Difference between revisions of "BPFK Section: Aspect as of 24 May 2004"

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5'10"
 
  
180 lbs
+
== Proposed Definitions ==
  
brown eyes
+
;ba'o: Perfective aspect. It indicates that a situation is over, no longer taking place. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates an event concurrent with the aftermath of the situation. broda ba'o lo nu brode == ba'o broda ca lo nu brode
  
brownish black hair
+
Keywords: "perfective", "has been", "is over", "is in its aftermath", "is in its aftermath by the time ..."
  
272 years old
+
ze'a lo nanca be li so'i ba'o jamna i ku'i za'o cortu
  
In raijatn's shadow there are dangerous wild animals that he hunts. In the course of organizing and training for these hunts it has of course become obvious that he can wear heavier armor and throw a spear further and with more force than any of his servants.
+
''The war has been over for years, but the pain is still with us.''
  
raijatn always plants little suggestions in such a subtle way that his shadow servants usually just think it's their idea. He trains the natives for hunting, but doesn't organize military campaigns against other natives that live on the world but aren't directly under his power. He uses his authority pretty lightly, just for hunting and doesn't make many demands. The people like him, even the ones that he doesn't rule over.
+
la berger cu cliva le kumfa ba'o lo nu la klark sepi'o
  
raijatn organizes and trains for elaborate hunts. He typically uses ranged weapons like spears, bows, throwing stars, darts, franciscan throwing axe, etc. One exciting hunt for raijatn was when he around 234 years old(as counted from la komuj), he got bored and arranged a hunt against some tsazm ridcink. Large insect beasts that during the fall lay their eggs in animal hosts to give their children food. Otherwise they are vegetarian. He was feeling in a weird mode contemplating all the people he had known and died and felt like taking on a real challenge so he went hunting with a much smaller crew(only 12) and didn't scout and had his fellow hunters follow about 75 meters behind.
+
la pauerpoint cu jarco lo se pensi be ky la rais
  
Well tsazm ridcink are known for their ambushes, whether their prey wonders into them or they sneak up on them; they are slightly camouflaged to fit into jungle setting, with bumps and plant looking stuff on their bodies. This time a pack of 9 tsazm ridcink ambushed raijatn. They started swarming him quickly. He had five lances, and two throwing axes on him at the time. He quickly killed the three closest ones by throwing one lance a piece into them. He quickly rushed to the closest killed one, just as another way only a mere 3 meters away. He threw an axe right in that ones jaws, but severely weakened it and stunned it for a few moments. He threw another lance and killed yet another.
+
''Berger had left the room by the time Clarke, using a''
  
He started retrieving a lance from the dead tsazm ridcink that was nearest him as the other four unharmed bugs all started to circle him. It was difficult to retrieve the lance as he had to sometimes use the dead tsazm ridcink on stick as a shield, which pushed it in deeper. He couldn't throw his last lance because he also needed that to fend off attacks from the other side of him.
+
''Powerpoint presentation, outlined his thinking to Rice.''
  
Finally he was able to have two lances. He threw a lance at one of the remaining four, killing it, and threw his axe wounding yet another. He dashed towards one of the other previously killed bugs with a lance in it. However to do so he had to pass by the first wounded bug. As he got near to that bug it attacked with it's legs as the other two also closed in. it was tough to fend them off and at one point a sharp edge of of one of the legs from the wounded one hit the lance near where raijatn held the lance, severing 1 cm or so of his pinky finger off, and cutting his ring finger deeply.
+
;ca'o: Progressive aspect. It indicates that a situation is in progress, ongoing. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates an event encompassed by the ongoing situation. It does not give the duration of the main event (ZEhAs do that), it only indicates that the main event completely overlaps another event. broda ca'o lo nu brode == ca'o broda ca lo nu brode
  
He was able to slide underneath one of the healthy bugs and toss it 10 meters away. Just as the bug was in the air, his 12 hunting buddies rounded the corner and could see what was happening. The squad leader ordered a volley of 4 bolts from some crossbows on the bug as it landed, killing it. raijatn was able to then get enough distance from the one remaining healthy tsazm ridcink and toss his one remaining lance into it.
+
Keywords: "progressive", "continuitive", "is ongoing", "is ...-ing", "is ongoing while ...", "is ongoing throughout ..."
  
