pendyfetsi",  surprisingly  to  me
  said you'd  tell  me  everything  after a half-minute's truth-table,
  that   only   girlfriends   talk  works well;  but I  don't know  if
  about,   if    I    were    your  it's that  intuitable.    I  don't
  girlfriend?                       think  the  "be  ledu'u"  'quoted'
                                    sentence  is  that  elegant  as  a
and:                                whole (the  nesting and reordering
                                    seem unnecessary), but the meaning
  'Sweetheart,'    said    Prince,  is conveyed, though the "ba" seems
  'Would you  tell  me  everything  to me misleading.
  discussed by only girlfriends if
  I were your girlfriend?'          Colin comments:
                                      As  often,   there's  a  tension
Nick:                                 between precision  and elegance.
  The first alternative points out    "la prins xu cusku ledu'u" might
the fact that the referent of "do"    have done,  but seemed  to  lose
is still  the addressee.  It is, I    the  force  of  "Was  it  Prince
feel,     the     more     natural    who". I  tend to  use "fi  mi fe
interpretation of the Lojban text.    role ..."  to get  a light sumti
It has the question hanging on the    before a heavy one even when the
identity of Prince rather than the    original doesn't  have that  or-
whole statement;  again,  this  is    der.
what  the   Lojban  text  implies.
"doi titselprami"  refers  to  the
addressee as does "do".
  The second  alternative has Mark
trying to  guess what  was  really
meant: namely,  that "cu'u" was an
attempt   at    literal   quoting.
Unfortunately, you  can't have the
"ju'ocu'i"  tying   to  the   name
Prince and  the "xu"  to the  main
sentence;  thus   the  "Prince,  I

                                  76
Correcting  the   omission:     we       immediately  preceded   by  a
started with:                            /la/, /lai/,  /la'i/ or /doi/
                                         as a  marker, and  it  cannot
  As Prince once said, sweetheart,       contain any  of these markers
  (if I  remember correctly) "If I       unless    the    marker    is
  was your  girlfriend, would  you       immediately  preceded   by  a
  still tell  me all  those things       consonant.        So,    look
  only girlfriends talk about".          backwards from the end of the
                                         piece for  any of the allowed
and ended up with:                       markers.   If we  don't  find
                                         one (e.g.  /jonz/), then  the
  Beloved, was  it Prince who said       whole piece has been resolved
  that   you    would   tell    me       as a name.
  everything   talked   about   by       b)   If you  do find  such  a
  people  only  if  they're  girl-       marker,   then   check   what
  friends, supposing  that  I  was       immediately precedes  it.  If
  your girlfriend?                       there   is    nothing   (e.g.
                                         /ladjAn/),  or   if  a  vowel
Close-ish, but not quite.                precedes                (e.g.
                                         /mivIskaladjAn./,  break  off
       Morphology Algorithm              the  marker   as  a  resolved
Internal Revision 4.1, 8 June 1992       piece   (/la/),    and   what
                                         follows it is also a resolved
The  following   will  become  the       piece,   a   name   (/djAn/),
official  baseline  algorithm  for       leaving  us   with   whatever
resolution  of  Lojban  text  into       preceded   the   marker,   if
individual  words   from   sounds,       anything, as still unresolved
stress, and pause.  As such, it is       (/mivIska/).
the ultimate  standard of Lojban's       c)    If  what  precedes  the
unambiguous  resolvability,  which       marker is  a consonant  (e.g.
may make Lojban speech recognition       /karoslAInas/)  then   ignore
by computers  more  possible  than       the   marker   and   continue
for other  languages.   While  the       looking  backwards.      This
algorithm looks  very complicated,       exception is  allowed because
almost  all  of  it  is  resolving       /karos/  with   no  following
special cases, and performing what       pause cannot represent a sep-
error detection and correction may       arate word.
be possible.                           2)  ".y.", the hesitation:
                                         If the  piece consists solely
                                         of /y/,  then it  resolves as
We have  a string representing the       the hesitation word (which is
speech stream,  marked with stress       required to  be surrounded by
and pauses.   We  want to break it       pauses).
up into words.                         


1.   First, break  at  all  pauses
(cannot pause  in the  middle of a
word).
2.   Then, pick  the  first  piece
that has  not  been  uniquely  re-
solved.
 A.   The first  thing is  to deal
 with some  constructs  which  are
 required to end with a pause:
   1)  Names:
     a)  If the last letter of the
     piece is a consonant, we have
     a name.   A  name must have a
     pause before  it UNLESS it is

                                  77
   3)    Some     lerfu     words:     /nu/ +  /mi/ +  /ba/ + /ca'a/).
   specifically,  the  last  lerfu     If there are no consonants, the
   word of  a string if it ends in     piece is  a single  cmavo.   In
   a  "y"   (e.g.  /abubycydy/  or     either case,  the piece is com-
   /y'y/) must  be followed  by  a     pletely resolved.
   pause:                            C.   Now we have a piece which we
     a)  If the "y" is preceded by   are sure  contains  a  brivla  (a
     a consonant,  break  off  the   gismu, a lujvo or a le'avla).  We
     consonant+"y" as  a  resolved   know that  a brivla  must have  a
     lerfu word  (e.g. /abubycydy/   consonant  cluster  (CC  or  CyC)
     gives  /abubycy/  unresolved,   within  the   1st  five   letters
     and /dy/  resolved as a lerfu   (ignoring  apostrophes   in   the
     word). Continue  breaking off   count), and must have penultimate
     any Cy  pieces as lerfu words   stress (ignoring  "y"  syllables,
     if they're  there (e.g. unre-   which  are   not  allowed  to  be
     solved /abubycy/  gives unre-   stressed).
     solved  /abuby/   +  resolved     1)   First, let's  check for  a
     /cy/; then  /abuby/ gives un-     potential error  (a form  which
     resolved /abu/  plus resolved     shouldn't arise):
     /by/).                              a)   If the piece contains no
      Note that  the Cy-type lerfu       stress, but  has a  consonant
      words will NEVER come before       cluster (CC or CyC), it is in
      the other  lerfu word pieces       error.  The consonant cluster
      in  a   breath-group  -  the       indicates   it   contains   a
      "abu"  and   "y'y"  types  -       brivla   (gismu,   lujvo   or
      since   they    begin   with       le'avla),   which    requires
      vowels,   they    MUST    be       penultimate stress.  The only
      preceded by  pauses; and  Cy       place  this   MIGHT   validly
      followed  by   anything  but       occur is  inside a  zoi-quote
      another Cy  must be followed       (and therefore  need  not  be
      by a  pause (because  "y" is       resolved at all).
      used as  glue in  lujvo,  it       b)     However,   if   stress
      could  cause   resolvability       information is not available,
      problems  if  not  separate;       assume the brivla ends at the
      e.g.  /micybusmAbru/   would       end of the piece.  (This rule
      not uniquely resolve).             gives the right behavior with
     b)  If the "y" is preceded by       canonical   written   Lojban,
     "V'" (e.g.  /y'y/, break  be-       where  spaces   separate  all
     fore the  "V", and  the "V'y"       words except  for some  cmavo
     is resolved as a lerfu word.        compounds   and   stress   is
     c)  If the "y" is preceded by       normally not marked.)
     an "i"  or "u" ("iy" and "uy"     2)  Next, let's find the end of
     are   reserved)   the   piece     the first brivla in the piece:
     cannot be resolved.                 a)   Find the first consonant
     d)  If the "y" is preceded by       cluster (CC  or CyC) and then
     a vowel (V) other than "i" or       the  first  stress  after  it
     "u", the  piece is  in  error       (the brivla  is  expected  to
     and  cannot  be  further  re-       end   after    the   syllable
     solved.                             following  the   stress,  ig-
 B.   Next, see  if the  piece  is       noring "y"  syllables).    If
composed entirely of cmavo.              the stress is on a diphthong,
   1)   Check the  piece to see if       treat the entire diphthong as
   there are  any consonant  clus-       stressed (So  that "find  the
   ters (a consonant cluster is of       next vowel" will not get just
   one of the forms CC or CyC). If       the second  half of the diph-
   there are  none, break  up  the       thong).
   piece  before  each  consonant,       b)   If there  is no vowel in
   resolving each piece as a cmavo       the piece  after the  stress,
   (e.g.  /alenumibaca'a/   breaks       it  can't  be  a  penultimate
   into the  cmavo /a/  +  /le/  +       stress, so  the piece  is  in

