User:Gleki/Particle ⟨le⟩ for anaphora, cataphora, exophora

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Initially proposed by la gleki:


le broda searches for the last sumti starting from x1 of dei and going back to di'u and earlier. When a sumti is found such that SUMTI ca'a broda then it automatically refers to that SUMTI.

This proposal is more in line with the actual usage of le.

It relies purely on discourse which is easy to track and parse.


la .alis. cu viska lo ninmu .e lo nakla i le fetsi cu melbi

Here le fetsi refers to lo ninmu since it was the last sumti such that lo ninmu ca'a fetsi

la .alis. cu viska lo nakla i le fetsi cu melbi

Here le fetsi refers to la .alis. if the context (other parts of text) show that la .alis. ca'a fetsi

Note that le works not only anaphorically but also cataphorically since "starting from x1 of dei" part.

la djan cu cusku zo coi la meris .i le cusku cu gleki

le cusku refers to la djan since the last selbri cusku has been used for describing him. The rule is that selbri converted to sumti have higher priority than bare selbri like in this example.

la djan cu cusku zo coi la meris .i le bacru cu gleki

Would bacru refer to cusku? Clearly, this is an edge case since the most common usage of le would be le fetsi for she and similar.

Exophorics is not yet thought out yet.

Similar constructs

  • bi'unai deals with already given information but doesn't count sumti back
  • ri does count sumti back but not semantically.
  • di'u doesn't deal with sumti