raijatn then ordered the squad to finish off the two wounded bugs with some cross bows, and retreive all his weapons. While they were busy with those chores, he did a bit of quick first aid on his right hand. He then proceeded with them carefully back to the city. He had no trump with him at the time, because he didn't want a quick and easy escape route. So he had to travel back on foot with a throbbing hand before he could get real treatment.
+
la mairas ca'o tcidu lo cukta ca lo nu lo fonxa cu janbe   
  
The squad that witnessed the killing of many tsazm ridcink single-handily, soon spread word of this incredible exploit among the people near the capital of katact , and this legend has traveled very far indeed since that time. Maybe if you pressed the old men who were there they might remember the hurt hand, but few besides raijatn really recalls it much. He hide the injury as best he could and it healed completely within 2 years, 3 months and 5 days. The longest 2 years in raijatn's life so far. And he never felt the need to push the edge again, he always keeps his eye out for ambushes and is always prepared.
+
''Myra was reading a book when the phone rang.''
  
tsazm "zmadu zma mau more — tsali tsa strong" ridcink "crida rid fairy — cinki insect" greater/stronger beetle-bug-creature
+
le bi'unai stuzi ji'a cu se carvi piso'i snime i ji'a zukte
  
kormuj "koruan. — munje muj mu'e universe " corwin's world korbi kor koi edge 'border, curb' x1 is an edge/margin/border/curb/boundary of x2 next-to/bordering-on x3
+
zbasu lo se jmina ca'o lo nu mi'o zvati sy
  
katact kalte kat hunt tcadu tca city
+
''This place also got a lot of snow plus they were busy''
 +
 
 +
''making more the whole time we were there.''
 +
 
 +
;co'a: Initiative aspect. It indicates that a situation is at its outset, just beginning. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates the starting point. broda co'a lo nu brode == co'a broda ca lo nu brode
 +
 
 +
Keywords: "initiative", "starts", "is starting", "starting at ...", "from ..."
 +
 
 +
ti'u li ji'ipaxa ge co'a manku binxo
 +
 
 +
gi lo selba'e pe la fred co'a tilju zenba
 +
 
 +
''It was around 4 pm when it started getting dark''
 +
 
 +
''and Fred's axe was starting to get heavier.''
 +
 
 +
la mark pu bredi lo nu klama kei co'a lo pamoi djedi
 +
 
 +
''Mark had been ready to go from the first day.''
 +
 
 +
;co'i: Punctual aspect. It indicates that a situation takes place at one moment in time, without duration. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates the point in time when the situation occurs. broda co'i lo nu brode == co'i broda ca lo nu brode
 +
 
 +
Keywords: "punctual", "achievative", "occurs fully at ..."
 +
 
 +
lo nu ko'a vlipa cu revgau lo gugde be lo elfe bei
 +
 
 +
bu'u la midju terdi co'u lo nu co'i daspo la turni djine   
 +
 
 +
''Their power maintained the realms of the Elves in Middle-earth''
 +
 
 +
''until the destruction of the Ruling Ring''
 +
 
 +
i ku'i co'i ma lo cevni nu zukte cu punji lo pruxi lo fukpi tarbi
 +
 
 +
pe ne'i lo cipra tu'urvau i xu go'i co'i sai lo nu co'a bu'u jmive
 +
 
 +
''But when would divine intervention place a soul in a cloned''
 +
 
 +
''fertilized egg in a test tube? Would this occur at the exact''
 +
 
 +
''moment when life begins therein?''
 +
 
 +
;co'u: Cessative aspect. It indicates that a situation is at its termination, ending. In the case of a process, it may or may not be completed (cf. 'mo'u'). When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates the ending point. broda co'u lo nu brode == co'u broda ca lo nu brode
 +
 