                                  78
     error (unresolvable).    This        2]  Repeat the above as many
     is also  true if  "y" is  the        times   as   we   can   (so,
     only vowel  after the  stress        /lekArce/  becomes   /le/  =
     (e.g. */stAsy/ is not a valid        cmavo  +   /kArce/   =   un-
     breath-group).                       resolved. Since  /kArce/ has
     c)     If  the   NEXT   vowel        a consonant  cluster in  the
     following     the      stress        first five letters, we can't
     (skipping  over  "y"'s  )  is        go any further).
     immediately followed  by "'V"        3]   If the  piece  we  have
     (as in /mlAtyci'a/), then the        left starts  with  a  vowel,
     syllable following the stress        find  the  first  consonant.
     cannot be  the last  syllable        If the  first  consonant  is
     of  a   word  (since  the  'V        part of  a consonant cluster
     cannot begin  the next word).        (only  CC-form  this  time),
     Ordinarily  we   would  count        and this  consonant  cluster
     this as  an error,  but let's        is NOT a valid initial clus-
     instead assume  that this was        ter, then we can resolve the
     a secondary stress and ignore        entire piece  as  a  le'avla
     the fact  that there  is some        (e.g.          /antipAsto/);
     stress on  it.   Go find  the        otherwise  (if   the   first
     next stress  to  use  as  THE        consonant is  NOT part  of a
     penultimate stress  for  this        consonant  cluster,  or  the
     brivla        (e.g.        in        consonant cluster IS a valid
     /mlAtyci'abrIjuti/,    assume        initial cluster),  break off
     the  penultimate   stress  is        before the  first  consonant
     "I", not "A").                       as a  cmavo (e.g. /a'ofArlu/
     d)  Having eliminated all the        becomes  /a'o/   =  cmavo  +
     potential    problems    with        /fArlu/  =  unresolved;  or,
     finding the  end,  let's  cut        /aismAcu/  becomes   /ai/  =
     the piece  after the  end  of        cmavo  +   /smAcu/   =   un-
     the brivla:                          resolved).
      Find the  first  vowel  (not       b)  What's left begins with a
      counting  "y")   after   the       consonant and has a consonant
      stress.   If it is part of a       cluster (CC  or CyC)  in  the
      diphthong, break  after  the       first 5  letters.   The whole
      diphthong; otherwise,  break       thing may  be  a  brivla,  or
      after the vowel itself.            there may  be (at  most)  one
   3)     Now   let's   find   the       consonant-initial  cmavo   in
   beginning of  the brivla in the       front.   Here  are  the  pos-
   front part of the piece we just       sibilities for  the start  of
   broke off:                            the    piece,    and    their
     a)   First, break off as many       resolutions:
     obvious cmavo  pieces off the        1]  CC... :
     front as we can:                       Resolve whole  thing as  a
      1]  If there is no consonant          brivla (a gismu, lujvo, or
      cluster (CC  or CyC)  in the          le'avla).
      first  5  letters  (ignoring        2]  CyC... :
      apostrophes in  the  count),          Invalid              form.
      then, if  the  piece  starts  Unresolvable.
      with a  vowel, break off be-
      fore  the   first  consonant
      (e.g. /alekArce/ becomes /a/
      =  cmavo)   +  /lekArce/   =
      unresolved), otherwise break
      off   before    the   second
      consonant (e.g.  /vilekArce/
      becomes  /vi/   =  cmavo   +
      /lekArce/   =   unresolved).
      The  front   piece  is  then
      resolved as a cmavo.

                                  79
      3]  CVVCC... :                        (gismu,     lujvo,      or
        (Note: stressing  a  cmavo          le'avla).    For  example,
        on the  final syllable be-          /selfArlu/.
        fore  a   brivla  is   not          c]   If there is a "y", we
        allowed.)                           need to  look at  the sub-
        a]   If there is no stress          piece up to the first "y":
        on the  VV and the CC is a            1>    If  the  sub-piece
        valid   initial   cluster,            consists   entirely   of
        then break  off  the  CVV,            CVC's   repeating    (at
        and resolve it as a cmavo;            least  2   needed:  e.g.
        the  remaining  piece  can            /cacric/), and  all  the
        then  be   resolved  as  a            CC's  of  the  sub-piece
        brivla   (see    "CC....",            are    valid     initial
        above).     For   example,            clusters,  then  resolve
        /leiprEnu/  becomes  /lei/            the  initial   CV  as  a
        = cmavo   +    /prEnu/   =            cmavo, and  the rest  of
        brivla.                               the  whole  piece  is  a
        b]   Otherwise (i.e. there            brivla   (a   lujvo   or
        IS a  stress on the VV, or            le'avla).
        the    first     consonant            2>   Otherwise,  if  the
        cluster  is  not  a  valid            sub-piece can  be broken
        initial cluster),  resolve            down into  a valid lujvo
        the  whole   thing  as   a            "front" in front and any
        brivla  (e.g.  /cAItro/  =            number (including  zero)
        brivla)                               of valid lujvo "middles"
      4]  CV'VCC... :                         thereafter, resolve  the
        (Note: stressing  a  cmavo            whole piece as a brivla.
        on the  final syllable be-             a>  Valid fronts (we've
        fore  a   brivla  is   not             eliminated   all    but
        allowed.)                              those   starting   with
        a]   If there is no stress             CV): CVC CVCC
        on the  final vowel of the             b>   Valid middles: CVV
        V'V) and the CC is a valid             CV'V CVC CCV CCVC CVCC
        initial   cluster,    then            3>  Otherwise, the front
        break off  the  CV'V,  and            CV should be resolved as
        resolve it as a cmavo; the            a  cmavo,  and  the  re-
        remaining piece  can  then            maining     piece     is
        be resolved  as  a  brivla            resolved as  a brivla (a
        (see   "CC....",   above).            lujvo or le'avla)
        For  example,  /so'iprEnu/          d]  If there is no "y":
        becomes /so'i/  = cmavo  +            1>      If   the   piece
        /prEnu/ = brivla.                     consists    of     CVC's
        b]   Otherwise (i.e. there            repeating  (at  least  2
        is a  stress on  the final            needed) up to a final CV
        vowel of  the V'V,  or the            (e.g.  /cacricfu/),  and
        first consonant cluster is            all the CC's of the sub-
        not   a    valid   initial            piece are  valid initial
        cluster),   resolve    the            clusters,  then  resolve
        whole thing  as  a  brivla            the  initial   CV  as  a
        (e.g. /cA'Itro/ = brivla)             cmavo, and  the rest  of
      5]   CVCC...  (This  is  the            the piece is a brivla (a
      hard one.  Is the front CV a            lujvo).
      separate word?):                        2>   Otherwise,  if  the
        a]   If the whole piece is            piece can be broken down
        CVCCV,  then   the   whole            into   a   valid   lujvo
        thing resolves as a gismu.            "front" in front and any
        b]   If the  CC is  not  a            number (including  zero)
        valid   initial   cluster,            of valid lujvo "middles"
        then the  whole piece  can            followed  by   a   valid
        be resolved  as  a  brivla            lujvo    "end",     then

                                  80
          resolve the  whole piece    me lo fetcinfo .e lo lorxu
          as a brivla (a lujvo).      .i lo  fetcinfo noi  se ckasu lo
           a>  Valid fronts (we've  lorxu lenu  ra roroi  se jbena  lo
           eliminated   all    but  pamei cu  bacru <<lu go'i lo pamei
           those   starting   with  noi ku'i cinfo li'u>>
           CV): CVC CVCC              ni'o xe  ctuca  fi  ledu'u  loni
           b>   Valid middles: CVV  xamgu cu  .ei se merli fi lo klani
           CV'V CVC CCV CCVC CVCC   na.e leni srana loka vrude
           c>    Valid  ends:  CVV  
           CV'V CCV CCVCV CVCCV     
                                    2.
          3>  Otherwise, the front    me  lo   resprtestudine  .e   lo
          CV should be resolved as  cicractu
          a  cmavo,  and  the  re-    .i  lo  resprtestudine  kuce  lo
          maining     piece     is  cicractu  leni  sutra  cu  dabysnu
          resolved as  a brivla (a  .isemu'ibo le go'i noi tugni jdice
          le'avla).                 tu'a le  detri .eji'a  le stuzi cu
                                    ba sepli  bajra simjvi  .i le zu'u
                                    cicractu noi  ki'u leke'a rarna ka
                                    sutra cu  na'eke  se  mukti  jundi
__________________________________  lenu bajra  ku'o ca'o  lenu  vreta
              _____                 te'e le  dargu cu  sipna    .i  le
                                    zu'unai resprtestudine.  noi sanji
    le lojbo se ciska (cont.)       leke'a  ka  masno  na  sisti  lenu
                                    bajra   .ije seki'ubo  le go'i noi
  It's time  for our feature texts  bajra zo'a  le cicractu  noi sipna
of this issue.                      cu mo'u  klama  le  co'e  pe  lenu
  The real  test of  an artificial  cnemu fi lenu jinga
language is how well it can convey    ni'o tu'a  le selsku cu xe ctuca
ideas from  a variety  of cultures  fi ledu'u le rarna se ckaji poi se
and languages.    This  issue,  we  na'eke se  mukti jundi  ku'o  lenu
present tales  translated directly  troci cu so'eroi se tervlimau
from  two   languages   that   few  
Lojbanists know.                    
  The first several texts are 6 of
the  moralistic   tales   of   the
classical  Greek  fabulist  Aesop,
translated from  the Ancient Greek
by Nick Nicholas.  The first thing
you will  undoubtedly note  is how
brief   the    stories   are,   as
originally written.    This  makes
each story a pleasant little chunk
of Lojban  to translate, and since
you will  likely find  the stories
at least  a little  familiar,  you
should be able to work through the
occasionally difficult  result  of
Nick's  efforts  at  matching  the
Greek syntax and style.
  You will  need a  complete cmavo
list,   including    the   changes
reported  in  JL14  and  JL15,  to
completely  succeed   with   these
texts, though  most  of  the  text
will be understandable without all
of the updates handy.
  Here's Aesop:

1.

