BPFK Section: Irrealis Attitudinals

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This page is imported from version 26 of the page BPFK Section: Irrealis Attitudinals from the lojban Tiki.

Proposed definitions

cmavo: .a'i (UI1)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal. Used to express effort / endeavor / exertion / labor / pains / strife / toil.

See Also

  • {troci}
  • {gunka}
  • {slunandu}
  • {selprogunka}
  • {fu'i nai}

Proposed Keywords

  • effort

Usage Examples

.a'i mi ze'a ba ralte 
I'm trying to hold it!
.a'i mi ba gasnu lo nu do cikna binxo 
It'll be hard for me to wake you up.


cmavo: .a'i cu'i (UI*1)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal. Used to express effortlessness / ease / facility / no special effort

See Also

  • {selfrili}
  • {fu'i}

Proposed Keywords

Usage Examples

.a'i cu'i ti frili 
Ah, this is easy.


cmavo: .a'i nai (UI*1)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal. Used to express repose / inaction / inactivity / passivity / lackadaisicalness / indolence

See Also

  • {toltoi}
  • {cando}
  • {guksurla}

Proposed Keywords

Usage Examples

.a'i nai cikre ta 
Nah, why bother fixing it.


cmavo: .ai (UI1)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal. Used to express intent / intentionality / purpose / design

See Also

  • {zukte}
  • {platu}

Proposed Keywords

Usage Examples

.ai mi ze'e ba jmive 
'I intend to live forever.
.ai le mi cukta do sidju gi'e pacnygau 
I intend for my book to give you help and hope.


cmavo: .ai cu'i (UI*1)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal. Used to express indecision / hesitation / vacillation / wavering.

See Also

  • {y}

Proposed Keywords

  • indecision
  • hesitation

Usage Examples

.ai cu'i mi ti ba te vecnu 
I don't know whether I'll purchase these or not.


cmavo: .ai nai (UI*1)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal. Used to express non-intent / unintentionality / accidentality / unplannedness.

See Also

  • {selsnuti}

Proposed Keywords

  • unintentional

Usage Examples

.ai nai mi gunka ca le pavdei 
I'm not planning to work on Monday.
.ai nai mi jmina lo valsi poi mi finti 
I don't mean to add words of my own devising.
.ai nai do pu se xrani 
I didn't mean for you to get hurt.


cmavo: .au (UI1)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal. Used to express desire / wish / yearning / aspiration.

See Also

  • {djica}

Proposed Keywords

Usage Examples

.au lo tricu cu krati lo ro se genja gi'e sfasa lo kusru be gy 
Would that the trees might speak on behalf of all things that have roots, and punish those that wrong them!


cmavo: .au cu'i (UI*1)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal. Used to express indifference / apathy / disinterest.

See Also

  • {nordji}

Proposed Keywords

  • indifference

Usage Examples

.au cu'i makau jinga 
I don't really care who wins.


cmavo: .au nai (UI*1)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal. Used to express reluctance / averseness / disinclination.

See Also

  • {toldji}

Proposed Keywords

Usage Examples

.au nai mi cliva 
I'm reluctant to leave.



cmavo: .a'o (UI1)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal. Used to express hope / longing.

See Also

  • pacna

Usage Examples

.a'o le nobli cu gidva lo se zukte be mi 
Oh, that the Lord would guide my ways.


cmavo: .a'o nai (UI*1)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal. Used to express despair / hopelessness / dread / fear that a situation ensues.

See Also

  • {tolpa'a}

Proposed Keywords

  • despair

Usage Examples

.a'o nai ro da ca se cirko 
Everything will be lost now.


cmavo: .ei (UI1)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal. Used to express obligation / how things ought to be.

See Also

  • {bilga}

Proposed Keywords

  • obligation

Usage Examples

.ei mi cliva co'o 
Gotta go now, bye!
.ei le jatna cu ckeji 
The president ought to be ashamed.
.ei do djuno 
You ought to know.


cmavo: .ei nai (UI*1)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal. Used to express freedom / lack of obligation / how things need not be.

See Also

  • {zifre}

Proposed Keywords

  • freedom

Usage Examples

.ei nai do tolnurcni 
You don't have to feel threatened.


cmavo: .e'a (UI1)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal. Used to permit / allow / grant permission / authorization / consent / license.

See Also

  • {curmi}

Proposed Keywords

  • allow
  • permission

Usage Examples

.e'a do tsebi'o 
You may sit down.


cmavo: .e'a nai (UI*1)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal. Used to prohibit / forbid / deny permission / authorization / consent / license.

See Also

  • {tolcru}

Proposed Keywords

  • prohibit
  • forbid

Usage Examples

.e'a nai do ti stali 
You can't stay here.


cmavo: .e'e (UI1)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal. Used to exhort / incite / motivate / encourage / entreat / stimulate / challenge / dare / provoke / invite competition.

