cenj - changes

sf3v ri lojsk

18 vril 2003 / 18 April 2003

 

Lojsk is an absolutely regular, simple and logical 'Predicate Based' language. It is influenced heavily by: Loglan, Lojban, Universal Networking Language (UNL), Esperanto, Visual Basic, Dutton's Speedwords, Ceqli and Gua\spi.

The Morneau MTIL criteria (detailed overview can be found at: http://www.rick.harrison.net/langlab/mtil.html) are the guiding principles as Lojsk is developed. Lojsk is successful in meeting four of the five key criteria:

1 - self segregating vocabulary

2 - simple syntax

3 - flexible 'predicate argument' placement structure

4 - relationship morpheme

5 - minimal deviation from natural grammar

Lojsk meets these criteria by:

1 - all Lojsk words single syllable constructions

2 - standard Lojsk syntax:

function argument-1 argument-2 ... argument-n

3 - grammatical markers, known as 'grar' allow for extremely flexible predicate argument placement

4 - a powerful by-product of the grammatical markers allows for detailed descriptions of the relationships between keywords and between the Function and it's Arguments

The fifth criterion was not as easy to obtain without jeopardizing the other four criteria, and Lojsk's own internal criterion of being as absolutely regular as possible. Therefore, Lojsk maintains a very simple 'programming language' grammar instead. (Similar to say Visual Basic.) However, unlike existing programming languages and logical 'predicate based' languages (such as Loglan and Lojban), Lojsk doesn't maintain strict predicate argument positions. Instead, it provides for predicate arguments to be positioned at the discretion of the speaker utilizing the 'grar' grammatical markers to identify the argument's relation to the function.

Also, unlike other International Auxiliary Languages (IAL's), Lojsk is by no means shy of having an ever-enlarging, robust and detail specific vocabulary. As this is essential to meeting one of the language's goals of precise communication. At the first publishing of the language, the Lojsk Kfeirt (keyword) database had a total of 1945 entries. Continued updates will be made on a frequent and timely manner, and contributions to the language are greatly appreciated and credit duly noted.

An online vocabulary and overview can be found here:  https://www.quickbase.com/db/8gnc9xea

Please, download the PDF Language Overview (in three files):
part one (https://www.quickbase.com/up/8e2vm5qn/g/rc/eg/va/Lojsk.pdf )
part two (https://www.quickbase.com/up/8e2vm5qn/g/rd/eg/va/Lojsk.2.pdf)
part three (https://www.quickbase.com/up/8e2vm5qn/g/re/eg/va/Lojsk.3.pdf)

Communications with respect to corrections, editions or other textual alterations to this document should be made to: [email protected].

Please format the subject line as follows:
Lojsk - Edit Recommendation
.

In the body of your e-mail please make note of the section title, page, and paragraph where the edit/correction is recommended.

Communications with respect to Language Alterations or Language Contributions should be made to: [email protected].

Please format the subject line as follows:
Lojsk - Language Recommendation
.

Credit will be noted in the database for the contributor. 



changes/cenj

18 jun/June 2003, 16:50

-added an HTML version of vocabulary list to support lower bandwidth users.

-completed new HTML sections of language overview: Conditional Statements, Questions, Aspect Keywords.




2 jun/June 2003, 14:08

-completed new HTML sections of language overview: Basic Grammar, Subordinate Clauses, Punctuation.




20 meis/May 2003, 18:23

-completed new HTML sections of language overview: Grar Endings, Language Specific Exit / Re-entry Grar, Combining Grar Beginnings, Names.




18 meis/May 2003, 13:17

-completed new HTML sections of language overview: Keywords, Grammatical Markers.




8 meis/May 2003, 17:48

-completed new HTML sections of language overview: Morphology, Word Classes (subpages not yet completed).




1 meis/May 2003, 13:01

-began creating HTML version of language overview. It should be completed by the end of next week. There were some problems with the PDF version of the document. (Thanks to Mark Vines for pointing it out.)

-completed the first part of the new HTML version of the language overview: Alphabet and Pronunciation




26 vril/April 2003, 21:53 [document version: [email protected]]

-added a Changes/Cenj section to this page.

-added 'h_' command grars to language. (see updated 'Grar' section.) These grars support one of lojsk's original design objectives of human-to-machine vocal communication facilitation. The command grar will allow the speaker to address and command the machine directly. Up to this point language development has focused primarily on human-to-human or human-to-machine dictation.

lojsk: !ha dyel q!
english: Delete previous (character)!

-added table of language specific exit and re-entry command grars. These command grars allow the user to exit lojsk and enter another language, and then re-enter lojsk. Up to this point, only one element allowed for exit/re-entry; the cmen (name) grar (cm_ ...ii) and the cmen (name) command grar (ii...ii). (see section on Names/Cmen.)

lojsk: :a cuts le hih xge ii6c.I didn't go to work.ii6c xgq:
english: He says, "I didn't go to work".

-changed the conjunction ("and") grar 'jm_' to 'j_'. Added an 'optional conjunction' ("and either") grar 'jm_' to be used with the disjunction/alternative ("or") grar 'm_'.

lojsk: :a godz le kat ji g3k tcwe has q:
english: The cat and dog go to the house.
lojsk: :a godz le kat jmi g3k mi smac tcwe has q:
english: The cat and either the dog or the mouse go to the house.





 





cenj - changes

Alphabet and Pronunciation

 

lojsk symbol

English equivalent

sound URL

a

 father

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA304.mp3

b

 boy

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA102.mp3

c

 show

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA134.mp3

d

 dog

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA104.mp3

e

 let

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA302.mp3

3

 burn

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA419ex1.mp3

f

 fall

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA128.mp3

g

 go

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA110.mp3

h

 help

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA140.mp3

i

 it

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA319.mp3

j

 french 'je'

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA135.mp3

k

 cat

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA109.mp3

l

 love

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA155.mp3

m

 meat

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA114.mp3

n

 no

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA116.mp3

6

 spring

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA119.mp3

o

 hope

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA307.mp3

p

 pull

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA101.mp3

q

 again

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA322.mp3

r

 trilled r

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA122.mp3

2

 red

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA151.mp3

s

 sit

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA132.mp3

t

 top

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA103.mp3

u

 do

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA308.mp3

v

 love

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA129.mp3

w

 we

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA170.mp3

x

 then

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA130.mp3

y

 you

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA153.mp3

z

 zoo

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA133.mp3

]

 dental click

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA177.mp3

[

 alveolar lateral click

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA180.mp3

'

 

forms 'ejectives', such as:
k'
http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA109p401.mp3
p'
http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA101p401.mp3
t' http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA103p401.mp3

ai

 fight

 

au

 house

 

ei

 mate

 

ii

 eat

http://www.ling.hf.ntnu.no/ipa/full/snd/IPA301.mp3

oi

 boy

 

ui

 buoy

 




changes/cenj

N/A






 



cenj - changes

Morphology

key:

|           "or"
+          "and"
[ ]         "optional or special circumstances"
"..."       "actual letter"   

symbol

explanation

c

single consonant, either
unvoiced: p, t, k, f, c, s, h
voiced: b, d, g, v, j, z, x
restricted: l, r, m, n, 6, 2

cc

an acceptable consonant pair; two adjacent consonants, any of the following:

in initial position:
voiced | unvoiced ejective + voiced | restricted | liquid-consonant
unvoiced + unvoiced | restricted | liquid-consonant
restricted + liquid-consonant

in final position:
voiced + voiced | restricted
unvoiced + unvoiced | restricted | liquid-consonant
restricted + voiced | unvoiced | unvoiced ejective | click

forbidden pairs: cs, sc, jz, zj, ch, hc, hk, kh, mz, xd, dx, or double consonants (i.e., jj)

ccc

an acceptable consonant trio; three adjacent consonants,

in initial position:
voiced + voiced + restricted | liquid-consonant
unvoiced + unvoiced | unvoiced ejective + restricted | voiced | liquid-consonant
            (first two may not be a forbidden pair)

in final position:
voiced + unvoiced + unvoiced | unvoiced ejective | restricted
restricted + unvoiced + unvoiced | unvoiced ejective | restricted
unvoiced + unvoiced + unvoiced | unvoiced ejective | restricted
            (last two may not be a forbidden pair)

L

liquid-consonant: y, w

R

restricted consonant,

may act as an initial or final single consonant
may act as first consonant in a final cc style='font-family: Arial;color:black'> or ccc consonant cluster or as the second consonant in an initial cc consonant cluster
(except 6 which may only act as an initial single consonant, a final single consonant or as the first consonant in a final cc or ccc consonant cluster)

restricted consonants: l, m, n, r, 6, 2

K

'click' consonant, may only act in final single consonant position

v

single vowel: a, e, i, o, u, q, 3

vv

vowel diphthong: ai, au, ei, eu, ii, iu, oi, ui, qi

 

Morphology rules do NOT apply to Names

(see section on Names)

changes/cenj

N/A








cenj - changes

Word Classes

Lojsk utilizes three classes of words:

key:

|           "or"
+          "and"
[ ]         "optional or special circumstances"
"..."       "actual letter"   

cmen    

proper names of persons, animals, places or things

this group may take on any morphology.

kfeirt    

the core vocabulary of Lojsk. This category includes all (of what other languages would define as...) nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs.

this group (excepting numerical kfeirt) has the following morphological structure:

c|cc|ccc + v|vv + c|cc|ccc

numerical kfeirt have the following morphological structure (see section on Numbers):

c|cc|ccc + [L] + v|vv + ["2"] + c|cc|ccc

grar    

the grammatical markers of the language, holding it together and stringing together concepts to form logical phrases and sub-phrases.

this group has the following 'base' morphological structure (see section on Grar):

c|cc|ccc + [L|"r"] + v|vv

Using the symbols (c) to identify cmen, (k) to identify kfeirt, and (g) to identify grar, let us examine the following example: 

Mark eats the apple.

:a manj le ii.'ma2k.ii xe pom q:

 :a(g) manj(k) le(g) ii.'ma2k.ii(c) xe(g) pom(k) q:

Note the cmen in the phrase: 

ii.'ma2k.ii (Mark)

This is the proper name of this phrase's jba6k vi le6 or 'executive' or 'subject'.

Note the kfeirt of the phrase:

manj (eat)

pom (apple)

These two words, and the cmen, give us the core concepts of the phrase. Their actual functions are defined by their respective grar

The grar of the phrase:

a     (denotes the fanc or 'function', 'verb', 'action-in-focus', or 'state-in-focus' of the phrase)

le     ('le' denotes the jba6k vi le6 or 'executive'/'initiator'/'subject' of the activity)

xe     ('xe' denotes the jba6k vi bek or 'object' or 'recipient' of the activity)

These three words give us the 'structure' of the phrase. They are the 'string' that holds the phrase together in a logical manner.

The following sections expand on the various word types.

kfeirt / keywords

grar / grammatical markers

cmen / names




changes/cenj

N/A








cenj - changes

Word Classes: Keywords / kfeirt

Kfeirt or Keywords are the core vocabulary of Lojsk. This category includes all nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. Kfeirt may be categorized into three groups based on their function within a phrase or sub-phrase. These functions are defined by the kfeirt’s respective Grammatical Marker (GRAR).