                                  81
3.                                  gi'e zanru skicu le cipnrkorvo. ri
  me lo lorxu .e lo vanjba          lo dratra  bo selxadni  joi  melbi
  .i lo  lorxu noi  xagji ku'o  ca  gi'eji'a bacru  lu'e ledu'u  ge ra
lenu viska  loi vanjba  gunma  noi  nu'o turni  .ei lei  cipni  gi  le
dandu lo tricu cu djica lenu cpacu  da'i nu ra cu se voksa lo xamgu cu
ra gi'eku'i  naka'e cpacu   .i  le  nibli  lenu  pu'i  turni    .i  le
go'i ca  lenu cliva  cu  cusku  fi  cipnrkorvo noi djica lenu jarco fi
vo'a fe  <<lu lei  jbari cu  slari  le lorxu  fe lenu pu'i se voksa lo
li'u>>                              xamgu cu renro le rectu gi'e cladu
  ni'o si'a  so'i prenu poi naka'e  krixa   .i le  lorxu  cu  bajrykla
xagmaugau  lei   cuntu  ki'u  loka  gi'e  bacru  ba'o  lenu  kavbu  le
ruble cu pantypai le tcini          rectu kei <<lu doi cipnrkorvo noda
                                    fau le  da'i nu  do  se  menli  lo
                                    xamgu cu  fanta lenu do turni roda
4.                                  li'u>>
  me lo danlrkankre .e lo mamta be    ni'o le  prenu poi bebna ku'o le
ri                                  se cusku cu pilno se xamgu
  .i <<lu ko na na'emo'ica'u cadzu  
seisa'a lo danlrkankre le mamta cu    The  next   piece  is  a  little
se tavla   .iji'a  le cilmo  rokci  tougher, since  the story  is  un-
leko  xadni   mlana  na  te  mosra  familiar to  most readers,  as  is
li'u>>   .i ke'unai le danlrkankre  the Chinese culture from which the
cu bacru  <<lu doi mamta ko noi ca  story comes.   The  text  is  John
ctuca cu  mo'ica'u cadzu  .ija'ebo  Cowan's  translation  of  a  short
mi fau  lenu viska  do cu  smizu'e  tale from Hakka Chinese.
li'u>>                                Hakka is  a rural dialect spoken
  ni'o  xe  ctuca  fi  ledu'u  lei  in inland  Southeast  China.    As
pajni cusku cu .eiro'a vrude tarti  shown in  the translation section,
je   cadzu    sa'enai   cei   bu'a  Hakka  Chinese   has  a  different
.iba'ojenaipubo .ei ri cu ctuca fo  tonal structure,  and the text has
lenu bu'a                           many roots  quite unlike  that  of
                                    standard     Mandarin     Chinese.
                                    Indeed, John  had to  go to  great
5.                                  lengths    to     find    suitable
  me lo cinkrkikada .e loi manti    informants   who   could   explain
  .i ze'aca  loi dunra  lei  maxri  subtle points  of Hakka semantics,
noi se  prucimri'a ku'o  loi manti  since  John,  of  course,  doesn't
goi ko'a  cu se  sudgau  .ike'unai  know Hakka Chinese either.
lo cinkrkikada. goi ko'u noi xagji    John deserves  a lot  of credit,
cu cpedu  loi cidja  ko'a   .i lei  indeed!   I  like  his  philosophy
manti cu  crusku fi  ko'u fe  <<lu  that good  translation, especially
ki'u ma? ca le crisa do si'anai na  of   cultural    ideas,   requires
jmaji loi  cidja li'u>>   .i  ko'u  translation  from   the  original.
bacru <<lu  mi pu gunka nagi'eku'i  Thus, he  did not use an available
zgike sanga li'u>>  .i ko'a noi ca  colloquial English  translation of
cmila  cu   bacru  <<lu  do  sanga  the  story,  choosing  instead  to
ze'aca le crisa  .ije .uunai ko ca  work from the English and Mandarin
le dunra cu dansu li'u>>            glosses   found   below   in   the
  ni'o tu'a  le lisri cu xelctu fi  translation section  (asking  lots
ledu'u xamgu  fa lenu  gunka jundi  of  questions   of   knowledgeable
roda kei  fi  lenu  badri  najenai  informants, when appropriate).
selckape                              Here is John's text.  Enjoy!
                                    
                                    ni'oni'o di'e  se  tcita  <<lu  le
6.                                  bruna  cu   kenkakpa   sepi'o   lo
  me lo cipnrkorvo .e lo lorxu      cnadakfu   .ije le  mamta cu pensi
  .i lo  cipnrkorvo noi ba'o kavbu  selraktu li'u>>
lo rectu  cu ca'o  zutse lo  tricu  
.i lo  lorxu  noi  viska  ra  gi'e  .i tu'e
djica lenu cpacu le rectu cu sanli  

                                  82
la .asun.  jo'u la  .aniis.  bruna  .i vofli ze'abaku  .i ti'e ca'o ro
remei  .i la .asun. jbena le purci  crisa ko'i rolnicte sanli le tricu
mamta   .ije la  .aniis. jbena  le  forca gi'e  cusku  zoi  <<.xakkas.
cabna mamta  .i le cabna mamta goi  go1 zy3  cok8 cok8  oi1  zy3  pak8
ko'a cu  to'e lanxe tarti  .i ci'o  sok8 .xakkas.>>    .i  cusku  pu'o
ko'a le  jbebersa be ko'a cu dirba  lenu le molko'a cu ciblu vikmi
.i ro  bu'a zo'u:  la  .aniis.  cu  
djica lenu  bu'a   .inaja bu'a  .i  tu'u
la .asun. te cinmo to'ebo la'edi'u  
.i  la   .asun.  goi   ko'e  citka  Translations of le lojbo se ciska
nalculno   gi'e   dasni   nalglare                   
.iji'a so'iroi  darxi ko'e   .i le       Translation of lei lojbo
cabna  mamta  ta'e  plafinti  lenu
catra la .asun.                     Katrina:   mi xatra  be la  .alis.
                                      ciska bau la lojban.  .i .e'o ko
.i paroikiku  le  cabna  mamta  cu    sidju lenu fanva
cuxna re so'etsi  .i pa so'etsi cu  I   (letter-to-Alice)-write    in-
nalseljukpa   .ije pa  so'etsi  cu    language  Lojban.    (Petition!)
seljukpa   .i dunda le seljukpa la    You! (Imperative!)  assist  the-
.asun.   .ije dunda le nalseljukpa    event of translating.
la .aniis.  .i cusku                I've written  a letter to Alice in
<<lu re  ko cu  mo'ine'i klama  le    Lojban.       Please   help   me
kevna poi betfu le barda tricu  .i    translate it (to English).
ko pilno  loi cilmo dertu lo tagji
gacri be  le so'etsi   .i  ko  poi  Sam: .ui .oinai
leke'a so'etsi  cu pamoi derjbe cu  (Happiness!  Pleasure!)
pamoi zdaxru li'u>>                 I'd be happy to!  My pleasure!

.i ba lenu dzukla fo pimu le dargu  Katrina:  <<lu xu? la teris. cu se
kei la  .aniis. zgana  lenu le  le    pluka le  cukta poi  ri te dunda
bruna ku  so'etsi  noi  badmau  cu    fi mi li'u>>
farlu                               "Is it true? Terry is-pleased with
.ibazibo fo  le bruna cu canja  .i    the  book(s)  which  he/she  was
bazuku le  la  .asun.  so'etsi  cu    given by me?
pamoi derjbe   .i ko'e morji le se  Did Terry  like the book(s) I gave
cusku be le mamta  .isemu'ibo ko'e    him/her?
pamoi zdaxru  .i le mamta cu zgana
lenu le  jbebersa be ko'a na xruti  Sam: pamai:  ma? te kancu le cukta
.i na  kurji lejei  ko'a jmive  .i  Firstly,    what-value?    is-the-
sutra  sutra  bajrykla  mu'i  lenu    counted-value of the books.
facki lejei la .asun. lidne da      First:   How many books are there?
                                      [to know  whether  to  translate
.i lo  cmana cevni  cu makfa tisna    "cukta" as singular or plural].
le tricu  kevna loi  dertu   .i le
cabna mamta  ba cusku  fi la asun.  Katrina:   li ci   .i  ku'i mi  na
fe                                    jimpe  le   mukti  be   lenu  do
<<lu ko  cuxna  lo  cnadakfu  gi'e    terpreti .oi
klama fa'ertisna  le  tricu  kevna  Three.  However, I not: understand
li'u>>                                le motive  of the  event of your
                                      asking.  (Complaint!)
.i ca lenu kenkalri noda nenri  .i  Three.  But I don't understand why
pa cipni  goi ko'i  cu vofli cliva    you  ask   such  an   irrelevant
gi'ecabo   klaku    cusku      zoi    question!
<<.xakkas go1  zy3 cok8  cok8  oi1
zy3 pak8 sok8 .xakkas.>> no'u <<lu  Sam: le'onai mi troci lenu sidju
le bruna  cu  kenkakpa  sepi'o  lo  (Defensive!) I try to assist.
cnadakfu   .ije le  mamta cu pensi  I'm only trying to help!
selraktu li'u>>
                                    Katrina:   .o'ocu'i   .e'o ko go'i
                                      .e'u

                                  83
(Mere  tolerance!)     (Petition!)  a singleton,  which  incidentally,
  You!  (Imperative!)  do-the-pre-  however, is a lion".
  vious.  (Suggestion!)
Grrr!   Then  DO  so,  for  Pete's
  sake!

Sam: ta'onai la teris. cinse ma?
(Returning to  main point!)  Terry
  exhibits       sexuality/sexual-
  orientation of-what-kind?
OK.   Getting  on  with  it,  what
  gender is  Terry? [to  determine
  the  gender   of   the   pronoun
  translating "ri".]

Katrina:  .i'anai se'inai  .i ka'u
  do bilga  lenu na  terpreti de'u
  .a'unai
(Blame! Other-directed!)   (I know
  culturally!) You  are-obliged to
  the-event-of  not:   asking  the
  recent utterance.  (Repulsion!)
Arrgh!  You aren't supposed to ask
  such disgusting questions!

Katrina:  ju'i mamta la sam. cusku
  lo cinse preti .i'enaicai
Attention, Mother! Sam expressed a
  sexual     question      (Strong
  disapproval!)
Hey Mom!!!   Sam  just asked  me a
  dirty question!

