BPFK Section: Text Structure Discursives

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Proposed Definitions

jo'a (UI3a)
Discursive. Used to express metalinguistic yes, confirm a presupposition. (cf. drani)
    • Keywords: Yes, indeed, quite so, right.

jo'a go'i

That's right, yes.

kau (UI3a)
Discursive. Used to indicate an indirect question.
    • Keywords: indirect question

mi na djuno lo du'u ti mo kau

I don't know what this is.

.e'o ko no da jungau lo du'u mi zvati ma kau

Please don't tell anyone where I am.

loi bangu cu ficysi'u lo ka xo kau da jicmu valsi lo skari ce'u

Languages differ in how many basic colour terms they have.

.ei do jdice lo du'u xu kau do djica lo nu klama

You ought to decide whether or not you want to go.

li'o (UI3a)
Discursive. Used to indicate omitted text.
    • Keywords: and so on, etc.

lo pavdei cu pa moi djedi .i lo reldei cu re moi djedi .i li'o

Monday is the first day, Tuesday is the second day, and so on.

na'i (UI3a)
Discursive. Used to express metalinguistic not, deny a presupposition. (cf. naldra, nalmapti)
    • Keywords: metalinguistic negation.

do krici ma zo kampu

na'i go'i .i mi na djuno tu'a le gismu

What do you believe of "kampu"?

No, I don't know that gismu.

pe'a (UI3c)
Discursive. Used to indicate figurative / non-literal / metaphorical language.
    • Keywords: figurative marker

mi mutce ke jelca pe'a cortu le kanla

I have an intense "burning" pain in my eyes.

pe'a nai (UI*3c)
Discursive. Used to indicate non-figurative / literal / non-metaphorical language.
    • Keywords: literally

pe'a nai lo nu zbasu lo sanso cu mentu li pa

It takes literally a minute to make the sauce.

sa'a (UI3a)
Discursive. Used to indicate an editorial insertion. (cf. setca)
    • Keywords: editorial insertion

lu .ei do ckeji sei sa'a la .alis. cu cusku li'u

"You ought to be ashamed of yourself," said Alice.

ta'u (UI3a)
Discursive. Used to indicate the expansion of a tanru.
    • Keywords: expanding the tanru

dei bebna mupli .i ta'u mupli lo bebna

This is a silly example, i.e. it exemplifies something silly.

Debate here.

ta'u nai (UI*3a)
Discursive. Used to indicate the making of a tanru.
    • Keywords: making a tanru

dei mupli lo bebna i ta'u nai bebna mupli

This is an example of something silly. A silly example, we might say.

ge'e (UI6)
Attitudinal. Used to express an unspecified emotion.
    • Keywords: unspecified emotion

fo'a di'i nai cmoni .i mo'u bacru lu ge'e frica li'u

He hems and haws. "It's different," he finally says.

ki'a (UI6)
Attitudinal question. Used to express textual confusion. (cf. cfipu, kucli)
    • Keywords: What? Textual confusion.

le ki'a jubme

Which table?

ki'a nai (UI*6)
Non-question. Used to express understanding.
    • Keywords: Understanding

ki'a nai .i do pu xalbo

I see, you were joking.

xu (UI6)
Discursive. Used to pose a true-false question.
    • Keywords: yes/no question.

xu ti banzu

Is this enough?


  • The ma'oste and CLL have ta'u and ta'u nai reversed. I followed CLL in the definitions.


How does one indicate that {sa'a} is actually part of quoted text? Would {sa'a sa'a nai} do it?

{POLL(pollId=>27)}BPFK Poll: Text Structure Discursives{POLL}