Kfeirt are broken down into three basic types:


fanc the ‘function’, ‘verb’, ‘action-in-focus’, or ‘state-in-focus’ of the phrase
jba6k the ‘arguments’ of the fanc
tcait the ‘properties’ or ‘states’ of a jba6k, or of a ‘parent’/’higher order’ tcait


Using the symbols (f) to identify
fanc, (j) to identify jba6k, and (t) to identify tcait, let us examine the following example:

The boy eats a very red apple.
:a manj le botc xe pom vi xun kfo gal q:
:a manj(f) le botc(j) xe pom(j) vi xun(t) kfo gal(t) q:


The
fanc of the example is:

a manj (eat)
The fanc is identified by the grar vi fanc or the ‘function marker’. The grar vi fanc ends in “_a” or “._a” (where ‘_’ is the appropriate grar beginning). (Note: those grar vi fanc that end in “._a” identify fanc vi dam or ‘low functions’. These are the functions of sub-ordinate clauses, or sub-phrases, and thus the manner of creating a sub-ordinate clause or sub-phrase. The fanc of the main clause or main phrase is thus officially labeled the fanc vi gal or ‘high function’. See the section titled “Subordinate Clauses / Subordinate Phrases”)

The jba6k of the example are:

le botc (the boy, where the boy is identified as the ‘executive’ or ‘subject’ of the phrase)

and

xe pom (the apple, where the apple is identified as the ‘object’ or ‘recipient’ of the phrase)
The jba6k are identified by their respective grar vi jba6k or ‘argument markers’. The grar vi jba6k ends in “e”. (Note: as discussed above, sub-ordinate clauses or sub-phrases are created by introducing a fanc vi dam. This is accomplished by adding “._a” to a grar (where ‘_’ is the appropriate grar beginning). This is most commonly done on grar vi jba6k. Thus you should expect to see grar vi jba6k that end in “e.a”. Meaning, of course, that the sub-ordinate clause / sub-phrase is acting as the jba6k.)

The tcait of the example are:

vi xun (red, where red is identified as a ‘restricting’ or ‘modifying’ property of the apple)

and

kfo gal (high, where high is identified as the degree of red of the apple)
The tcait are identified by their respective grar vi tcait or ‘property markers’. There are ten degrees of tcait. ‘First degree’ tcait are properties of a jba6k, ‘second degree’ tcait are ‘fine tuning’ properties of a ‘first degree’ tcait, ‘third degree’ tcait ‘fine tune’ second degree tcait, and so on. See the grar / grammatical markers section for all the grar endings.

The following sections expand on the various word types.

kfeirt / keywords

grar / grammatical markers

cmen / names



changes/cenj

N/A







cenj - changes

Word Classes: Grammatical Markers / grar

Grar or Grammatical Markers in Lojsk serve an extremely vital role in proper functioning of the language. They not only denote the function of the keywords, they mark the beginning and ending of phrases and sub-phrases, and serve in the capacity that prepositions (and copulas) serve in other languages.

The morphology of a Grar consists of three parts, and has the following structure:

c|cc|ccc + [S|"r"] + v|vv

The three parts can be defined as follows:

symbols

purpose

definition

c|cc|ccc

vocation

initial consonant or consonant cluster demonstrate grar's area of grammatical vocation

 

[L|"r"]

transit direction

Liquid-consonants (y, w) or the "r" show transit direction relative to the kfiert the grar modifies

y - initial, 'from'
w - final, 'to'
r - intermediate, 'via'

v|vv

hierarchy

final vowel or vowel cluster demonstrate grar's hierarchical position in the phrase

 

Grammatical Marker Beginnings

Base

Main Vocation

Sub Vocation

English Equivalents

Definition

Examples

s

affirmation

 

yes

affirming the previous statement when used with '_a.q'.

:sa.q: :a raid le hih xe buk q:

 

Yes, he reads the book.

 

:sa.q:

 

Yes.

d

association

passive, temporary (or near temporary) possession

my, your, 's

possessor of a thing

:a zut le hih tce c3s di mih q:

 

He sits in my chair.

dj

association

component

 my, your, 's

concept of which a focused thing is a part, component or characteristic

:a seis le herf dji mih ste gris q:

 

My hair is gray.

dv

association

active

of

thing/state/attribute/event actively associated with another thing/state/attribute/event

:a turk le mih xve frem dvi ii.'ma2k.ii q:

 

I work with the friend of Mark.

dw

association

ownership, permanent (or near permanent) possession

my, your, 's

owner of a thing

:a raid le xih xe buk dwi mih q:

 

They read my book.

dy

association

origin

by, from

thing/event whose activity is the cause of origin of an object or event or state

:a raid le mih xe buk dyi ii.'an_rais.ii q:

 

I read the book by Anne Rice.

zb

condition

conditioned

thus, so

conclusion

:a seis le hih xe spen dvi cih zbe.a seis le cih xe spen dvi hih 'q:

 

He is her spouse, thus she is his spouse.

zbw

condition

conditioned

next-in-sequence

then

combination of 'zb' and 'w' bases, meaning 'conditioned next-in-sequence'

:zbwa dzo2 le mih zve.a seis ste criin le liit 'q:

 

I [will] walk if the light is green.

zmw

condition

conditioned

alternate

next-in-sequence

otherwise, else

conditioned alternate next-in-sequence

 

else if = 'zmwe.zva'

:zva cauv le hfet zbwe.a godz le mih xre tren q, zmwe.a dzo2 le mih 'q:

 

If it rains, (then) I will go home via the train, otherwise (else) I will walk. 

zv

condition

conditioning

if

event or state which conditions another event or state

:zva seis ste criin le liit zbwe.a dzo2 le mih 'q:

 

I [will] walk if the light is green.

cf

state

equivalent

this is,

that

an equivalent concept, used also in the form 'cfe', or 'cfe.a' on diagrams or in clipped speak or declarations (to mean 'this is')

 

used in the form 'cfi.a' to create a 'generic' subordinate phrase (to mean 'that')

:a tav le mih ve lojsk cfi len vo loj q:

 

I speak Lojsk, the logical language.

 

:cfe pom:

 

(This is an) apple.

 

:a manj le botc xe pom cfi.a sitc tle ken tce lol 'q:

 

The boy eats the apple that was on the floor.

cm

state

label, proper name

this is,

that

name or label of a thing or event (see CMEN)

 

used also in the form 'cma' or 'cme' in clipped speak or introductions (to mean 'this is')

:a tav le mih xve botc cmi 'ta,mas.ii q:

 

I speak with the boy named Thomas.

 

:cma [a,ri,'an,o] le mick q:

 

I [am; my name is] Ariano.

 

:cme ['ma2k]:

 

(This is) Mark.

 

h

command

computer do

do

agent is the machine

:ha dyel q:

 

Delete previous (character).

hn

command

computer do not

don't

agent is the machine

:hna madz xe h'pelj q:

 

Do not load (internet) page.

hr

command

computer redo

redo

agent is the machine

:hra.q:

 

Redo

hy

command

computer undo

undo

agent is the machine

:hya.q:

 

Undo (last command).

hs

command

computer stop/arrest

stop, terminate

agent is the machine

:hsa madz xe h'pelj q:

 

Stop loading the (internet) page.

g

imperative

do

do

agent is implied to be audience

 

politeness, inferred from tone and manner of speaking

:ga raid xe buk q:

 

Read the book.

 

:ga.q:

 

Go Do

gn

imperative

do not

don't

agent is implied to be audience

 

politeness, inferred from tone and manner of speaking

:gna raid xe buk q:

 

Don't read the book

gr

imperative

redo

redo

agent is implied to be audience

 

politeness, inferred from tone and manner of speaking

:gra raid xe ptratc ri le6k q:

 

Re-read the chapter on electricity.

gy

imperative

undo

undo...

agent is implied to be audience

 

politeness, inferred from tone and manner of speaking

:gya baind xe mih q:

 

Un-bind me

gz

imperative

stop/arrest

stop..., terminate...

agent is implied to be audience

 

politeness, inferred from tone and manner of speaking

!gza manj xe pom q! :a seis le lih ste ven q:

 

Stop eating the apple! It's poisoned.

c

interrogative

 

what..? did..?

derived from the 'cuh' kfeirt; used to ask a yes/no question when in the 'grar di fanc' position (at beginning of phrase); may also be used to question specific elements of a statement when used as part of a grar vi luj (complex grammatical marker)

?ca raid le vih xe buk q?

 

Are you reading the book?

 

?a raid le mih x.ce buk q?

 

Is the thing I'm reading a book?

 

?ca.q?

 

What?

pc

Invitation

request grant

let's, let us

if no agent is explicitly identified then it is implied to be audience and speaker [vmih]

:pca raid xe buk q:

 

Let us read the book.

pn

invitation

grant not

you may not, he may not

refuse consent to do

:pna kran le vih xe ka2c q:

 

You may not drive the car.

ps

invitation

positive grant

you may, he may

give consent to do

:psa kran le vih xe ka2c q:

 

You may drive the car.

j

junction

conjunction

additional

and

NOTE: this grar must immediately follow after the first item to denote "and".

 

When acting as a conjunction between two separate phrases it may take the forms "ja.q", "je.a"

:a vis le mih xe botc je nil q:

 

I see a boy and a girl.

 

:a bait le mih xe gom je.a dzo2 te moc ksi mit 'q:

 

I chew gum and walk at the same time.

jm

junction

conjunction

optional

and either

NOTE: this grar must immediately follow after the first item to denote "and either".

 

When acting as a conjunction between two separate phrases it may take the forms "jma.q", "jme.a"

:a vis le mih xe botc jme nil me fem q:

 

I see a boy and either a girl or a woman.

w

junction

conjunction

next in sequence

[and] then

NOTE: this grar must immediately follow after the first item to denote "and then".

 

When acting as a conjunction between two separate phrases it may take the forms "wa.q", "we.a"

:a godz le mih tcwe has we.a tcwe pa2k 'q:

 

I go to the house, and then to the park.

y

junction

conjunction

previous in sequence

after

NOTE: this grar must immediately follow after the first item to denote "after".

 

When acting as a conjunction between two separate phrases it may take the forms "ya.q", "ye.a"

:a godz le mih tcwe has ye.a tcwe pa2k 'q:

 

I go to the house after [I go to] the park.

m

junction

disjunction

alternative

or

NOTE: this grar must immediately follow after the first item to denote mutual exclusivity.

 

When acting as a disjunction between two separate phrases it may take the forms "ma.q", "me.a"

:a manj le mih xe pom me no2j q:

 

I eat the apple or the orange.

 

:a lik me.a bait le mih xe pom 'q:

 

I lick or bite the apple.

 

:a godz le mih tcwe has me.a kran xe ka2c 'q:

 

I go to the house, or I drive the car.

v

Modification

modification restricting attribute manner

method

type, that is..., of which..., how, using, with, by

thing/state/attribute which restricts the meaning/definition of a focused thing/event/state/attribute (a defining/identifying characteristic)

:a raid le mih xe buk vi xun q:

 

I read the red book.

 

:a dzo2 ve kruk le mih tcwe has q:

 

I walk quickly to the house.

 

:a godz le mih tcwe has ve.a dzo2 le mih 'q:

 

I go home by means of walking.

 

?va.q?

 

How? What type?

n

negation

contradiction

exclusion (XOR)

no

and not, and not

contradicting a previous statement when used with '_a.q'.

 

negates an element when used in a simple or complex grar structure.

 

See section on Combining Grar Beginnings.

 

NOTE: this grar must immediately follow after the first item when used to denote exclusion.

:na.q: :a raid le xih xe buk q:

 

No, he is reading the book.

 

:na raid le xih xe buk q:

 

He isn't reading the book.

 

:a raid l.ne xih xe buk q:

 

It isn't HE that reads the book.

 

:a vis le mih xe botc ne nil q:

 

I see the boy but not the girl.

kc

number

accuracy

about, circa

the degree of accuracy

:a pos le mih xe rand vi dat ki cwat kco jiix q:

 

I have approximately three hundred data discs (CDs).

k

number

static

quantity, cardinal number

 

proportion, rate, distribution, per a

quantity of a thing or unit

 

basis or unit of proportion, rate or distribution (when used in combination with Time/Via 'tr-')

:a manj le mih xe pom ki twan q:

 

I eat the two apples.