[Needless to say, Nora was playing
around  with   the   problems   of
machine    translation     between
language,  while  also  trying  to
show how fluent speakers might use
the Lojban  attitudinals  to  very
expressively communicate  feelings
that don't  record too  accurately
on  paper.     We   hope  everyone
enjoyed!]


       Translation of Aesop


1.
  me lo fetcinfo .e lo lorxu
  Pertaining to  a lioness  and  a
fox.
  .i lo  fetcinfo noi  se ckasu lo
lorxu lenu  ra roroi  se jbena  lo
pamei cu  bacru <<lu go'i lo pamei
noi ku'i cinfo li'u>>
  A lioness,  who incidentally  is
mocked by a fox about the event of
giving  birth   to  a   singleton,
utters "Yes, I did (give birth) to

                                  84
  ni'o xe  ctuca  fi  ledu'u  loni  compete.    The,  on-the-one-hand,
xamgu cu  .ei se merli fi lo klani  hare, who  incidentally  justified
na.e leni srana loka vrude          by   his    natural   quality   of
  Teaching-method  for   the  fact  swiftness  other-than  motivatedly
that the  amount  of  goodness  is  attends-to the  event of  running,
(Obligation!) measured  in units a  during the reclining alongside the
quantity Not!  and (but) in amount  road, sleeps.   The, on-the-other-
of  pertaining   to  qualities  of  hand, tortoise,  who  incidentally
virtue.                             is conscious  of  his  quality  of
                                    slowness, not: ceases the event of
  Lioness  and  Fox.    A  Lioness  running.        And    justifiably
being mocked  by a  fox on  always  therefore he  (the tortoise),  who
giving birth  to one,  said  "One,  incidentally runs  past the  hare,
but a lion."                        who      incidentally      sleeps,
  That  the  good  should  not  be  completitively   comes    to   the
measured in  quantity, but  in its  [thing] pertaining-to the event of
relation to virtue.                 rewarding   for   the   event   of
                                    winning.
  The only difficulty in this last    ni'o tu'a  le selsku cu xe ctuca
story is  the  "go'i"  within  the  fi ledu'u le rarna se ckaji poi se
quotes, which  technically  should  na'eke se  mukti jundi  ku'o  lenu
not  refer  to  text  outside  the  troci cu so'eroi se tervlimau
quote (which  the lioness couldn't    The expression  being  something
have 'heard'  to refer  back  to).  (told) is  a teaching  method  for
This is  poetic license  of a type  the   fact    that   the   natural
that makes  sense,  though,  since  characteristics which  are  other-
she is responding to ridicule that  than motivatedly  attended-to,  by
might   indeed   have   used   the  the event  of trying,  is  usually
presumed relation "gave birth to a  as-conditions-of-having-power,-is-
singleton".                         exceeded.

                                      Tortoise and  Hare.   A tortoise
2.                                  and a  hare argued on their speed.
  me  lo   resprtestudine  .e   lo  So, having  agreed on the date and
cicractu                            the place,  they ran  raced apart.
  Pertaining to  a tortoise  and a  The hare, on the one hand, who be-
hare (wild-rabbit).                 cause of its natural speed did not
  .i  lo  resprtestudine  kuce  lo  take  pains   with  its   running,
cicractu  leni  sutra  cu  dabysnu  having  lied   down  by  the  road
.isemu'ibo le go'i noi tugni jdice  slept.  The tortoise, on the other
tu'a le  detri .eji'a  le stuzi cu  hand, being aware of its slowness,
ba sepli  bajra simjvi  .i le zu'u  did not  stop running.   And  thus
cicractu noi  ki'u leke'a rarna ka  it,  running   past  the  sleeping
sutra cu  na'eke  se  mukti  jundi  hare, arrived  at  the  trophy  of
lenu bajra  ku'o ca'o  lenu  vreta  victory.
te'e le  dargu cu  sipna    .i  le    The  word   shows  that  natural
zu'unai resprtestudine.  noi sanji  quality which  has not  had  pains
leke'a  ka  masno  na  sisti  lenu  taken over it is often overpowered
bajra   .ije seki'ubo  le go'i noi  by effort.
bajra zo'a  le cicractu  noi sipna  
cu mo'u  klama  le  co'e  pe  lenu  
cnemu fi lenu jinga
  A tortoise,  a hare,  about  the
amount    of     swiftness,     do
combatively-discuss.
Motivationally therefore they, who
incidentally   agreeingly   decide
(something about)  the  date  and-
also  the   site,  do   afterwards
separately-runningly     mutually-

                                  85
3.                                  Also, the  moist  rock,  by  Your!
  me lo lorxu .e lo vanjba          (Imperative!)  body-side  not:  is
  Pertaining to  a fox  and a/some  rubbed"     Continuing,  the  crab
grape(s).                           utters    "O     Mother!,     You!
  .i lo  lorxu noi  xagji ku'o  ca  (Imperative!),  who   incidentally
lenu viska  loi vanjba  gunma  noi  now teach  forward-movingly  walk.
dandu lo tricu cu djica lenu cpacu  Resultingly, I on-the-event-of the
ra gi'eku'i  naka'e cpacu   .i  le  event of  seeing  you,  similarly-
go'i ca  lenu cliva  cu  cusku  fi  act-with-purpose."
vo'a fe  <<lu lei  jbari cu  slari    ni'o  xe  ctuca  fi  ledu'u  lei
li'u>>                              pajni cusku cu .eiro'a vrude tarti
  A fox, who incidentally hungers,  je   cadzu    sa'enai   cei   bu'a
simultaneous  with  the  event  of  .iba'ojenaipubo .ei ri cu ctuca fo
seeing  of   the  mass   of  Grape  lenu bu'a
Masses,  which  incidentally  hang    Teaching  method  for  the  fact
from a/some  tree(s), desires  the  that   the-mass-of    judgemental-
event  of   getting  of-them  (the  expressors      (critics)       do
Masses and-but  not:  is-innately-  (Obligation-social!)    virtuously
capable-of getting.  He (the fox),  behave    and    walk    (loosely-
simultaneously with  the event  of  speaking), which  is equivalent to
leaving,  expresses  to  him(self)  some-relation1.   Aftermathly-and-
"The mass of berries are sour".     not-previously (Obligation!)  they
  ni'o si'a  so'i prenu poi naka'e  (the mass  of judges  teach  about
xagmaugau  lei   cuntu  ki'u  loka  the event of it-relation1.
ruble cu pantypai le tcini
  Similarly, many persons who not:    Crab and  Mother.   Not to  walk
are-innately-capable of good-more-  crooked, a  crab was  told by  its
bringing-    about     (improving)  mother, nor  to rub  its sides  on
affairs justified  by qualities of  the  wet  stone.    And  it  said:
weakness,       protestingly-judge  "Mother,  you   who   teach   walk
(blame) the situation.              straight, and  watching you I will
                                    imitate."
Fox and  grape bunch.    A  hungry    That it is meet for the critical
fox, upon seeing bunches of grapes  to live  and  walk  straight,  and
hanging from  some trellis, wished  then to teach the same.
to  obtain  them  and  could  not.  
Removing itself it said to itself:  
They are sour.
  Thus too  some people  unable to
improve things because of weakness
blame the times.


4.
  me lo danlrkankre .e lo mamta be
ri
  Pertaining  to   a  crab  and  a
mother-of-it.
  .i <<lu ko na na'emo'ica'u cadzu
seisa'a lo danlrkankre le mamta cu
se tavla   .iji'a  le cilmo  rokci
leko  xadni   mlana  na  te  mosra
li'u>>   .i ke'unai le danlrkankre
cu bacru  <<lu doi mamta ko noi ca
ctuca cu  mo'ica'u cadzu  .ija'ebo
mi fau  lenu viska  do cu  smizu'e
li'u>>
  "You! (Imperative!)  not: other-
than-forward-movingly   walk    [A
crab, by the mother is talked-to].