 +
Keywords: "cessative", "stops", "ends", "ending at...", "until ..."
 +
 
 +
lo prali be fi lo cteki pikta ba za lo nanca be li ci cu co'u banro
 +
 
 +
''Interest on the tax certificates stops accruing after three years.''
 +
 
 +
ko curmi lo nu lo mikce be do cu jdice lo du'u xukau do nitcu
 +
 
 +
lo velmicyxukmi i ganai my cusku zo ja'a gi ko di'i citka vy
 +
 
 +
co'u lo nu my minde do lo nu sisti
 +
 
 +
''Let your doctor decide if you need medication. If he says 'yes',''
 +
 
 +
''take it regularly until he tells you to stop.''
 +
 
 +
;de'a: Pausative aspect. It indicates that a situation is interrupted, temporarily suspended. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates the period of interruption. broda de'a lo nu brode == de'a broda ca lo nu brode
 +
 
 +
Keywords: "pausative", "has stopped for a while", "pausing for ..."
 +
 
 +
ja'e lo xlamau mi ze'a lo masti be li ji'ixa cu
 +
 
 +
de'a sai lumci lo mi flira fo lo mokau jisygau
 +
 
 +
''To make things worse, I pretty much stopped washing''
 +
 
 +
''my face with any kind of cleanser for about six months.''
 +
 
 +
mi sanji lo nu mi tavla de'a lo nu mi pensi la sam
 +
 
 +
''Suddenly I was aware that I had ceased talking while''
 +
 
 +
''I had been thinking about Sam.''
 +
 
 +
;di'a: Resumptive aspect. It indicates that a situation is being resumed after a pause. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates the point of resumption. broda di'a lo nu brode == di'a broda ca lo nu brode
 +
 
 +
Keywords: "resumptive", "resumes", "resumes when ..."
 +
 
 +
ta'e ji'ireroi ritli lo traji smaji pu lo
 +
 
 +
nu la garofalos di'a tavla lo vitke
 +
 
 +
''There's usually a beat or two of deadly silence''
 +
 
 +
''before Garofalo resumes talking to the guest.''
 +
 
 +
la skot cu se jibri di'a lo nu lo panzi be sy cu nanca li bi e li pano
 +
 
 +
''Scott resumed her career when her children were eight and 10.''
 +
 
 +
;mo'u: Completitive aspect. It indicates that a situation is at its natural ending point, becoming complete. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates the point of completion. broda mo'u lo nu brode == mo'u broda ca lo nu brode
 +
 
 +
Keywords: "completive", "completes", "completes at ..."
 +
 
 +
ro tcidu cu frica fi lo ka mo'u finti le lisri
 +
 
 +
''Each reader completes the novel in a different way.''
 +
 
 +
ko'a pluka citka ro stasu muclai e ro molylai pe le toknu
 +
 
 +
bo seljukpa je selpilka nanba mo'u lo nu va'ucmo
 +
 
 +
''He savoured every spoonful of his soup and every mouthful''
 +
 
 +
''of the roast and crusty bread until he finished it with a sigh.''
 +
 
 +
da'i le ninmu cu ponse le pano rijno sicni gi'e cirko pa ri i xu ny na
 +
 
 +
cikygau lo tergu'i gi'e lumci lo zdani gi'e junri sisku mo'u lo nu facki
 +
 
 +
''Or suppose a woman has ten silver coins and loses one. Does she not''
 +
 
 +
''light a lamp, sweep the house and search carefully until she finds it?''
 +
 
 +
;pu'o: Prospective aspect. It indicates that a situation is about to take place, not yet realized. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates an event occurring while the situation is not yet realized. broda pu'o lo nu brode == pu'o broda ca lo nu brode
 +
 
 +
Keywords: "prospective", "inchoative", "ia about to", "is on the verge of", "is about to happen when ..."
 +
 
 +
le kulnu be lo pruxa'u natmi cu ze'u pu'o daspo canci
 +
 
 +
''The culture of the indigenous peoples was for a long''
 +
 
 +
''time on the verge of being eradicated.''
 +
 
 +
mi tolji'a lo samci'e nunkei pu'o lo nu mi cpacu lo norji'a pinka
 +
 
 +
''I was about to lose a network game, when I got a Tiebreaker notice.''
 +
 
 +
;za'o: Superfective aspect. It indicates that a situation is beyond its natural ending point, still taking place. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates the surpassed natural ending point. broda za'o lo nu brode == za'o broda ca lo nu brode
 +
 