 

:a manj le mih xe pom ki twan tre ho2t ko cwan q:

 

I eat two apples in three hours.

kf

number

degree

like, as

degree expressing similarity or difference

:a seis le mih ste feih kfe dun kfe g3k q:

 

I'm as ugly as the dog.

kfy

number

basis, comparison

as, like, in comparison to

thing/state/attribute used as a basis for expressing degree, and is also an important element of mathematical expressions

:a seis le mih ste feih kfe dun kfye g3k q:

 

I am as ugly as the dog.

ks

number

order or rank of position, state, quality, importance

first, second, etc.

ordinal state of a thing/event/state

:a raid le mih xe buk ksi mwan q:

 

I read the fifth book.

kt

number

occurrence

once, twice

number of times an event occurs

:a raid le mih xe buk kte twan q:

 

I read the book twice.

kw

number

final

to

final quantity of a thing or unit

:a muv le hih xe vrag kye twan kwe xwan q:

 

He moves the lever from two to six.

ky

number

initial

from

initial quantity of a thing or unit

:a muv le hih xe vrag kye twan kwe xwan q:

 

He moves the lever from two to six.

x

object

passive

 

object that is a passive participant in the event/state/value

:a raid le mih xe buk q:

 

I read the book.

xb

object

purpose/reason

to (do), for, because

purpose or reason of an event or agent of an event or a purpose of a thing which exists

:a godz le mih tcwe res pe.a manj 'q:

 

I go to the restaurant to eat.

xg

object

quote

 

He said (that)...  

(use xge.a ... 'xgq)

 

He said, "..."

(use xge ... xgq)

:a cuts tle kqn le hih xge.a godz tcwe has di ii.'ma2k.ii 'xgq:

 

He said he is going to Mark's house.

xr

object

instrument (tool)

with, using

concrete instrument to carry out an event (or establish a state)

:a manj le mih xe stas xre sput q:

 

I eat the soup with the spoon.

xv

object

active

with

object that is an active participant in the event/state/value

:a kamd le mih xve ii.'ma2k.ii q:

 

I fight with Mark.

xw

object

final

to

object toward which the activity is indirectly directed

:a raid le mih xe buk xwe ii.'ma2k.ii q:

 

I read the book to Mark.

xz

object

beneficiary

for

indirect related beneficiary of an event or state

:a dons le mih xe din xbe tceirt q:

 

I give money for the charity.

tc

place

static

at, on, in

place an event occurs or a state is true or a thing exists

:a valt le kat tce xaf dji tab q:

 

The cat jumps [while] on (not onto) the table.

tcr

place

via

via, through, by

intermediate place of an event

:a dzo2 le mih tcwe has tcre tuln q:

 

I walk to the house via the tunnel.

tcw

place

final

to

place an event ends or a state becomes false, destination of a thing

:a valt le kat tcwe xaf dji tab q:

 

The cat jumps onto the table top.

tcy

place

initial

from, of

place an event starts or a state becomes true, origin of a thing

:a valt le kat tcye xaf dji tab q:

 

The cat jumps from the table top.

ts

scene

static

in, on

virtual/metaphysical/abstract world/scene where an event occurs or state is true or a thing exists

:a seis le mih ste feih tse fot q:

 

I'm ugly in the photograph.

tsr

scene

via

via, through

via virtual / metaphysical / abstract world / scene where an event occurs or state is true or a thing exists

:a godz le hih tswe kinz tsre xreit q:

 

He goes to movies via the theatre.

tsw

scene

final

in, on, to

final virtual / metaphysical / abstract world / scene where an event occurs or state is true or a thing exists

:a godz le hih tsye tiv tswe kinz q:

 

He goes from television to movies.

tsy

scene

initial

in, on, from

initial virtual / metaphysical / abstract world / scene where an event occurs or state is true or a thing exists

:a godz le hih tsye tiv tswe kinz q:

 

He goes from television to movies.

st

state

static

 is

state/attribute/value of an object or event

:a seis le liit ste criin q:

 

The light is green.

 

:sta criin q:

 

[It] is green.

 

:sta.q: :ma.q: :st.na.q:

 

[To] be. Or, not [to] be.

str

state

via

 

intermediate state/attribute/value of an object or event

:a tceinj le liit stye criin stwe xun stre pel q:

 

The light changed from green [to] yellow to red.

stw

state

final

to

final state/attribute/value of an object or event

:a tceinj le liit stye criin stwe xun q:

 

The light changed from green to red.

sty

state

initial

from

initial state/attribute/value of an object or event

:a tceinj le liit stye criin stwe xun q:

 

The light changed from green to red.

l

subject

 

 

agent/executive/subject/thing with attribute

:a manj le mih q:

 

I eat.

t

time

static

at, when

time an event occurs or state is true

:a dzo2 le mih tcwe has te nict q:

 

I walk to the house at night.

tl

time

relative time

temporal aspect

[future, present, past]

"tense" of the function, denotes time of the function with respect to the speaker and point of the event on which the speaker is focused (used with 'temporal aspect' kfeirt)

:a dzo2 tle ten le mih tcwe has di mih q:

 

I will soon walk to my house.

tr

time

via

during, for

period of time during which an event occurs or a state exists as true

:a dzo2 le mih tre hort ki tyan q:

 

I walk for two hours.

tw

time

final

until, to

time an event ends or a state becomes false

:a dzo2 le mih twe.a tair tle tqf le mih 'q:

 

I walk until I become tired.

ty

time

initial

at, when, since

time an event starts or a state becomes true

:a dzo2 le mih tcwe has tye.a mul le mih xe.a raid xe buk 'q:

 

I [will] walk to the house when I finish reading the book.

r

topic

 

about, concerning, with respect to

topic of the event/state/thing

:a raid le mih xe buk ri len cmo 'lojsk.ii q:

 

I read the book about a language called Lojsk.

 

The following sections expand on grar and various uses.

Grammatical Marker Endings / Tags

Language Specific Exit and Re-entry Grar

Combining Grar Beginnings




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22 dec/December 2003, 12:02

-corrected object/origin xy_ to association/origin dy_

18 jun/June 2003, 18:02

-corrected a number of mistakes concerning simple commands and statements. ALL phrases in lojsk must begin with a function grar (_.a) and end in an ending grar (_q). Thus, the lojsk equivalent of 'Do!' is '!ga.q!'; and so on.








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Grammatical Marker Endings / tcit vi grar

 

Grammatical Marker Endings / Tags (simple)

_a   

beginning of phrase, function / fanc vi gal

_.a, _._a 

beginning of a sub-phrase / fanc vi dam

_e

argument / jba6k

_i   

first level tcait

_o   

second level tcait

_u   

third level tcait

_ai   

forth level tcait

_ei   

fifth level tcait

_oi   

sixth level tcait

_ui   

seventh level tcait

_au   

eighth level tcait

_eu   

ninth level tcait

_iu   

tenth level tcait




Grammatical Marker Endings / Tags (complex)  

_e._a  

beginning of a sub-phrase or sub-ordinate clause that is a jba6k (argument) of the fanc vi gal (main phrase's function)

_i._a   

beginning of a sub-phrase or sub-ordinate clause that is a tcait (property) of a jba6k (argument)

_o._a   

beginning of a sub-phrase or sub-ordinate clause that is a 'second level' tcait (property) or a 'first level' tcait (property)

...

and so on



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Word Classes: Grammatical Markers/ grar

Language specific Exit and Re-Entry Command Grar

These grar allow the speaker to exit Lojsk and enter (begin to speak in) a specific language. Used primarily for dictation, quotes, or native names/titles.

Language

Grar

English

ii6c...ii6c (ii6c.My name is Ari.ii6c)

French

iif...iif (iif.Je m'appelle Ari.iif)

German

iid...iid

Spanish

iis...iis

Gaelic

iigl...iigl

Norwegian

iinj...iinj

Finnish

iism...iism

Swedish

iisf...iisf

Portugese

iip...iip

Dutch

iidz...iidz

Danish

iitsk...iitsk

Polish

iipc...iipc

Czech

iitc...iitc

Slovak

iisl...iisl

Italian

iit...iit

Basque

iizg...iizg

Catalon

iikt...iikt

Hungarian

iimg...iimg

Croat

iikr...iikr

Serb

iispr...iispr

Albanian

iick...iick

Greek

iilz...iilz

Bulgarian

iibl...iibl

Romanian

iirm...iirm

Russian

iir...iir

Georgian

iiskl...iiskl

Icelandic

iic...iic

Latin

iil...iil

Ukranian

iikr...iikr

Latvian

iilt...iilt

Lithuanian

iilx...iilx

Estonian

iist...iist

Turkish

iit'...iit'

Arabic

iib...iib

Ethiopian

iix...iix

Swahili

iis'...iis'

Hindi

iih'...iih'

Thai

iith...iith

Malay

iim'...iim'

Mandarin

iits...iits

Cantonese

iits'...iits'

Japanese

iinp...iinp

Korean

iik'...iik'

Vietnamese

iiv...iiv

Esperanto

iisp...iisp

Lojban

iilj...iilj

Loglan

iilg...iilg

 




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Word Classes: Grammatical Markers/ grar

Combining Grar Beginnings

There are certain times when it becomes necessary to utilize the meaning of two (or more) grar beginnings. In these cases we must fuse or combine the grar beginnings. It is usually understood that the first grar beginning is 'enhanced' or modified by the second (and so on). Take the following example:

ex1[ENG]:        Mark is not quick.

ex1[LOJ]:         :a seis le ii.'ma2k.ii st.ne kruk q:

The combined grar beginnings are demonstrated with 'st.n_'. The '_.n_' construct contradicts the preceding grar beginning.

The following examples show us how combining grar beginnings provides for more precise communication.

ex2[ENG]:        Is Mark fast?

ex2a[LOJ]:       ?ca seis le ii.'ma2k.ii ste kruk q?

ex2b[LOJ]:       ?a seis le ii.'ma2k.ii st.ce kruk q?

ex2c[LOJ]:       ?a seis l.ce ii.'ma2k.ii ste kruk q?

These examples show how to question only parts of a statement or phrase. In English, as in most languages, this is accomplished by altering the tone or pitch of the phrase to focus attention on a particular component of the phrase. The first Lojsk example questions the entire concept of Mark being fast. The second questions only the 'fast-ness' of Mark. The third questions whether it's Mark that is fast.

Please note: the period between the grar beginnings is a full and complete stop in speech.



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Word Classes: Names / cmen

Names in Lojsk are outside the standard language. They represent labels applied to persons, places or things. Lojsk provides for minimal modification of names' pronunciation by 'exiting' and 're-entering' Lojsk through special grar and kfeirt structures. Take the following examples: 

ex1[ENG]:      Thomas has the dog. 

ex1[LOJ]:       :a pos le ii.'ta,mas.ii xe g3k q:

 

ex2[ENG]:      The dog named Harvey bites the boy named John.

ex2[ENG]:      :a bait le g3k cmi 'ha2,vii.ii xe botc cmi 'djan.ii q:

 

ex3[ENG]:      Mr. Boyles teaches French at the university.

ex3[ENG]:      :a ditc xe len vi ii.'frants.ii le tlan 'boils.ii tce sem q:

The names are preserved with their original pronunciations. Capitalization is used to denote the 'stressed' syllables. Comma marks are used to denote the boundary of syllables (where appropriate), and represent a pause in speech. (It should be noted also, that periods are used in the first example above when we 'exited' Lojsk with "ii." and when we 're-entered' Lojsk with ".ii".) 