                                  86
5.                                  time of the summer sang [The Greek
  me lo cinkrkikada .e loi manti    actually says "played the flute"],
  Pertaining to  a cicada  and of-  dance in the winter."
the-mass-of Ants.                     The myth  shows that  it is  not
  .i ze'aca  loi dunra  lei  maxri  meet that  one should  neglect any
noi se  prucimri'a ku'o  loi manti  thing, so  that s/he  may  not  be
goi ko'a  cu se  sudgau  .ike'unai  saddened and imperiled.
lo cinkrkikada. goi ko'u noi xagji  
cu cpedu  loi cidja  ko'a   .i lei  
manti cu  crusku fi  ko'u fe  <<lu  6.
ki'u ma? ca le crisa do si'anai na    me lo cipnrkorvo .e lo lorxu
jmaji loi  cidja li'u>>   .i  ko'u    Pertaining to a crow and a fox.
bacru <<lu  mi pu gunka nagi'eku'i    .i lo  cipnrkorvo noi ba'o kavbu
zgike sanga li'u>>  .i ko'a noi ca  lo rectu  cu ca'o  zutse lo  tricu
cmila  cu   bacru  <<lu  do  sanga  .i lo  lorxu  noi  viska  ra  gi'e
ze'aca le crisa  .ije .uunai ko ca  djica lenu cpacu le rectu cu sanli
le dunra cu dansu li'u>>            gi'e zanru skicu le cipnrkorvo. ri
  For-a-medium-time-interval-       lo dratra  bo selxadni  joi  melbi
during Winters, the mass of wheat,  gi'eji'a bacru  lu'e ledu'u  ge ra
which incidentally was previously-  nu'o turni  .ei lei  cipni  gi  le
moistened, by  some-of-the-mass-of  da'i nu ra cu se voksa lo xamgu cu
Ants  (them1)   is  dryly-brought-  nibli  lenu  pu'i  turni    .i  le
about.     Continuing,  a   cicada  cipnrkorvo noi djica lenu jarco fi
(it5), who  incidentally  hungers,  le lorxu  fe lenu pu'i se voksa lo
requests  of-the-mass-of  Food  of  xamgu cu renro le rectu gi'e cladu
them1.     This-mass-of  ants  ut-  krixa   .i le  lorxu  cu  bajrykla
teringly-expresses     to      it5  gi'e  bacru  ba'o  lenu  kavbu  le
"Justified by  what?  simultaneous  rectu kei <<lu doi cipnrkorvo noda
with the  summer you  dissimilarly  fau le  da'i nu  do  se  menli  lo
not: gather  of the mass of Food?"  xamgu cu  fanta lenu do turni roda
It5 utters  "I worked Not! and-but  li'u>>
musically-sang."      They1,   who    A crow, who incidentally in-the-
incidentally  simultaneously  with  aftermath-of capturing  some meat,
this (statement) laugh, utter "You  is-in-the-middle of  sitting-on  a
sing   for-a-medium-time-interval-  tree.   A  fox,  who  incidentally
during the summer.  And (Cruelty!)  sees  it  (vague  -  probably  the
You!  (Imperative!),  simultaneous  meat, but  possibly the  crow) and
with the winter, dance."            desires the  event of  getting the
  ni'o tu'a  le lisri cu xelctu fi  meat,   stands    and    approving
ledu'u xamgu  fa lenu  gunka jundi  describes  the  crow  to  it  (the
roda kei  fi  lenu  badri  najenai  crow) as a <correct-form be-bodied
selckape                            mixed-with beautiful>  thing  and-
  The expression  being  something  also  utters   the-symbol-for  the
(told) is  a teaching  method  for  fact that  both it  (the crow) is-
the fact  that [it]  is-good, that  capable-of-but-hasn't     governed
the event  of workingly  attending  (Obligation!) the  mass of  birds,
to  all-things,   by  standard-of-  and the (Supposing-that!) event of
goodness the  event  of  being-sad  it (the crow) was be-voiced by the
Not! and not: being-endangered.     good-thing  logically-necessarily-
                                    entails  the   event  of  actually
  Cicada and Ants.  At the time of  governing.       The   crow,   who
winter   the    ants   dried   the  incidentally desires  the event of
moistened grain.    And  a  cicada  showing to the fox of the event of
hungering  asked  them  for  food.  actually being  be-voiced  by  the
And the  ants said  to it:    "For  good-thing, throws  the  meat  and
what reason  in the summer did you  loudly   cries-out.      The   fox
not gather  food as  well?" And it  runningly-goes-to and  utters  in-
said "I wasn't working, but I sang  the-aftermath-of   capturing   the
musically."     And  they   having  meat "O  Crow!,  Nothing,  in-the-
laughed said  "But if  you at  the

                                  87
event-of the (Supposing!) event of  - "un"  is "u"+"n", not equivalent
you are  be-minded  by  the  good-    to "uen".Hakka  tones  7  (high)
thing, prevents  the event  of you    and 8  (low) are associated with
governing everything."                syllables ending  in "-p", "-t",
  ni'o le  prenu poi bebna ku'o le    or "-k".
se cusku cu pilno se xamgu          The Standard  Chinese version  (in
  For the  person who  is foolish,    Pinyin) is  a  cross  between  a
the expression  is  usingly-being-    literal translation  and a  list
good.                                 of etymological correspondences.
                                      A dash  (---) represents a Hakka
  Crow and  Fox.   A  crow  having    morpheme for  which no  Standard
snatched some  meat  sat  on  some    equivalent could be found.
tree.   And a  fox seeing  it  and  English-1 is  a  list  of  English
wishing to obtain the meat, having  words roughly corresponding to the
stood   praised    it   as   well-  Hakka     morphemes,     not     a
proportioned and  beautiful,  also  translation.
saying that  it should  indeed  be  English-2 is a literal translation
king of  the birds,  and that this  of the Lojban.
would have  happened, if  he had a  
voice. And  it wishing  to show it    I wish to gratefully acknowledge
that it  also had  a voice, having  the invaluable  assistance of  the
thrown  off   the   meat   shouted  following:
loudly.   And it  having run to it  Lojbab  (Lojban   reviewer),  Nora
and having snatched the meat said:  LeChevalier (Lojban reviewer), Jim
"O Crow,  and if  you  had  brains  Carter  and   Alice  (Wang2   Yi3)
too, nothing  would be lacking for  Carter (Mandarin  informants), Hua
you to be king of everything."      T. Lin (Hakka informant).
  The  word  is  opportune  for  a    Of  course,  the  responsibility
foolish man.                        for  any  errors  or  infelicities
                                    remaining is solely mine.
                                    

      The Hakka Translation


Title:    "Brother  Bored  With  A
  Chisel, Mother Worried In Vain"
Source:  Yuan Jiahua et al., Hanyu
  fangyan gaiyao  [An  Outline  of
  the Chinese Dialects], quoted in
  S. Robert  Ramsey, The Languages
  of China.   [This  latter  is  a
  much  recommended  non-technical
  book  for  those  interested  in
  learning about Chinese.]
Translation by: John Cowan

  Format:
Lojban
Hakka
Standard   Chinese   (Mandarin   -
Pinyin Romanization)
English-1
English-2.

  The  Hakka   is  transcribed  as
  follows:
- initials are as in Pinyin;
- rhyme  vowels  are  as  in  IPA,
  except that "y" is schwa;

                                  88
ni'oni'o di'e se tcita              According-to her1,  the  birth-son
[Totally new  topic] The following    of her1 is-dear.
  is labelled
                                    .i ro  bu'a zo'u:  la  .aniis.  cu
<<lu le  bruna cu  kenkakpa sepi'o    djica lenu bu'a  .inaja bu'a
  lo cnadakfu   .ije  le mamta  cu  a1 nyi4  oi4 mak7  ge4  ciu4  mak7
  pensi selraktu li'u>>               ge4,
Go1 zy3  cok8 cok8,  oi1 zy3  pak8  a1 yi4 ai4 --- de jiu4 --- de,
  sok8                              Anyi want something then something
ge1 zi3 zao2 zao2, mu3 zi3 bai2 --  For-all  <predicate>   [If]   Anyi
  -                                   desires   the    event-of   <the
brother chisel  bore mother  waste    predicate> then <the predicate>.
  thoughts
"The brother hole-digs with-tool a  .i  la   .asun.  te  cinmo  to'ebo
  spade-knife.   And the mother is    la'edi'u
  thinkingly-betroubled."           dui4 a1 sun4 sim1 gon1 ciu4 m2 he4
                                      an3 yong4.
.i tu'e                             dui4 a1  shun4 xin1  gan1 jiu4 bu4
Start of utterance-block              xi4 yi1 yang4.
                                    toward Asun  feelings then  not be
.i la .asun. jo'u la .aniis. bruna    this-way
  remei                             About Asun is-felt the-opposite-of
A1 sun4  tung2 a1  nyi4 he4 liong3    the-referent-of-the-previous-
  hiung1 ti4.                         sentence.
A1 shun4  tong2 a1  yi4 xi4 liang3
  xiong1 di4.                       .i  la   .asun.  goi   ko'e  citka
Asun with Anyi be two brothers.       nalculno  gi'e   dasni  nalglare
Asun  in-common-with   Anyi  are-a    .iji'a so'iroi darxi ko'e
  brotherly twosome.                A1 sun4 syt8 m2 bao3, cok7 m2 sao1
                                      han2 sy2 song2 da3 gi2.
.i la  .asun. jbena le purci mamta  A1 shun4  shi2 bu4 bao3, zhao2 bu4
  .ije la  .aniis. jbena  le cabna    --- hai2 shi2 chang2 da3 ta4.
  mamta                             Asun eat  not full  wear not  warm
A1 sun4  he4 cien2 oi1 giung1 ge4,    also often hit him
  a1 nyi4 he4 heu4 oi1 giung1 ge4.  Asun  (he2)  is-eater-ly  non-full
A1 shun4  xi4 qian2  mu3 sung4 de,    and is-wearerly  non-warm.  Also
  a1 yi4 xi4 hou4 mu3 sung4 de.       often hits him2.
Asun be before-mother bear 's Anyi
  be stepmother bear 's
Asun is-born-to  the past  mother.
  And Anyi  is-born-to the present
  mother.

.i le cabna mamta goi ko'a cu to'e
  lanxe tarti
Heu4 oi1 zo4 nyin2 m2 gung1 tao4,
Hou4 mu3 zuo4 ren2 bu4 gong1 dao4,
stepmother behavior not just
The    present    mother    (she1)
  opposite-of    in-equilibrium-ly
  behaves.

