User:Gleki/Particle ⟨le⟩ for anaphora, cataphora, exophora

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Initially proposed by la gleki:


le broda searches for the last sumti starting from x1 of nei, then sequentially other sumti of nei, then going back to di'u and earlier. When a sumti is found such that SUMTI ca'a broda then it automatically refers to that SUMTI. broda can be wrapped into a sumti or can represent a bare selbri.

Examples. broda wrapped into a sumti

la .alis. cu viska lo ninmu .e lo nakla i le fetsi cu melbi

Here le fetsi refers to lo ninmu since it was the last sumti such that lo ninmu ca'a fetsi

la .alis. cu viska lo nakla i le fetsi cu melbi

Here le fetsi refers to la .alis. if the context (other parts of text) show that la .alis. ca'a fetsi

Examples. broda as a bare selbri

la djan cu cusku zo coi la meris .i le cusku cu gleki

le cusku refers to la djan since the last selbri cusku has been used for describing him.

la djan cu cusku zo coi la meris .i le bacru cu gleki

Would bacru refer to cusku? Clearly, this is an edge case since the most common usage of le would be le fetsi for she and similar.


  • This proposal is more in line with the actual usage of le.
  • It relies purely on discourse which is easy to track and parse.
  • Note that le works not only anaphorically but also cataphorically since "starting from x1 of nei" part.

Exophorics is not yet thought out yet.

Common usage

  • le fetsi = she
  • le nakni = he
  • le za'umei = they
  • le prenu = ze/'ey
  • le dacti = it

Similar constructs

  • bi'unai deals with already given information but doesn't count sumti back
  • ri does count sumti back but not semantically.
  • di'u doesn't deal with sumti