Thus the three constructions available to denote names are: 

ii.NAME.ii

cm_ NAME.ii

tlan NAME.ii

The first construct is more properly translated as just 'NAME'. The second construct should be translated '... properly named NAME'. The third should be translated as 'Mr./Mrs./Ms./Madame/Senior/etc. NAME'.

For names emanating from languages that utilize tones, the following symbols may be used instead of the comma between (and before) syllables: 

Tone Type   

Symbol

(English, Lojsk names)

High Even Tone   

-

(hyphen, haif)

Rising Tone   

/

(forward slash, slac)

Down-Up Tone   

<

(open angle bracket, bra6k)

Falling Tone   

\

(back slash, sluc)

Up-Down Tone   

>

(close angle bracket, bru6k)

Low Even Tone   

_

(underscore, huif)

 




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Basic Grammar

Lojsk grammar is extremely simple. The basic unit of communication is a fraz (a phrase or sentence). A 'well formed' fraz begins with a grar vi tiin dji fraz (a phrase 'beginning' grar) which you can identify because it ends in the vowel "a". The 'well formed' fraz terminates with a grar vi kiin dji fraz (a phrase 'ending' grar), which you can identify because it begins in the vowel "q". Lojsk is based on Predicate Logic. Thus the 'well formed' fraz consists of a fanc (a function), and a number of supporting jba6k (arguments), along with their respective grar (grammatical markers) that designate their relationships within the fraz

Let us example the following example of a simple fraz

ex1[ENG]:      I walk to the house.

ex1[LOJ]:       :a dzo2 le mih tcwe has q:

This simple phrase is formed from one function, and two arguments.

Utilizing the symbols (f) for function and (ar) for argument, we can identity them in the phrase: 

:a dzo2(f) le mih(ar) tcwe has(ar) q:

Note the function in the phrase: 

dzo2 (motion by means of one's limbs)

This is the function of the phrase. It communicates the main activity being undertaken, and 'in focus'. The function is ALWAYS the first keyword of a phrase.

Note the arguments of the phrase:

mih (first person singular pronoun, me, I)

has (house, domicile, structure whose primary purpose is as a domicile)

These two words are the arguments of the "dzo2" function word. Arguments restrict the meaning of the function by supplying such things as the initiator of the activity, the recipient of the activity, the place the initiator started from, the place the initiator ended up at the end of the activity, the time the activity took place, or even if the activity spanned a period of time. 

The order of arguments is not restricted in Lojsk, and no special constructs or words are necessary if they happen to be rendered in an 'unconventional' order. Typically, arguments are arranged with the 'executive' or 'subject' argument first, followed by the 'object' or 'recipient' argument and then other arguments are added as needed. 

Some constructed languages utilize a SVO system of symbols to illustrate syntax rules. If we loosely apply this convention to Lojsk, the typical syntax of a simple 'well formed' phrase would be:
V S O
where V represents the 'verb' (or function in Lojsk), S represents the 'subject', and O represents the 'object'.

The grammatical markers (grar) of the phrase:

a

The phrase's beginning grar performs two very important duties. First, it marks the beginning of the phrase. When it appears attached to another grammatical marker in a phrase (the construct is usually '_e._a' or '_i._a', where "_" represents an appropriate grar beginning), it marks the beginning of a sub-phrase, or sub-ordinate clause. Being that the first keyword in any phrase is ALWAYS a function, the 'a' grammatical marker also announces the position of the function.

le    

If we split this grar into its components we have 'l' and 'e'. The 'e' tells us that this grar proceeds and announces an argument of the function. The 'l' tells us that this argument is actually the 'executive'/'initiator' argument or more commonly known, the 'subject' of the phrase.

tcwe     

If we split this grar into its components we have 'tcw' and 'e'. The 'e' tells us that this grar proceeds and announces an argument of the function. The 'tcw' tells us that this argument is actually the 'final position/place' with respect to the action in this phrase. (Basically it says "(going/moving) TO...")

q     (q in Lojsk is pronounced as the first 'a' in 'again')

The phrase's ending grar marks the ending of the phrase. When it appears attached to a grar in a phrase (the construct is usually 'q._e' or 'q._i', where "_" represents an appropriate grar beginning), it marks the ending of a sub-phrase, or sub-ordinate clause. This grar often omitted at the end of simple phrases, although it is encouraged to include it. It MUST ALWAYS be included when denoting the end of a sub-phrase or sub-ordinate clause. (''q' is used when closing ALL sub-phrases together. It is used at the end of statement containing two or more nested sub-phrases. Otherwise, statements could and would end with 'q.q:' or even 'q.q.q:' structures. The ''q' is STRONGLY pronounced.)

    These four words give us the 'structure' of the phrase. They are the 'string' that holds the phrase together in a logical manner.

 



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Questions

There are two basic ways of asking questions in Lojsk. Questions using the Interrogative ‘c_’ grar or questions utilizing the kfeirtcuh’ to take the position of that which is in question.
The following examples show various questions:

ex1[ENG]:      Mark eats what?

ex1[LOJ]:      ?a manj le ii.’ma2k.ii xe cuh q?

 

ex2[ENG]:      Mark eats an apple?

ex2[LOJ]:      ?ca manj le ii.’ma2k.ii xe pom q?

 

ex3[ENG]:      Mark eats an apple?

ex3[LOJ]:      ?a manj le ii.’ma2k.ii x.ce pom q?

 

In the first example the kfeirtcuh’ is used in the place of that thing we are asking about. Here ‘cuh’ is used to question what Mark is eating.
In the second example the grarc_’ is used on the function’s grammatical marker to question whether or not Mark is eating an apple.
In the third example the grarc_’ is used on the apple’s grammatical marker (in the form of a complex grar) to question if the apple was in fact what Mark was eating. This question does not ask whether Mark was eating, just whether he was eating an apple.



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Subordinate Clauses

Subordinate clauses and subordinate phrases in Lojsk are created by "fusing" an argument marker [grar vi jba6k = _e] or a property marker [grar vi tcait = _i] with a function marker [grar vi fanc = a]. A period punctuation mark is used to separate the markers and thus a full short vocal stop is inserted between them.

The following examples show subordinate clause and subordinate phrases in various positions: 

ex1[ENG]:      The boy wearing the blue hat walks to the house. 

ex1[LOJ]:       :a dzo2 le botc vi.a das xe kap vi blan q.tcwe has q:

 

ex2[ENG]:      I eat an apple after I washed my hands. 

ex2[LOJ]:       :a manj le mih xe pom ye.a ban xe xand dji mih 'q:

As noted in the previous section discussing Grar, the "q" grar marks the ending of the phrase. When it appears attached to a grar in a phrase (the construct is usually "q._e" or "q._i", where "_" represents an appropriate grar beginning), it marks the ending of a sub-phrase, or sub-ordinate clause. This grar often omitted at the end of simple phrases, although it is encouraged to include it. It MUST ALWAYS be included when denoting the end of a sub-phrase or sub-ordinate clause. ( "'q" is used when closing ALL sub-phrases together. It is used at the end of statement containing two or more nested sub-phrases. Otherwise, statements could and would end with "q.q:" or even "q.q.q:" structures. The "'q" is STRONGLY pronounced.)



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Conditional Statements

Conditional statements in Lojsk can be put into two categories; simple and complex.

Simple Conditional statements are comprised of at least two distinct sub-phrases. A Conditioning sub-phrase and a Conditioned ‘Next-in-Sequence’ sub-phrase. Take the following example:

ex1[ENG]:      If it rains, (then) I will go by train.

ex1[LOJ]:     
:zva cauv le hfet zbwe.a godz le mih xre tren ‘q:

zva cauv le hfet
The Conditioning sub-phrase. It sets the condition, “if it rains” (lit. “if the weather rains”).
The sub-phrase begins with the grar vi raz (the Conditioning grar) “zva”, to mark the sub-phrase as ‘controlling’ or ‘conditioning’.
zbwe.a godz le mih xre tren
The Conditioned sub-phrase, describing what occurs when the Conditioning sub-phrase proves true, “I will go by train” (lit. “I go using the train”).
The sub-phrase begins with the grar vi nedz vo raz (the Next-in-Sequence Conditioned grar) “zbwe.a”, to mark it as ‘conditioned’ and ‘next-in-sequence’.


Complex Conditional statements are comprised of at least three distinct sub-phrases. A Conditioning sub-phrase, a Conditioned ‘Next-in-Sequence’ sub-phrase, and a Conditioned ‘Alternate-Next-in-Sequence’ sub-phrase (and/or a Conditioned 'Alternate-Next-in-Sequence Conditioning' sub-phrase [zmwe.a]). Take the following example:

ex2[ENG]:      If it rains, (then) I will go home via the train, otherwise (else) I will walk.

ex2[LOJ]:      :zva cauv le hfet zbwe.a godz le mih xre tren q.zmwe.a dzo2 le mih ‘q:

zva cauv le hfet
The Conditioning sub-phrase. It sets the condition, “if it rains” (lit. “if the weather rains”).
The sub-phrase begins with the grar vi raz (the Conditioning grar) “zva”, to mark the sub-phrase as ‘controlling’ or ‘conditioning’.
zbwe.a godz le mih xre tren
The Conditioned sub-phrase, describing what occurs when the Conditioning sub-phrase proves TRUE, “I will go by train” (lit. “I go using the train”). (note: future tense is implied in context)
The sub-phrase begins with the grar vi nedz vo raz (the Next-in-Sequence Conditioned grar) “zbwe.a”, to mark it as ‘next-in-sequence’.
zmwe.a dzo2 le mih
The Conditioned sub-phrase, describing what alternately occurs when the Conditioning sub-phrase proves FALSE, “I will walk” (lit. “I walk”). (note: future tense is implied in context)
The sub-phrase begins with the grar vi nedz vo dox (the Alternative-Next-in-Sequence grar) “zme.a”, to mark it as ‘otherwise, next-in-sequence’.



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Spacial and Temporal Kfeirt

Kfeirt defining 3D spacial and 2D temporal aspects (3D2D AKs) are constructed from a set of symbols representing different 'positions'. This construction methodology allows for extremely descriptive and extremely 'regular' Kfeirt.

Symbol Table

Spacial

Temporal

Symbol

Symbol Position

left

 

t

1

right

 

c

1

horizontal center, middle

 

tc

1

around

 

r

2

front, forward

future

w

2

rear, behind

past

y

2

Not t,k,c,s OR r - general

present

x

2

out

general

q

3

far out

distant

u

3

near out

near

o

3

exterior surface

immediate

oi

3

interior surface

 

ii

3

interior space

 

i

3

between, center

 

e

3

Not in, out OR btwn (all)

always

a

3

up

initiation

s

4

down

terminal

f

4

vertical center, middle

in process

fs

4

Not up OR down

whole

h

4

 

repeating

k'

5

3D2D AKs have the following structure:

(1)(2)34(5)

Where 1st-position, 2nd-position and 5th-position symbols are 'optional'. The Kfeirt MUST have at least a 1st-position or a 2nd-position symbol.

Symbols from the same 'position' are mutually exclusive.

In 3D spacial aspect Kfeirt (sAK), 1st-position and 2nd-position symbols may be combined to give both 'X and Y' coordinates.

Example: tw = forward and to the left

'Degree' of distance is provided by the 3rd-position symbol. 'Z' coordinate is provided by the 4th-position symbol.

Example: twus = forward, to the left, far in the distance and up

Whereas, in 2D temporal aspect Kfeirt (tAK), 1st-position are not utilized. General 'temporal relation' (future, past or present) is provided by 2nd-position symbols. 3rd-position symbol 'fine tunes' the temporal relation, and the 4th-position symbol designates the 'focal point' of the event that the speaker is interested in (either the beginning, initiation, or 'start' of the event [s], the ending, terminal, or 'finish point' of the event [f], the whole event [fs], or the event as a collection of repeating actions [k'], such as 'knocking' is a collection of many 'knocks').