.i ci'o  ko'a le  jbebersa be ko'a
  cu dirba
ci1 ga1  ge4 cin1  sen1  zy3  ciu4
  kon4 zo4 bao3 bi4,
zi4 jia1  de qin1  sheng1 zi3 jiu4
  kan4 zuo4 bao3 bei4,
oneself  's  one's  own  son  then
  regard-as treasure

                                  89
.i le  cabna mamta  ta'e  plafinti  vong2 teu4  yung4 nai2  tun2  gin3
  lenu catra la .asun.                ki4,
Heu4 oi1  cung3 siong3 hoi4 si3 a1  huang2 dou4  yong4  ni2  ---  jin3
  sun4.                               qu4,
Hou4 mu3  zong2 xiang3 hai4 si3 a1  soybean use mud cover tight go
  shun4.                            You! [imperative] use of-a-mass-of
stepmother  always   think  murder    Wet dirt as-a snug cover for the
  Asun                                soya-seed.
The  present   mother   habitually
  plan-creates    the     event-of  .i ko  poi leke'a so'etsi cu pamoi
  killing of-Asun.                    derjbe cu pamoi zdaxru li'u>>
                                    kon4 man3  nyin2  ge4  sien1  bao4
.i paroikiku  le  cabna  mamta  cu    nga2, ciu4 man3 nyin2 sien1 zon3
  cuxna re so'etsi                    vuk7 ha1.
Yu1 it7  bai3, heu4 oi1 na1 liong3  kan4 ---  ren2 de  xian1 bao4 ya2,
  zak8 vong2 teu4,                    jiu4 ---  ren2 xian1  zhuan3 wu1
You3 yi1  ze4, hou4 mu3 na1 liang3    xia4.
  zhi1 huang2 dou4,                 see who  's first  sprout then who
exist one time stepmother take two    first return home
  seed soybeans                     You! [imperative]  such-that  your
One  time   [sticky]  the  present    soya-seed  first   is-dirt-born,
  mother chooses two soya-seeds.      shall firstly home-return."

.i pa so'etsi cu nalseljukpa  .ije  .i ba lenu dzukla fo pimu le dargu
  pa so'etsi cu seljukpa              kei la  .aniis. zgana lenu le le
it7 zak8  sang1 ge4, it7 zak8 suk8    bruna ku  so'etsi noi  badmau cu
  ge4,                                farlu
yi1 ge sheng1 de, yi1 ge shu2 de,   Hang2 do4  ban4 lu4,  a1 nyi4 kon4
one seed raw 's one seed cooked 's    do3 gia1  go1 ge4  teu4 zy3  go4
One soya-seed  is-non-cooked.  And    tai4,
  one soya-seed is-cooked.          Xing2 dao4  ban4 lu4,  a1 yi4 kan4
                                      dao3 ta4  ge1 de  dou4 zi3  guo4
.i dunda  le  seljukpa  la  .asun.    da4,
  .ije  dunda  le  nalseljukpa  la  walk to  half road  Anyi see  fall
  .aniis.                             his brother 's bean pass big
suk8 ge4  bun1 a1  sun4, sang1 ge4  After the event-of walkingly-going
  bun1 a1 nyi4,                       by-route half-of  the road, Anyi
shu2 de  fen1 a1  shun4, sheng1 de    observes   the    event-of   the
  fen1 a1 yi4,                        brother's  soya-seed,  which-in-
cooked 's  give Asun  raw 's  give    cidentally-is bigger, falling.
  Anyi
Gives the  cooked to-Asun.   Gives  .ibazibo fo le bruna cu canja
  the non-cooked to-Anyi.           ciu4 tung2 gia1 go1 gao4.
                                    jiu4 tong2 ta4 ge1 ta4.
.i cusku  <<lu re  ko cu  mo'ine'i  then with his brother trade
  klama  le  kevna  poi  betfu  le  Then-shortly-after,    with    the
  barda tricu                         brother, exchanges.
vong3 gi2  liong3  ge4  nyin2  do4
  tai4 su4 lung1 du3 li3 ki4,
ciao4 ta4  liang3 de ren2 dao4 da4
  shu4 long2 du3 li3 qu4,
tell them  two thing person to big
  tree hole belly inside go
Expresses     "Two     of     You!
  [imperative] inwardly  go-to the
  cavity  that   bellies  the  big
  tree.

.i ko  pilno loi  cilmo  dertu  lo
  tagji gacri be le so'etsi

                                  90
.i bazuku  le la .asun. so'etsi cu  .i lo  cmana cevni  cu makfa tisna
  pamoi derjbe                        le tricu kevna loi dertu
Go4 e2  ho3 giu3, a1 sun4 ge4 teu4  san1 syn2 tu3 ti4 sy3 e2 fap7, su4
  zy3 sien1 bao4 nga2,                lung1 set7 bet8 e2.
Guo4 la4  hao3 jiu3,  a1 shun4  de  shan1 shen2  tu3 di4  shi3 le fa3,
  dou4 zi3 xian1 bao4 ya2,            shu4 long2 sai1 diao4 le.
pass -ed  really long Asun 's bean  mountain god  earth use  -ed magic
  first sprout                        tree hole fill-in away -ed
[future] [long  time] Asun's soya-  A mountain  god magically  stuffed
  seed is-first from-dirt-born.       the  tree   hole  with-a-mass-of
                                      dirt.
.i ko'e  morji le  se cusku  be le
  mamta    .isemu'ibo  ko'e  pamoi  .i le  cabna mamta  ba cusku fi la
  zdaxru                              asun.  fe   <<lu  ko   cuxna  lo
gi2 ciu4  zao4 gia1  me1  ge4  fa4    cnadakfu gi'e  klama  fa'ertisna
  sien1 zon3 vuk7 ha1 ki4 e2.         le tricu kevna li'u>>
ta4 jiu4  zhao4 ta4  mu3  de  hua4  Heu4 oi1  ciu4 vong3  a1 sun4  na1
  xian1 zhuan3 wu1 xia4 qu4 la4.      it7 ba3  cok8 zy3  ki4 cok8 kai1
he  then  reflect  his  mother  's    su4 lung1 loi2,
  speech first return home go -ed   Hou4 mu3  jiu4 ciao4  a1 shun4 na2
He2 remembers  the expressed-thing    yi1 ba3  zao2 zi3  qu4 zao2 kai1
  by the  mother.    Motivated-by-    shu4 long2 lai2,
  that, he2 firstly-home-returns.   stepmother  then  tell  Asun  take
                                      one-handle chisel  go bore  open
.i  le  mamta  cu  zgana  lenu  le    tree hole come
  jbebersa be ko'a na xruti         The   present    mother   [future]
Gia1 me1 kon4 do3 ci1 ga1 ge4 cin1    expresses    to     Asun    "You
  sen1 zy3 mo2 zon3 loi2,             [imperative]  choose   a  spade-
Ta4 mu3 kan4 dao3 zi4 jia1 de qin1    knife and  goingly reverse-stuff
  sheng1 zi3 mei2 zhuan3 lai2,        the tree hole."
his mother  see  fall  oneself  's
  one's own son not return come     .i ca lenu kenkalri noda nenri
The mother  observes the  event-of  mang2 di1  cok8 kai1 loi2 mak7 ge4
  the  birth-son   of   her1   not    ya1 mo2.
  return.                           --- zhi1 zao2 kai1 lai2 --- de ye3
                                      mei2.
.i na  kurji lejei  ko'a jmive  .i  where   know    bore   open   come
  sutra sutra  bajrykla mu'i  lenu    something even not-exist
  facki                             Simultaneous-with   the   event-of
ciu4 miang4 nga1 m2 mai4 e2, giak8    hole-opening, nothing is-within.
  giak8 zeu3 ki4 kon4.
jiu4 ming4  ye bu4  ai4 le,  guai4  .i pa  cipni  goi  ko'i  cu  vofli
  guai4 zou3 qu4 kan4.                cliva gi'ecabo klaku cusku
then life  even not want -ed quick  Zong3 yu1  it7 zak7  diao1 zy3 bi1
  quick run go see                    cut7 loi2, giao4 den3,
Not  taking-care-of   the   truth-  Zong3 you3 yi1 zhi1 niao3 zi3 fei1
  value-of her  living.   Swiftly-    chu1 lai2, jiao4 zo1,
  swift runningly-goes with-motive  assemble exist  one head  bird fly
  the event-of discovering            emerge come call -ing
                                    One  bird  [it3]  flyingly  leaves
lejei la .asun. lidne da              and-then weepingly expresses
Mang2 di1  zy4 a1  sun4 cut7  loi2
  heu4,                             zoi <<.xakkas  go1 zy3  cok8  cok8
--- zhi1  zi4 a1  shun4 chu1  lai2    oi1  zy3  pak8  sok8  .xakkas.>>
  hou4,                               no'u <<lu  le bruna  cu kenkakpa
where know  from Asun  emerge come    sepi'o  lo  cnadakfu    .ije  le
  after                               mamta cu pensi selraktu li'u>>
the truth-value-of  Asun preceding  "Go1 zy3  cok8 cok8,  oi1 zy3 pak8
  someone.                            sok8!"