 +
Keywords: "superfective", "keeps", "still", "still when..."
 +
 
 +
mi'o za'ure'u ru'u cadzu i mi'o ca lo nu le te batci
 +
 
 +
za'o se cortu cu co'a xanka
 +
 
 +
''We walked around some more and when the bite''
 +
 
 +
''kept hurting, we began to worry.''
 +
 
 +
la'e di'u rinka lo nu ko'a cikna za'o lo nu ko'a na'o sipna binxo
 +
 
 +
''This kept her awake beyond the point where she really normally''
 +
 
 +
''would have fallen asleep.''
 +
 
 +
la brest co'a se jibri ca lo cedra be lo nu lo clani lenjo cu jai zabna
 +
 
 +
tcaci i ku'i by ca'o pilno ly za'o lo nu ly co'u jai zantcaci
 +
 
 +
''Brest started his career during an era when long lenses were all''
 +
 
 +
''the rage, but he's kept using them beyond the point where they''
 +
 
 +
''ceased to be fashionable.''
 +
 
 +
=== Notes ===
 +
 
 +
Experimental ZAhO are not included in this page. See [[jbocre: xa'o|xa'o]].
 +
 
 +
Some of the names of the aspects are changed with respect to CLL, in an attempt to get closer to a more standard terminology:
 +
 
 +
*inchoative -> prospective (As far as I can tell, other than in Lojban "inchoative" seems to describe {co'a} rather than {pu'o}.)
 +
*continuitive -> progressive ("continuitive" seems to be used for an aspect that emphasizes continuation after a stage of ongoingness, so perhaps closer to {za'o}.)
 +
 
 +
*cessitive -> cessative (Typo in CLL?)
 +
*achievative -> punctual (I don't know where "achievative" comes from.)
 +
 
 +
The proposed use of ZAhO's as '''sumti tcita ''' differs from the one given in CLL:
 +
 
 +
Likewise, we might say:
 +
 
 +
12.8)    mi klama le zarci pu'o le nu mi citka
 +
 
 +
I go-to the store [[jbocre: inchoative|inchoative]] the event-of I eat
 +
 
 +
which indicates that before my eating begins, I go to the store, whereas
 +
 
 +
12.9)    mi klama le zarci ba'o le nu mi citka
 +
 
 +
I go-to the store [[jbocre: perfective|perfective]] the event-of I eat
 +
 
 +
would indicate that I go to the store after I am finished eating.
 +
 
 +
CLL also says: ''The interpretation of ZAhO tcita differs from that of FAhA, VA, PU, and ZI tcita, however. The event described in the sumti is viewed as a process, and the action of the main bridi occurs at the phase of the process which the ZAhO specifies, or at least some part of that phase. The action of the main bridi itself is seen as a point event, so that there is no issue about which phase of the main bridi is intended.'' That, however, is at odds with the usage found for ''co'a'' and ''co'u'', which follows the usual pattern of all other tags and apply to the main selbri.
 +
 
 +
=== Impact ===
 +
 
 +
*Positive: Some usage that is currently against the prescription becomes validated. For example:
 +
 
 +
co'a lenu le cukta cu pagre cliva le viska mumkubli kei
 +
 
 +
da poi zvati lo darno kojna be le kumfa cu jai rink lenu
 +
 
 +
za'ure'u sanji le vanbi
 +
 
 +
''As soon as the volume had gone below the line of sight,''
 +
 
 +
''something in an obscure corner of the room recalled''
 +
 
 +
''his attention to his surroundings.''
 +
 
 +
From [[jbocre: le nanmu kujo'u le since|le nanmu kujo'u le since]]
 +
 
 +
mi xusra ledu'u ledi'e jetnu si'unai se jimpe .itu'e
 +
 
 +
ro remna cu jikydunli co'a lenu ri se zbasu
 +
 
 +
''We hold these truths to be self-evident; that''
 +
 
 +
''all men are created equal.''
 +
 
 +
From [http://mlht.ffii.org/demo/pacnalb.html]
 +
 
 +
*Negative: Some usage that currently follows the prescription becomes invalidated. For example:
 +
 