The 'Basis' Grar (Lojsk Grammatical Tag), "kfy_", is utilized to designate who/what/when the 3D2D AKs are 'relative to'. By default 3D sAKs are relative to the speaker (kfyi mih), and 2D tAKs are relative to the immediate present or 'now' (kfyi xoih).

Example:

The house is behind the tree.

:a sitc le has tce yqh kfyi mont q:

 

I just finished walking to my house.

:a dzo2 tle yoif (kfyi xoih) le mih tcwe has dwi mih q:

 

More examples:

 

ex1[ENG]:      I walk to the house.

ex1[LOJ]:       :a dzo2 le mih tcwe has q:

No 2D temporal keywords are utilized. Following the understanding that temporal relation is relative to the immediate present or 'now', a lack of a temporal grar/kfeirt pair tells us that the event is occurring at this very moment, unless otherwise noted. Note that we could have also have written [:a dzo2 tle xoifs le mih tcwe has q: meaning 'I am in the process of walking to the house.']

 

ex2[ENG]:      I start to walk to the house. 

ex2[LOJ]:       :a dzo2 tle xois le mih tcwe has q:

[tle xois] means 'at present, focusing on the beginning of the event', which translates to 'start to...'. Again note that this is relative to the immediate present.

 

ex3[ENG]:      I will start to walk to the house. 

ex3[LOJ]:       :a dzo2 tle wos le mih tcwe has q:

[tle wos] means 'in the near future, focusing on the beginning of the event', which translates to 'will start to...'. Again note that this is relative to the immediate present.

 

ex4[ENG]:      I walked to the house. 

ex4[LOJ]:       :a dzo2 tle yoh le mih tcwe has q:

[tle yoh] means 'in the near past, focusing on the whole of the event', which translates to '...-ed'. Again note that this is relative to the immediate present.

 

ex5[ENG]:      I just finished walking to the house. 

ex5[LOJ]:       :a dzo2 tle yoif le mih tcwe has q:

[tle yoih] means 'in the immediate past, focusing on the end of the event', which translates to 'just finished ...-ing'. Again note that this is relative to the immediate present.

 

 

changes/cenj

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cenj - changes

Punctuation

 

All statements, those phrases/sentences that simply state an event or status or attribute of a subject, begin and end with a colon mark ":". It indicates a full and complete stop in speech.

Queries, those phrases questioning an event, status or attribute begin and end with a question mark "?". It indicates a full and complete stop in speech.

Exclamations, those phrases/sentences deemed to require heightened attention by the speaker and thus usually spoken in a manner exhibiting heightened excitement, pitch or other vocal signal, are begun and ended with an exclamation mark "!". It indicates a full and complete stop in speech. Those elements which are also pronounced with a higher volume/pitch/tone/vocal signal are preceded by an exclamation mark.

Titles, those phrases simply naming a thing, event or piece of work (such as this article), are begun and ended in single quotation marks ''

Most words in Lojsk are constructed in single syllables. There are however, a number of grammatical 'fused' constructions that have multiple syllables (two or three). Period marks "." are utilized to indicate the separation of the parts. It indicates a full and complete, albeit short, stop in speech.

Proper names are denoted with as many syllables as are necessary. Comma marks "," are utilized to indicate the separation of syllables in these constructs. Period marks "." are also utilized to mark the separation between the name and the "ii" that exits and re-enters Lojsk. (see section titled CMEN)

 




changes/cenj

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cenj - changes

Even though this list is sorted based on 'English' entries, you may want to use your browser's 'Find' command to better locate the words you're looking for (either ctrl+F, or command+F).

English - Lojsk Word List

The Lojsk vocabulary is constantly being updated. This list was created on 24 July 2003. Please see the list provided here, which is more dynamic.

English

Lojsk

(to wish) farewell, good-bye (may be used alone to mean 'good-bye')

tcauh

(to) record, (to) note, (to) document

rej

[spacial] around

rah

[spacial] around [temporal] present, now

xah

[spacial] around, between

reh

[spacial] around, between, down

ref

[spacial] around, between, middle/vertical_center

refs

[spacial] around, between, up

res

[spacial] around, down

raf

[spacial] around, exterior surface

roih

[spacial] around, exterior surface, down

roif

[spacial] around, exterior surface, middle/vertical_center

roifs

[spacial] around, exterior surface, up

rois

[spacial] around, far out

ruh

[spacial] around, far out, down

ruf

[spacial] around, far out, middle/vertical_center

rufs

[spacial] around, far out, up

rus

[spacial] around, interior space

rih

[spacial] around, interior space, down

rif

[spacial] around, interior space, middle/vertical_center

rifs

[spacial] around, interior space, up

ris

[spacial] around, interior surface

riih

[spacial] around, interior surface, down

riif

[spacial] around, interior surface, middle/vertical_center

riifs

[spacial] around, interior surface, up

riis

[spacial] around, middle/vertical_center

rafs

[spacial] around, near out

roh

[spacial] around, near out, down

rof

[spacial] around, near out, middle/vertical_center

rofs

[spacial] around, near out, up

ros

[spacial] around, out

rqh

[spacial] around, out, down

rqf

[spacial] around, out, middle/vertical_center

rqfs

[spacial] around, out, up

rqs

[spacial] around, up

ras

[spacial] between

xeh

[spacial] between, down

xef

[spacial] between, middle/vertical_center

xefs

[spacial] between, up

xes

[spacial] down [temporal] present, terminal

xaf

[spacial] exterior surface

xoih

[spacial] exterior surface, down

xoif

[spacial] exterior surface, middle/vertical_center

xoifs

[spacial] exterior surface, up

xois

[spacial] far out

xuh

[spacial] far out, down

xuf

[spacial] far out, middle/vertical_center

xufs

[spacial] far out, up

xus

[spacial] forward [temporal] future

wah

[spacial] forward, between

weh

[spacial] forward, between, down

wef

[spacial] forward, between, middle/vertical_center

wefs

[spacial] forward, between, up

wes

[spacial] forward, down [temporal] future, terminal

waf

[spacial] forward, exterior surface [temporal] future, immediate

woih

[spacial] forward, exterior surface, down [temporal] future, immediate, terminal

woif

[spacial] forward, exterior surface, middle/vertical_center [temporal] future, immediate, in_progress

woifs

[spacial] forward, exterior surface, up [temporal] future, immediate, initiation

wois

[spacial] forward, far out [temporal] future, distant

wuh

[spacial] forward, far out, down [temporal] future, distant, terminal

wuf

[spacial] forward, far out, middle/vertical_center [temporal] future, distant, in_progress

wufs

[spacial] forward, far out, up [temporal] future, distant, initiation

wus

[spacial] forward, interior space

wih

[spacial] forward, interior space, down

wif

[spacial] forward, interior space, middle/vertical_center

wifs

[spacial] forward, interior space, up

wis

[spacial] forward, interior surface

wiih

[spacial] forward, interior surface, down

wiif

[spacial] forward, interior surface, middle/vertical_center

wiifs

[spacial] forward, interior surface, up

wiis

[spacial] forward, left

twah

[spacial] forward, left, between

tweh

[spacial] forward, left, between, down

twef

[spacial] forward, left, between, middle/vertical_center

twefs

[spacial] forward, left, between, up

twes

[spacial] forward, left, down

twaf

[spacial] forward, left, exterior surface

twoih

[spacial] forward, left, exterior surface, down

twoif

[spacial] forward, left, exterior surface, middle/vertical_center

twoifs

[spacial] forward, left, exterior surface, up

twois

[spacial] forward, left, far out

twuh

[spacial] forward, left, far out, down

twuf

[spacial] forward, left, far out, middle/vertical_center

twufs

[spacial] forward, left, far out, up

twus

[spacial] forward, left, interior space

twih

[spacial] forward, left, interior space, down

twif

[spacial] forward, left, interior space, middle/vertical_center

twifs

[spacial] forward, left, interior space, up

twis

[spacial] forward, left, interior surface

twiih

[spacial] forward, left, interior surface, down

twiif

[spacial] forward, left, interior surface, middle/vertical_center

twiifs

[spacial] forward, left, interior surface, up

twiis

[spacial] forward, left, middle/vertical_center

twafs

[spacial] forward, left, near out

twoh

[spacial] forward, left, near out, down

twof

[spacial] forward, left, near out, middle/vertical_center

twofs

[spacial] forward, left, near out, up

twos

[spacial] forward, left, out

twqh

[spacial] forward, left, out, down

twqf

[spacial] forward, left, out, middle/vertical_center

twqfs

[spacial] forward, left, out, up

twqs

[spacial] forward, left, up

twas

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center

tcwah

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center, between

tcweh

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center, between, down

tcwef

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center, between, middle/vertical_center

tcwefs

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center, between, up

tcwes

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center, down

tcwaf

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center, exterior surface

tcwoih

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center, exterior surface, down

tcwoif

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center, exterior surface, middle/vertical_center

tcwoifs

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center, exterior surface, up

tcwois

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center, far out

tcwuh

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center, far out, down

tcwuf

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center, far out, middle/vertical_center

tcwufs

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center, far out, up

tcwus

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center, interior space

tcwih

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center, interior space, down

tcwif

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center, interior space, middle/vertical_center

tcwifs

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center, interior space, up

tcwis

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center, interior surface

tcwiih

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center, interior surface, down

tcwiif

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center, interior surface, middle/vertical_center

tcwiifs

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center, interior surface, up

tcwiis

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center, middle/vertical_center

tcwafs

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center, near out

tcwoh

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center, near out, down

tcwof

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center, near out, middle/vertical_center

tcwofs

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center, near out, up

tcwos

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center, out

tcwqh

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center, out, down

tcwqf

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center, out, middle/vertical_center

tcwqfs

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center, out, up

tcwqs

[spacial] forward, middle/horizontal_center, up

tcwas

[spacial] forward, middle/vertical_center [temporal] future, in_progress

wafs

[spacial] forward, near out [temporal] future, near

woh

[spacial] forward, near out, down [temporal] future, near, terminal

wof

[spacial] forward, near out, middle/vertical_center [temporal] future, near, in_progress