                                  91
"Ge1 zi3 zao2 zao2, mu3 zi3 bai2 -              Next Issue
  --!"
brother chisel  bore mother  waste    Next issue (for those who have
  thoughts                          sent in your subscription forms
the-expression "go1  zy3 cok8 cok8  and money at least), includes a
  o1   zy3   pak8   sok8"   which-  lengthy discussion of the Sapir-
  incidentally-is   "the   brother  Whorf hypothesis and related
  hole-digs  with-tool   a  spade-  aspects of linguistic research
  knife.  And the mother is think-  from the point of view of several
  betroubled."                      linguists.  We also plan to
                                    publish John Cowan's paper on
.i vofli ze'abaku                   Lojban expression of mathematical
bi1 do4 ban4 tien1 ki4 e2.          expressions (MEX), a story
fei1 dao4 ban4 tian1 qu4 le.        translated from Bulgarian by Ivan
fly to half day go -ed              Derzhanski, as well as more of
A-flyer  [for-a-medium   interval]  Nick Nicholas's extensive work.
  [into the future].                
                                       Sample Page from Forthcoming
.i  ti'e   ca'o  ro   crisa   ko'i           Proto-Dictionary
     rolnicte sanli le tricu forca  
Tang1 gong3  mi1  nyian2  ge4  ha4    I wanted  to give  the community
  gi2, gi2  ya4 ya4  a1 diao4 den3  some feeling  that we actually are
  su4 va1 hong4,                    getting  somewhere  on  the  long-
Ting1 jiang3  mei3 nian2  de  xia4  promised books.   The  best way  I
  ji4, ta4  ye4 ye4  --- diao4 zo1  know to  do this  is to  show you.
  shu4 cha4 shang4,                 The following  page is  the  first
hear say  each year  's summer  he  section   of   the   gismu   list,
  night night  even drop -ing tree  starting with the letter 'B' as it
  crotch top                        has been  expanded  and  formatted
[I hear!]  During all  summers it3  for the dictionary.  While this is
  each-nightly stands-on  the tree  still a  draft, it  should give  a
  fork                              good idea  of our  intentions.  We
                                    of course  would like  comments on
gi'e cusku  zoi <<.xakkas. go1 zy3  whether   the    print   size   is
  cok8  cok8  oi1  zy3  pak8  sok8  adequate,   as    well   as    the
  .xakkas.>>                        explanations (there  is some limit
giao4 den3,  "Go1 zy3  cok8  cok8,  to what  we can  do to improve the
  oi1 zy3 pak8 sok8!"               latter      without       delaying
jiao4 zo1, "Ge1 zi3 zao2 zao2, mu3  publication,  but  I  still  would
  zi3 bai2 ---!"                    like to know what people think).
call  -ing   brother  chisel  bore    The larger  margins on  the back
  mother waste thoughts             page reflect the actual dimensions
and expresses  "go1 zy3  cok8 cok8  of the pages of the book (standard
  o1 zy3 pak8 sok8".                5.5" x 8" trade paperback).

.i cusku  pu'o lenu  le molko'a cu
     ciblu vikmi
oi4 giao4 dao4 zoi4 gok7 teu2 cut7
  hiat8 zang4 m2 giao4.
ai4 jiao4  dao4  zui3  jiao3  tou2
  chu1 xue3 zai4 bu4 jiao4.
want call until mouth corner bleed
  finally not call
Expresses  up-until  the  event-of
  the   mouth-corner   blood   ex-
  creting.

tu'u
End-of-utterance-block.


  bacru                                   92                                  berti
                              B            bakri                                                                                                         
                                            chalk -   x1  is  a
                     bacru                                                                                                                                                     quantity       of/-
                      utter -   x1 utters   contains/is made of
                      verbally/says/-       chalk  from  source
                      phonates   (vocally   x2 in form x3
                      makes  sound)   x2;  baktu                                                                                                         
                      (cf. krixa, cusku);   bucket -   x1  is a
                      rafsi: cru            bucket/pail/can/-
                     badna                                                                                                                                                     deep, solid,  wide-
                      banana -   x1  is a   topped container of
                      banana/plantain       contents  x2,  made
                      (fruit)          of   of   material   x3;
                      species/breed x2      (cf. botpi,  patxu,
                     badri                                                                                                                                                     tansi)
                      sad -   x1 is sad/-  balji                                                                                                         
                      depressed/dejected    bulb -    x1  is  a
                      about  x2;   rafsi:   bulb (body-part) of
                      dri                   plant/species   x2;
                     bajra                                                                                                                                                     (metaphor: rounded,
                      run -   x1  runs on   bulgy; (cf. punli);
                      surface  x2   using   rafsi:         baj;
                      limbs x3  with gait   cognate: 'bulge'
                      x4                   balni                                                                                                         
                     bakfu                                                                                                                                                     balcony -   x1 is a
                      bundle -   x1  is a   balcony/overhang/-
                      bundle/package        ledge/shelf      of
                      (shape/form)   con-   building/structure
                      taining   x2,    of   x2; (cf. kajna)
                      surrounding          balre                                                                                                         
                      material        x3;   blade -   x1  is  a
                      cognate: 'pack'       blade   of   tool/-
                     bakni                                                                                                                                                     weapon   x2;   (cf.
                      bovine -   x1  is a   dakfu); rafsi: ba'e
                      cow/cattle/kine/-    balvi                                                                                                         
                      ox/(bull)/(steer)     future -   x1 is in
                      (beef-producer/-      the future of/later
                      bovine)          of   than/after  x2   in
                      species/breed   x2;   time  (only);  (cf.
                      rafsi:         bak;   lidne); rafsi:  bav
                      cognate: 'ox'

  bacru                                   93                                  berti
                      ba'i;      cognate:  banxa                                                                                                         
                      'later'               bank -    x1  is  a
                     bancu                                                                                                                                                     bank at location x2
                      beyond   -       x1   owned  by   x3  for
                      exceeds/is   beyond   banking function(s)
                      x2 in  property  x3   x4 (event);  rafsi:
                      (ka);  (cf.  dukse,   bax
                      ragve)               banzu                                                                                                         
                     bandu                                                                                                                                                     suffice   -      x1
                      defend   -       x1   suffices/is
                      (event)   defends/-   enough/sufficient
                      protects         x2   for   purpose    x2
                      (object/state) from   under    conditions
                      threat/peril/-        x3;   (cf.   dukse,
                      potential        x3   claxu,      nitcu);
                      (event);  x1  wards   rafsi: baz
                      x3; rafsi: ba'u      bapli                                                                                                         
                     banfi                                                                                                                                                     force -   x1 (force
                      amphibian -   x1 is   -   ka)    forces/-
                      an   amphibian   of   compels event x2 to
                      species/breed x2      occur;    x1    de-
                     bangu                                                                                                                                                     termines   property
                      language -   x1  is   x2   to   manifest;
                      a/the    language/-   (cf. jitro,  rinka,
                      dialect          of   krinu,      zukte);
                      people(s)       x2;   rafsi:   bap   bai;
                      rafsi: ban bau        cognate: 'compel'
                     banli                                                                                                                                                    barda                                                                                                         
                      great  -     x1  is   big -   x1 is big/-
                      great/grand      in   large in property/-
                      property x2 (ka) by   dimension(s)     x2
                      standard  x3;  (cf.   (ka)  as   compared
                      barda,  nobli,   se   with  standard/norm
                      sinma,      pluja);   x3;  (cf.   banli);
                      rafsi:  bal;   cog-   rafsi:  bad;   cog-
                      nate: 'grand'         nate: 'large'
                     banro                                                                                                                                                    bargu                                                                                                         
                      grow -   x1 grows/-   arch -  x1 arches/-
                      expands   into   x2   curves   over    x2
                      from    x3;    (cf.   (made of x3); x1 is
                      farvi); rafsi: bar    an arch over/around

  bacru                                   94                                  berti
                      x2 of  material x3;   pose  x3,  made  of
                      rafsi: bag            material x4
                     barja                                                                                                                                                    bavmi                                                                                                         
                      bar  -    x1  is  a   barley -   x1  is a
                      tavern/bar/pub   at   quantity of  barley
                      x2  serving  x3  to   (grain)          of
                      audience/patrons      species/strain x2
                      x4; (cf. gusta)      baxso                                                                                                         
                     barna                                                                                                                                                     Malay-Indonesian  -
                      mark -    x1(s)  is   x1 reflects  Malay-
                      a/are mark/marks on   Indonesian   common
                      x2 of  material x3;   language/culture in
                      rafsi: ba'a           aspect   x2;   (cf.
                     bartu                                                                                                                                                     meljo,      bindo);
                      out -  x1 is on the   rafsi:  ba'o;  cog-
                      outside   of   x2/-   nate: 'Bahasa'
                      exterior   to   x2;  bebna                                                                                                         
                      rafsi: bat            foolish -    x1  is
                     basna                                                                                                                                                     foolish/silly    in
                      emphasize  -     x1   event/action/-
                      emphasizes/gives      property  (ka)  x2;
                      emphasis/stress  to   x1   is   a   boob;
                      x2 by  [action] x3;   rafsi:         beb;
                      cognate: 'accent'     cognate: 'boob'
                     basti                                                                                                                                                    bemro                                                                                                         
                      replace   -      x1   North  American   -
                      replaces/-            x1  reflects  North
                      substitutes for  x2   American  culture/-
                      in circumstance x3;   nationality/-
                      rafsi:         bas;   geography in aspect
                      cognate:              x2; rafsi: bem
                      'substitute'         bende                                                                                                         
                     batci                                                                                                                                                     crew -    x1  is  a
                      bite -  x1 bites x2   crew/team/gang/-
                      on/at  x3;   rafsi:   squad/band/or-
                      bac                   chestra of  persons
                     batke                                                                                                                                                     x2   directed/led/-
                      button -   x1  is a   conducted by direc-
                      button/knob/-         tor/leader/con-
                      (handle)     on/for   ductor x3 organized
                      item x2,  with pur-   for   purpose   x4;

  bacru                                   95                                  berti
                      rafsi:  bed   be'e;
                      cognate: 'band'
                     bengo                                                                                                         
                      Bengali   -      x1
                      reflects    Bengali
                      culture/-
                      nationality/lan-
                      guage in aspect x2;
                      rafsi: beg be'o
                     benji                                                                                                         
                      transfer  -      x1
                      transfers/sends/-
                      transmits   x2   to
                      receiver  x3   from
                      transmitter/origin
                      x4 via means/medium
                      x5;  (cf.   muvdu);
                      possibly "sharing";
                      no       (complete)
                      alienation     from
                      origin is implied);
                      rafsi:   bej   bei;
                      cognate: 'send'
                     bersa                                                                                                         
                      son -   x1 is a son
                      of  mother/father/-
                      parents   x2   (not
                      necessarily
                      biological); rafsi:
                      bre
                     berti                                                                                                         
                      north -   x1  is to
                      the  north/northern
                      side   (right-hand-
                      rule  pole)  of  x2
                      according to frame-
                      of-reference    x3;
                      rafsi: ber