 +
.i le cribe noi nelci le pojma'a cu dukse leka tilju kei tu'a
 +
 
 +
le cripu .ije do ka'e xruti klama le zvati ba'o lenu mivgau
 +
 
 +
''The bear (who likes the volcano) is too heavy for the bridge...''
 +
 
 +
''and you can go back to the scene after being resurrected.''
 +
 
 +
From [http://www.lojban.com/cgi-bin/twiki/view/Translations/MissingColossalCavesText?skin=print]
 +
 
 +
le javni cu binxo lo ralju javni ba'o le nu so'e kelci cu te javni
 +
 
 +
fi le javni ca'o su'orevo cacra
 +
 
 +
From [[jbocre: lo javni be fi la camgusmis|lo javni be fi la camgusmis]]
 +
 
 +
With the proposed sumti tcita usage those would have to be:
 +
 
 +
.i le cribe noi nelci le pojma'a cu dukse leka tilju kei tu'a
 +
 
 +
le cripu .ije do ka'e xruti klama le zvati ca lenu ba'o mivgau
 +
 
 +
le javni cu binxo lo ralju javni ca le nu so'e kelci ba'o te javni
 +
 
 +
fi le javni ca'o su'orevo cacra
 +
 
 +
----------
 +
 
 +
See [http://www.lojban.org/phpbb/viewforum.php?f=71&sid=3498ae8683d101e92304524822f45c67] for some more data and discussion.
 +
 
 +
----------

Revision as of 16:44, 4 November 2013

Proposed Definitions

ba'o
Perfective aspect. It indicates that a situation is over, no longer taking place. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates an event concurrent with the aftermath of the situation. broda ba'o lo nu brode == ba'o broda ca lo nu brode

Keywords: "perfective", "has been", "is over", "is in its aftermath", "is in its aftermath by the time ..."

ze'a lo nanca be li so'i ba'o jamna i ku'i za'o cortu

The war has been over for years, but the pain is still with us.

la berger cu cliva le kumfa ba'o lo nu la klark sepi'o

la pauerpoint cu jarco lo se pensi be ky la rais

Berger had left the room by the time Clarke, using a

Powerpoint presentation, outlined his thinking to Rice.

ca'o
Progressive aspect. It indicates that a situation is in progress, ongoing. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates an event encompassed by the ongoing situation. It does not give the duration of the main event (ZEhAs do that), it only indicates that the main event completely overlaps another event. broda ca'o lo nu brode == ca'o broda ca lo nu brode

Keywords: "progressive", "continuitive", "is ongoing", "is ...-ing", "is ongoing while ...", "is ongoing throughout ..."

la mairas ca'o tcidu lo cukta ca lo nu lo fonxa cu janbe

Myra was reading a book when the phone rang.

le bi'unai stuzi ji'a cu se carvi piso'i snime i ji'a zukte

zbasu lo se jmina ca'o lo nu mi'o zvati sy

This place also got a lot of snow plus they were busy

making more the whole time we were there.

co'a
Initiative aspect. It indicates that a situation is at its outset, just beginning. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates the starting point. broda co'a lo nu brode == co'a broda ca lo nu brode

Keywords: "initiative", "starts", "is starting", "starting at ...", "from ..."

ti'u li ji'ipaxa ge co'a manku binxo

gi lo selba'e pe la fred co'a tilju zenba

It was around 4 pm when it started getting dark

and Fred's axe was starting to get heavier.

la mark pu bredi lo nu klama kei co'a lo pamoi djedi

Mark had been ready to go from the first day.

co'i
Punctual aspect. It indicates that a situation takes place at one moment in time, without duration. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates the point in time when the situation occurs. broda co'i lo nu brode == co'i broda ca lo nu brode