wofs

[spacial] forward, near out, up [temporal] future, near, initiation

wos

[spacial] forward, out [temporal] future

wqh

[spacial] forward, out, down [temporal] future, terminal

wqf

[spacial] forward, out, middle/vertical_center [temporal] future, in_progress

wqfs

[spacial] forward, out, up [temporal] future, initiation

wqs

[spacial] forward, right

cwah

[spacial] forward, right, between

cweh

[spacial] forward, right, between, down

cwef

[spacial] forward, right, between, middle/vertical_center

cwefs

[spacial] forward, right, between, up

cwes

[spacial] forward, right, down

cwaf

[spacial] forward, right, exterior surface

cwoih

[spacial] forward, right, exterior surface, down

cwoif

[spacial] forward, right, exterior surface, middle/vertical_center

cwoifs

[spacial] forward, right, exterior surface, up

cwois

[spacial] forward, right, far out

cwuh

[spacial] forward, right, far out, down

cwuf

[spacial] forward, right, far out, middle/vertical_center

cwufs

[spacial] forward, right, far out, up

cwus

[spacial] forward, right, interior space

cwih

[spacial] forward, right, interior space, down

cwif

[spacial] forward, right, interior space, middle/vertical_center

cwifs

[spacial] forward, right, interior space, up

cwis

[spacial] forward, right, interior surface

cwiih

[spacial] forward, right, interior surface, down

cwiif

[spacial] forward, right, interior surface, middle/vertical_center

cwiifs

[spacial] forward, right, interior surface, up

cwiis

[spacial] forward, right, middle/vertical_center

cwafs

[spacial] forward, right, near out

cwoh

[spacial] forward, right, near out, down

cwof

[spacial] forward, right, near out, middle/vertical_center

cwofs

[spacial] forward, right, near out, up

cwos

[spacial] forward, right, out

cwqh

[spacial] forward, right, out, down

cwqf

[spacial] forward, right, out, middle/vertical_center

cwqfs

[spacial] forward, right, out, up

cwqs

[spacial] forward, right, up

cwas

[spacial] forward, up [temporal] future, initiation

was

[spacial] interior space

xih

[spacial] interior space, down

xif

[spacial] interior space, middle/vertical_center

xifs

[spacial] interior space, up

xis

[spacial] interior surface

xiih

[spacial] interior surface, down

xiif

[spacial] interior surface, middle/vertical_center

xiifs

[spacial] interior surface, up

xiis

[spacial] left

tah

[spacial] left, between

teh

[spacial] left, between, down

tef

[spacial] left, between, middle/vertical_center

tefs

[spacial] left, between, up

tes

[spacial] left, down

taf

[spacial] left, exterior surface

toih

[spacial] left, exterior surface, down

toif

[spacial] left, exterior surface, middle/vertical_center

toifs

[spacial] left, exterior surface, up

tois

[spacial] left, far out

tuh

[spacial] left, far out, down

tuf

[spacial] left, far out, middle/vertical_center

tufs

[spacial] left, far out, up

tus

[spacial] left, interior space

tih

[spacial] left, interior space, down

tif

[spacial] left, interior space, middle/vertical_center

tifs

[spacial] left, interior space, up

tis

[spacial] left, interior surface

tiih

[spacial] left, interior surface, down

tiif

[spacial] left, interior surface, middle/vertical_center

tiifs

[spacial] left, interior surface, up

tiis

[spacial] left, middle/vertical_center

tafs

[spacial] left, near out

toh

[spacial] left, near out, down

tof

[spacial] left, near out, middle/vertical_center

tofs

[spacial] left, near out, up

tos

[spacial] left, out

tqh

[spacial] left, out, down

tqf

[spacial] left, out, middle/vertical_center

tqfs

[spacial] left, out, up

tqs

[spacial] left, up

tas

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center

tcah

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center, between

tceh

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center, between, down

tcef

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center, between, middle/vertical_center

tcefs

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center, between, up

tces

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center, down

tcaf

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center, exterior surface

tcoih

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center, exterior surface, down

tcoif

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center, exterior surface, middle/vertical_center

tcoifs

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center, exterior surface, up

tcois

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center, far out

tcuh

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center, far out, down

tcuf

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center, far out, middle/vertical_center

tcufs

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center, far out, up

tcus

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center, interior space

tcih

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center, interior space, down

tcif

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center, interior space, middle/vertical_center

tcifs

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center, interior space, up

tcis

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center, interior surface

tciih

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center, interior surface, down

tciif

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center, interior surface, middle/vertical_center

tciifs

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center, interior surface, up

tciis

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center, middle/vertical_center

tcafs

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center, near out

tcoh

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center, near out, down

tcof

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center, near out, middle/vertical_center

tcofs

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center, near out, up

tcos

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center, out

tcqh

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center, out, down

tcqf

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center, out, middle/vertical_center

tcqfs

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center, out, up

tcqs

[spacial] middle/horizontal_center, up

tcas

[spacial] middle/vertical_center [temporal] present, in_progress

xafs

[spacial] near out

xoh

[spacial] near out, down

xof

[spacial] near out, middle/vertical_center

xofs

[spacial] near out, up

xos

[spacial] out [temporal] present, at this very moment

xqh

[spacial] out, down [temporal] present, terminal

xqf

[spacial] out, middle/vertical_center [temporal] present, in_progress

xqfs

[spacial] out, up [temporal] present, initiation

xqs

[spacial] rear/behind [temporal] past

yah

[spacial] rear/behind, between

yeh

[spacial] rear/behind, between, down

yef

[spacial] rear/behind, between, middle/vertical_center

yefs

[spacial] rear/behind, between, up

yes

[spacial] rear/behind, down [temporal] past, terminal

yaf

[spacial] rear/behind, exterior surface [temporal] past, immediate

yoih

[spacial] rear/behind, exterior surface, down [temporal] past, immediate, terminal

yoif

[spacial] rear/behind, exterior surface, middle/vertical_center [temporal] past, immediate, in_progress

yoifs

[spacial] rear/behind, exterior surface, up [temporal] past, immediate, initiation

yois

[spacial] rear/behind, far out [temporal] past, distant

yuh

[spacial] rear/behind, far out, down [temporal] past, distant, terminal

yuf

[spacial] rear/behind, far out, middle/vertical_center [temporal] past, distant, in_progress

yufs

[spacial] rear/behind, far out, up [temporal] past, distant, initiation

yus

[spacial] rear/behind, interior space

yih

[spacial] rear/behind, interior space, down

yif

[spacial] rear/behind, interior space, middle/vertical_center

yifs

[spacial] rear/behind, interior space, up

yis

[spacial] rear/behind, interior surface

yiih

[spacial] rear/behind, interior surface, down

yiif

[spacial] rear/behind, interior surface, middle/vertical_center

yiifs

[spacial] rear/behind, interior surface, up

yiis

[spacial] rear/behind, left

tyah

[spacial] rear/behind, left, between

tyeh

[spacial] rear/behind, left, between, down

tyef

[spacial] rear/behind, left, between, middle/vertical_center

tyefs

[spacial] rear/behind, left, between, up

tyes

[spacial] rear/behind, left, down

tyaf

[spacial] rear/behind, left, exterior surface

tyoih

[spacial] rear/behind, left, exterior surface, down

tyoif

[spacial] rear/behind, left, exterior surface, middle/vertical_center

tyoifs

[spacial] rear/behind, left, exterior surface, up

tyois

[spacial] rear/behind, left, far out

tyuh

[spacial] rear/behind, left, far out, down

tyuf

[spacial] rear/behind, left, far out, middle/vertical_center

tyufs

[spacial] rear/behind, left, far out, up

tyus

[spacial] rear/behind, left, interior space

tyih

[spacial] rear/behind, left, interior space, down

tyif

[spacial] rear/behind, left, interior space, middle/vertical_center

tyifs

[spacial] rear/behind, left, interior space, up

tyis

[spacial] rear/behind, left, interior surface

tyiih

[spacial] rear/behind, left, interior surface, down

tyiif

[spacial] rear/behind, left, interior surface, middle/vertical_center

tyiifs

[spacial] rear/behind, left, interior surface, up

tyiis

[spacial] rear/behind, left, middle/vertical_center

tyafs

[spacial] rear/behind, left, near out

tyoh

[spacial] rear/behind, left, near out, down

tyof

[spacial] rear/behind, left, near out, middle/vertical_center

tyofs

[spacial] rear/behind, left, near out, up

tyos

[spacial] rear/behind, left, out

tyqh

[spacial] rear/behind, left, out, down

tyqf

[spacial] rear/behind, left, out, middle/vertical_center

tyqfs

[spacial] rear/behind, left, out, up

tyqs

[spacial] rear/behind, left, up

tyas

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center

tcyah

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center, between

tcyeh

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center, between, down

tcyef

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center, between, middle/vertical_center

tcyefs

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center, between, up

tcyes

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center, down

tcyaf

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center, exterior surface

tcyoih

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center, exterior surface, down

tcyoif

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center, exterior surface, middle/vertical_center

tcyoifs

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center, exterior surface, up

tcyois

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center, far out

tcyuh

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center, far out, down

tcyuf

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center, far out, middle/vertical_center

tcyufs

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center, far out, up

tcyus

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center, interior space

tcyih

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center, interior space, down

tcyif

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center, interior space, middle/vertical_center

tcyifs

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center, interior space, up

tcyis

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center, interior surface

tcyiih

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center, interior surface, down

tcyiif

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center, interior surface, middle/vertical_center

tcyiifs

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center, interior surface, up

tcyiis

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center, middle/vertical_center

tcyafs

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center, near out

tcyoh

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center, near out, down

tcyof

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center, near out, middle/vertical_center

tcyofs

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center, near out, up

tcyos

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center, out

tcyqh

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center, out, down

tcyqf

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center, out, middle/vertical_center

tcyqfs

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center, out, up

tcyqs

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/horizontal_center, up

tcyas

[spacial] rear/behind, middle/vertical_center [temporal] past, in_progress

yafs

[spacial] rear/behind, near out [temporal] past, near

yoh

[spacial] rear/behind, near out, down [temporal] past, near, terminal

yof

[spacial] rear/behind, near out, middle/vertical_center [temporal] past, near, in_progress

yofs

[spacial] rear/behind, near out, up [temporal] past, near, initiation

yos

[spacial] rear/behind, out [temporal] past

yqh

[spacial] rear/behind, out, down [temporal] past, terminal

yqf

[spacial] rear/behind, out, middle/vertical_center [temporal] past, in_progress

yqfs

[spacial] rear/behind, out, up [temporal] past, initiation

yqs

[spacial] rear/behind, right

cyah

[spacial] rear/behind, right, between

cyeh

[spacial] rear/behind, right, between, down

cyef

[spacial] rear/behind, right, between, middle/vertical_center

cyefs

[spacial] rear/behind, right, between, up

cyes

[spacial] rear/behind, right, down

cyaf

[spacial] rear/behind, right, exterior surface

cyoih

[spacial] rear/behind, right, exterior surface, down

cyoif

[spacial] rear/behind, right, exterior surface, middle/vertical_center

cyoifs

[spacial] rear/behind, right, exterior surface, up

cyois

[spacial] rear/behind, right, far out

cyuh

[spacial] rear/behind, right, far out, down

cyuf

[spacial] rear/behind, right, far out, middle/vertical_center

cyufs

[spacial] rear/behind, right, far out, up

cyus

[spacial] rear/behind, right, interior space

cyih

[spacial] rear/behind, right, interior space, down

cyif

[spacial] rear/behind, right, interior space, middle/vertical_center

cyifs

[spacial] rear/behind, right, interior space, up

cyis

[spacial] rear/behind, right, interior surface

cyiih

[spacial] rear/behind, right, interior surface, down

cyiif

[spacial] rear/behind, right, interior surface, middle/vertical_center

cyiifs

[spacial] rear/behind, right, interior surface, up

cyiis

[spacial] rear/behind, right, middle/vertical_center

cyafs

[spacial] rear/behind, right, near out

cyoh

[spacial] rear/behind, right, near out, down

cyof

[spacial] rear/behind, right, near out, middle/vertical_center

cyofs

[spacial] rear/behind, right, near out, up

cyos

[spacial] rear/behind, right, out

cyqh

[spacial] rear/behind, right, out, down

cyqf

[spacial] rear/behind, right, out, middle/vertical_center

cyqfs

[spacial] rear/behind, right, out, up

cyqs

[spacial] rear/behind, right, up

cyas

[spacial] rear/behind, up [temporal] past, initiation

yas

[spacial] right

cah

[spacial] right, between

ceh

[spacial] right, between, down

cef

[spacial] right, between, middle/vertical_center

cefs

[spacial] right, between, up

ces

[spacial] right, down

caf

[spacial] right, exterior surface

coih

[spacial] right, exterior surface, down

coif

[spacial] right, exterior surface, middle/vertical_center

coifs

[spacial] right, exterior surface, up

cois

[spacial] right, far out

cuh

[spacial] right, far out, down

cuf

[spacial] right, far out, middle/vertical_center

cufs

[spacial] right, far out, up

cus

[spacial] right, interior space

cih

[spacial] right, interior space, down

cif

[spacial] right, interior space, middle/vertical_center

cifs

[spacial] right, interior space, up

cis

[spacial] right, interior surface

ciih

[spacial] right, interior surface, down

ciif

[spacial] right, interior surface, middle/vertical_center

ciifs

[spacial] right, interior surface, up

ciis

[spacial] right, middle/vertical_center

cafs

[spacial] right, near out

coh

[spacial] right, near out, down

cof

[spacial] right, near out, middle/vertical_center

cofs

[spacial] right, near out, up

cos

[spacial] right, out

cqh

[spacial] right, out, down

cqf

[spacial] right, out, middle/vertical_center

cqfs

[spacial] right, out, up

cqs

[spacial] right, up

cas

[spacial] up [temporal] present, initiation

xas

[temporal] future and repeating

wahk'