  besna                                   96                                  brodo
                     besna                                                                                                                                                     ports  ordered   as
                      brain -   x1 is a/-   well); rafsi: biz
                      the  brain   (body-  bidju                                                                                                         
                      part)    of     x2;   bead -    x1  is  a
                      (metaphor:            bead/pebble
                      intelligence,  men-   (shape/form)     of
                      tal       control);   material x2
                      rafsi: bes           bifce                                                                                                         
                     betfu                                                                                                                                                     bee  -    x1  is  a
                      abdomen -    x1  is   bee/wasp/hornet  of
                      a/the     abdomen/-   species/breed   x2;
                      belly/lower   trunk   rafsi: bic
                      (body-part) of  x2;  bikla                                                                                                         
                      (metaphor:            whip -   x1 whips/-
                      midsection);   (cf.   lashes  (a   sudden
                      canti); rafsi:  bef   violent    motion);
                      be'u;      cognate:   rafsi:         bik;
                      'belly'               cognate:     'beat,
                     betri                                                                                                                                                     lash'
                      tragedy -   x1 is a  bilga                                                                                                         
                      tragedy/disaster/-    obliged -    x1  is
                      tragic   for    x2;   bound/obliged  to/-
                      rafsi:         bet;   has  the   duty  to
                      cognate: 'tragic'     do/be   x2    in/by
                     bevri                                                                                                                                                     standard/-
                      carry   -        x1   agreement/frame x3;
                      carries/hauls/bears   x1  must   do   x2;
                      cargo x2 to x3 from   rafsi: big
                      x4  over  path  x5;  bilma                                                                                                         
                      rafsi:  bev   be'i;   ill -   x1 is ill/-
                      cognate: 'bear'       sick/diseased  with
                     bi                                                                                                                                                        symptoms  x2   from
                      8 -   digit/number:   disease x3;  rafsi:
                      8  (digit);  rafsi:   bi'a
                      biv                  bilni                                                                                                         
                     bi'i interval      -   military -   x1  is
                      non-logical           military/-
                      connective:     un-   regimented/is
                      ordered    interval   strongly      orga-
                      between (rafsi sup-   nized/prepared   by
                                            system    x2    for

  besna                                   97                                  brodo
                      purpose x3;  rafsi:   positive that x2 is
                      bil                   true; rafsi: bit
                     bindo                                                                                                                                                    bisli                                                                                                         
                      Indonesian  -    x1   ice  -    x1  is  a
                      reflects Indonesian   quantity of/is made
                      culture/national-     of/contains     ice
                      ity/language     in   (frozen crystal) of
                      aspect  x2;  rafsi:   composition/-
                      bid                   material x2; rafsi:
                     binra                                                                                                                                                     bis
                      insure   -       x1  bitmu                                                                                                         
                      insures x2 (person)   wall -    x1  is  a
                      against x3  (event)   wall/fence
                      for     fee      x4   separating  x2  and
                      providing             x3 (unordered) of/-
                      benefit(s)       x5   in  structure   x4;
                      (event)               rafsi: bim bi'u
                     binxo                                                                                                                                                    blabi                                                                                                         
                      become   -       x1   white  -     x1  is
                      becomes/changes       white/very-light
                      into    x2    under   colored      (color
                      conditions x3; (cf.   adjective);  rafsi:
                      cenba,      galfi);   lab
                      rafsi: bix bi'o      blaci                                                                                                         
                     birje                                                                                                                                                     glass -   x1  is  a
                      beer -   x1 is made   quantity of/is made
                      of/contains/is    a   of/contains   glass
                      amount  of   beer/-   of composition x2
                      ale/brew     brewed  blanu                                                                                                         
                      from x2               blue -   x1 is blue
                     birka                                                                                                                                                     (color  adjective);
                      arm -   x1 is a/the   rafsi: bla
                      arm (body-part)  of  bliku                                                                                                         
                      x2;      (metaphor:   block -   x1  is  a
                      branch         with   block  (at-least-2-
                      strength;       cf.   dimensional shape/-
                      jimca); rafsi: bir    form)  of  material
                     birti                                                                                                                                                     x2,  dimensionality
                      certain -    x1  is   x3; rafsi: bli
                      certain/sure/-       bloti                                                                                                         
                                            boat -    x1  is  a

  besna                                   98                                  brodo
                      boat/ship (vehicle)   box bo'o;  cognate:
                      for  carrying   x2;   'foil'
                      rafsi: lot blo lo'i  boxna                                                                                                         
                     bo                                                                                                                                                        wave -    x1  is  a
                      short scope  link -   wave (periodic pat-
                      short scope joiner;   tern) in medium x2,
                      attaches  two   ad-   wave-form x3, wave-
                      jacent  words  into   length          x4,
                      single unit; causes   frequency       x5;
                      right  grouping  in   rafsi: bon bo'a
                      tanru; rafsi: bor    bradi                                                                                                         
                     bolci                                                                                                                                                     enemy -   x1  is an
                      ball -    x1  is  a   enemy/opponent/-
                      ball/sphere/orb/-     adversary of  x2 in
                      globe  (shape/form)   struggle  x3;  (cf.
                      of material  x2; x1   damba,       jamna,
                      is   a    spherical   darlu);    cognate:
                      object   (made   of   'adversary'
                      x2); rafsi: bol boi  bratu                                                                                                         
                     bongu                                                                                                                                                     hail  -     x1   is
                      bone -  x1 is a/the   hail/sleet/freezing
                      bone (body-part) of   rain/solid
                      x2;      (metaphor:   precipitation    of
                      calcium);    rafsi:   material/-
                      bog bo'u              composition     x2;
                     botpi                                                                                                                                                     (cf. carvi, snime);
                      bottle -   x1  is a   this  is  the  sub-
                      bottle/jar/urn/-      stance, not the act
                      closable  container   or  manner  of  its
                      for  x2,   made  of   falling,  which  is
                      material  x3   with   carvi
                      lid    x4;     (cf.  brazo                                                                                                         
                      baktu); rafsi:  bot   Brazilian  -     x1
                      bo'i                  reflects  Brazilian
                     boxfo                                                                                                                                                     culture/-
                      sheet -   x1  is  a   nationality/-
                      sheet/foil/blanket    language in  aspect
                      (2-dimensional        x2; rafsi: raz
                      shape/form flexible  bredi                                                                                                         
                      in 3 dimensions) of   ready  -     x1  is
                      material x2; rafsi:   ready/prepared  for

  besna                                   99                                  brodo
                      x2 (event);  rafsi:   assignable variable
                      red re'i              predicate
                     bridi                                                                                                                                                    brodi                                                                                                         
                      predicate  -     x1   predicate var  3  -
                      (du'u)     is     a   x1   is   the   3rd
                      predicate             assignable variable
                      relationship   with   predicate
                      relation  x2  among  brodo                                                                                                         
                      arguments             predicate var  4  -
                      (sequence/set)  x3;   x1   is   the   4th
                      rafsi: bri            assignable variable
                     brife                                                                                                                                                     predicate
                      breeze -   x1  is a  brodu                                                                                                         
                      breeze/wind/gale      predicate var  5  -
                      from  direction  x2   x1   is   the   5th
                      with   speed    x3;   assignable variable
                      rafsi: bif bi'e       predicate
                     briju                                                                                                                                                    bruna                                                                                                         
                      office -   x1 is an   brother -    x1  is
                      office/workplace of   brother        of/-
                      worker x2  at loca-   fraternal to  x2 by
                      tion   x3;   rafsi:   bond/tie/standard/-
                      bij;       cognate:   parent(s) x3;  (not
                      'bureau'              necessarily
                     brito                                                                                                                                                     biological); rafsi:
                      British   -      x1   bun bu'a
                      reflects  British/-  bu'a some selbri 1 -
                      United Kingdom cul-   logically
                      ture/nationality in   quantified
                      aspect   x2;   (cf.   predicate variable:
                      glico,       skoto,   some   selbri    1;
                      merko); rafsi: rit    rafsi: bul
                     broda                                                                                                                                                    budjo                                                                                                         
                      predicate var  1  -   Buddhist  -      x1
                      x1   is   the   1st   pertains   to   the
                      assignable variable   Buddhist  culture/-
                      predicate             religion/ethnos  in
                     brode                                                                                                                                                     aspect  x2;  rafsi:
                      predicate var  2  -   buj bu'o
                      x1   is   the   2nd  bukpu                                                                                                         
                                            cloth -   x1  is an

 besna                                   100                                  brodo
                      amount  of  cloth/-  bunre                                                                                                         
                      fabric  of   type/-   brown  -     x1  is
                      material x2; rafsi:   brown/tan    (color
                      buk bu'u              adjective);  rafsi:
                     bumru                                                                                                                                                     bur bu'e
                      fog  -      x1   is  burcu                                                                                                         
                      foggy/misty/covered   brush -   x1  is  a
                      by  a  fog/mist  of   brush  for  purpose
                      liquid  x2;  rafsi:   x2   (event)   with
                      bum                   bristles  x3;  (cf.
                     bunda                                                                                                                                                     komcu); rafsi:  buc
                      pound -   x1  is x2   bru
                      local        weight  burna                                                                                                         
                      unit(s)       (non-   embarrassed -    x1
                      metric)    (default   is    embarrassed/-
                      1),   x3   subunits   disconcerted/flus-
                      (e.g.      ounces),   tered/ill-at-ease
                      standard x4; rafsi:   about/under
                      bud                   conditions x2