See Also

  • {talsa}

Proposed Keywords

Usage Examples

.e'e ko jarco lo se kakne be do 
Show them what you can do! Go for it!
.e'e mi do bajra jivna fe'e co'u le karce 
I'll race you to the car!


cmavo: .e'e nai (UI*1)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal. Used to discourage / intimidate / demoralize / deprecate / dampen / bridle / avoid / dodge / elude / duck / evade / back off / withdraw.

See Also

  • {zunti}
  • {dicra}

Proposed Keywords

Usage Examples

.e'e nai doi nelis 
Whoa, Nelly!
.e'e nai mi bilga lo nu zukte lo drata 
Sorry, I have other things to do.


cmavo: .e'i (UI1)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal. Used to command / dictate / instruct / order / oblige / constrain / impose an obligation.

See Also

  • {minde}
  • {ri'urgau}

Proposed Keywords

Usage Examples

.e'i ko ta mi dunda 
Give that to me!


cmavo: .e'i nai (UI*1)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal. Used to discharge / absolve / dismiss / exonerate / liberate / release / unbind / free of an obligation.

See Also

  • {zi'ergau}

Proposed Keywords

Usage Examples

.e'i nai ko zukte lo se djica be do 
Do whatever you please!


cmavo: .e'o (UI1)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal. Used to make a request.

See Also

  • {cpedu}
  • {pe'u}
  • {ko}

Proposed Keywords

  • request

Usage Examples

.e'o do dunda le silna mi 
Can you pass me the salt, please?


cmavo: .e'o nai (UI*1)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal. Used to grant / cede / proffer / make an offer.

See Also

  • {friti}

Proposed Keywords

Usage Examples

.e'o nai ko lebna lo titla 
Here, have some candy.


cmavo: .e'u (UI1)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal. Used to suggest / persuade / advise.

See Also

  • {stidi}

Proposed Keywords

  • suggestion

Usage Examples

.e'u mi'o salci 
Let's party!


cmavo: .e'u nai (UI*1)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal. Used to dissuade / warn / disadvise.

See Also

  • {kajde}
  • {o'i}

Proposed Keywords

Usage Examples

.e'u nai do kargau le moklu 
You better not open your mouth.


cmavo: ia (UI1)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal. Used to express belief / conviction / faith / certainty

See Also

  • {krici}
  • {birti}
  • {jinvi}

Proposed Keywords

Usage Examples

ia lo cevni cu zasti 
Indeed God exists.


cmavo: ia cu'i (UI*1)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal. Used to express skepticism / doubt / agnosticism / uncertainty.

See Also

  • {senpi}

Proposed Keywords

  • doubt

Usage Examples

ia cu'i lo cevni cu zasti 
Hmm ... God may or may not exist.


cmavo: ia nai (UI*1)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal. Used to express disbelief / incredulity / rejection

See Also

  • {tolkri}

Proposed Keywords

  • disbelief

Usage Examples

ia nai lo cevni cu zasti 
I don't believe God exists.


cmavo: ie (UI1)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal. Used to express agreement / concordance / accord / concurrence.

See Also

  • {tugni}

Proposed Keywords

  • agreement

Usage Examples

ie ta melbi 
Yes, that's beautiful.


cmavo: ie nai (UI*1)

Proposed Definition

Attitudinal. Used to express disagreement / dissent / contention / difference / argument.

See Also

  • {toltu'i}

Proposed Keywords

  • disagreement

Usage Examples

ie nai go'i 
I disagree with that.


Notes

  • The definitions of e'e and e'i are based on a very loose interpretation of some of the keywords, so that they fit the e-series, which in all other cases expresses the speaker's attitude towards the audience's bringing about some situation.
  • ai nai changed from rejection / refusal (which is i'a nai) to unintentionality / accidentality / unplannedness.
  • e'o nai "make an offer", instead of "negative request"?
    • I have no idea what a "negative request" is. I do, however, see how "offer" is a negative of "request". - .aionys.
  • e'u cu'i "abandon suggestion"?
  • selpa'i uses {.ei} as "should" and {.e'i} as "must" (as in {.e'i mi'o denpa .i lo sorpeka pu'o zvati}), I (camgusmis) think that's pretty good. The {.e'e} here is obviously out of the question, and I think keeping something like "must" is worth it, too, and closer to what we have.
    • That was long ago, I now prefer {.e'i} as proposed on this page, and I'm a big fan of the proposed {.e'e}.--selpa'i

Section Issues

  • Recent discussions have brought up the question of whether a realis/irrealis dichotomy makes sense at all, or whether all bridi are implicitly semi-realis, with some attitudinals leading to stronger implications one way or the other. Public opinion seems to be in favor of removing the split. If so, the definitions may need to be tweaked to make this more clear. If not, then someone needs to speak up in defense of the split.


The realis/irrealis distinction has been rather hotly debated over the years. It is my ( Lindar ) opinion that the reality/irreality of the UI is dependent upon the reality/irreality of the jufra, and can be indicated with da'i/da'inai or some other kind of marker. This way ni'o .a'o mi klama can mean I hope I go. in one instance and I'm going, about which I feel hopeful. for another, rather than being restricted to one meaning.

Poll