[temporal] future and repeating

wqhk'

[temporal] future and repeating, distant

wuhk'

[temporal] future and repeating, distant, in_progress

wufsk'

[temporal] future and repeating, distant, initiation

wusk'

[temporal] future and repeating, distant, terminal

wufk'

[temporal] future and repeating, immediate

woihk'

[temporal] future and repeating, immediate, in_progress

woifsk'

[temporal] future and repeating, immediate, initiation

woisk'

[temporal] future and repeating, immediate, terminal

woifk'

[temporal] future and repeating, in_progress

wafsk'

[temporal] future and repeating, in_progress

wqfsk'

[temporal] future and repeating, initiation

wask'

[temporal] future and repeating, initiation

wqsk'

[temporal] future and repeating, near

wohk'

[temporal] future and repeating, near, in_progress

wofsk'

[temporal] future and repeating, near, initiation

wosk'

[temporal] future and repeating, near, terminal

wofk'

[temporal] future and repeating, terminal

wafk'

[temporal] future and repeating, terminal

wqfk'

[temporal] past and repeating

yahk'

[temporal] past and repeating

yqhk'

[temporal] past and repeating, distant

yuhk'

[temporal] past and repeating, distant, in_progress

yufsk'

[temporal] past and repeating, distant, initiation

yusk'

[temporal] past and repeating, distant, terminal

yufk'

[temporal] past and repeating, immediate

yoihk'

[temporal] past and repeating, immediate, in_progress

yoifsk'

[temporal] past and repeating, immediate, initiation

yoisk'

[temporal] past and repeating, immediate, terminal

yoifk'

[temporal] past and repeating, in_progress

yafsk'

[temporal] past and repeating, in_progress

yqfsk'

[temporal] past and repeating, initiation

yask'

[temporal] past and repeating, initiation

yqsk'

[temporal] past and repeating, near

yohk'

[temporal] past and repeating, near, in_progress

yofsk'

[temporal] past and repeating, near, initiation

yosk'

[temporal] past and repeating, near, terminal

yofk'

[temporal] past and repeating, terminal

yafk'

[temporal] past and repeating, terminal

yqfk'

[temporal] present and repeating, at this very moment

xqhk'

[temporal] present and repeating, in_progress

xafsk'

[temporal] present and repeating, in_progress

xqfsk'

[temporal] present and repeating, initiation

xask'

[temporal] present and repeating, initiation

xqsk'

[temporal] present and repeating, now

xahk'

[temporal] present and repeating, terminal

xafk'

[temporal] present and repeating, terminal

xqfk'

0, zero, null, none

nan

1, one

pwan

10, ten

pwap

100, one hundred

pwat

1000, one thousand

pwac

10000, ten thousand

pwak

100000, one hundred thousand

pwam, 1'00000

1000000, one million

pwax, 10'00000

10000000, ten million

pwaz, 100'00000

100000000, one hundred million

pwab, 1000'00000

1000000000, one billion

pwats, 10000'00000

10000000000, ten billion

pwen, 1'00000'00000

100000000000, one hundred billion

pwep, 10'0000'00000

1000000000000, one trillion

pwet, 100'00000'00000

10000000000000, ten trillion

pwec, 1000'00000'00000

100000000000000, one hundred trillion

pwek, 10000'00000'00000

101, one hundred one

pwat.3 pwan

11, eleven

pwap.3 pwan

110, one hundred ten

pwat.3 pwap

111, one hundred eleven

pwat.3 pwap.3 pwan

12, twelve

pwap.3 pwan

120, one hundred twenty

pwat.3 twap

121, one hundred twenty one

pwat.3 twap.3 pwan

1234, one thousand two hundred thirty four

pwac.3 twat.3 cwap.3 kwan

13, thirteen

pwap.3 cwan

2, two

twan

20, twenty

twap

200, two hundred

twat

2000, two thousand

twac

21, twenty one

twap.3 pwan

22, twenty two

twap.3 pwan

23, twenty three

twap.3 cwan

3, three

cwan

30, thirty

cwap

300, three hundred

cwat

31, thirty one

cwap.3 pwan

32, thirty two

cwap.3 pwan

33, thirty three

cwap.3 cwan

4, four

kwan

40, forty

kwap

400, four hundred

kwat

41, forty one

kwap.3 pwan

42, forty two

kwap.3 pwan

43, forty three

kwap.3 cwan

5, five

mwan

50, fifty

mwap

500, five hundred

mwat

6, six

xwan

60, sixty

xwap

600, six hundred

xwat

7, seven

zwan

70, seventy

zwap

700, seven hundred

zwat

8, eight

bwan

80, eighty

bwap

800, eight hundred

bwat

9, nine

tswan

90, ninety

tswap

900, nine hundred

tswat

ability, able

pou2

abrupt, sudden

suk

accent - acute `

kseit

accent - grave, caret symbol, exponentiation symbol ^

kseig

accent - obtuse ´

kseib

accept

ksept

accidental

nut

account, bill, count

kaunt

acid

slam

acre

kram

act

zuk

activate, active, functioning

veit

'active' association from previous statement [grar constructed pronoun]

dveihk

'active' object from previous statement [grar constructed pronoun]

xveihk

actually is

caz

addition, add, augment, plus, append, appendix

jmin

adhere, stick, gum

gom

adjust

tiik

adorn

d3n

advertisement

vi2t

affair

ferc

Afghanistan

af,'ga,ne,stan

Africa, african

a,'friik

afterword ('bek' + 'w')

bwek

again, recur (number of times more, default is one/once)

genz

age [:a dun le heij di mih xe jar ki cwap q:]

heij

agree

tog

aid, help, assist

sidj

air

va2

airplane

vij

Albania

cki,'pe,rii,a

alcohol

xal

Algeria

al_'ja,za,i2

alien, foreign

fa6

alive

liv

alkali

jil

all except (see: Article with respect to Numerical Keywords)

daz skq ##

all, total, sum (see: Article with respect to Numerical Keywords)

suj

almost all (see: Article with respect to Numerical Keywords)

soj

almost none, almost no

noj

alter, change, become, modify, transform, edit

cenj

alternation

vlin

altruistic

seinj

America, American

a,me,'2i,ka

American English

a,me,'2i,kan_'i6,glic

Amerind

a,me,'rind

ampere, metric unit

f'pwarn'

ampersand symbol &

psand

amphibian

banf

amused

cmiz

analyze

lal

ancestry, geneology

genj

Andorra

an,'do,ra

angle

jgan

Angola

an,'go,la

angry

groc

anguish

duk

animal

nim

annoy

faz

answer, reply, respond

daf

ant

mant

Antarctica

ant,'a2k,tii,ka

anus

gax

any, any of, anything

roj

apartment, loft

loft

appear, come into view

pau2

apple

pom

approve

prus

approximately, about, around, circa

jiix

April (month)

vril

Arabic

a,'rab

arch

ja2k

architect

tekt

Argentina

ar,'jen,tii,na

argue

ta2g

argument

sum

argument (programming/logic, pre-execution variable)

jba6k

arithmetic

riix

arm, bough, branch, limb

badj

Armenia

'hai,ya,stan

army

jem

arrive, come

kqm

art

la2t

article

gad

artifact

run

ashamed

comt

Asia, asian, asiatic

'a,ja

ask, beg, plead, query, request

beg

ass, donkey

xlas

assert

tfeirj

assume

srum

asterisk symbol, multiplication symbol *

strisk

astronomical unit

stwarn'

'at' symbol @

por

atom

tom

atomic mass unit

t'mwarn'

attack

gut

attend, attentive

jud

attract

tril

audacity, 'dare'

da2s

August (month)

haugst

aunt or uncle

famt

Australia

'a,streil,ya

Austria

'oi,ster,raih

authority

tco2

automatic

tomk

autumn

crit

average, mean (mathematical expression) (see: Article with respect to Numerical Keywords)

miin

average, normal, regular, standard

no2m

avoid, 'evade'

riv

awake

cidj

aware

kanc

axle, 'spindle'

jed

Azerbaijan

a,'zar,bai,can

baby, infant

mladtc

bad, 'mal-'

xlal

bag, sack

sak

Bahamas

ba,'ha,mas

Bahrain

al_'ba,hrain

balance

lax

balcony

balk

ball, sphere

bol

banana

bqn

band, crew, musical group, orchestra

bend

Bangladesh

'ba6,gla,dec

bank (financial institution)

bank

bank (side of river or stream)

sfraid

bank check, cheque

cek'

bar, tavern, pub

ba2

Barbados

ba2,'bei,dos

bare, naked

lub

barely, just (see: Article with respect to Numerical Keywords)

djust

bark, meow, moo, quack (any non-human animal vocalization)

ba2k

barley

ba2l

barter, exchange, trade

caj

base (mathematical expression) (see: Article with respect to Numerical Keywords)

bais

base, basis, foundation, pedestal

bas

basic, fundamental

bask

basket

lank

bathe, bath, wash

ban

bay, gulf

bain

bead

bidz

bean

bind

bear

rib

beautiful

mel

becquerel, metric unit

blwarn'

bed

ckan

bee

bic

beef, beefsteak

bif

beer, ale, lager

bir

before, previous in sequence

for

beginning, start, initiate

tiin

behave

ta2t

bel, metric unit

h'bwarn'

