Difference between revisions of "Грамматика ложбана/4.15"

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Revision as of 08:16, 30 July 2018

Следующие gismu не были созданы алгоритмически. Они, по сути, являются заимствованными словами вроде fu'ivla. Они являются исключениями из в других отношениях обязательного алгоритма создания gismu, в котором было достаточно оснований для таких исключений. За исключением небольших метрических префиксов и gismu для присваиваемых предикатов, начинающихся с brod-, все следующие gismu заканчиваются буквой «o», которая в целом достаточно редка в ложбанских gismu.

Следующие gismu представляет понятия, которые достаточно уникальны для ложбана: они либо созданы из сочетания форм других gismu, либо не имеют происхождения вообще. Таким образом, эти gismu концептуально похожи на lujvo, хотя они состоят из всего лишь пяти букв; однако, в отличие от lujvo, у них есть rafsi, назначенные им для создания более сложных lujvo. Присвоение gismu этим понятиям помогает сохранить конечные lujvo достаточно короткими.

broda 1ый присваиваемый предикат
brode 2ой присваиваемый предикат
brodi 3ий присваиваемый предикат
brodo 4ый присваиваемый предикат
brodu 5ый присваиваемый предикат
cmavo структурное слово, частица (из 'cmalu valsi)
lojbo ложбанский (из 'logji bangu)
lujvo сложное слово, состоящее из rafsi (из 'pluja valsi)
mekso математическое выражение (из Mathematical EXpression)

It is important to understand that even though cmavo, lojbo, and lujvo were made up from parts of other gismu, they are now full-fledged gismu used in exactly the same way as all other gismu, both in grammar and in word formation.

The following three groups of gismu represent concepts drawn from the international language of science and mathematics. They are used for concepts that are represented in most languages by a root which is recognized internationally.

Small metric prefixes (values less than 1):

decti .1 deci
centi .01 centi
milti .001 milli
mikri 10-6 micro
nanvi 10-9 nano
picti 10-12 pico
femti 10-15 femto
xatsi 10-18 atto
zepti 10-21 zepto
gocti 10-24 yocto

Large metric prefixes (values greater than 1):

dekto 10 deka
xecto 100 hecto
kilto 1000 kilo
megdo 106 mega
gigdo 109 giga
terto 1012 tera
petso 1015 peta
xexso 1018 exa
zetro 1021 zetta
gotro 1024 yotta

Other scientific or mathematical terms:

delno candela
kelvo kelvin
molro mole
radno radian
sinso sine
stero steradian
tanjo tangent
xampo ampere

The gismu sinso and tanjo were only made non-algorithmically because they were identical (having been borrowed from a common source) in all the dictionaries that had translations. The other terms in this group are units in the international metric system; some metric units, however, were made by the ordinary process (usually because they are different in Chinese).

Finally, there are the cultural gismu, which are also borrowed, but by modifying a word from one particular language, instead of using the multi-lingual gismu creation algorithm. Cultural gismu are used for words that have local importance to a particular culture; other cultures or languages may have no word for the concept at all, or may borrow the word from its home culture, just as Lojban does. In such a case, the gismu algorithm, which uses weighted averages, doesn't accurately represent the frequency of usage of the individual concept. Cultural gismu are not even required to be based on the six major languages.

The six Lojban source languages:

jungo Chinese (from “Zhong 1 guo 2”)
glico English
xindo Hindi
spano Spanish
rusko Russian
xrabo Arabic

Seven other widely spoken languages that were on the list of candidates for gismu-making, but weren't used:

bengo Bengali
porto Portuguese
baxso Bahasa Melayu/Bahasa Indonesia
ponjo Japanese (from “Nippon”)
dotco German (from „Deutsch“)
fraso French (from « Français »)
xurdo Urdu

(Urdu and Hindi began as the same language with different writing systems, but have now become somewhat different, principally in borrowed vocabulary. Urdu-speakers were counted along with Hindi-speakers when weights were assigned for gismu-making purposes.)

Countries with a large number of speakers of any of the above languages (where the meaning of “large” is dependent on the specific language):

English:
merko American
brito British
skoto Scottish
sralo Australian
kadno Canadian

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Spanish:
gento Argentinian
mexno Mexican


Russian:
softo Soviet/USSR
vukro Ukrainian
Arabic:
filso Palestinian
jerxo Algerian
jordo Jordanian
libjo Libyan
lubno Lebanese
misro Egyptian (from “Mizraim”)
morko Moroccan
rakso Iraqi
sadjo Saudi
sirxo Syrian


Bahasa Melayu/Bahasa Indonesia:
bindo Indonesian
meljo Malaysian
Portuguese:
brazo Brazilian
Urdu:
kisto Pakistani

The continents (and oceanic regions) of the Earth:

bemro North American (from 'berti merko)
dzipo Antarctican (from 'cadzu cipni)
ketco South American (from “Quechua”)
friko African
polno Polynesian/Oceanic
ropno European
xazdo Asiatic

A few smaller but historically important cultures:

latmo Latin/Roman
srito Sanskrit
xebro Hebrew/Israeli/Jewish
xelso Greek (from «Hellas»)

Major world religions:

budjo Buddhist
dadjo Taoist
muslo Islamic/Moslem
xriso Christian

A few terms that cover multiple groups of the above:

jegvo Jehovist (Judeo-Christian-Moslem)
semto Semitic
slovo Slavic
xispo Hispanic (New World Spanish)