Keywords: "punctual", "achievative", "occurs fully at ..."

lo nu ko'a vlipa cu revgau lo gugde be lo elfe bei

bu'u la midju terdi co'u lo nu co'i daspo la turni djine

Their power maintained the realms of the Elves in Middle-earth

until the destruction of the Ruling Ring

i ku'i co'i ma lo cevni nu zukte cu punji lo pruxi lo fukpi tarbi

pe ne'i lo cipra tu'urvau i xu go'i co'i sai lo nu co'a bu'u jmive

But when would divine intervention place a soul in a cloned

fertilized egg in a test tube? Would this occur at the exact

moment when life begins therein?

co'u
Cessative aspect. It indicates that a situation is at its termination, ending. In the case of a process, it may or may not be completed (cf. 'mo'u'). When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates the ending point. broda co'u lo nu brode == co'u broda ca lo nu brode

Keywords: "cessative", "stops", "ends", "ending at...", "until ..."

lo prali be fi lo cteki pikta ba za lo nanca be li ci cu co'u banro

Interest on the tax certificates stops accruing after three years.

ko curmi lo nu lo mikce be do cu jdice lo du'u xukau do nitcu

lo velmicyxukmi i ganai my cusku zo ja'a gi ko di'i citka vy

co'u lo nu my minde do lo nu sisti

Let your doctor decide if you need medication. If he says 'yes',

take it regularly until he tells you to stop.

de'a
Pausative aspect. It indicates that a situation is interrupted, temporarily suspended. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates the period of interruption. broda de'a lo nu brode == de'a broda ca lo nu brode

Keywords: "pausative", "has stopped for a while", "pausing for ..."

ja'e lo xlamau mi ze'a lo masti be li ji'ixa cu

de'a sai lumci lo mi flira fo lo mokau jisygau

To make things worse, I pretty much stopped washing

my face with any kind of cleanser for about six months.

mi sanji lo nu mi tavla de'a lo nu mi pensi la sam

Suddenly I was aware that I had ceased talking while

I had been thinking about Sam.

di'a
Resumptive aspect. It indicates that a situation is being resumed after a pause. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates the point of resumption. broda di'a lo nu brode == di'a broda ca lo nu brode

Keywords: "resumptive", "resumes", "resumes when ..."

ta'e ji'ireroi ritli lo traji smaji pu lo

nu la garofalos di'a tavla lo vitke

There's usually a beat or two of deadly silence

before Garofalo resumes talking to the guest.

la skot cu se jibri di'a lo nu lo panzi be sy cu nanca li bi e li pano

Scott resumed her career when her children were eight and 10.

mo'u
Completitive aspect. It indicates that a situation is at its natural ending point, becoming complete. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates the point of completion. broda mo'u lo nu brode == mo'u broda ca lo nu brode

Keywords: "completive", "completes", "completes at ..."

ro tcidu cu frica fi lo ka mo'u finti le lisri

Each reader completes the novel in a different way.

ko'a pluka citka ro stasu muclai e ro molylai pe le toknu

bo seljukpa je selpilka nanba mo'u lo nu va'ucmo

He savoured every spoonful of his soup and every mouthful

of the roast and crusty bread until he finished it with a sigh.

da'i le ninmu cu ponse le pano rijno sicni gi'e cirko pa ri i xu ny na

cikygau lo tergu'i gi'e lumci lo zdani gi'e junri sisku mo'u lo nu facki

Or suppose a woman has ten silver coins and loses one. Does she not

light a lamp, sweep the house and search carefully until she finds it?

pu'o
Prospective aspect. It indicates that a situation is about to take place, not yet realized. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates an event occurring while the situation is not yet realized. broda pu'o lo nu brode == pu'o broda ca lo nu brode

Keywords: "prospective", "inchoative", "ia about to", "is on the verge of", "is about to happen when ..."

le kulnu be lo pruxa'u natmi cu ze'u pu'o daspo canci

The culture of the indigenous peoples was for a long

time on the verge of being eradicated.