Belarus

'bye,la,rus

Belgium

'bel,jiik

believe, belief, creed

krid

Belize

'be,liiz

bell, gong, cimble

bel

belly, gut, abdomen, stomach

beld

'beneficiary' object from previous statement [grar constructed pronoun]

xzeihk

Bengali

'be6,gal

Benin

'be,nin

bent, crooked, corkscrew

korc

berry

jba2

Bhutan

'bu,tan

bicycle

biisk

big, large, gross, great, grand

grod

billiards, pool

bla2d

bird

cip

bite, chew, maul

bait

bitter, acrid

kerk

black

xeik

blade, knife, razor, sword

blad

block, cube, square

blok

blood

blud

blouse, shirt

blus

blue

blan

board, plank

bart

boat

bot

body

korp

boil

bulj

Bolivia

bo,'li,vii,a

bomb, explosive, explosion

bum

bone

bog

book (book>unit>chapter>section)

buk

boot

but

born, bear, birth

jban

borrow

jer

Bosnia and Herzegovina

'bos,na_ii_her,tse,'go,vi,na

Botswana

ba,'tswa,na

bottle, container

bat

bovine, ox, cattle, cow

kauz

bow

bo2k

box, trunk

tax

boy, young male

botc

bracket - angle - closed, greater than symbol >

bru6k

bracket - angle - open, less than symbol <

bra6k

bracket - curled/french - closed }

brunf

bracket - curled/french - open {

branf

bracket - square - closed ]

brusk

bracket - square - open [

brask

brain

ben

brake

brek

brass

rast

brave

brig

Brazil

bra,'sil

Brazilian Portugese

bra,'sil_'por,tcu,ges

bread

pand

break

brok

breakfast, morning meal

bric

breast, teat

tat

breathe

brut

breeze

briz

brick

brik

bridge

bridj

brilliant, bright

bril

Britain, Great Britain, United Kingdom

'bri,tan

British English

'bri,tan_'i6,glic

broad, wide

brod

bronze

rans

brooch

bruc

brow

meb

brown

bron

brunch, late morning or early afternoon meal

bruntc

Brunei

'bru,nei

brush

broc

bucket, pail

bakt

buckwheat, rhubarb

xub

Buddhist

'bud

build, construct, construction

balc

building

dij

bulb

bulb

Bulgaria

bul,'ga,ri,a

bundle, pack, package

bad

Burkina Faso

be2,'kii,na_'fa,so

Burma, Myanmar

'myan,mar

burn

jel

Burundi

bu,'run,di

bus

bus

but (not), and not..., XOR (exclusion) (see: Article with respect to Numerical Keywords)

sky3

butter

la2d

butterfly, moth

mqx

buttock

rirg

button, knob

baunt

buy, purchase

p3s

cabaret, nightclub

kfret

cabbage

kolh

cabin

kaub

cafe

rest vi kaf

cake

grat

calculate, reckon

kalk

call (using telecommunicational device)

kalt

call a subroutine (programming)

kql

Cambodia

kam,pu,'tce,a

camel

kumc

camera

kamk

Cameroon

ka,me,'run

camp

kamp

can

lant

Canada

'ka,na,da

canal

nax

cancer

kenc

candela, metric unit

cnwarn'

cap, hat

kap

Cape Verde

'ka,bo_'ver,de

capitalism

smix

captain

jat

capture, catch

katc

car

ka2c

carbon

ka2b

card

ka2d

cardinal number

memk

care

kerj

care, take care of

kuj

cargo, freight

freit

carry, bear, tote, haul

bev

cart, wagon

ka2t

cassava, yam

samc

cast, throw, hurl

hrer

cat

kat

cause

ckoz

cedar

sidr

celebrate

salc

cell (biological), cell (generic term for smallest whole unit)

cel

cell (on a spreadsheet), field (in a database)

feld

cent symbol ¢

tseint

Cent, Penny

'tsent

Central African Republic

re,pu,'bliik_'tsen,tre_'a,fri,ken

ceramic

tak

certain, sure

si2n

Chad

'tcad

chain, link

tcenc

chair, seat

c3s

chalk

tcqk

challenge

tcal

chance, random

cans

chaotic

kas

chapter (book>unit>chapter>section)

ptratc

charity

tceirt

chart, map

ca2t

chase, pursue

jers

check, monitor (quickly)

tcek

cheese

niik

chemical

xum

cherry

cei2

chest

tcest

chestnut

cnqt

chicken

henj

Chile

'tci,le

chin

tcint

China

'tza6_'gwo

chlorine

klo2

chocolate

tcok

choose, select

cux

Christ, Christian

'krist

chrome

krom

cigar

cka2

cigarette

ckret

cinema, movies

kinz

circle, disk, round

rand

citizen, citizenship

ctiiz

citrus, lime

naim

city

ctad

class

klas

claw, talon

jgal

clay

kit

clean

klin

clear

kli2

client, recipient of service (derivative of 's3f' = 'serve')

sw3f

climb

pa2

clock

jol

close, shut

seirh

cloth, fabric, clothe, clothes

klox

cloud

klad

clumsy, awkward

jux

coal

kolm

coat, jacket

kos

cockroach, roach

jral

code, cipher

saif

coffee

kauf

coin

koin

cold, cool

kled

collar

ka2l

colleague, co-worker, (business) associate

dvortc

collide

jal

Colombia

ko,'lom,bii,a

colon symbol :

koln

color

ska2

column

kamj

comb

kom

combat, fight

kamd

comfort

komf

comic

komk

comma symbol ,

kam

command, order

ko2j

comment

peik

committee

kamt

common, ordinary

dan

common, universal

kumt

communicate, communication, dialogue, contact

komc

communism

vlein

community

cem

Comoros

'ko,mo,res

companion, partner, co-initiator, co-executioner

kinc

company, business firm

kag

compare, comparison

kab

compete, rival

jvin

complete, finish

mul

complicated, complex

luj

'component/part' association from previous statement [grar constructed pronoun]

djeihk

computer

sam

computer monitor, computer screen

mont

concatenation, concatenate

kaintc

concern, pertain

p3t

'conclusion' condition from previous statement [grar constructed pronoun]

zbeihk

conclusion, result, outcome, product

jag

condense

lus

'conditioned alternate next-in-sequence' condition from previous statement [grar constructed pronoun]

zmweihk

'conditioned next-in-sequence' condition from previous statement [grar constructed pronoun]

zbweihk

'conditioning/if' condition from previous statement [grar constructed pronoun]

zveihk

conduct, facilitate

cilx

confusing

cfus

Congo

'ka6,go

conifer, cone

konf

conscious

saj

constant, stable

stod

consul

kons

contain, container, vessel

ves

continue, process

pras

control

ji2t

cook

kok

copper

tuk

copulate, coitus, sex

koit

copy

kopc

copyright

krait

copyright symbol ©

kraix

cord, rope

ko2d

cork

ko2k

corner

koj

cost

kust

Costa Rica

'kos,ta_'rii,ka

Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast)

'kot_dii,'vwa2

cotton

kaint

cough

kafk

coulomb, metric unit

cmwarn'

cousin

zin

cover

ga2c

crack, fissure

fer

crazy, insane, mad

frel

cream

krim

credit

kreid

crime

zer

Croatia

hr,'vat,ska

cross product (mathematical expression)

piv

cross, to move across a surface

krus

cruel

krul

crush, smash

krac

crust, peel

pil

cry, weep, sob

kix

crystal

kriis

Cuba

'ku,ba

culture

kult

curious

kuic

currency, money

k3nts

current, flow

krol

curse, damn

damz

curtain

mj3d

curve

ko2v

custom, habit, ritual

cac

cut

kut

cyan

cain

cyclical

dik

cylinder, roll

2ol

Cyprus

'sai,prqs

Czech Republic

'ce,ska_re,'pu,blii,ka

dalton, metric unit

dlwarn'

dance

dans

danger, peril

danj

dark

drak

data, information

dat

database

xbais

date

deit

daughter

dot

day

daug

deactivate

dveit

dead

mo2t

dear, precious

dei2

deceive, cheat, trick, dupe, fool

tciit

December (month)

dec

decide

dits

decimal

piz

declare, declaration, manifesto, resolution, statement

steit

decrease

jdik

decrease, lessen

mec

deep

con

deer

mii2

defend

brax

degree celsius, metric unit

clwarn'

degree symbol °

graid

degrees kelvin, metric unit

klwarn'

delete

del

delete next

dwel

delete previous

dyel

delicate, fragile

fraj

delicious, cooked tasty

dilk

demonstrate, show, display, exhibit

ja2c

Denmark

'dan,ma2k

dense

dem

deny

naf

dependent

liitc

depraved, evil, wicked

hvik

deputy, vice

vais

derogative

mal

describe, description

skic

design, plan

danc

desk

desk

destination

switc

destroy, destruction, ruin, wreck

vrek

detail

diit

develop, development, evolve, evolution

volv

diagonally

daig

dictation, perform dictation, take dictation

dikc

differ, difference

retc

difficult, hard, firm, resist, resistant

ha2d

dig

pafk

digest, digestion

djes

dim

kfad

dimension

dim

dinner, evening meal

din

diphthong

dix

diplomat, consul

jaus

direction

di2c

directory (computer directory)

drek

disappear, vanish

canc

discover, find

fak

discuss (in person)

tal

disgust

tasg

disrupt, disturb

dir

dissolve

runt

distribute

pret

dive, swoop

sub

divide, partition into equal-sized pieces (mathematical expression) (see: Article with respect to Numerical Keywords)

d3z

Djibouti

'dji,bu,ti

do, task

fiit

doctor, medic, physician

mic

dog, canine

g3k

Dollar (currency)

'da,la2

dollar symbol $

d3ls

Dominica

do,'mi,ni,ka

Dominican Republic

re,'pu,blii,ka_do,mi,nii,'ka,na

doom, fate

dum

door, gate, portal

vo2

doubt, skeptic

dutc

drain

rinc

drama

draum

drawer

drar

dream, reverie

sev

dress, frock, gown

ca2d

drink

homp

drive

kran

drop

drid

drum

drum

dry

dran

duck

dqk

dull

dql

dusk

dqsk

dust

dust

DVD

dvid

dwell, dwelling, inhabit, home, house

has

each (see: Article with respect to Numerical Keywords)

rolc

ear

ker

early

li2

earn

j3n

earth, dirt, soil

d3t

earth, terrestrial, name of our planet

tyeih

east

sun

East Timor

'ti,mo2_lo,ro,'sa,e

easy

fas

eat

manj

Ecuador

e,kwa,'dor

edge

bidj

egg

sov

Egypt

'mis,ra

El Salvador

el_'sal,va,dor

elastic

lask

elder, senior, old man, old woman

dzen

electric, electronic, electricity

le6k

electronvolt, metric unit

ctwarn'

element

lem

elephant

xant

e-mail

post vi le6k, plo6sk

embarrass

bu2

embryo

zaig

emphasize, accent

ksent

employment, job, occupation, vocation

jib

empty, vacant

veik

encounter, meet, meeting, rendevous

jmit

end (of) quote (see: Grar section of Overview)

sxq

end, final

kiin

enemy, adversary

nemz

energy

n3j

England

'i6,gland

English

'i6,glic

enough (see: Article with respect to Numerical Keywords)

tsuf

entail, imply

snol

enter, type in, entry

triink

entertain, entertainment

zvlek

environment, ambient

vab

equal symbol =

kfal

equal, equal to (mathematical expression)

dun

Equatorial Guinea

gwi,'ne,a_e,kwa,'to,ri,al

era

jei2

Eritrea

3,tra

error, err

srer

esteem

saim

Estonia

'e,sti

Ethiopia

ii,'tyop,ii,ya

Euro (currency)

'yu,ro

euro symbol €

ju2

Europe

'yu,rop

evening

vac

event, happen, happening, occur, occurrence

vetc

exact, precise, exactly (see: Article with respect to Numerical Keywords)

saitc

example, sample

zamp

exceed, excess

dus

exclamation mark !

skleim

exclude

sklud

excrete

vim

executive

le6

exhibit a current state or attribute, to be a thing or type of thing, to act in the capacity as, 'to be'

seis

exist, real

zat

exit, move out of

ksit

experience, life

lif

expert

ce2t

explain

ciks

explode

poj

exponentiation, to the power of... (see: Article with respect to Numerical Keywords)

sauks

eye, ocular

kal

face

fir

facism

h'it'

fact

fauk

fail

feil

fall

fel

false, fake, fiction

falj

familiar

slab

family

famj

famous

mis

farad, metric unit

fwarn'

farm, grange, agrarian

cag

fast, quick

kruk

fasten, lash, tie up, bound

baind

fat, plump

plqmp

favorable, favorite

zan

fear, terror

tep

feather

plum

February (month)

fev

feces

fiis

feeble, weak

fib

feed

fiid

feel

film

female, woman

fem

fence

fants

fertile

f3t

few, minority

sot

field

fild

fig

fig





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home

alphabet

morphology

word classes

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grar

tcit (grar tags)

exit grar

combining grar beginnings

cmen

basic grammar

questions

subordinate clauses

conditional statements

Aspect Kfeirt (space and time)

punctuation

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