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lo turtau are lo tanru or parts of lo tanru that have a fixed meaning, which depends on their structure.

turtau classes

  • lo turtau are converted into predicate structures by expanding their terbri/sumti-type fingerprints.
  • Warning: in colloquial Lojban lo tanru with lo turtau components may have meanings different from described here.

seltau: "x1 (entity), x2 (property of x1)"

  1. mutce seltau. x1 mutce broda unwraps into x1 mutce lo ka ce'u broda
  2. traji seltau. x1 traji broda unwraps into x1 traji lo ka ce'u broda
  3. zenba seltau. x1 zenba broda unwraps into x1 zenba lo ka ce'u broda
  4. kakne broda = kakne lo ka ju'a broda, to broda and to be capable of brodaing (hence kakne co broda is considered incorrect[1])

noun form

  1. barda seltau. lo barda broda = lo broda poi barda, lo broda that is big.
  2. cmalu seltau. lo cmalu broda = lo broda poi cmalu, lo broda that is small.

seltau: "x1 (entity)" (aka adjective/adverbial)

  1. zabna seltau.
  2. mabla seltau.
  3. blanu seltau. lo blanu broda = lo broda poi blanu, lo broda that is blue.

seltau: "x1 (clause)"

  1. cafne seltau. x1 cafne cadzu = x1 cadzu i ju'a nai lo nu go'i cu cafne, x1 often walks
  2. cerni/vanci seltau. x1 cerni sanmi, x1 is a breakfast
  3. zekri seltau. x1 zekri lebna, x1 steals


  1. disputable: simxu seltau. x1 simxu broda x2 expands into x1 jo'u x2 simxu lo ka ce'u broda ce'u, x1 and x2 reciprocally broda

Some nice examples of lo turtau

  • lo te gerna stura = grammatical structure
  • lo se smuni stura = semantic structure