mi tolji'a lo samci'e nunkei pu'o lo nu mi cpacu lo norji'a pinka

I was about to lose a network game, when I got a Tiebreaker notice.

za'o
Superfective aspect. It indicates that a situation is beyond its natural ending point, still taking place. When tagging a sumti, the sumti indicates the surpassed natural ending point. broda za'o lo nu brode == za'o broda ca lo nu brode

Keywords: "superfective", "keeps", "still", "still when..."

mi'o za'ure'u ru'u cadzu i mi'o ca lo nu le te batci

za'o se cortu cu co'a xanka

We walked around some more and when the bite

kept hurting, we began to worry.

la'e di'u rinka lo nu ko'a cikna za'o lo nu ko'a na'o sipna binxo

This kept her awake beyond the point where she really normally

would have fallen asleep.

la brest co'a se jibri ca lo cedra be lo nu lo clani lenjo cu jai zabna

tcaci i ku'i by ca'o pilno ly za'o lo nu ly co'u jai zantcaci

Brest started his career during an era when long lenses were all

the rage, but he's kept using them beyond the point where they

ceased to be fashionable.

Notes

Experimental ZAhO are not included in this page. See xa'o.

Some of the names of the aspects are changed with respect to CLL, in an attempt to get closer to a more standard terminology:

  • inchoative -> prospective (As far as I can tell, other than in Lojban "inchoative" seems to describe {co'a} rather than {pu'o}.)
  • continuitive -> progressive ("continuitive" seems to be used for an aspect that emphasizes continuation after a stage of ongoingness, so perhaps closer to {za'o}.)
  • cessitive -> cessative (Typo in CLL?)
  • achievative -> punctual (I don't know where "achievative" comes from.)

The proposed use of ZAhO's as sumti tcita differs from the one given in CLL:

Likewise, we might say:

12.8) mi klama le zarci pu'o le nu mi citka

I go-to the store inchoative the event-of I eat

which indicates that before my eating begins, I go to the store, whereas

12.9) mi klama le zarci ba'o le nu mi citka

I go-to the store perfective the event-of I eat

would indicate that I go to the store after I am finished eating.

CLL also says: The interpretation of ZAhO tcita differs from that of FAhA, VA, PU, and ZI tcita, however. The event described in the sumti is viewed as a process, and the action of the main bridi occurs at the phase of the process which the ZAhO specifies, or at least some part of that phase. The action of the main bridi itself is seen as a point event, so that there is no issue about which phase of the main bridi is intended. That, however, is at odds with the usage found for co'a and co'u, which follows the usual pattern of all other tags and apply to the main selbri.

Impact

  • Positive: Some usage that is currently against the prescription becomes validated. For example:

co'a lenu le cukta cu pagre cliva le viska mumkubli kei

da poi zvati lo darno kojna be le kumfa cu jai rink lenu

za'ure'u sanji le vanbi

As soon as the volume had gone below the line of sight,

something in an obscure corner of the room recalled

his attention to his surroundings.

From le nanmu kujo'u le since

mi xusra ledu'u ledi'e jetnu si'unai se jimpe .itu'e

ro remna cu jikydunli co'a lenu ri se zbasu

We hold these truths to be self-evident; that

all men are created equal.

From [1]

  • Negative: Some usage that currently follows the prescription becomes invalidated. For example:

.i le cribe noi nelci le pojma'a cu dukse leka tilju kei tu'a

le cripu .ije do ka'e xruti klama le zvati ba'o lenu mivgau

The bear (who likes the volcano) is too heavy for the bridge...

and you can go back to the scene after being resurrected.

From [2]

le javni cu binxo lo ralju javni ba'o le nu so'e kelci cu te javni

fi le javni ca'o su'orevo cacra

From lo javni be fi la camgusmis

With the proposed sumti tcita usage those would have to be:

.i le cribe noi nelci le pojma'a cu dukse leka tilju kei tu'a

le cripu .ije do ka'e xruti klama le zvati ca lenu ba'o mivgau

le javni cu binxo lo ralju javni ca le nu so'e kelci ba'o te javni

fi le javni ca'o su'orevo cacra


See [3] for some more data and discussion.